Violence against pregnant women is a commonplace phenomenon and this research paper will explain the background of violence against pregnant women. Women undergo different forms of violence for instance, beating, threats, raping and unwilling prostitution. Some years back, it wasn't a big issue as approach towards women was a tad bit different back then. Men were treated as the dominant sex due to their physical strength. So is the case with education and men. It is common for men to get educated while women remain undereducated. With the passage of time, this created a genuine gap for women in the society as they were being undermined. Now violence against women, in general, is red flagged especially in Asia where women are treated very poorly. Now the circumstances for women are improving slowly and gradually in Asia but not completely (Jasinsk, 2004).
Violence against pregnant women isn't just limited to developing countries; it is commonly seen all over the world, even in western countries. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan spoke way back in 1999, that, 'violence against pregnant women is a crime which has no boundaries and spreads over boundaries, geographies, cultures and entails wealth. It is a shameful form of violation of human rights'. Then he went on further to say that, 'it's quite pervasive'. Women are vulnerable to violence and many resort to activities even they didn't deem fit for themselves for instance, prostitution to work for basic human needs such a food, clothes and shelter. Men have sex and pay them for their services as such women have no alternative choice. Women have been subjected to different forms of domestic violence as La Shawn R. Jefferson states that, 'There isn't proper policy regarding violence against women in the developing world which poses a serious threat (Jasinsk, 2004).
In the current scenario, which is presented by UNHCR, the primary principle is not to negate the violence against pregnant women at all. The human rights groups have criticized the governments in the developing world and policy makers for being incompetent and negating an escalating issue. Governments should protect its public against the dangers of sexual violence and physical assault. Some families have a track record of generations and generations of sexual and physical violence. Now both women and children are accustomed to it. Children watching their mothers getting beaten up by their fathers leave an indelible impression in their minds. It's a memory which haunts them day and night all their life. In third world countries, domestic violence is a critical problem kept on the sidelines (Jasinsk, 2004).
Background of the study
Domestic violence commences from family. Father in this case is the instigator of violence as he beats his wife regularly when his anger button is pressed. The man is solely responsible for intimidation, bullying, economic violence and threats. Physical assault is the most commonly occurring form of violence. Many forms of domestic violence exist such as (Jasinsk, 2004):
• Sexual violence
• Physical violence
• Emotional violence
• Violence (Jasinsk, 2004).
A very silly concept among the less educated population is that men beat women because they have paid dowry to their wife, who makes a women their rightful property and now she is at the mercy of her husband. Sexual violence and physical violence still falls under domestic violence and it's a criminal act. Domestic violence affects the society on the whole. Not just women are affected but the entire society is. Women are passing through a tough time and they don't like revealing the conditions they are living in due to fear of being exposed. Two thirds of women married in third world countries face this dilemma with Africa and India adding generous numbers (Wuest et al., 2008).
Women, all over the word, are target of countless offences and in order to avoid them they succumb to prostitution. Since poverty is widespread, women work to pay for the house (it's her own choice to engage in sexual affairs, not that the husband is promoting it). Women need food and shelter as well as feeding their young; hence they are out of options. A survey conducted by World Health Organization (WHO), says that women deem it rightful and legal to get beaten by their husbands for instance when a man wants to have sex...
Apart from that when she uses foul language and misbehaves, he is right to beat her. According to the survey conducted by World Health Organization (WHO), millions of women are impacted by domestic violence in Asia alone. A survey was done by World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005, which found that 50% of the surveyed women in India were beaten or exposed to various forms of domestic violence, while the percentage from Ethiopia was 71% (Wuest et al., 2008).
Prostitution is common and it's a form of an exit route from domestic violence. The amount of populace with STD has also risen. Now more people have HIV and AIDS. Children aged six are testing positive for AIDS and HIV. Women are more prone to catch the sexually transmitted diseases than men due to increased prostitution. Women are quite backward in that sense. Gender equality denotes monetary and social equality. The husband is the only powerful figure as the children and women take a backseat in the social framework. Hence the violence of women, especially pregnant women are observed (Wuest et al., 2008).
Purpose of study
This research paper will highlight the influence of violence against pregnant women and its resulting consequences. The rate of violence is skyrocketing with no rules and regulations in place to tackle it. The women impacted are seen fighting to live shoulder to shoulder with men. Such cases bring shame and disgrace to the entire country, not to mention leaving an indelible mark on women and girls in the social fabric of the society including children (Jasinsk, 2004). The aim of this study was to explore whether or not there is an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and induced abortion among women of all age (teenagers to elderly). Demographic factors were taken into account as possible moderators in our study. Four research questions addressed important matters which the meta-analysis tried to answer.
Questions to be answered
The first research question: Is there any history of forced pregnancy or contraceptive sabotage, or coerced decision-making, which can be associated with abortion?
The second research question: Do those who commit violent acts against pregnant women aware of the implications of violence?
The third research question: Are there any demographic or socioeconomic trends, which can serve as a mediating factor?
Forth Research Question: How do women perceive disclosing what they have gone through during pregnancy and about the social therapy/Intervention they are offered?
Commonly the violence against women isn't reported even though it occurs at a high rate and on a daily basis. Women don't report this crime due to sheer shame and fear which would befall her family. However the numbers reported by the hospital, police, survey and research states that these crimes are spread far and wide. This study proposes that the numbers reported in the meta-analysis sample of our study are accurate and precise. The study also presupposes that the methods adopted by these studies are relevant and strong.
The first independent variables in this study are forced pregnancy or contraceptive sabotage, or coerced decision-making. The second independent variable is awareness of the abuser about the implications of the abuse. The third is a mediating variable, which are demographic and socioeconomic trends. The forth variable is perception of women about disclosing what they have gone through during pregnancy and about the social therapy/Intervention they are offered.
Scope of study
This research paper will highlight the influence of violence against pregnant women and its resulting consequences. Specifically, this paper will focus on the following four aspects. Firstly, forced pregnancy or contraceptive sabotage, or coerced decision-making. Secondly, awareness of the abuser about the implications of the abuse. Thirdly the demographic and socioeconomic trends serving as a mediating effect. And fourthly, perception of women about disclosing what they have gone through during pregnancy and about the social therapy/Intervention they are offered.
Historical and general background
Meta-analysis is 'the statistical analysis of a large collection of analysis results from individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings' (Glass,1976).
Pearson (1904) also applied a series of methods for summarizing correlation coefficients, Tippet (1931) and Fisher (1932) presented a series of methods for combining p-values (significance levels), and Yates and Cochran (1938) have considered a combination of various estimates from different experiments. However, the introduction of a name for this collection of techniques appears to have led to an upsurge in development and application. Meta-analyses became popular in the '80s in medical fields. Meta-analyses provided answers concerning the treatment of heart disease and cancer. In 1990s published meta-analyses were ubiquitous. Chalmers and Lau (1993) claimed:…
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