Biology and Social Construction Involved in Training Children
It has been quite a continuing debate over the years upon whether biology and genetics play a more important role in the upbringing of children and adaptation of roles or whether social construction and nurture overrides the innate nature. As soon as the child is born and opens his or her eyes into the world, there is a need to determine the kind of person they are going to be, the way they will deal with things and the relationships they will have with people. Human beings are the most social of all animals and are on a constant need to indulge with people around them. It is however recognized that each and every individual out there is different by nature, beliefs, values, morals and much more.
Sociologists and scientists have had a long obsession with trying to determine the extent to which the societal and innate factors affect the upbringing of the child and how the early socialization processes impact the later life of a human being. Some argue that genetics and the true nature of a person is what matters the most and no matter how hard one tries, they cannot influence a person through the upbringing and the nurture process. However, some believe otherwise. It is important to accept and acknowledge that biology as well as the social construction, both have an equal role to play and at some point in life, they cross paths and reflect a mixture of the two.
While we can suggest that the sexes are biologically made and are innate in the humans, the gender roles and the way the two behave is something that the person acquires through socializing and mingling with their own kind. The patterns of behavior and the expectations from both genders vary and are remarkably different based on the society, religion, and place as well as the culture and traditions followed in that region.
Let us first take into account the importance of biological factors and the influence that they have on an individual. The genetics and the innate qualities help shape us into what we are. Some of the habits that…… [Read More]
Biology in the Real World
Almost all life forms have stem cells in them and the main purpose of these cells is that through the process of mitosis they can divide into other various kinds of cells as well as into other stem cells. In animals there are 2 kinds of stem cells:
Embryonic stem cells and
Adult stem cells.
The embryonic stem cells are the ones that are completely unattached from the blastocyst's inner cell mass and these cells are of great importance for a developing embryo and these are known as the pluripotent cells but these cells also play a great role in the normal return of the regenerative organs like blood, intestinal tissues and skin. Whereas, when it comes to the adult organisms these stem cells work as the replenishment system for the body as it refreshes the adult tissues and for this reason they are said to have a progenitor nature (Tuch, 2006).
Mainly there are three ways through which the stem cells can be extracted from a person's body:
1. From the adipose tissues, here the stem cells are extracted through liposuction.
2. From the bone marrow, in this technique the stem cells are extracted by harvesting which means the bone is drilled into, mostly the femur or iliac crest are the parts that are drilled into.
3. Through the process of pheresis the stem cells are extracted from the blood of the donor with the help of a machine and then the rest of the blood is returned to the body of the donor (Tuch, 2006).
Now the plastic stem cells are being used in the medical therapies on a regular basis such as in the bone marrow transplant. These stem cells are also now being produced artificially in the medical labs where they are differentiated and specialized into cells of various regions such as the nerve cell, muscles etc. The autologous embryonic cells along with the embryonic cell lines which are being created through the therapeutic cloning are said to…… [Read More]
One can successfully argue that yes, the humanities are in fact a manifestation of biology. In doing so, of course, there is a fairly liberal definition of the term biology, as well as of what is meant by the humanities. Biology, in its most broad sense, is simply the evolution of life. That evolution includes the minute and microscopic processes that occur within the body, as well as the overarching or outlying processes that take place outside of the body. The humanities, in turn, are some of the most demonstrable facets of that maturation of the process of life, as are most other salient facets of culture (which is what the humanities are markers or indicators of).
In fact, when one considers the very nature of the name humanities, one sees the correlation between it and the word human. Humans and humanity evolved as facets of biology. Actually, humans evolved due to very specific processes of biology, of which there are seemingly an interminable amount. At the basic fundamental level of biology, which one can argue occurs at the cellular level, there are interactions between cells that are responsible for reproduction and the forming of greater numbers of cells which are responsible for the formation of even larger organs and organisms. Such interaction requires a sort of tension, a giving and a taking, at which the environment asserts its influences on the cells which in turn respond back to this sort of pressure. The result of that pressure is the specific processes or applications of biology which are responsible for life as we currently know it.
This same friction or tension between the environment and the individual is responsible for the evolution of the humanities. The different forms of expression that the humanities take -- such as…… [Read More]
Sex protein is as essential part of the female reproductive system. Vitellogenin is a protein found in the liver of female chickens (hen) which impacts the production of estrogen. Vitellogenin enters the hen's circulatory system and is then moved to the ovaries, where it is then converted to the egg yolk protein lipovitellin and phosvitin. As an experimenter the protein in male and female chickens can be compared through the process of electrophoresis. This process will allow the experimenter to look at protein from these two specimens and identify the vitellogenin, lipovitellin and phosvitin. There are pre-stained cells that can be purchased and it only needs to be viewed under a microscope for observations.
Hypothesis: There is a difference between male and female chicken protein structure.
Another research idea is to look at enzymes catalysis and determine which enzyme has a rapid time of completion. A rapid time of completion reflects how quickly the enzyme is performing its job. The time of completion is impacted by two factors the enzyme and the substrate used, therefore it is important to ensure you are using the same amount of substrate. Titration should be done using measurements of 5ml. Putting too much of the sample to titrate will cause permanganate and error. The experimenter would need the experiment would need "zero time" this will allow experimenter to calculate titration numbers and help them establish a baseline.…… [Read More]
There are many different types of website that talk about biology; some of them include university websites which allows access to differing portals of biological information. Such websites as University of Michigan's "biology resource network" is an important source of information for all access to biology articles and databases from U. Of Michigan scholars and professors. Other websites include organization websites such as those of the American Society of Environmental Biology, and other such organizations which uses the internet as a portal to all of their actual article information. Finally, there are websites that are specifically targeted for causes within biology, such as websites targeting stem cell research.
There are many different opportunities to find the right information within biology, it is necessary to siphon through a lot of different information. Understanding where to find accurate information is the hardest part of any research.
Barnett, L. et al., 1955, the World We Live in: New York, Time, Inc.
Buckner, M., 1968, the Biological Way of Thought: Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press.
Birch, L.C., and Ehrlich, P.R., 1967, Evolutionary History and Population Biology: Nature, v. 214, p. 349-352.
Dobzhansky, T., 1967, the Biology of Ultimate Concern: New York, New American Library, 152
Eberhart, J., 1976, of life and death and magnetism: Science News, v. 109, p. 204.
Futuyma, D.J., 1979, Evolutionary Biology: Sunderland, Mass., Sinauer Associates.
Korn, R.W., and Korn, E.J., 1971, Contemporary Perspectives of Biology: New York, John Wiley.
Maynard Smith, J., 1986, the Problems of Biology: New York, Oxford University Press.
Moore, J.A., 1984, Science as a Way of Knowing: Evolutionary Biology: American Zoologist, v. 24, p. 467-534.
Nordenskiold, E., 1928, the History of Biology: New York, Tudor Publishing Company; Translated by L.B. Eyre.
Taylor, G.R., 1963, the Science of Life: New York, McGraw-Hill.
Weinberg, S.L., 1977, Biology [4th ed.]: Boston, Mass., Allyn & Bacon.
1987, Biology's Spiritual Products: Free Inquiry, v. 7, no. 2, p.…… [Read More]
There are about 6 billion nucleotide letters of a particular sequence in a human cell. The full set is known as the genome. DNA information is found in units called genes. One gene codes roughly for one protein. The proteins perform most of the functions of the body at the cellular level. Examples are digestion, the body's defense against disease, and transporting substances throughout the body. Thousands of proteins are needed to do the work of a single cell and of proteins within the multi-cellular human body. The proteins are coded in the DNA by these genes (Ridley).
Ribonucleic acid or RNA molecule is a single-strand structure, consisting of ribonucleotides (Tutor Vista 2008). It contains the pyrimidine uracil while DNA contains thymine. It has three types, according to cellular composition (Tutor Vista).
The processes of transcription and translation decode DNA information in a gene
(Ridley 2009). A protein molecule evolves from these processes through which DNA produces its effects on every cell of every living organism. Information moves from DNA to RNA to protein on a one-way direction. This is referred to as the central dogma, which explains why acquired characters are not inherited (Ridley).
The process of transcription produces the three forms of RNA, namely messenger RNA or mRNA; ribosomal RNA or rRNA; and transfer RNA or tRNA (Ridley 2009).
Virus -- This is an infectious agent, which affects all life forms, such as humans, animals, plants, fungi and bacteria (Hardwick 2009). It consists of either DNA or RNA and surrounded by a protein, called capsid. It is 20 to 100 times smaller than bacteria so that it is visible only under light microscopy. A virus is not considered a living organism, as it cannot reproduce outside a living host. It can only replicate, that is, transmit its genetic information from one cell to another (Hardwick).
At first contact, an outer viral structure connects with and binds to a specific molecule on the host's cell surface (Hardwick 2009). The virus crosses the cell membrane often by fusing its lipid envelope that cell membrane. In the process, it releases nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm of the host's cell. When it gains entry,…… [Read More]
Biology of Behavior
A Multipolar Neuron
The Limbic System
Behavior is the range of mannerisms and actions that an organism makes, and is seen in conjunction with the environment or themselves. Their environment includes the inanimate items in their physical world, and also the organisms and systems around them. Artificial entities and systems can also exhibit behaviors, as behavior is not strictly the domain of single, individual organisms. There is a strong relationship between behavior in biology, in two ways. There are biological components to the physical world that create expected behaviors in organisms, and there are also genetic and biological components that belong to each specific organism and that are used by those organisms to make sense of their world and to react to it in ways that provide them with what they need and help protect them from harm (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2010). Behaviors are not always successful in these endeavors, but biology does play a significant part in what drives these organisms toward certain behaviors.
Neural communication is among the most important of the biological points to be noted when it comes to behavior (Peters, Palay, & Webster, 1991). This type of communication takes place between nerve cells, which use electrical impulses and chemical signals to transmit information (Peters, Palay, & Webster, 1991). The neurons move between one another via synapses, and they link up with one another so they can create neural networks. They are among the core components of the nervous system of organisms, and make up the spinal cord and brain in the central nervous system and the ganglia in the peripheral nervous system (Plomin, et al., 2012). Different types of neurons provide different things to the body. Some provide sensory input, others affect muscle contractions, and still others are related to the glands. Neurons strongly influence the organism to which they belong, because they produce sensations and other information the body reacts to.
Figure 1.1 -- A Multipolar Neuron
Those reactions to the neurons and their impulses…… [Read More]
Biology Questions & Posts
(01) Biomes and Diversity - Extinction is a natural selection process. Should humans strive to preserve a representative sample of all biomes or aquatic zones? Why should humans be concerned with the extinction rate?
Disregard for the conservation of the earth's biomes is an example of how human ignorance and hubris can result in irreversible environmental destruction. At any particular point in time, human beings cannot be certain that they know all they will ever need to know about the environment, about the potential benefits that may still be derived from ecological habitats. The perfect workings of the earth's biomes cannot be understood from the perspective of a demos that is not schooled in science, biology, ecology, geology, and other natural sciences. In their ignorance or negligence, human beings continue to rapidly bring devastation and irreversible pollution on the global natural environment. An important consideration is that humans are not the only living forms on the earth -- it does seem that our "special case" that is due to our knowledge and intellect affords us, too, additional responsibilities to those other life forms. "We must consider the consequences of our actions" ("The World's Biomes, 2007, ¶1). It is important to recognize that approximately one quarter of the medicines that people use all across the globe are derived from plants. The rain forest -- one of the world's biomes -- major source of these plants that are fundamental to medicine as it is now practiced and as it has been practiced in earlier days. Should the rainforest be irrevocably destroyed, it could cause a backward thrust in medical practice that is completely unacceptable by modern standards. Not only would patients be severely impacted by an inability to obtain medicine that saves lives and alleviates suffering, but medical…… [Read More]
In evolutionary biology, parsimony is similar to the Ockham's razor hypothesis, or that nature will use the simplest method possible to effect change over time.
Phylogenetic systematics is the manner in which biologists reconstruct the pattern of events that have led to evolution and the distribution of unique species. The statement "DNA is the genetic material for all prokaryotes and eukaryotes" implies that DNA is the locus material for evolutionary change.
Assumptions include that there is a strong possibility that some evolutionary changes occur in a regular, clock-like manner. For instance, over millions of years, mutations build up in DNA at a reliable rate, and then are expressed in regular changes.
These assumptions may be violated based on punctuated evolution and/or environmental changes (climate, population, extinctions, or gaps in the ecological system) that change the nature of the timing of mutation expression.
C. Yes, using molecular clocks to estimate divergence of species depends on other methods of dating that are relative. Additionally, MC analysis can be modified to look for chemical changes and reactions within the cellular structure.
Part 6 -- It is virtually impossible for a tetraploid plant to interbreed with diploid individuals due to the number of chromosomes within the process of autopolyploid. Diploids have two sets of chromosomes, tetraploids have four sets and are thus incompatible to produce viable offspring.
Part 7 -- Pre-zygotic barriers are also known as prezygotic isolation. They include: 1) temporal or habitat isolation (physical or habitat barriers that change the ecological nature of the species); 2) sexual isolation by behavior or conduct (mating rituals, culture, divergence of belief); 3) mechanical isolation -- change of genital characteristics, estrus, or fertility; 4) gametic isolation -- changes in the actual chemistry of the reproductive cells that does not allow for cross-breeding.
Part 8 -- Species are different kinds of organisms; subspecies are versions of the species. If a yellow warbler myrtle and yellow warbler Audubon can interbreed, they are likely the same or sub-species. Mating, behavior, habitat, diet, and…… [Read More]
Biology of Behavior
The biology of human behavior is rooted in the fact that human beings are animals, in the sense that they are biological creatures and are the result of millions of years of evolution with a physical make up that forms us into creatures that are fitter and more suitable for surviving and adapting to the physical environment all together. Even though a human being is still an animal the biology of our human behavior is impacted by a wide variety of circumstances. One of these circumstances is the fact that we have something that no other animal has: an intricate social structure. "We gather in families, tribes, clans, nations. We have an incredibly sophisticated method of interacting -- speech. We can communicate over time and distance through printing and broadcasting. Our memories are the longest, our interactions the most intricate, our perception of the world simultaneously the broadest and most detailed" (Tafflinger, 2011). Thus the biology of human behavior is continually influenced by society: biology continues to guide our reactions to situations as the manifestation of generations of ancestors surviving because of their responses and reactions (Tafflinger, 2011). However, the bottom line is that our social structure continues to dictate and place restrictions on how we engage in our biological responses. Thus, in order to better understand the biology of human behavior, one still needs to consider how human behavior is continually filtered through the lens of society; thus, it's really not a question of nature vs. nurture as so many people like to think (Tafflinger, 2011).
However, before one tries to determine how the biological basis of human behavior impacts the human organism via the filter of society, it's still important to gauge a strong understanding of the three main pillars which impact human behavior: self-preservation, reproduction and greed (Tafflinger, 2011). "Self-preservation is keeping yourself alive, either physically or psychologically. The latter includes mentally or economically healthy" (Tafflinger, 2011). The biological basis of self-preservation is rooted in the fact that the members of a species must…… [Read More]
Diffusion refers to the tendency of molecules to spread out evenly amongst each other due to their kinetic energy. Osmosis is the balancing out of the concentration of two solutions -- usually in water -- through a membrane.
They could also be acting as clotting agents in the event of a cut/tear, or possibly isolate an area of weakness or infection through clustering around it.
A red blood cell needs to be this permeable to facilitate the transfer of nutrients. It works because the body's salinity and blood concentration in general is kept very consistent by other organs/mechanisms.
Homeostasis refers to the natural tendency of the body to maintain certain vital characteristics (temperature, acidity, etc.). Allostasis refers to achieving the same balance, but is a response to a large change in the balance of one or more of these aspects rather than to the constant subtle changes of homeostasis. In this way, allostasis can be seen as a way of…… [Read More]
Biology and Evolution: The Case of Snakes
Snakes are incredible creatures. They have evolved very unique features that have allowed them to adapt to a wide number of environments. Snakes can be fond in some of the hottest deserts, the densest swamps, and even on the ocean floor. Part of their success comes from the physiological evolution of their organs and anatomical structures that has provided for their evolutionary success.
The snake's anatomy is truly unique. It is a reptile that has elongated its body and internal organs by sacrificing its legs. All of the major organs of the snake have been elongated to allow for a tubular body shape that has helped re-engineer the way a snake moves. The entire skeleton has morphed in order to account for this evolutionary process that allowed snakes to succeed in a wide variety of environments. According to the research, a snake's skeleton is "a complicated-architecturally and functionality -- skull at its head is followed, to the tail, by at least five divisions of vertebral structures" (Cates, 2012). Ribbed and unribbed vertebrae interlock all the way down through the length of the snake's body. Ribs help protect the elongated organs. The snake's respiratory system has evolved into a long, complicated string of organs. It begins with the moveable glottis to help avoid breathing in parts of the prey in the mouth that leads to a windpipe. The windpipe "extending from the glottis, divides into two bronchial tubes, each leading to the lungs; the right is pulmonary and the left is secondary, considerably smaller and either non-functional or only marginally so" (Cates, 2012). This allows for one lung to take up more space in the small body cavity. The snake smells through its two pronged tongue which collect and distribute scent particles to the vomeronasal, which is its…… [Read More]
An Inconvenient Truth
In Al Gore's documentary an Inconvenient Truth, he makes some very pertinent points about the issue of global warming. Included in the documentary are the following topics.
a) Effects of Global Warming:
Gore uses graphs to clearly illustrate some of the dangerous ramifications of global warming. One chart shows the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and data which indicates a rise in temperature is the result of this additional carbon dioxide. The average amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere used to be between 180 and 280 parts per million (ppm). It is now above 400 ppm. Gore and the experts in the film estimate that it will rise to 600 ppm.
b) Melting Glaciers:
He asserts that the increased temperature is leading to melting of glaciers. He uses photographs as evidence of his assertion. The researchers also say that these are just some of the things that are linked to global warming and predict worse to come.
c) Political Suggestions:
Gore makes different suggestions for how people can alleviate the problems of global warming. One suggestion he makes is making more energy-efficient cars. People, he says, can help by turning down their temperatures and using less electricity.
d) Causes of Global Warming:
Gore blames three things for the global warming. He blames rapid population growth which makes sense considering the world has grown by a billion people in about a decade, technologies which increase electricity usage, and people not thinking about the dangers to the environment.
e) Advocating for Change:
In order to prevent the increasing likelihood of global warming, everyone must make attempts to do what they can to help the situation. If everyone contributes to the solution then there is a chance of saving the earth.
1. a) Explain the…… [Read More]
The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).
BMR goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BMR, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive and basal metabolic rate (BMR) attempts to measure this energy. As people get older or lose muscle mass, their basal metabolic rate goes down. This means that less energy is needed in order to maintain the body's basic functions. Often, this occurrence is referred to as the metabolism slowing down (Basal metabolic rate, 2010).
BMR is measured in the total of calories that are required per day to maintain the body. Due to this, BMR can be very useful in comparing caloric intake to the actual amount of calories that are burned by the body. If caloric intake is lower than the calories that are used per day, burning fat or muscle will kick in order to make up the difference. A normal routine of cardiovascular exercise works to increase an individual's BMR, improve health and fitness as the body's ability to burn energy gradually slows down. BMR does not consider the calories that are needed for exercise, so it is not seen as a true representation of the amount…… [Read More]
Biology and sexual orientation he topic: SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND SEXUAL IDENTITY...It college Biopsychology. Please focus biopsychology (biology, nature, genetics,)
Sexual orientation: Nature or nurture?
'Baby, I was born this way.' The new Lady Gaga song sums up a common theme of the modern gay rights movement: that sexuality is genetic, rather than psychologically determined. Given that homosexuality was once listed as a mental illness in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychological Association, it is understandable that gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered people would wish to emphasize that sexuality is not a disorder: the only 'disordered' aspect of gay sexuality in society is the prejudice directed against gay people. Current medical research literature seems to largely support this claim.
Scientists operating from a biological paradigm have found certain 'clues' which indicate that sexual orientation is hard-wired within structure of the brain. After studying the brains of right-handed, 18- to 35-year-old homosexual and heterosexual men using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), researchers found that homosexual men have a larger posterior part of the corpus callosum than heterosexual men. "The size of the corpus callosum is largely inherited, suggesting a genetic factor in sexual orientation" (Genetics has a role in determining sexual orientation in men, 2007, ScienceDaily). This organ is "the thick band of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain" and is usually larger in women than in men, allowing for greater hemispheric communication (some have called this structure the source of 'women's intuition') (Genetics has a role in determining sexual orientation in men, 2007, ScienceDaily).
Another study which supported this finding of greater inter-hemispherical activity amongst gay men was conducted on 198,000 people aged 20 -- 65. Men outperformed women overall on spatial relations tasks such as mentally rotating abstract objects and women…… [Read More]
Systematics is one of the main fields of study in biology wherein the historical relationships of groups of biological organisms are studied. Through systematics, scientists are able to identify organisms existing in this world in accordance to their classification, group, phylum, and other hierarchical positions in the biological strata. Apart from studying the relationship of organisms with each other and in their environment, systematics also aims to determine patterns in the organism population where groups of organisms are most likely to thrive and survive. Systematics as scientific methodology in biology is essential to the establishment and maintenance of biodiversity. This is because through systematics, biodiversity existing in the Earth are identified and documented, converting these information into understandable / comprehensible and thereby useful information to other people. It is also a method and study where the life history of the Earth is documented. Systematics also makes it easier for scientists to identify or categorize new species of organism because of the strata that are identified and emerged from the study. Because of these important functions of systematics as a biological study, it contributes to biodiversity conservation because of the information obtained that will help people know what organisms will live and survive in a particular environment or habitat.
SPORANGIUM- hollow unicellular or multicellular structure in which spores are produced and from which they are released.
ARCHEGONIUM- flask-shaped female reproductive organs in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms. It corresponds to the pistil of flowering plants and contains eggs that become sporophyte.
ANTHERIDIUM- the male sex organ of spore-producing plants. It corresponds to the anther in flowering plants that produces male gametes.
SPOROPHYTE- a diploid plant that develops from a zygote and produces asexual spores.
GAMETOPHYTE- a haploid plant or plant body that produces gametes.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are twenty (20) existing essential amino acids that are used to synthesize or make up proteins. These essential amino acids are…… [Read More]
However, the growth of our understanding of the degree to which human behavior is actually attributable directly to automatic processes contradicts that point-of-view.
As much as we may believe that we select our partners by virtue of their inner qualities and attributes that are more meaningful than superficial appearance, most of the characteristics to which we respond with potential romantic interest are dictated by automatic processes and quantifiable variables (Morris 2002) that are as predictable and unconscious as their counterparts throughout the rest of the animal kingdom.
Traditionally, sociologists have pointed to the environmental influences of human culture and societal norms to explain the perceived value of physical beauty, often suggesting that variation in concepts of attractiveness among different cultures evidences that physical beauty is strictly an arbitrary subjective measure that is learned along with other fundamental elements of human social culture.
However, a long series of studies going back to 1981 (Bornstein, et al.) has revealed that even very young human infants actually recognize basic components of human attractiveness long before they could possibly have been influenced by social norms defining beauty. In those studies, infants were presented with images of adult strangers of previously determined attractiveness in terms of quantifiable measurements such as straight teeth, clear skin, and feature symmetry. In variants of those studies, composite images not corresponding to any actual person were substituted for images of actual adults. By comparing the amount of time that infants spent looking at each image, the researchers determined that, as expected, human infants stared at the images precisely in proportion to their attractiveness rank, in addition to smiling or gesturing more at the more attractive images.
The purpose of those experiments was not to deny the influence of… [Read More]
Instead, it depends on pollination. Pollination refers to the process where the male gametophyte, in the form of pollen, travels to the female gametophyte, in the form of the seed. The pollen can travel over a much greater distance than sperm. This ability to disperse is important and reduces the requirement for water. In saying this, it must be noted that when the male part is in the form of sperm, it requires water. This is partly because the sperm does not have any vascular tissue. This is also because the sperm's only form of movement is swimming, which clearly requires water. For terrestrial plants then, not having water is a major problem. Having a seed and pollen solves this problem and makes dispersal without water possible.
Pollination then occurs when a pollen grain reaches a seed and passes through its micropyle, a tiny hole in the seed covering present exactly for this purpose. The male and female parts then meet and a new plant is produced. Most importantly, there is no requirement for water for this process to occur, making terrestrial plant life feasible.
The other important point about the seed is that it protects the female gametophyte from difficult conditions. The embryo within the seed provides nourishment to the female gametophyte. The seed covering also protects the seed from any kind of harsh conditions, including heat, cold, or dry conditions. The seed is essentially able to lie dormant while remaining nourished and protected until conditions improve. This also allows for dispersal and also solves the problem of terrestrial life for plants.
Overall, this explains what a seed is, what its function is, and how it solves the problem of terrestrial life for plants.… [Read More]
Once in the cells, the glucose is burned in order to create heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) which is a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
The metabolism of glucose into energy happens either in combination with oxygen which is called aerobic metabolism or without it which is called anaerobic metabolism. The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria. Red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they convert glucose into energy without the use of oxygen, unlike some other cells.
Glucose is also converted to energy inside muscle cells. These are probably the most important energy users. Muscle cells contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. Even if the level of oxygen levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. The down side is that making glucose into energy without oxygen produces the by-product lactic acid. And too much lactic acid makes a person's muscles ache (How We Turn Glucose into Energy, 2006).
One function of Lipids is that they store energy. Lipids also contain a lot of calories in a small space. Because Lipids are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water, they have to be stored in special ways within the body's cells. Lipids can also work as structural components in the cell. Phospholipids are the main building blocks of cell membranes. Lipids also function as hormones that play a role in regulating metabolism. Most lipids are made up of some sort of fatty acid arrangement. The fatty acids are made up of methylene groups, and are not water soluble (Lipids, n.d.).
Works… [Read More]
Each of these consultative bodies is made up of ten to fifteen doctors and scientists with widespread knowledge about infectious illnesses, immunology and vaccine research. The statistics measured by these groups are wider than that looked at by the FDA. While the FDA looks at only when vaccines work and are safe, advisory bodies look at how much inoculations cost and how to best utilize them. While the FDA looks at only the risk benefit ratios, advisory bodies also look at the cost benefit ratios (Offit and Bell, 2003).
One of the newer vaccines that are being given today is that of the flu shot. This vaccine can be obtained at every corner drug store and in a lot of cases is being mandated by many employers. The seasonal flu shot guards against three flu viruses that studies have indicated will be mainly widespread throughout this season. The 2010-2011 flu vaccine will guard against the 2009 H1N1 along with two other flu viruses, an H3N2 virus and an influenza B virus. The illnesses in this vaccine vary every year founded on worldwide observation and expert's opinions about which kinds and strains of illnesses will be present in a particular year. About two weeks following inoculation, antibodies that supply protection against the flu grow within a person. There are two kinds of vaccines that are currently in use:
The flu vaccine which is an inactivated solution that is administered with a needle, typically in the upper arm. The flu shot is accepted for use in those older than six months, comprising well people and people with persistent medical conditions.
The nasal-spray vaccine is made with live, diluted flu solutions that do not cause one to get ill. This type is accepted for use in well people two to forty nine years of age who are not expecting (Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine, 2010).
Yearly flu shots ought to start in September or when the vaccines are accessible and…… [Read More]