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According to LiveScience, biology is the “science of life.” While this definition of biology may seem very broad and all-encompassing, it is the best definition of biology that we have encountered. Biology is the science and study of life. However, when talking about biology as a course or class, it is both more and less than the science of life. Generally, it begins with the study of very specific structures, known as cells, which serve as the basic building blocks for life on planet Earth.
In fact, many introductory biology courses begin with an introduction to the basics of cell structure. Complex organisms contain a variety of different cells, while single-celled or simple organisms may contain only one type of cell. However, all of these cells share similar structures and engage in certain processes that show an underlying similarity between different types of life. Once you understand cell structure, then you can begin to understand cell functions. These functions include respiration, reproduction through meiosis and mitosis, and the cell cycle. While cell reproduction may seem basic, understanding it is critical not only to an understanding of how plants and animals create offspring, but also to understanding how diseases like cancer proliferate in the body.
While biology once considered cells the crucial building block of life, a growing understanding of DNA and RNA demonstrate the critical role that four base chemicals play in structuring life. DNA is composed of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. RNA or ribonucleic acid is created by the DNA to carry messages to proteins. These messages can critically impact cellular functioning. While much is known about both DNA and RNA, scientists are making new discoveries on a daily basis. These discoveries, in turn, impact other areas of biology.
Another goal of biology is to describe living organisms, and, to do this, biologists often classify plants and animals. This classification is referred to as taxonomy. Taxonomy starts with a broad group, like plant or animal, and then continues to narrow down options. From the broadest to the narrowest, these groupings are: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. However, taxonomy is far from an exact science, and there may be substantial disagreement about whether animals constitute different species or subspecies.
Introductory biology often divides organisms into two broad groups: plants and animals. Then, it provides a cursory introduction into these two basic types of life. While the definitions of plant and animals may seem self-explanatory, there are some organisms that show characteristics of both plants and animals, which can make classification difficult. That is why biology also focuses on understanding some of these in-between microorganisms, like: monera, Protista, fungi, and viruses.
However, the overlap between certain organisms in either group help explain the process of evolution. Although the topic of evolution has been a hot-button political issue since as far back as the Scopes Monkey Trial, the term evolution merely describes the process by which species characteristics change over time through the process of natural selection. Evolution is frequently called Darwinian evolution because the process was first described by the naturalist Charles Darwin.
Biology and Social Construction Involved in Training Children
It has been quite a continuing debate over the years upon whether biology and genetics play a more important role in the upbringing of children and adaptation of roles or whether social construction and nurture overrides the innate nature. As soon as the child is born and opens his or her eyes into the world, there is a need to determine the kind of person they are going to be, the way they will deal with things and the relationships they will have with people. Human beings are the most social of all animals and are on a constant need to indulge with people around them. It is however recognized that each and every individual out there is different by nature, beliefs, values, morals and much more.
Sociologists and scientists have had a long obsession with trying to determine the extent to…… [Read More]
Biology in the eal World
Almost all life forms have stem cells in them and the main purpose of these cells is that through the process of mitosis they can divide into other various kinds of cells as well as into other stem cells. In animals there are 2 kinds of stem cells:
Embryonic stem cells and
Adult stem cells.
The embryonic stem cells are the ones that are completely unattached from the blastocyst's inner cell mass and these cells are of great importance for a developing embryo and these are known as the pluripotent cells but these cells also play a great role in the normal return of the regenerative organs like blood, intestinal tissues and skin. Whereas, when it comes to the adult organisms these stem cells work as the replenishment system for the body as it refreshes the adult tissues and for this reason they…… [Read More]
There are many different types of website that talk about biology; some of them include university websites which allows access to differing portals of biological information. Such websites as University of Michigan's "biology resource network" is an important source of information for all access to biology articles and databases from U. Of Michigan scholars and professors. Other websites include organization websites such as those of the American Society of Environmental Biology, and other such organizations which uses the internet as a portal to all of their actual article information. Finally, there are websites that are specifically targeted for causes within biology, such as websites targeting stem cell research.
There are many different opportunities to find the right information within biology, it is necessary to siphon through a lot of different information. Understanding where to find accurate information is the hardest part of any research.
Barnett, L. et al., 1955, the…… [Read More]
One can successfully argue that yes, the humanities are in fact a manifestation of biology. In doing so, of course, there is a fairly liberal definition of the term biology, as well as of what is meant by the humanities. Biology, in its most broad sense, is simply the evolution of life. That evolution includes the minute and microscopic processes that occur within the body, as well as the overarching or outlying processes that take place outside of the body. The humanities, in turn, are some of the most demonstrable facets of that maturation of the process of life, as are most other salient facets of culture (which is what the humanities are markers or indicators of).
In fact, when one considers the very nature of the name humanities, one sees the correlation between it and the word human. Humans and humanity evolved as facets of biology.…… [Read More]
Sex protein is as essential part of the female reproductive system. Vitellogenin is a protein found in the liver of female chickens (hen) which impacts the production of estrogen. Vitellogenin enters the hen's circulatory system and is then moved to the ovaries, where it is then converted to the egg yolk protein lipovitellin and phosvitin. As an experimenter the protein in male and female chickens can be compared through the process of electrophoresis. This process will allow the experimenter to look at protein from these two specimens and identify the vitellogenin, lipovitellin and phosvitin. There are pre-stained cells that can be purchased and it only needs to be viewed under a microscope for observations.
Hypothesis: There is a difference between male and female chicken protein structure.
Another research idea is to look at enzymes catalysis and determine which enzyme has a rapid time of completion. A…… [Read More]
Biology of Behavior
A Multipolar Neuron
The Limbic System
Behavior is the range of mannerisms and actions that an organism makes, and is seen in conjunction with the environment or themselves. Their environment includes the inanimate items in their physical world, and also the organisms and systems around them. Artificial entities and systems can also exhibit behaviors, as behavior is not strictly the domain of single, individual organisms. There is a strong relationship between behavior in biology, in two ways. There are biological components to the physical world that create expected behaviors in organisms, and there are also genetic and biological components that belong to each specific organism and that are used by those organisms to make sense of their world and to react to it in ways that provide them with what they need and help protect them from harm (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2010). Behaviors are not always…… [Read More]
There are about 6 billion nucleotide letters of a particular sequence in a human cell. The full set is known as the genome. DNA information is found in units called genes. One gene codes roughly for one protein. The proteins perform most of the functions of the body at the cellular level. Examples are digestion, the body's defense against disease, and transporting substances throughout the body. Thousands of proteins are needed to do the work of a single cell and of proteins within the multi-cellular human body. The proteins are coded in the DNA by these genes (Ridley).
Ribonucleic acid or RNA molecule is a single-strand structure, consisting of ribonucleotides (Tutor Vista 2008). It contains the pyrimidine uracil while DNA contains thymine. It has three types, according to cellular composition (Tutor Vista).
The processes of transcription and translation decode DNA information in a gene
(Ridley 2009). A protein molecule evolves…… [Read More]
Biology Questions & Posts
(01) Biomes and Diversity - Extinction is a natural selection process. hould humans strive to preserve a representative sample of all biomes or aquatic zones? Why should humans be concerned with the extinction rate?
Disregard for the conservation of the earth's biomes is an example of how human ignorance and hubris can result in irreversible environmental destruction. At any particular point in time, human beings cannot be certain that they know all they will ever need to know about the environment, about the potential benefits that may still be derived from ecological habitats. The perfect workings of the earth's biomes cannot be understood from the perspective of a demos that is not schooled in science, biology, ecology, geology, and other natural sciences. In their ignorance or negligence, human beings continue to rapidly bring devastation and irreversible pollution on the global natural environment. An important consideration is…… [Read More]
In evolutionary biology, parsimony is similar to the Ockham's razor hypothesis, or that nature will use the simplest method possible to effect change over time.
Phylogenetic systematics is the manner in which biologists reconstruct the pattern of events that have led to evolution and the distribution of unique species. The statement "DNA is the genetic material for all prokaryotes and eukaryotes" implies that DNA is the locus material for evolutionary change.
Assumptions include that there is a strong possibility that some evolutionary changes occur in a regular, clock-like manner. For instance, over millions of years, mutations build up in DNA at a reliable rate, and then are expressed in regular changes.
These assumptions may be violated based on punctuated evolution and/or environmental changes (climate, population, extinctions, or gaps in the ecological system) that change the nature of the timing of mutation expression.
C. Yes, using molecular…… [Read More]
Biology of Behavior
The biology of human behavior is rooted in the fact that human beings are animals, in the sense that they are biological creatures and are the result of millions of years of evolution with a physical make up that forms us into creatures that are fitter and more suitable for surviving and adapting to the physical environment all together. Even though a human being is still an animal the biology of our human behavior is impacted by a wide variety of circumstances. One of these circumstances is the fact that we have something that no other animal has: an intricate social structure. "We gather in families, tribes, clans, nations. We have an incredibly sophisticated method of interacting -- speech. We can communicate over time and distance through printing and broadcasting. Our memories are the longest, our interactions the most intricate, our perception of the world simultaneously the…… [Read More]
Diffusion refers to the tendency of molecules to spread out evenly amongst each other due to their kinetic energy. Osmosis is the balancing out of the concentration of two solutions -- usually in water -- through a membrane.
They could also be acting as clotting agents in the event of a cut/tear, or possibly isolate an area of weakness or infection through clustering around it.
A red blood cell needs to be this permeable to facilitate the transfer of nutrients. It works because the body's salinity and blood concentration in general is kept very consistent by other organs/mechanisms.
Homeostasis refers to the natural tendency of the body to maintain certain vital characteristics (temperature, acidity, etc.). Allostasis refers to achieving the same balance, but is a response to a large change in the balance of one or more of these aspects rather than to the constant subtle…… [Read More]
Lactose is the natural sugar found in milk. An enzyme in the small intestine, lactase, is responsible for the digestion of lactose. Lactase "breaks the lactose down into two simpler forms of sugar, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream." For most people, this is a straightforward process but some people have insufficient lactase, and indigestion occurs as a result of the body's inability to break down the lactose (WebMD, 2014).
Proteins are digested in both the stomach and the small intestine. The stomach secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, and the two interact to produce pepsin. The pepsin enzyme then breaks down the protein via a process known as hydrolysis. This is where a water molecule is inserted between two amino acids, causing their bonds to break.
The hydrochloric acid breaks down the bonds between proteins, and the proteins are disintegrated into amino acids. Protein digestion continues in…… [Read More]
a blood cell production (I guess the marrow is considered distinct from the skeleton)
oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli
spongy bone or epiphysis
Blood is a transportation mechanism, moving gas, waste and nutrients throughout the body. Some are dissolved in blood, but oxygen is transported by the erythrocytes. Blood is a regulator, for example helping to regulate the body's pH and water balance. Blood is also a protector. Some blood cells (leukocytes) attack invading cancer cells, for example, and other pathogens. Blood also clots, which helps to protect the body against blood loss. Platelets are an…… [Read More]
An Inconvenient Truth
In Al Gore's documentary an Inconvenient Truth, he makes some very pertinent points about the issue of global warming. Included in the documentary are the following topics.
a) Effects of Global arming:
Gore uses graphs to clearly illustrate some of the dangerous ramifications of global warming. One chart shows the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and data which indicates a rise in temperature is the result of this additional carbon dioxide. The average amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere used to be between 180 and 280 parts per million (ppm). It is now above 400 ppm. Gore and the experts in the film estimate that it will rise to 600 ppm.
b) Melting Glaciers:
He asserts that the increased temperature is leading to melting of glaciers. He uses photographs as evidence of his assertion. The researchers also say that these are just…… [Read More]
A punnett square is a two by two square which is used to predict the possible phenotypes of offspring, and its ratio. (Krough)
b) The male and female gametes contain only one set of alleles. (Krough)
c) The genes of the parents go on the outside of the boxes. (Krough)
d) The possible gene outcome from the parental genes goes inside the boxes. (Krough)
e) The punnett square always contains only 4 boxes or squares, that is, two rows and two columns. (Krough)
a) The Law of segregation is based on Mendel's pea plant experiment where he came to the conclusion that alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed and are randomly paired at fertilization, after which one allele is expressed dominantly while the other is masked. (Krough)
b) Law of independent assortment states that alleles separate independently during gamete formation, which means that traits are…… [Read More]
They are responsible for dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission giving rise to a condition of muscle weakness which is accentuated by exertion. In most cases, CMS begin in early childhood but later onset in adulthood is possible. Severity also varies from severe with respiratory failure to mild expression. (ichard, P, et. Al., 2004, p. 81)
The results of the author studies proved through the use of the SNP markers that a common haplotype was in fact present in all patients and relatives who carried the N88K mutation. However that were, "…two N88K homozygous individuals who were asymptomatic for the disease. The discordant haplotypes occurring in these two individuals suggest that a recombination event can occur intragenically, even in a short span of the rapsyn gene (8 kb)" (Dunne, & Maselli, 2005, p.367). The authors admit that while this correlation certainly suggest that the founder effect is a possible cause of the…… [Read More]
Some people are overly prone to vomiting, some to bouts of runny noses.
The answer to why these reactions are so ubiquitous lies in efficiency. Expending a few hundred calories to vomit is much more efficient than being crippled by a disease that will threaten a life for weeks. If there is even a small chance, approximately five percent to be precise, that the chemical in the stomach is toxic, then the body will initiate vomiting. Only when the toxin is below the five percent mark will the amount of calories expended be inefficient enough to cause the body not to vomit.
Does treating these beneficial symptoms actually harm chances for survival? Using morning sickness as an example, it is often dismissed as a superfluous reaction from oversensitive pregnant women. hen put into the frame of natural selection however, the reason for morning sickness becomes apparent. Fetuses are especially vulnerable…… [Read More]
A Computer and a Tree
The biggest difference between a computer and a tree is that a tree is a living organism, while a computer may seem alive at some times, but it is really an inanimate object. It does not reproduce, and it does not go dormant in the fall, as many deciduous trees do. Trees also support other life, such as birds, insects, plants or fungus (like mistletoe), and create an ecosystem around them that is disturbed if the tree disappears. Trees might not seem as complex as computers, but they are made up of millions of cells and fibers that create a hard bark on the outside, and a fibrous interior that draws in water and nutrients and sends them out to all parts of the tree, including the branches and leaves. It is a pretty complex organism, and we as humans would be hard pressed…… [Read More]
Genes are regions of nucleic acid that is passed from parents to offspring during reproduction as chromosomes in nuclei of gametes, encoding information that is essential for the construction and regulation of proteins and other molecules that determine the growth and functioning of the organism (Gene pp).
The DNA strand is expressed into a trait only if it is transcribed to RNA, and because the transcription starts from a specific base-pair sequence and stops at another, DNA strand needs to be correctly placed between the two (Gene pp). Cells regulate the activity of genes by increasing or decreasing their rate of transcription and over the short-term, this regulation occurs through the binding or unbinding of proteins, known as transcription factors, to specific non-coding DNA sequences called regulatory elements (Gene pp). The DNA strand may also be silenced through DNA methylation or by chemical changes to the protein components of…… [Read More]
A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass. Assume a population of birds that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will that affect natural selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?
In this instance the grasshoppers which are most suitably adapted to current conditions will be far more likely to survive. In normal conditions, when the prairie is adequately hydrated to keep grasses healthy and green, those grasshoppers with green coloration will be naturally camouflaged and will escape predation by newly arriving birds. Conversely, the brown grasshoppers will stand out against the green backdrop and will easily be picked off by voracious birds, leaving mostly green insects to repopulate the prairie as the population of brown grasshoppers is depleted. In drought conditions, however, the…… [Read More]
n adults, over 90% of all cancers are either adenomas (adenocarcinomas) or carcinomas, including cancers of the skin, lung, colon, breast, and prostate. Which one of the four basic tissue types gives rise to most cancers? Give two reasons why this tissue is more likely to produce cancerous cells.
Skin cancer is the most common[footnoteRef:2]. Each year over 2 million people are treated for basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in the United States alone. The next most common cancer type is prostate cancer. [2: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/skin]
The risk of skin cancer is increased by exposure to UVB radiation, whether by natural sunlight or tanning beds[footnoteRef:3]. Studies in skin-humanized mice show UVB induced DNA damage, p53 expression, and epidermal disorganization[footnoteRef:4], changes that would be expected to increase cancer risk. [3: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/skin/page5] [4: Garcia et al., 2010. Amer. J. Pathol., 177, 865-]
Genetics also plays a role on many levels[footnoteRef:5]. Persons…… [Read More]
Terminal buttons are on neurons and form the small balls at the end of the axon where chemicals are released. These chemicals are neurotransmitters. Thus, the terminal button acts as the presynaptic neuron of the synapse.
The myelin sheath is a layer of insulation that covers nerves in the brain. It consists of protein and fats, which allow electrical pulses to pass through and on to the nerve cells. The myelin sheath thus protects the nerves in a way that allows messages to get through.
The axon are nerve fibers that look like long, hairs on a nerve cell. They are like the antenna of the neuron, and conduct electrical pulses away from the soma. Axons act as the transmission lines of the nervous system.
The axon hillock is part of the soma that connects to the axon. It is the last point in the soma where membrane…… [Read More]
This specific experiment aimed to discover the entire process of microorganisms (or bacteria) change. The objective of this laboratory experiment had been to investigate the results of microbial change upon E. coli bacteria. The research had been done by placing pGLO DNA inside the genome from the E. coli microorganisms by using inoculation loops, Laurel Broth, "Transformation Solution" as well as processes like heat impact and incubation. The anticipated outcome had been that the microorganisms with arabanose sugars and pGLO inserted within it would create radiant colonies of bacteria or microorganisms. The remarks made had been that just the LB (pGLO -) plate experienced development in it. The final outcome of the research had been that change happened since there had been bacterial colonies around the plate with both ampicillin and pGLO.
Genetics happen to be codes within the DNA that determine the kind of proteins that are…… [Read More]
He still occasionally 'bums smokes' and chews nicotine gum to combat cravings (Altman, 2008, p 3). Obama's campaign released records suggesting that he is in excellent health -- only one page long. The only specific data they have revealed is his low cholesterol rating. The question arises -- if Obama is in such good health (and he does work out very frequently) why the reticence about the information (Altman, 2008, p.3).
The Obama campaign has implied that the mere appearance of good health on the part of the candidate should be enough, a statement that they would likely mock if it came from the older McCain. McCain has also cited the longevity of his mother as an example of why people should be unworried about his candidacy but again, this is hardly scientific proof of his fitness (Tasker & Chrissos, 2008, p.1). Of course, one of the reasons that questions…… [Read More]
The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).
BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]
Systematics is one of the main fields of study in biology wherein the historical relationships of groups of biological organisms are studied. Through systematics, scientists are able to identify organisms existing in this world in accordance to their classification, group, phylum, and other hierarchical positions in the biological strata. Apart from studying the relationship of organisms with each other and in their environment, systematics also aims to determine patterns in the organism population where groups of organisms are most likely to thrive and survive. Systematics as scientific methodology in biology is essential to the establishment and maintenance of biodiversity. This is because through systematics, biodiversity existing in the Earth are identified and documented, converting these information into understandable / comprehensible and thereby useful information to other people. It is also a method and study where the life history of the Earth is documented. Systematics also makes it easier for…… [Read More]
However, the growth of our understanding of the degree to which human behavior is actually attributable directly to automatic processes contradicts that point-of-view.
As much as we may believe that we select our partners by virtue of their inner qualities and attributes that are more meaningful than superficial appearance, most of the characteristics to which we respond with potential romantic interest are dictated by automatic processes and quantifiable variables (Morris 2002) that are as predictable and unconscious as their counterparts throughout the rest of the animal kingdom.
raditionally, sociologists have pointed to the environmental influences of human culture and societal norms to explain the perceived value of physical beauty, often suggesting that variation in concepts of attractiveness among different cultures evidences that physical beauty is strictly an arbitrary subjective measure that is learned along with other fundamental elements of human social culture.
However, a long series of studies going back…… [Read More]
Instead, it depends on pollination. Pollination refers to the process where the male gametophyte, in the form of pollen, travels to the female gametophyte, in the form of the seed. The pollen can travel over a much greater distance than sperm. This ability to disperse is important and reduces the requirement for water. In saying this, it must be noted that when the male part is in the form of sperm, it requires water. This is partly because the sperm does not have any vascular tissue. This is also because the sperm's only form of movement is swimming, which clearly requires water. For terrestrial plants then, not having water is a major problem. Having a seed and pollen solves this problem and makes dispersal without water possible.
Pollination then occurs when a pollen grain reaches a seed and passes through its micropyle, a tiny hole in the seed covering present…… [Read More]
Once in the cells, the glucose is burned in order to create heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) which is a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
The metabolism of glucose into energy happens either in combination with oxygen which is called aerobic metabolism or without it which is called anaerobic metabolism. The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria. Red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they convert glucose into energy without the use of oxygen, unlike some other cells.
Glucose is also converted to energy inside muscle cells. These are probably the most important energy users. Muscle cells contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. Even if the level of oxygen levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. The down side is that making glucose into energy without oxygen produces…… [Read More]
The blood with the IgG must be effectively removed from the body, or reduced to levels that will not allow the cells to be a danger to the infant. If caught early enough, plasma transfers for the mother can result in enough of a reduction of IgG levels to forestall the effects to the fetus.
Autoimmune diseases occur when, for a variety of reasons, the body responds to its own cells as though they were dangerous foreign cells. In this way they are similar to an allergic response; an unrecognized but harmless entity is viciously attacked by the body in an attempt to destroy the perceived intruder. This is annoying (and possibly deadly) when it comes to allergies, and far more so when the body essentially becomes allergic to itself.
Though the reasons behind the onset of Type I diabetes are still not fully understood, the disease occurs when…… [Read More]
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).
Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.
The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]
This may be responsible for gender identity misidentification when factors other than apparent external genital structure conflict with other elements. For this reason, Fausto-Sterling argues that infants born with ambiguous genitalia should not receive surgery until later in life when they begin to express their natural gender identity.
Sex Hormones vs. Steroid Hormones:
Faustino-Sterling also objects to the very definition of human steroid hormones as "sex hormones" because they exert many more effects on the developing human body than merely those related to determining gender and sexuality. The author traces the history of traditional views about the role of human hormones and gender back to experiments on rodents before World War II through the Organizational/Activational Model of hormone activity (p214) based on the effects of exposure to specific types (and levels) of hormones during human gestation that dictate gender-specific behaviors in puberty.
The author suggests that the more accurate view…… [Read More]
While imported species can be controlled to a degree by Governmental regulation, unintentional imports are a different matter. Garth mentions the example of the brown tree snake that stowed away on ships and military equipment during World War II. During this time, obviously, there was not as much awareness of the invasive species problem as there is today. Basically therefore the current era is faced with a problem unintentionally created decades ago.
Another case of unintentional transport that I found particularly interesting in the article is the movement from port to port of ballast water. Ships take on water for balancing purposes. The water is transported to the destination port and discarded. The cycle is repeated from port to port. The aquatic life in this ballast water is then also transported between the ports. As a solution to this, one of the suggestions mentioned in the article is that ships…… [Read More]
Thoughts on Environmentalism
Environmental studies are sometimes seen as an area that, based in the genuineness of nature itself, and has little necessity for theory. It has become progressively obvious that this viewpoint is very innocent and that people's pledges in dealing with the environment need to be based both politically and theoretically. Typically, environmentalists find that their arguments are either derivative or dualist. The derivative approach is based on the notion that nature delivers a directive principle for politics and society. The dualist approach, on the other hand, says that Western ideas and contemporary Western thought in particular is categorized by a fundamental nature-culture contrast, in that politics and human culture normally are completely set apart from nature. In spite of these differences, these arguments share a mutual foundation in that the application to nature is the rule for a future ecological state (Hay et al., 2004).
Environmental…… [Read More]
Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.
Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.
Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.
Characteristics of…… [Read More]
Genetic makeup also shapes the talents and interests of individuals (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). Genes help to determine what talents and interests an individual develops. At the same time, individuals tend to befriend others with the same talents and interests as a way to relate. Just the same as a football player will befriend other football players, a delinquent will befriend other delinquents as a way to relate to others. All research shows that genetic effects are more powerful in high-risk environments as opposed to low-risk environments (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). The effects of the delinquents will be more powerful in scope than the example of football players. High-risk environments, such as abuse and violence, drugs and alcohol, and poverty can enhance the effects of the genetic makeup.
iological factors combined with environmental factors play huge roles in the way individuals behave. Where the…… [Read More]
In other words, performance on the learning tests is associated with neurogenesis. The gene expression measures were taken to aide future research.
The results showed that performance on the learning tests did change, and the hypothesis was proven. Stress from the change, the intermittent pairings, did increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult male squirrel monkeys. Learning, especially spatial learning, was enhanced. Moreover, the corresponding gene expressions changed accordingly.
The authors suggest that the results may be generalized to a human population. With special attention paid to human beings suffering from depression, the authors suggest that specially-designed psychotherapeutic interventions for coping with stress will help stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis is in turn associated with improved cognition. Therefore, effective coping mechanisms are likely to have a positive impact on overall psychological functioning.
This research demonstrates several key areas of interest, such as the ability for researchers to use non-human primates to…… [Read More]
In fact, I think I'll just keep eating for a while, I'm not feeling quite full yet. There, that did it.
Did I mention there's a whole bunch of us hanging out in here? Well, it seems there were quite a few of us in that fish our human ate, and we've all taken up residence here. Some of us are in the intestines, but most of us are just hanging out here, enjoying the company. After breakfast, I just take a little time to digest my meal, and then it's time for my own morning cleansing. I'll excrete my nasty stuff, right into my human's bile, and then it will travel out along with my human's excretions. I spend some time shifting around and making sure I'm securely attached, so I don't head outside along with the morning meal, and then, I'm ready to do my favorite thing for…… [Read More]
This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).
Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved
February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100211141144.htm… [Read More]
For many years, scientists have considered whether when different species evolve to look the same if they do indeed share a common genetic mechanism. The researchers have found it interesting because it tells about how flexible evolution is. If the same wing pattern evolves independently in different populations then it is expected that the same genes are not involved.
Due to the fact that butterflies have thousands of genes in their genome, most scientists felt it was unlikely that the same genes would be involved, but the results of this study have shown that they are in fact the same. This proves that one of these butterflies has evolved itself over the years to look exactly like the other so that their chances of being attacked by birds would decrease.
How the Butterflies Got Their Spots. (2010). etrieved February 9, 2010, from Science Daily
Web site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100205213102.htm… [Read More]
Moreover, according to neonatal physicians, at least one out of every three- hundred uncomplicated deliveries become complicated when a prolapsed umbilical cord precedes the infant through the birth canal. In such situations, midwives are trained to push the infant's head back into the birth canal to avoid cutting off oxygen to the infant, but in many cases, an emergency Cesarean section is required and the risks associated with the (now complicated) delivery increase substantially because the hand pressure on the infant's head must be maintained until arrival at the delivery room to prevent serious complications and lifelong consequences if the umbilical cord is not kept clear of the pressure being exerted by the contractions forcing the infant out. Physicians specializing in obstetrics relate that they have had to scramble to save the lives of both mother and child after home birthing attempts became complicated, unnecessarily risking the life and welfare…… [Read More]
She convinces him he is bad, and that he needs constant discipline, and he believes her so much that he repeats this even at school during the intervention. His life, which seemed perfect at first, has become a nightmare, and this is significant for the shift from normal nuclear family to a family full of secrets and abuse. He writes, "By this time, for all practical purposes, I was no longer a member of the family. I existed, but there was little or no recognition" (Pelzer 50). This is a terrible situation for a child to have to live through, and it could serve to stigmatize him and haunt him his entire life.
School, and Dave's love of it, is also significant. It is his place to escape and feel normal, even when he becomes an outcast and the other children ridicule him. It is the only thing normal in…… [Read More]
Probably one of the most important elements of this research is that the antibodies from the b-cells attack only the cancer cells, not the surrounding healthy cells, and so, they are far less invasive and intimidating than other types of treatment like radiation or surgery.
The drug ituxan is also used in concert with other treatments to gain the best results in more patients, and the only downside so far has been that not all patients of certain cancer types, such as lymphoma, respond to the drug (Editors). That is Levy's biggest challenge for the future, to discover why all or most patients do not respond favorably to treatment. If he can discover that, the implications for future treatment and elimination of certain cancers is even more promising.
In addition, these therapies have been used to treat many types of lymphomas, and have sent them into remission, which gives patients…… [Read More]
However, the cost of construction in areas without adequate roads would be astronomical. This being said, it is not without precedent that a nuclear power facility, under the strict guidelines of the United Nations, might be set up to provide power to the major cities. Public attitudes towards nuclear power remain ambivalent, and issues with Chernobyl, etc. still sting, but the simple fact is that the technology is there (Dittmar, 2010).
What does Afghanistan have in abundance, though? Not really enough sunlight to make solar profitable in all seasons, but certainly that could work in major cities and for certain applications. Based on the Copenhagen Climate Conference, there are four major ways to finance new energy options in countries like Afghanistan that actually benefit global climate initiatives (Brown, Bird, and Schalatek, 2010). Afghanistan, like much of Central Asia, is ideal for the development and robust exploitation of wind power technology.…… [Read More]
Moreover, it was unknown which specific chemical fertilizers would be more conducive to plant growth in Brassica rapa in particular. Another possible reason for the unexpected results is differential application of the fertilizer. For this research, the same .07 grams of fertilizer was applied to each cell. Yet it is possible that some types of fertilizer, such as liquid fertilizer, require more or less than the .07 grams. Future research would take into account the different chemical compositions of fertilizers, making sure to control for those differences. Also, future research would take into account the fact that the same amount of liquid, pellet, or powder may not yield results. The commercial instructions for each of the fertilizers should be followed. Also, it would be helpful to monitor plant growth for more than 64 hours. Future research could also include plant varieties other than Brassica rapa in case this particular species…… [Read More]
Some biologists suggest the decline may be due to a "decreasing availability of suitable carrion and increasing competition for carcasses by other species (Prospero)." In order for the beetle to reproduce, it must have the carcass of a vertebrate animal approximately the size of a dove.
There have been a number of proposed plans for recovery management of the beetle, as well as implementations. In 2001, there was a largest "American burying beetle reintroduction effort in the 12-year history of the species' recovery program on Nantucket Island off the Massachusetts (Clough)." Over 300 beetles were raised for this release in Providence, Rhode Island at the Roger illiams Park Zoo. In June 2001, "320 American burying beetles (160 pairs) were given dead quail for food and released at the Massachusetts Audubon Society's Sesachacha ildlife Sanctuary. ith each pair of beetles capable of raising 10-20 larvae, there is hope the…… [Read More]
Unsaturated fats are considered to be good fats, and can be divided into two groups known as polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats can "lower LDL, the bad cholesterol, and raise HDL, the good cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats contain omega-3 fatty acids, which can help prevent abnormal heart rhythms, improve the functioning of the heart and reduce risk of blood clotting. Monounsaturated fats contain vitamin E, thiamine, zinc, folate, niacin and antioxidants that help to fight illnesses such as heart disease and cancer (www.freep.com/news/health/diet9_20011009.htm)."
There are a variety of fats in the foods consumed today. It is important to understand the difference between these fats in order to maintain a healthy diet and prevent certain illnesses.
Fats Dictionary. (Accessed 07 February, 2005). www.dietsite.com/Diets/HeartHealthy/FatDictionary/Saturated%20Fat).
Liddane, Lisa. Experts stress worth of unsaturated fats. Orange County Register.
2001:09 October. (accessed 07 February, 2005). www.freep.com/news/health/diet9_20011009.htm).
Unknown. Saturated Fat. The Columbia Encyclopedia,…… [Read More]
In one laboratory experiment, bacteria exposed to high levels of pathogenic bacteria over several hundred generations eventually adapted "their progeny became dependent on having the formerly pathogenic bacteria in food vacuoles...(Jeon, 1991)" (Armstrong) There are several ways in which bacteria may subsume other bacteria, including ingesting them and maintaining them in food vacuoles as in the Jeon experiment, or they may become infected by bacteria that are acting as parasites. Mitochondria, for example, could have been parasitic and fed off the host at the same time that they proved useful to it. Chloroplasts, because they are significantly self-supporting, are more likely to have been introduced as food. This theory continues to suggest that after many generations of true symbiosis, the mitochondria and chloroplasts lost their independence.
If the endosymbiosis theory was correct, there are many things which should hypothetically prove true in experimentation. For example, it should be evidenced that…… [Read More]
Alternative Medicine: The iology and usiness Aspects
Alternative medicine industry is one of the latest business opportunities that show rapid progress in the current economy. This type of business becomes a new trend in the world of medicine and modern health care. Many of the medicines had probably been invented in the traditional health care customs, ages before modern medical management took place. Despite the reality, scientific institutions and pharmaceutical companies are now conducting studies and research to investigate the reliability of the medicines apart from public believes of the remedies' glory in ancient legends of their usages. A number of hospitals and health care centers also have applied alternative medicine treatments in some cases of their patients. It looks like there is a light for another industry opportunities in here. In this case, the biggest part of the business relies on how rapid the biological researches are conducted and…… [Read More]
This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).
This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.
The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]
Drug treatment and behavior therapy may be useful, rather than analysis.
Also, psychological symptoms may produce biological phenomenon, like sleep disturbances. "Sleep disturbances and unipolar depression are such intransigent bedfellows that troubled sleep is considered a hallmark of the mood disorder," for example. (Marano, 2003) However, insomnia can also fundamentally unbalance the brain's natural state of homeostasis, causing the symptom of depression, as well as manifesting itself as a symptom of depression itself.
Behavioral problems in children can have their roots in biology. Children without enough sleep or proper nutrition are more likely to act out inappropriately, and without treating these biological causes, simply addressing the children's purely psychological feelings or even giving them coping mechanisms such as rationally discussing the issues, will matter little. Children and adolescents also have different sleep needs, and different internal time 'clocks' because their bodies are still busily growing at night. Children and adolescents,…… [Read More]
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…… [Read More]
What is the overall point of the chapter?
The overall point of the chapter is that human psychology is a function of many complex interrelationships between the physiology of the brain and related systems (i.e. The endocrine system) and elements of conscious perception. Human perception and behavior comprises both "hardwired" biological components and "software" components in the form of conditioning. Neither physiology alone nor environmental conditioning alone explains or controls all human behavior. Both aspects of behavior contribute to behavior and perception simultaneously throughout our lives. The physiological processes that are responsible for perception and behavior are features of human evolutionary anatomy and they represent genetic influences in the same way that other aspects of human behavior (i.e. physical abilities, etc.) also depend on physical traits and on conditioning. Biology may set certain limits and establish certain predispositions but experiential conditioning is equally important.
2. What are 3 core…… [Read More]
Without the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, is doubtful that human beings would ever have evolved in the first place. By comparison to the effects of the that meteorite, all of the human activity in the world that has ever occurred since the first human being who hunted for prey or started a fire is infinitesimally small and utterly insignificant.
More importantly, human concern for animal species extinctions seems to be largely predicated on our anthropomorphic impulses: that is, we have the greatest empathy for animals that remind us of ourselves or that seem appealing or "cute" to us. Consider the different way that we regard tuna and dolphin for just one example. We hunt the former so aggressively that we are on the verge of having to maintain wild tuna populations artificially if we hope to continue eating as much sushi and tuna fish sandwiches as we wish. Other…… [Read More]
life forms in the world. It is important to examine the biology of chonanoflagellates and how it occurs in nature.
Choanoflagellates are colorless flagellates which are 5-10 micron and have a well-defined collar. They may be individual or live in colonies and "may live free in the water, or attached to substrates such as the spines of the Chaetoceros affinis (thalassa.gso.uri.edu/rines/ecology/choanofl.htm)."
Choanoflagellates are made up of only about 150 species and are not "a diverse group of protists. They are small single-celled protests, found in both fresh waters and the oceans, taking their name ("collar-flagellate") from the circle of closely packed microvilli, or slender fingerlike projections, that surrounds the single flagellum by which choanoflagellates both move and take in food (www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/choanos.html)." The funnel-shaped collar is contractible and strains out the bacteria which the choanoflagellate feeds on (www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/biolink/student/olc2/chap31outline.htm).
Protists belong to the "kingdom Protoctista, a new classification in most modern…… [Read More]
B and T. Lymphocytes
The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them
The Biology of B. Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…… [Read More]
biology" and the intended focus of the science. The essay will also give examples of the scientific process. Before concluding, this work will explore the meaning of biology to me as I currently am studying the subject.
According to the English Oxford Dictionary biology is defined as "The study of living organisms divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin and distribution." It is essentially the science of life of living matter. Anderson (1972) suggested that "The workings of our minds and bodies, and of all the animate or inanimate matter of which we have any detailed knowledge are assumed to be controlled by the same set o£ fundamental laws which except under certain extreme conditions we feel we know pretty well."
Biology is a broad subject that covers many areas of emphasis and provides many sub-areas of study that are quite exhausting.…… [Read More]
The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.
There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…… [Read More]
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]