To wit, in order to either "mitigate" (Ramos' reference) or otherwise water down the impact of the francophone-leaning newspapers, the English-language newspapers interviewed celebrities and politicians (Federalist politicians) about Richard's career. The English-language papers were out to "counterbalance" (Ramos, p. 430) the effect of the francophone emphasis on Richard as a cultural giant -- and they did so by interviewing "apolitical athletes."
It wasn't that the English-speaking media were overtly trying to play down Richard's impact on the Canadian sporting and social scene, it is just that they were coming from a place that was anti-separatist and they did not want to raise Richard's legacy higher than simply a great hockey player who skated with a vicious abandon and made all of Canada proud.
On page 430 the authors point out that the Quebec newspapers were not only celebrating Richard as an hero for French-speaking citizens -- left on the sidelines while much of the glory for Canada is based on English-speaking institutions -- but they were in effect the good old days of Canadian hockey before the "influx of European and American players." There was a double whammy in that kind of coverage of course; we miss our greatest athlete and greatest hope for French-speaking Canada, but we also miss the days when hockey wasn't watered down with franchises in such odd places as the American desert (Phoenix) and of all places, Los Angeles (Kings and Ducks). The fuss that Quebec media made over the death of Richard in a way was also linked to the anger many Canadians (not just the francophone community) felt when Wayne Gretzky fled to Los Angeles for the big, big money, after marrying of all people, an American.
On pages 427 and 428 the authors point to another of the aspects of Richard's legacy that allowed the two factions -- English language newspapers and French language newspapers -- to face…… [Read More]
And "civilized" also means being corrupted by rampant economic temptations and in the process, ruining the land; and the narrator goes to great lengths to show that she "...wishes to not be human," which is a linking of "guilt and self-knowledge," according to Janice Fiamengo's essay (in The American Review of Canadian Studies). Essayist Fiamengo quotes Atwood from a 1972 interview (Surfacing was published in 1972) in which the author says that if "you define yourself as intrinsically innocent...then you have a lot of problems, because in fact you aren't." The narrator wishes "...to be not human," Atwood said, "because being human inevitably involves being guilty."
She's not likely saying that we're all guilty due to "original sin," but rather because we as the human race bear the responsibility for the misbehavior and inhumanity of those who came before us, such as the Europeans who "conquered" North America and while doing so slaughtered untold thousands of natives and drove a dagger into the heart of their aboriginal culture.
And, Fiamengo goes on, "What is the source of this guilt?" Indeed, given that there are myriad "...provocative and theoretically sophisticated" - and deep - psychological studies of Surfacing, still, the narrator's guilt "remains under-examined, with critics content to assume that it stems from her abortion, a resolvable moral and textual problem." Or, Fiamengo asks, do critics see the guilt in Atwood's Surfacing "...as part of the human condition generally?" Yes, Fiamengo continues, the connection has been made "between the narrator's personal journey and Canada's postcolonial anxieties," but scholars "have not always recognized the complexity of Atwood's representation of the national psyche."
From a different perspective, Cook expresses the thought that the Canadian psyche is wrapped up in "the immensity of the land, the husbanding of resources"; and part of that psyche is a response to the traditional portrayal of Canada as…… [Read More]
Canadian National Identity and Canadian Hockey
The Canadian administrative system in place has endorsed the national identity of Canada with hockey. Back in 90s, when the then Prime Minister of Canada, Chretien, started trade diplomacy with other countries, he always declared every participant as part of the Canadian Team. In the tenure of the same Prime Minister, an ex-National Hockey League player and icon, Frank Mahovlich was chosen as a senator. Some years later, memorial postage stamp of the famous 1972 Canada/Russia hockey series was launched which has the winning goal by Paul Henderson in the depiction. Looking at more recent past (i.e. 2002), one finds "The Pond" at the backside of Canadian Five Dollar notes.
Though with the passage of time, these events seem to grow in number, they do have quite a few significant examples in history as well. Quite few decades ago, in the early 1940s and 1950s, Maurice "the Rocket" Richard gained the status of national hero by becoming a foremost goal-scorer in the stressful relationships that existed between the Quebec and English Canada at the time (CANOE-CNEWS, 2004). While, looking at 80s and 90s, in the era of free trade saga, Edmonton Oilers prodigy Wayne Gretzky gained the celebrity status and redefined Canadian/American relations (Jackson, 1994).
If one attempts to study the Canadian identity it may turn out to be a daunting task. This is because of the very vital fact that Canadians are indeed dissimilar to the Americans. Though, one might take these words as mockery but study of relevant literature in the relevant fields will help tremendously in not only recognizing but also understanding these facts. A famous Canadian political intellectual, George Grant wrote in one of his best works that Canadians should be suspicious and weary of Americanization. He had very serious concerns and sensitivities about Canadian identity that may resemble losing Canadian sovereignty to Americans (Potter, 2005).
Although, Grant might be seen as lobbying for British or traditional nationalism he requested the Liberal Party to control the growing business interests. Grant was writing in one of the oddest…… [Read More]
Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos
PERSONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.
My social status is mostly a reflection of the fact that I come from a low to moderate income culture of people who respect work, opportunities, and the ties we have to our families (McBride, nd). The Filipino culture is strongly linked to English and Western practices and really emphasizes our commitment to hard work, accomplishment and the desire to ground my work in activities that help others (something which also leads them to nursing and other healthcare professions) (Castillo, nd). Many Filipinos move out of the islands to other nations, often to the U.S. Moving to a new culture allows Filipinos to adjust their cultural attitudes and expectations of success and pride in our families toward career opportunities that reflect well on us and our families as we become minorities who are able to make a comfortable living. It has been noted that Filipinos have for the most part been the "least poor" of the Asian people, even though there is plenty of evidence that many of our families still live in poverty; and there is other evidence that suggests that because of our strong cultural and family commitments, we remain anchored to a variety of cultural actions that directly impact the determinate…… [Read More]
For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.
The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial Revolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and the fruits of labour. Industrialization and capitalism changed the essential features of the artisan model. Just as aboriginal skilled labour became integrated into the capitalist labour market, so too was European skilled labour. Marketable skills like pelting or molding derived wage value instead of direct product value. The wage labour model, integral to capitalism, created or exacerbated class conflicts.
DeLottinville is concerned less with the ways capitalism transformed skilled labor than either Kealey or Lutz. What DeLottinville focuses on is the way capitalism transformed social and cultural norms among the working class dock labourers in Montreal. The "daily routines of casual labourers on the docks" grew into a subculture that became politically active because of their ability to socialize together (DeLottinville, p. 208). DeLottinville illustrates the shift from a fragmented working class to a highly publicized and politicized one. In this sense, all three authors show how labourers use common concerns about capitalism to organize into unions. Lutz does not include aboriginal labor unions into the central argument about the British Columbian fur trade. The author does, however, show how colonial politics or the politics of the dominant culture influenced the economic and social development of the province and later, the nation. Clinging to Potlatch and other traditional economic and social institutions assisted aboriginal solidarity against the colonial capitalists. Understanding the threat that an organized aboriginal labor forced posed, the European colonial government banned potlatch. Lutz therefore demonstrates with remarkable clarity the…… [Read More]
374). It has been assumed that despite these internal cultural differences, overarching political similarities, shared history, or an interest in national diversity would be enough to unite the Canadian people under a single identity.
However, Kymlicka's (2003) close examination of the national and international has illustrated that they are largely shared by most modern, Western nations. Any presumed Canadian uniqueness is largely mythical (p. 368). Of course, mythology can be exceedingly unifying, and there is certainly an interest in Canada of perpetuating the dominant national myths of identity: Canadians as good global citizens, as part of the Western tradition, as a young modern nations, and as distinctly non-American. These national characteristics are generally championed as core parts of a unified Canadian identity, despite their largely exaggerated characteristics and despite the fact that these values do not necessarily unify the myriad subcultural groups within the nation. Aboriginal groups will probably always persist as distinct social and political units within Canada. Every attempt to nationalize the Quebecois have only managed to strengthen their sub-state nationalism (Kymlicka, 2003: p. 373). After centuries of attempting to force a singular vision of national identity on all subcultural groups within Canada that is uniquely Canadian, increasingly we find there is an acceptance of persistent difference and division within the nation.
Despite this, Canada as a nation has not crumpled or torn itself apart via internal strife and division. The nation's political and social institutions have been as successful as ever even as identity politics has become increasingly banal and multi-level, fluid identities have proliferated (Kymlicka, 2003: pp. 383-385). The obvious conclusion that can be drawn from this social and political reality is that identity politics is no longer the defining factor in determining the success of a nation. For instance, despite consistently failing to identify themselves as Canadian instead of Quebecois, that particular subgroup still utilizes and participates in Canadian social and political institutions. They still rely on public services like the police, still express their political identity through existing Canadian institutions, and still respect the…… [Read More]
One of the failures of the current system is that it often does not account for cultural and resource differences between nations - instead a one-size fits all economic system is imposed universally. Over time, each society will find its own path. Some societies will fail to adapt and ultimately disappear. That is part of the evolutionary process. The key is that right now all societies are not given the same opportunity to succeed whereas the fundamental principles of capitalism suggest they should be.
As more people realize that happiness is more important than money, we will see profound shifts towards knowledge and culture, and the pursuit of wealth will be taken up by other cultures. As they too achieve the type of sustained comfort experienced today in many Western societies, they too will shift towards the pursuit of happiness over money. There will be a major obstacle to overcome - that being the depletion of resources key to today's lifestyles. This may ultimately be the catalyst for the shift towards happiness and equality, but not before the pursuit of material wealth drives us towards conflict. This sort of test is a natural part of the evolutionary process, and will refine today's concepts of equality and the pursuit of happiness further, in the process crushing the last resistance of the actor's responsible for today's materialism.
Another key way in which this shift will manifest itself is a move away from large, centralized organizations. Such organizations, as Saul points out, don't work. "They are unable to be given direction. And public policy only works when it is driven by ideas." So we will see a move away from large, overarching governmental structures to smaller ones better able to meet the unique needs of their specific set of constituents. This will take the focus away from managing and back towards meeting needs.
Works… [Read More]
However, in addition to being part of the Americanization process, this has also sparked hostility and anti-American sentiments as well, for some Canadians who believe Canadian culture is being lost to the United States. Demonstrations in front of American enterprises, boycotts of American iconic products like Coca-Cola, and even vandalizing McDonald's outlets have all been a part of this effort to not succumb to Americanization.
Mechanisms Underlying America's Influence on Canada
There are several mechanisms underlying the Americanization of Canada, and thus affecting its political processes and outcomes. These, Craig, Douglas and Bennett state, are similar to the mechanisms involved in internationalization and globalization of consumption. Increasing foreign travel, to America, is one such mechanism. This increases direct Canadian exposure to American customs, lifestyles and mores. This mechanism has been in place for generations, with the expansion of railway systems being one of the first transportation improvements that facilitated easy travel between the two countries. Recently, the spread of the Internet too has increased exposure to American culture, with the ease of communication thanks to e-mail and VOIP technologies.
These mechanisms can be broadly conceptualized a terms of people, products, information, and transmission of cultural content from America to Canada. Citing sociologist Appadurai, Craig, Douglas and Bennett identify five types of global flows responsible for transforming the nature of society -- Mediascapes, Ethnoscapes, Ideoscapes, Technoscapes, and Finanscapes. Mediascapes are the most far reaching and center on the flow of images and communication. Ethnoscapes are the flows of tourists, migrants and foreign students. Ideoscapes are the flow of political ideas and ideologies. Technoscapes center on the flow of technologies. Lastly, Finanscapes involve the flow of money and capital.
We see this transformation of Canadian society, and the resultant political outcomes, clearly in these global flows through history. Mediascapes were as important in imparting American culture on Canada today as they were nearly a century earlier, with Canada's love for American film and radio programs still going strong. Ethnoscapes have only increased over the decades as travel has become easier between the two countries. However, even when travel was a difficult process, Americans still came to Canada for work and for pleasure. Technoscapes in the form of everything from computing technologies to medical technologies to transportation technologies will continue to play a part in American culture affecting Canadian politics. Finanscapes too have…… [Read More]
Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).
Values that the Canadians uphold
The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in peacekeeping missions across the world. Since the inception of the United Nations, Canada has always been at the forefront in supporting the several peacekeeping missions (Conrad, p. 249). Their contribution to these peacekeeping missions, in terms of providing troops for the missions, has been declining in the recent years. Even though there is a reduction in the number of troops, they send to these missions, the Canadians have always been providing experts to support any kind of mission with the aim of maintaining peace in the world. They assist in training, giving financial support and offering diplomatic support to the African union and other organizations with the aim of preventing conflict between two or more parties. The involvement of the Canadians to these peacekeeping missions clearly shows that being a Canadian means loving peace (Conrad, p. 252).
The other value that the Canadians uphold is the treatment of people equally. Everyone in Canada has the right of association, they have the right to speak their minds and in expressing the ideas regardless of whether others agree or not. The treatment of people equally does not…… [Read More]
In history, in most of the Indian families, the inheritance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the year 1956, the law in India has always treated females and males as equals in matters of inheritance where there is no legal will written. Currently, Indians have become wiser and are using legal wills for the inheritance and succession of property. The usage of legal wills at of the year 2004 stands at about 20%.
The rate of divorce in India is extremely low. It stands at 1% as compared to 40% which is experienced in the U.S. These statistics of divorce do not, however, give a complete picture of the divorce situation in India. This is because many marriages that end up being split do so without a formal divorce. There is a research gap in the scientific studies or surveys that are conducted on marriages in India where the perspective of both the husbands and the wives are not solicited in-depth.
Surveys that have been conducted regarding Indian marriages suggest that the issues with marriages that take place under the Indian culture are the same trend wise to those which affect other marriages around the world. This is true for both arranged marriages and the others where the men and women choose their spouse to be. The studies also found that the rate of divorce is rising greatly in India with the divorce rates in urban areas being much higher than suburban and rural areas. The studies also found that about 80% of the divorces which occur in India are started by women.
Another recent study that has been conducted on arranged marriages showed that the trend in India is shifting away from arranged marriages. The survey was conducted in the year 2005 on over 41,500 households which are in 33 territories and states in India. They found that the trends of marriage in India were slowly becoming similar to those in other countries such as Japan and China about 40 years ago. There are fewer arranged marriages which are conducted without the consent of the bride and groom. The study also found that majority of the…… [Read More]
A merger is not about one business dominated another. It should be seen more like a marriage where both parties involved should have an equal say in all matters. It cannot be stated enough that the merger must be seen as a win-win situation for all parties involved. If anyone is feeling slighted or uncomfortable, the situation must be brought to the manager's attention and addressed immediately.
The main thing for the manager to understand is that staff wants to feel appreciated. They do not want to get lost in all the events surrounding the merger. Appreciation ranks high on the list of what staff members need in order to feel a sense of obligation to remain at the hospital after the merger has taken place. If there is a sense of appreciation and the staff members have a connection with the community in which the hospital is located, there is a strong change that they will remain with the hospital and work hard to be sure that the merger is a success (Cameron et al., 2010).
Not only do staff members need to feel of sense of community and that they are appreciated, they also need to have a sense of job satisfaction. If there was job satisfaction before the merger, the manager must work hard to let the staff know that they can expect the same level of job satisfaction they had after the merger as they had before. There need not be substantial changes made after the merger which could lead to job dissatisfaction among employees. The major factors in determining job satisfaction among hospital workers are pay, benefits and workload (Morgan et al., 2010). If workers are overworked, feel they are properly compensated and are happy with their benefits package the likelihood of job satisfaction will be high.
Thompson states that when the company she worked for merged with a similar company, training and development was not only provided for employees in order to strengthen the retention rate, special attention was also paid to managers to help retain them and to also help them help their employees. She states…… [Read More]
Canadian criminal justice system corrections
The Canadian justice system
Since the last decade, there's been a huge hue and cry pertaining unjust convictions and its disastrous consequences. As in the case of Canada, there have been numerous high profile cases which concluded with unjust verdicts, putting the Canadian justice system and its judicial process in question. Even though, the media's attention has increased on this matter, academic literature on the issue is razor-thin in case of Canada (Denov & Campbell, 2005). The media's coverage of crimes and criminal justice is now excessively given coverage during the last decade, since it's a form of entertainment and news. Criminal justice and crime have emerged as a viable form of entertainment across the media spectrum. In case of TV shows, depictions of criminal justice and crime are observed in courtroom TV seasons as well as daily talk's shows.
Popular culture and criminal courts
The crime investigation TV shows are in intense demand which gave birth to CSI and Law and Order. Majority of the people have no practical experience with criminal justice courts, hence their sole source of information is the media. Hence, fictitious and non-fictitious (TV shows, movies and real-life cases) form beliefs, attitudes and opinions about the outlook and behavior of a criminal (also called criminal prototype). It also forms the basis of public's understanding and opinion making in case of resolving a criminal offence (investigation process) and how felons should be prosecuted (Dowler et al., 2006; Reid, 2015).
A Case Study
Christie Blatchford's initial article in National Post discusses at length the slow proceedings of the justice system in Canada. She gives her proof by mentioning two cases to corroborate her findings. According to her, the judges and prosecutors ask an irrelevant question in court which wastes precious time and plays a pivotal role in delays. One case highlighted in the article had taken a span of five years which gives ample evidence of how slow Canada's justice system is. The writer than puts this in contrast with American courts which are fast in decision making as in a case of American Sniper, the verdict was given in two hours only, which in Canadian courts is equivalent to a lunch break. The trial continued for two weeks in comparison to the trial…… [Read More]
When Europeans colonized Brazil, for example, the indigenous peoples intermarried or otherwise bonded intimately with those Europeans and the result was a hybrid identity, "mestizaje," which Noh refers to as a native Brazilian combining his or her identity with a Portuguese identity.
Hence, in the twentieth century hybridity has been transformed into a "…cultural phenomenon" which is now explored by anthropologists and other social scientists -- and it means that growing volumes of people are moving "…from one place to another" and as they move they create "…new cultural and sociodemographic spaces and are themselves reshaped in the process" (Luke, 2003, p. 379). The point of Noh's article -- boiled down to a safe overview -- is that cultural borders between countries and regions "…have been blurred" and in their place is an "intercultural mixture" because "…all cultures are involved in one another" (p. 7). In fact some scholars insist that there is "…no such thing as a 'pure' culture" and indeed it is possible that authentic, pure cultural forms "or indigenous traditions" have never truly existed, Noh goes on (p. 7).
If one is to accept Noh's assertions about hybridization, there are points that must be accepted, and on page 8 of the author's narrative there are points that can be seen as more logic than opinion. For example, Noh writes that all contemporary cultures "…are to some extent hybrid," and moreover, the author points to empirical research -- through the science of ethnography -- that supports the hybridity theory. Examinations of early colonized cultures in Africa, Asia, and Latin America show that the present day cultures are a blend of the colonizers' cultures and indigenous cultures that were set upon by the colonizers (Noh, p. 9).
Author Augie Fleras writes in the peer-reviewed journal Canadian Ethnic Studies that the world "…at present is an untidy place" (Fleras, 2011, p. 18). By that Fleras means that societies around the globe "…are no longer orderly jurisdictions consistent with the perspectives of 'seeing like the state'" (p. 18). Today's global society cultures "…transcend borders and mock authority," Fleras explains, and societies consist of "…complex, dynamic fields of flows and connections across multiple universes-within-universes" (18).
In conclusion, as Fleras, Noh, Luke and Bruno explain, because of the intersecting cultures in this globalized world, there are very few…… [Read More]
Deviance Among Canadian Youths
Deviation refers to the violation of the acceptable norms and values that have maintained within the cultural framework of a society. Norms are very important in every society since they allow the people of a given society to coexist with one another, and create the best environment for human living. The Canadian society like other societies is guided by certain norms and values, which are useful for the normal operation of the Canadian society. It is on this account that the issue of deviance cannot be underestimated. One cannot underestimate the issue of deviance, and the way it has caught up with many youths in the Canadian societal setting. Deviance comes with a number of consequences, especially to the youth who are expected to be the future leaders of the nation (Platt, 1999).
Canada has experienced increased numbers of youths who have taken on deviant behavior. In this context, many youths have been found guilty engaging in activities or organizations that have taken on activities that are opposed to the accepted norms of the Canadian society. This study looks at deviance as a problem that is eating into the lives of many youths in Canada. The problem of deviance is a challenge in the Canadian society because it involves the violation of the laws and norms. Most of the youth has been found engaging in criminal behaviors, including traffic violations, prostitution, sexual assault, cybercrime, and murders in extreme cases.
Deviance and Social Issues
Deviance and deviant behaviors are closely related to a number of social factors shaping a given environment. For instance, issues like gender discrimination and prejudice has brought about deviance. In societies that have not created gender balance cultures and equality among the genders, one gender (in many cases, males) may be deviant to the laws of the land and engage in harassing or abusing their female counterparts.
The other issue that may lead to deviance is the issue of age and the connection between the youth and the mature/elderly people in the society. The youths may engage in deviant…… [Read More]
Canadian Expansion Research have recently been contacted by the Minister of Trade and Commerce for Canada, who contacted me for the purpose of encouraging Burger Delight to expand into the Canadian market. I have researched the Canadian market and have found expansion into the area to be a promising possibility.
The major benefits are the similarity between America and Canada which assure product acceptance, ease of entry and profitable sales.
I have provided an overview of the research below, describing the research findings and providing justification for continued consideration of the possibility of expansion.
The major factor that supports the idea of expansion into Canada is the similarity between Canadian culture and American culture. The similarities extend from language, to belief systems to lifestyle.
These similarities mean that product and promotional programs developed for the American market would be equally effective in the Canadian market, allowing for the marketing campaign expenditure for the American marketing programs also being utilized for the Canadian market, effectively spreading the cost of product and promotional development.
The similarities would also allow for easier entry into the market, as the retail chain could develop mirroring the American chain. There would be no time or expense for researching to adapt the product to a foreign market. The similarity in culture also almost guarantees product acceptance.
Canada can be described as "an affluent, high-tech industrial society" which "closely resembles the U.S. In its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards" (Emulate Me).
Canada has been experiencing 3% growth since 1993 and has a per capita GDP of around $24,000 with a real per capita GDP growth rate of 4.3% (Emulate Me).
Canada has natural resources, a skilled labor force and modern capital plants meaning that its economic conditions are good and are also solid.
This makes Canada not only a good market to enter at the current time, but also a safe market…… [Read More]
Of course, Fuller is not the only one to draw connections among hockey, the media, and differences between Canadian and American national identities. In fact, Gruneau and Whitson get the name of their book from Canada's most famous television program -- Hockey Night in Canada. Like learning to skate before learning to walk, the pair suggest that the Saturday night "TV program made us feel like part of a national community" (2). Thus, Fuller suggests that hockey is of utmost importance to the nation's identity, not only as a sport, but also as a major media event. In this world of globalization and satellite and Internet television broadcasting, media has become the defining feature of many nations. Thus, the use of media to depict Canadian and American values so antithetically is of utmost importance to Canadians and suggests that the sport is integral in the defining of a national identity.
In addition to simply highlighting the differences between Canadians and Americans, especially through media depictions, hockey has also been seen as a symbol of Canada's own values. This is most apart through Fuller's description of the documentary, Shinny. In fact, "the twelve rules of Shinny," around which the document is structured, are Canadian value qualities such as "make your own rules," "you always play for fun," and "no team is ever really beaten" (27). While these may be the rules of street or local hockey teams, they double as the rules, or at least values, of Canada. Canadians value freedom, and the ability to "make their own rules," their own fun, and live a united lifestyle without "ever being beaten," unlike Americans who stress competition. Furthermore, Fuller's depiction of the film suggests that shinny's ability to bring Canada together as one community is another one of its important traits. In fact, Fuller states that:
One could argue that there is something paternalistic, and even patronizing about the charitable efforts of these well-intentioned southerners. However, this is not the point-of-view that the film takes. Hockey (in its "pure" incarnation shinny) is portrayed as transcending differences in order to build community (28).
The previous statement directly relates to rich gifts of hockey items to poor, natives in far North Canada. Fuller suggests that the depiction suggests another one of Hockey's values that is truly Canadian, the desire for community and unity with all people. Gruneau and Whitson make the same argument by…… [Read More]
Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)
Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms of cultural approaches to work and labor. More precisely, "the key to intra-working-class conflict was immigrants' different expectations before arriving in Canada. Asians were cheap and docile because they faced worse conditions in their countries of origin and expected nothing better than they found in Canada; while European, especially British immigrants expected better conditions and were radicalized" (Creese, 1988, 294).
Regardless of the actual causes of the exclusion of the Chinese workers from being given an equal treatment, the situation in Canada at the turn of the century concerning Asian workers was rather grim especially from the point-of-view of the conditions in which they worked. In this sense, they were disadvantaged in terms of wages, as they "earned from one half to three quarters of the wages of unskilled white men in the same industries," contracts, as "they were typically hired under labor contractors rather than as individuals, a system that added to their lower standard of living and segregation from the white labor force," the area of their employment in which "mostly male Asian workers were largely confined to the least desirable unskilled labor and concentrated in the primary service sectors of the economy" (Creese, 1988, 295). Therefore, these elements point out precisely the way in which Asian workers were treated in a labor market which refused to associate them with the community.
Another important aspect for the exclusion of the Chinese workers in particular was the lack of political rights. In this sense, immigrants,…… [Read More]
The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is one of the "Big Five" Canadian banks. It was founded in 1961 by the merger of the Canadian Bank of Commerce (founded 1867) and the Imperial Bank of Canada (founded 1875). Today, the CIBC is the fifth-largest of these by total revenue, earning $12.09 billion in FY2010 (PWC, 2011). This report will evaluate the CIBC in terms of a number of different factors in order make a judgment about the merits of investing in the bank's stock. The analysis will comprise of an industry analysis, a company analysis, and a valuation analysis.
According to the company's 2011 Annual Report, the CIBC earned total revenue of $12.249 billion in FY2011. This was split between interest income (51.8%) and non-interest income (48.2%). From this, the bank earned a net income of $3.079 billion. The recession years of 2008 and 2009 saw a sharp decline in the bank's revenue and profitability, from which the bank has recovered. Steep writedowns in FY2008 resulted in an operating loss, and revenues were down a couple of billion dollars in FY2009 from normal levels. Growth in both revenue and profit has since been restored. The decline, however, was largely an industry condition, but the major banks have responded differently to this challenge.
II. Industry Analysis
According to PWC (2011), the "five to six years ago, the Big Six banks looked similar, (but) now they have really differentiated themselves," referencing the National Bank as a member of the Big Six, despite not being national in scope and being significantly smaller in scale than the other five. As an example of this differentiation, TD has become a major player in retail banking in the United States, the Bank of Nova Scotia has begun extension expansion into the Asian market and all of the major banks are becoming more innovative not just with products and fees but in terms of where they compete and how.
The banking industry is always driven by the underlying economic conditions of the markets in which the bank operates. Canada is "well-positioned" with economic outperformance against its OECD peers. The company has a relatively low level of public debt compared with its peers, and has seen enough economic growth for…… [Read More]
But this does not mean that this family cannot be understood as a political constellation. The family members relate to the world with violence, trying to make others conform to their desires with guns and drugs, a path that leads finally to a terrible action. This action transforms the novel from a type of ethnography and the characters from symbols of a certain kind of cultural actors into themselves, into individuals who believe they can no longer hide in the shadows of their culture and their history. The characters step out in front of the landscape, step out of the shadows of generalities, of being movers in a Great Canadian Novel.
Essential to understanding the novel and its characters is to trace the history of the family as it moves from America to Canada, from one geographical and historical site of colonization to another. In their home in British Columbia, the Stark family believe themselves to be less culpable. They are not like the Americans who do not believe in history, they are people who understand history and so are released from its bonds.
Canadians, in this narrative and in other narratives as well, stand in as a sort of anti-imperialist actor when set against the avaricious land-hunger of the Americans. Edward Said, the ur-writer of postcolonialism, writes about how "other" people become visible only when they serve a useful cultural purpose for those with power.
To the extent that Western scholars were aware of contemporary Orientals or Oriental movements of thought and culture, these were perceived either as silent shadows to be animated by the Orientalist, brought into reality by them, or as a kind of cultural and international proletariat useful for the Orientalist's grander interpretive activity. (Said, 1978: 208)
This process of bringing into reality people only when they serve a direct purpose is a postcolonial process, but it is also the relationship between an author and his, or her, characters. And it is also the relationship between a reader and a set of characters. This set of nested relationships is a sine qua non-of postmodernism, as Barthes summarizes it:
My ideal Postmodernist author neither merely repudiates…… [Read More]
Use the job characteristics model to explain why female MDs are working fewer hours
The most common job characteristics model used to explain why female doctors work fewer hours than their male colleagues is that female individuals retain the disproportionate burden of child and house care, in contrast to their male professional colleagues in the medical profession. Thus, to maintain some semblance of order in the home, and to greater balance home and family life, female doctors are statistically likely to be working fewer hours, as more and more female doctors enter the medical profession. As the medical profession's women no longer is made up only of die-hard future doctors, determined to sacrifice everything in their personal lives for the sake of work, they are less apt to work as many hours to retain that balance.
Another, related, corollary explanation is that female doctors desire, at the expense of professional ambitions, to remain home with their children for more hours than their male colleagues. The demands of motherhood are not only practical but also emotional, and many women find, after having children, that they wish to spend time with their children as well as to work as doctors to their fullest extent. But different employment prospects in the workforce and workplace of medicine have additionally made more flexible hours and opportunities a reality for women doctors who wish to pursue a less hour hungry model of medicine, and opportunities within the medical climate create altered patterns of behavior.
Now, clinical opportunities exist for those who wish to labor as part time practitioners. The medical field is growing increasingly specialized and requiring fewer hours in those specializations, and thus attracting more women to the medical ranks. But also, the practice of medicine in simply growing more balanced in its outlook. Producing a hose of male, macho doctors who pride themselves on working quadruple shifts during their formative years of internship with a kind of masculine pride, simply produces burnout, doctors whom are alienated from their patients, their families, from their children, and from non-medically oriented society as a whole because of the extraordinary lifestyle demands…… [Read More]