To wit, in order to either "mitigate" (Ramos' reference) or otherwise water down the impact of the francophone-leaning newspapers, the English-language newspapers interviewed celebrities and politicians (Federalist politicians) about Richard's career. The English-language papers were out to "counterbalance" (Ramos, p. 430) the effect of the francophone emphasis on Richard as a cultural giant -- and they did so by interviewing "apolitical athletes."
It wasn't that the English-speaking media were overtly trying to play down Richard's impact on the Canadian sporting and social scene, it is just that they were coming from a place that was anti-separatist and they did not want to raise Richard's legacy higher than simply a great hockey player who skated with a vicious abandon and made all of Canada proud.
On page 430 the authors point out that the Quebec newspapers were not only celebrating Richard as an hero for French-speaking citizens -- left on the sidelines while much of the glory for Canada is based on English-speaking institutions -- but they were in effect the good old days of Canadian hockey before the "influx of European and American players." There was a double whammy in that kind of coverage of course; we miss our greatest athlete and greatest hope for French-speaking Canada, but we also miss the days when hockey wasn't watered down with franchises in such odd places as the American desert (Phoenix) and of all places, Los Angeles (Kings and Ducks). The fuss that Quebec media made over the death of Richard in a way was also linked to the anger many Canadians (not just the francophone community) felt when Wayne Gretzky fled to Los Angeles for the big, big money, after marrying of all people, an American.
On pages 427 and 428 the authors point to another of the aspects of Richard's legacy that allowed the two factions -- English language newspapers and French language newspapers -- to face off just like hockey players do on the ice. The anger aspect of Richard's career and the aftermath during the days after his death cries out for examination. There is no doubt that Richard was hostile on the ice. Hockey players are supposed to be hard-nosed, aggressive and even violent. And Richard was the very epitome of that style of play. But he also had a seriously violent temper. That's…… [Read More]
Expression, Action, Rebellion, Reflection, & Attention:
The Power and the Problem of Canadian Feminist Media
How does use of the media inform and propel the feminist movement in Canada?
How is media used as part of the feminist agenda?
What is the history of the media in reference to feminist communication in Canada?
How can Canadian feminists utilize media to its full advantage to support and promote the feminist agenda?
How does the feminist movement in Canada reflect or distort the actual struggle of feminists in Canada?
To clearly define the role of the media in the feminist agenda
To use the media to spread the feminist agenda and promote positive representation of feminism in Canada
To express the life experience of women accurately and thoroughly
To utilize media to its fullest potential so as to support a positive feminist agenda
To ensure that feminist media representations are accurate, current, and reflective of the full range of feminist thought in Canada
6. To communicate messages hindered by patriarchy and capitalism
7. To contribute to the struggle for equality in all facets of society with effective and productive use of media
Part III: Background & Rationale/Justification?
A great deal of the world's population experiences a shift in perspective and experience in the 21st century. The digital technology revolution and the social media revolution alter how people experience the world, the order of relationships they have, the methods by which they communicate, and affect their overall experiences of reality. For many citizens around the planet, the world is a more heavily mediated place. With the advent of mobile technology, people access media on such devices as mobile phones and iPads from wherever they are located, at whatever time they wish, in whatever form they choose that is available.
Areas of study such as media studies, media theory, media arts, media psychology, and media philosophy grow strength…… [Read More]
Jean Batiste Day. Even poets added to this creation of a national hero in Jacques Cartier.
One thing we might note for Gordon's writing is that he used quite a lot of French quotation and commented on it, but never supplied the translation. Having read the French quotes I determined that they added meaning to the article, so I do not really understand why he did not translate them. The title mentions two nations, and this was, perhaps, one way of emphasizing their differences. However, one questions his "oversight."
The third writing is possibly the most telling in that it suggests that Canadians adopted the romanticization of the Northern Winter as a symbol of their national character. The severity of the weather was seen as responsible for producing a robust and courageous people in contrast to the weak and simpering southern neighbors in the warmer climate of the United States. It is interesting to note that the writers of the early colonization of Canada and the people who lived there all exaggerated the extreme weather and the dangers. In spite of this stretching of the truth, it is a reality that the northern climate has shaped Canadian culture in a very profound way. Business is seasonal, populations are somewhat migratory and social lives revolve around the changing seasons. We have even named a particularly northern affliction that used to be simply "cabin fever": SAD (seasonal affective disorder) caused by the low light of Canadian winters. So the romantic history of survivors in the great white north has become our Canadian identity.
What all these writings share is the idea that history is written by people, and is never totally objective or valid. When we read (or write) historical documents, we need to look Also at the surrounding culture, the background of the writer and the social structures and politics of the time. It is true that history of wars is written by the winners, so the losers always become the evil aggressors and the winners the champions of the people.…… [Read More]
And "civilized" also means being corrupted by rampant economic temptations and in the process, ruining the land; and the narrator goes to great lengths to show that she "...wishes to not be human," which is a linking of "guilt and self-knowledge," according to Janice Fiamengo's essay (in The American Review of Canadian Studies). Essayist Fiamengo quotes Atwood from a 1972 interview (Surfacing was published in 1972) in which the author says that if "you define yourself as intrinsically innocent...then you have a lot of problems, because in fact you aren't." The narrator wishes "...to be not human," Atwood said, "because being human inevitably involves being guilty."
She's not likely saying that we're all guilty due to "original sin," but rather because we as the human race bear the responsibility for the misbehavior and inhumanity of those who came before us, such as the Europeans who "conquered" North America and while doing so slaughtered untold thousands of natives and drove a dagger into the heart of their aboriginal culture.
And, Fiamengo goes on, "What is the source of this guilt?" Indeed, given that there are myriad "...provocative and theoretically sophisticated" - and deep - psychological studies of Surfacing, still, the narrator's guilt "remains under-examined, with critics content to assume that it stems from her abortion, a resolvable moral and textual problem." Or, Fiamengo asks, do critics see the guilt in Atwood's Surfacing "...as part of the human condition generally?" Yes, Fiamengo continues, the connection has been made "between the narrator's personal journey and Canada's postcolonial anxieties," but scholars "have not always recognized the complexity of Atwood's representation of the national psyche."
From a different perspective, Cook expresses the thought that the Canadian psyche is wrapped up in "the immensity of the land, the husbanding of resources"; and part of that psyche is a response to the traditional portrayal of Canada as "the junior partner, first to Britain, then to the United States - a willing partner, to be sure - but deferring to those with access to more resources, larger populations, greater appetites.")
While not necessarily bolstering this reader's argument that the narrator herself - not the novel necessarily - is a metaphor for Canada and the concerned consciousness that fuels a sense of guilt in the more sensitive souls, Fiamengo goes into the question of guilt produced by the exploitation of…… [Read More]
Canadian National Identity and Canadian Hockey
The Canadian administrative system in place has endorsed the national identity of Canada with hockey. Back in 90s, when the then Prime Minister of Canada, Chretien, started trade diplomacy with other countries, he always declared every participant as part of the Canadian Team. In the tenure of the same Prime Minister, an ex-National Hockey League player and icon, Frank Mahovlich was chosen as a senator. Some years later, memorial postage stamp of the famous 1972 Canada/Russia hockey series was launched which has the winning goal by Paul Henderson in the depiction. Looking at more recent past (i.e. 2002), one finds "The Pond" at the backside of Canadian Five Dollar notes.
Though with the passage of time, these events seem to grow in number, they do have quite a few significant examples in history as well. Quite few decades ago, in the early 1940s and 1950s, Maurice "the Rocket" Richard gained the status of national hero by becoming a foremost goal-scorer in the stressful relationships that existed between the Quebec and English Canada at the time (CANOE-CNEWS, 2004). While, looking at 80s and 90s, in the era of free trade saga, Edmonton Oilers prodigy Wayne Gretzky gained the celebrity status and redefined Canadian/American relations (Jackson, 1994).
If one attempts to study the Canadian identity it may turn out to be a daunting task. This is because of the very vital fact that Canadians are indeed dissimilar to the Americans. Though, one might take these words as mockery but study of relevant literature in the relevant fields will help tremendously in not only recognizing but also understanding these facts. A famous Canadian political intellectual, George Grant wrote in one of his best works that Canadians should be suspicious and weary of Americanization. He had very serious concerns and sensitivities about Canadian identity that may resemble losing Canadian sovereignty to Americans (Potter, 2005).
Although, Grant might be seen as lobbying for British or traditional nationalism he requested the Liberal Party to control the growing business interests. Grant was writing in one of the oddest times in Canadian history which was shifting from old…… [Read More]
Canadian Military and Leadership
Issues in Military Leadership
Situational Leadership Theory
Canadian Military and Situational Leadership
The military organizations have developed a culture that has set standards of increased productivity with declining resources as regards money, workforce and other resources (Towell, 1998). Despite the fact that there have been reductions in the expenditure of military yet there seen an increased in the expectations from military leaders to complete successfully the assigned tasks apart from of limited sources (Fogleman, 1995). These expectations of achieving goals completely with fewer resources have put a significant toll on military leaders (Towell, 1998).
The Canadian Force (CF) is currently undergoing a change and "have already begun a long-term transformation process," (Department of National Defense, 2005, p.2) which will lead Canada's military into the future. In 2005, the DND (Department of National Defense) published Canada's International Policy Statement. The policy statement outlines how the "policy is about change, and providing our military with a bold new vision to deal with an increasingly uncertain world" (DND, 2005, p.2). The Chief of Defense Staff (CNDS), created a vision that "included changing the way the Canadian Forces is structured, equipped, trained and educated" (Edwards, Bentley, & Walker, 2006, p.6) With transformation comes the task of reforming of the CF's philosophy and culture. As values change within society, it is important that they also change within the culture of the CF. Most importantly the CF is evolving from a rules-based organization to a values-based organization. The values-based model is creating a change within traditional CF culture.
A facet of CF transformation requires a change in the values and beliefs of not only the organization, but of the people who make up the organization. "Leaders and employees must change their mindset to implement and function in the organization's new design and strategy successfully" (Anderson & Ackerman Anderson, 2001, p.19). The current essay is aimed at exploring the situational…… [Read More]
In 2002/2003 alone, sale of Canadian red wine increased by more than 15% over previous years ("Wineries in Canada" para. 2).
In the domestic Canadian market, Canadian consumers have been drawn to Canadian coolers, but domestic beer and wine have been losing ground to imports, with imported beer and wine products posting an average growth rate of 15.5% and 10.4%, respectively, over the last five years. Red wine has countered this trend to a great degree so that red wine shows a clear dominance over white wine, with 55% of the total volume of red and white wine being red wine. Between 1993 and 2000, red wine increased in sales volume more than did imports, but this trend slowed after that time. For the provinces, only Saskatchewan, Yukon, and Prince Edward Island show higher sales for domestic red wine than for imported brands, as can be seen in the following chart:
Control and Sales of Alcoholic Beverages" paras. 108).
A survey taken in 2004 showed that alcohol consumption in Canada was on the rise as total volume sales of alcoholic drinks increased 4.3% in 2003 and 7.1% in current value terms. This trend was accompanied by the fact that consumers were turning to more expensive, premium products across the board, and the aging of the population was sis shift as older consumers sought more sophisticated premium wine and spirits. Younger drinkers constituted the most dynamic sector of the Canadian market for alcoholic drinks, though, with a growing consumer base of 19 to 35-year-olds seeking more fruit-flavored alcohol and more premium lager, making this group the fastest growing segment of the Canadian beer sector ("Alcoholic Drinks in Canada" paras. 1-3).
Competition in Canada has increased as Canada has become one of the key importers of Australian wine. In 2002, Canada became the third largest wine market for Australian wines, after the U.S. And the UK, with Australian imports rising by 16 per cent in 2001 to around…… [Read More]
The substance had devastating effects on them, and, it assisted them into growing more detested by white people. Certain white people engaged in observing native behavior have even observed the aftermath that alcohol had brought upon the Indian society. Some white people have even triggered alarms relating to the fact that Indians were hurriedly becoming wiped out, just as several animal species in Canada.
The Native Americans in the U.S. did not receive a different treatment than the ones in Canada. Furthermore, they had gotten to the point when the government did not accept them as a minority and even condemned them if they tried to claim their rights as natives. Any resolutions made by the League of Indians in Canada were met with harsh rejections from the government, with the officials declaring that there had been no need for them to abolish perfectly normal amendments. The elder Indians had been aware that the schooling system of the time and the fact that the authorities were obliging natives to change their ways of living would slowly but surely destroy their society.
Most movies from the western genre made during the first half of the twentieth century reflected the opinion that white people had about natives. Indians were regarded as savages and lazy people only interested in stealing and torturing an apparently perfect white society. A great number of people actually had the impression that their governments were actually helping the Indians. The officials almost became saints in the eyes of the public when they chose to make rehabilitation programs intended to help the Indians escape their miserable customs. If one were to perform a survey involving whether Indians deserved to inhabit America or not, he or she would have definitely been amazed to see that most American and Canadian citizens of the time shared racist convictions. It is of no surprise that they did so, considering the fact that the media and the authorities were constantly discussing matters such as Indians being inferior.
The coming of the economic crisis did not change the conditions between the aboriginal Canadian population and the Canadian government. The coming of the Second World War had also contributed to the authorities abandoning any form of negotiation with the Indian political leaders. In spite of the fact that Indians continued to be oppressed over the war, they had actually been advantaged by…… [Read More]
For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.
The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial Revolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and the fruits of labour. Industrialization and capitalism changed the essential features of the artisan model. Just as aboriginal skilled labour became integrated into the capitalist labour market, so too was European skilled labour. Marketable skills like pelting or molding derived wage value instead of direct product value. The wage labour model, integral to capitalism, created or exacerbated class conflicts.
DeLottinville is concerned less with the ways capitalism transformed skilled labor than either Kealey or Lutz. What DeLottinville focuses on is the way capitalism transformed social and cultural norms among the working class dock labourers in Montreal. The "daily routines of casual labourers on the docks" grew into a subculture that became politically active because of their ability to socialize together (DeLottinville, p. 208). DeLottinville illustrates the shift from a fragmented working class to a highly publicized and politicized one. In this sense, all three authors show how labourers use common concerns about capitalism to organize into unions. Lutz does not include aboriginal labor unions into the central argument about the British Columbian fur trade. The author does, however, show how colonial politics or the politics of…… [Read More]
" (2003) the police force from this view was held as "ideal for exerting order across the vast territories of Canada, whose sheer scale made law enforcement, public administration and the assertion of sovereignty difficult." (Newburn, 2003) the police force in this area was known as the "North-West Mounted Police" whose influence extended early [in the] twentieth century...taking on security and counterespionage services during the First World War and, in 1919, helping to break the Winnipeg general strike."(Newburn, 2003)
In 1920 this force was renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and expanded throughout the 1930s. During the 1930s, this police system is described as "chaotic...replaced by one in which officers earned wages almost one third above the national average. (Royal Commission on the Police, 1960; as cited in Newburn, 2003) Following World War II changes occurred in British policing and the relationship between the police and local communities and between the government and police in what has been a time of reform for policing. During the 1980s, it is stated by Newburn that Canada was characterized by "significant urban disorders and a bitter miners' strike." (2003) Additionally, policing at this time was "very visible public order policing..." (Newburn, 2003) Simultaneously, public approval of policing was on the decline.
The work entitled: "Is the Future of Community Policing in Canada at Risk in the Wake of Recent International Terrorist Attacks and Increasing Violent Crimes Associated to Organized Criminal Activities" states that the Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is committed to the vision of 'Safe-Houses - Safe Communities'. (2008) There are stated to be five key strategies utilized toward the advancement of Community policing:
2) community revitalization;
4) customer service; and 5) problem-solving. (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008)
These guiding principles comprise a unique "service delivery model." (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008) it is stated that both internal and external clients and partners were consulted with in developing these principles, which include:
1) public accountability through realignment of policing services in reflection of the concerns and needs of the community;
2) decentralized, neighborhood services approach;
3) partnership and collaboration;
4) integrated service team approach, and client centered service delivery;
5) Consultation, transparency and participation;
6) proactive approach (anticipating and forecasting community issues;
7) community problem-solving;
8)…… [Read More]
A head of state could be chosen by indirect election by parliament, as one example. This is similar to the current process, however, in the new process, the Governor-General would be made by provincial or federal legislatures as opposed to being selected by the Prime Minister and then formally appointed by the Queen. Another way to go would be to have the head of state chosen by indirect election by a selection committee of political peers -- like judges, former or sitting federal or provincial politians, academics or other. "This model, a variation of which is practiced by Germany, offers some solace to those who think a president elected by parliament would somehow be indebted or subservient to it" (2010).
Direct election by voters is another way to choose the head of state. Candidates may be selected by provincial legislatures, culminating into a federal election. This kind of system is used in Ireland, a successful example of a former Dominion that changed their Governor-General into an elected presidency (2010). The penultimate option would be similar to South Africa's model of a parliamentary republic where offices of head of state and head of government have been merged. However, there are many politically-minded Canadians who think that the Prime Minister already has way too much authority and because this option would mean a total overhaul to the constitution, this option may be the mot unlikely (2010).
Some wonder if it is possible for Canada to be both a republic and a member of the Commonwealth too. The notion that Canada would have to give up membership in the Commonwealth once it becomes a republic is not accurate, according to Canadian Citizens for a Canadian Republic (2010).
In reality, among the Commonwealth's member- states, most are republics with only sixteen being constitutional monarchies with Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State. & #8230;Canada would still be an active member of the Commonwealth after the change from constitutional monarchy to republic (CCCR 2010).
The bottom line, when it comes to Canada and whether or…… [Read More]
External Reflection of the Internal: The Usage of the Canadian Landscape in as for Me and My House and Who has seen the Wind
A number of similarities exist between the novels of William Ormond Mitchell and Sinclair Ross, who wrote Who has seen the Wind, and As For Me And My House, respectively. Both works deal with theological issues of religion and faith, and contain a fair amount of skepticism for these concepts. The novels also mirror one another in their usage of the environment and the surrounding landscape as a tool with which to illustrate a variety of feelings experienced by their respective characters. The tendency to utilize the outer surroundings of the natural world to explicate the inner thought processes and emotions of human nature is one which is indicative in a fair amount of Canadian literature (Bordessa 58). As such, both Mitchell and Ross have used the impact of the landscape and the environment on the characters in their respective works to demonstrate a definite focus on the Canadian prairies which illustrates how the beauty and loneliness of the environment creates a feeling for the reader.
In many instances, the novelists render the surrounding environment in a way which magnifies the internalizations which their principles characters deal with. This tendency certainly applies to Who has seen the Wind, in which the outer manifestations of the natural world frequently symbolize and mirror the thoughts and emotions of Brian O'Connal, a young child who learns much about the power of God. In the following quotation, in which Brian is disappointed at the fact that he has to give his new puppy to a friend to live, Mitchell uses the rain to magnify the heart-rending emotions which the child feels. "Brian watched the drops gather and slide, slowly at first, then faster, down the pane. The sky over Sherry's low house was the color of lead; the sodden leaves of the hedge were dripping. He felt inexplicably sad... He had not seen his dog for three days."
Mitchell deliberately employs imagery of a melancholy nature to show the reader that Brian is in a sad state. The references to the sky's color and to the water-soaked leaves (described as "dripping") portray images commonly associated…… [Read More]
374). It has been assumed that despite these internal cultural differences, overarching political similarities, shared history, or an interest in national diversity would be enough to unite the Canadian people under a single identity.
However, Kymlicka's (2003) close examination of the national and international has illustrated that they are largely shared by most modern, Western nations. Any presumed Canadian uniqueness is largely mythical (p. 368). Of course, mythology can be exceedingly unifying, and there is certainly an interest in Canada of perpetuating the dominant national myths of identity: Canadians as good global citizens, as part of the Western tradition, as a young modern nations, and as distinctly non-American. These national characteristics are generally championed as core parts of a unified Canadian identity, despite their largely exaggerated characteristics and despite the fact that these values do not necessarily unify the myriad subcultural groups within the nation. Aboriginal groups will probably always persist as distinct social and political units within Canada. Every attempt to nationalize the Quebecois have only managed to strengthen their sub-state nationalism (Kymlicka, 2003: p. 373). After centuries of attempting to force a singular vision of national identity on all subcultural groups within Canada that is uniquely Canadian, increasingly we find there is an acceptance of persistent difference and division within the nation.
Despite this, Canada as a nation has not crumpled or torn itself apart via internal strife and division. The nation's political and social institutions have been as successful as ever even as identity politics has become increasingly banal and multi-level, fluid identities have proliferated (Kymlicka, 2003: pp. 383-385). The obvious conclusion that can be drawn from this social and political reality is that identity politics is no longer the defining factor in determining the success of a nation. For instance, despite consistently failing to identify themselves as Canadian instead of Quebecois, that…… [Read More]
One of the failures of the current system is that it often does not account for cultural and resource differences between nations - instead a one-size fits all economic system is imposed universally. Over time, each society will find its own path. Some societies will fail to adapt and ultimately disappear. That is part of the evolutionary process. The key is that right now all societies are not given the same opportunity to succeed whereas the fundamental principles of capitalism suggest they should be.
As more people realize that happiness is more important than money, we will see profound shifts towards knowledge and culture, and the pursuit of wealth will be taken up by other cultures. As they too achieve the type of sustained comfort experienced today in many Western societies, they too will shift towards the pursuit of happiness over money. There will be a major obstacle to overcome - that being the depletion of resources key to today's lifestyles. This may ultimately be the catalyst for the shift towards happiness and equality, but not before the pursuit of material wealth drives us towards conflict. This sort of test is a natural part of the evolutionary process, and will refine today's concepts of equality and the pursuit of happiness further, in the process crushing the last resistance of the actor's responsible for today's materialism.
Another key way in which this shift will manifest itself is a move away from large, centralized organizations. Such organizations, as Saul points out, don't work. "They are unable to be given direction. And public policy only works when it is driven by ideas." So we will see a move away from large, overarching governmental structures to smaller ones better able to meet the unique needs of their specific set of constituents. This will take the focus away from managing and back towards meeting needs.
Works… [Read More]
Official Language and Social Prestige in Speaking and Writing
Few of the indigenous languages in Canada have a developed system of writing other than transliteration into the phonetic alphabet, contributing to their lack of official status (Norris). French and English are both still used on government forms, literature, and websites, but the levels of prestige these languages carry vary greatly from region to region within the country (StatCAn 2009; Healy 2007). The varying prestige of these languages is both evidence and cause of underlying nationalistic problems existent in the country. Immigrant or heritage languages are not widespread enough to have caused major shifts in linguistic patterns or prestige levels, and the same is unfortunately true for most indigenous languages (Harrison 2000; Allen; Norris).
Language Use in Schools and Language Planning
The languages being taught and used in schools is also a source of great contention for many Canadians. Not only do the descendants of the indigenous tribes press for greater funding for programs in the many indigenous languages, but many French Canadians feel that their children and their language are being under-served in the provinces of Ontario and, to a lesser degree, in New Brunswick (Abalo 2009; Healy 2007). Meanwhile, certain English-speaking citizens and parents in Quebec are having the opposite problem, and feel that their children's instruction taking place predominantly in French under Quebec law limits their ability to have their own language and culture, despite federal bilingualism having official status (Allen).
Language planning has taken place on several levels, and on numerous occasions over the recent decades. The move to official bilingualism was meant to achieve a certain degree of national unity, and to implement certain provisions for the preservation of the minority French language (Canada-United States Law Journal 2000). This attempt has largely failed, however, or at least has shown some severe deficiencies and cracks, as the disquietude between Quebec and French-speakers in other provinces and the rest of English-speaking Canada has only increased in pitch (Allen; Cardinal 2004). Language planning for the native languages has actually been…… [Read More]
However, in addition to being part of the Americanization process, this has also sparked hostility and anti-American sentiments as well, for some Canadians who believe Canadian culture is being lost to the United States. Demonstrations in front of American enterprises, boycotts of American iconic products like Coca-Cola, and even vandalizing McDonald's outlets have all been a part of this effort to not succumb to Americanization.
Mechanisms Underlying America's Influence on Canada
There are several mechanisms underlying the Americanization of Canada, and thus affecting its political processes and outcomes. These, Craig, Douglas and Bennett state, are similar to the mechanisms involved in internationalization and globalization of consumption. Increasing foreign travel, to America, is one such mechanism. This increases direct Canadian exposure to American customs, lifestyles and mores. This mechanism has been in place for generations, with the expansion of railway systems being one of the first transportation improvements that facilitated easy travel between the two countries. Recently, the spread of the Internet too has increased exposure to American culture, with the ease of communication thanks to e-mail and VOIP technologies.
These mechanisms can be broadly conceptualized a terms of people, products, information, and transmission of cultural content from America to Canada. Citing sociologist Appadurai, Craig, Douglas and Bennett identify five types of global flows responsible for transforming the nature of society -- Mediascapes, Ethnoscapes, Ideoscapes, Technoscapes, and Finanscapes. Mediascapes are the most far reaching and center on the flow of images and communication. Ethnoscapes are the flows of tourists, migrants and foreign students. Ideoscapes are the flow of political ideas and ideologies. Technoscapes center on the flow of technologies. Lastly, Finanscapes involve the flow of money and capital.
We see this transformation of Canadian society, and the resultant political outcomes, clearly in these global flows through history. Mediascapes were as important in imparting American culture on Canada today as they were nearly a century earlier, with Canada's love for…… [Read More]
Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).
Values that the Canadians uphold
The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in peacekeeping missions across the world. Since the inception of the United Nations, Canada has always been at the forefront in supporting the several peacekeeping missions (Conrad, p. 249). Their contribution to these peacekeeping missions, in terms of providing troops for the missions, has been declining in the recent years. Even though there is a reduction in the number of troops, they send to these missions, the Canadians have always been providing experts to support any kind of mission with the aim of maintaining peace in the world. They assist in training, giving financial support and offering diplomatic support to the African union and other organizations with the aim of preventing conflict between two or more parties. The involvement of the Canadians to these peacekeeping missions clearly shows that being a Canadian means loving peace (Conrad, p. 252).
The other value that the Canadians uphold is the treatment of people equally. Everyone in Canada has the right of association, they have the right to speak their minds and in expressing the ideas regardless of whether others agree or not. The treatment of people equally does not only apply to personal treatment but also on a governmental level. The government has an obligation to treat everyone with respect and dignity. When it comes to decision making, both men and women have the opportunity to participate…… [Read More]
In history, in most of the Indian families, the inheritance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the year 1956, the law in India has always treated females and males as equals in matters of inheritance where there is no legal will written. Currently, Indians have become wiser and are using legal wills for the inheritance and succession of property. The usage of legal wills at of the year 2004 stands at about 20%.
The rate of divorce in India is extremely low. It stands at 1% as compared to 40% which is experienced in the U.S. These statistics of divorce do not, however, give a complete picture of the divorce situation in India. This is because many marriages that end up being split do so without a formal divorce. There is a research gap in the scientific studies or surveys that are conducted on marriages in India where the perspective of both the husbands and the wives are not solicited in-depth.
Surveys that have been conducted regarding Indian marriages suggest that the issues with marriages that take place under the Indian culture are the same trend wise to those which affect other marriages around the world. This is true for both arranged marriages and the others where the men and women choose their spouse to be. The studies also found that the rate of divorce is rising greatly in India with the divorce rates in urban areas being much higher than suburban and rural areas. The studies also found that about 80% of the divorces which occur in India are started by women.
Another recent study that has been conducted on arranged marriages showed that the trend in India is shifting away from arranged marriages. The survey was conducted in the year 2005 on over 41,500 households which are in 33 territories and states in India. They found that the trends of marriage in India were slowly becoming similar to those in other countries such as Japan and China about 40 years ago. There are fewer arranged marriages which are conducted without the consent of the bride and groom. The study also…… [Read More]
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its opposite is Femininity.
Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) measures how threatened a society's members feel in uncertain or unknown situations. In "uncertainty avoiding nations, people are more expressive; in uncertainty tolerating nations the expression of feelings is inhibited" (Hofstede 1998). Although it may be a cliche, Britain (stiff upper lip, no shows of emotion) would rank low in UA, while the Arab states would rank high, a fact borne out by Hofstede's research. Hofstede noted that a high UAI indicates the country has low tolerance for uncertainty, which, in turn, "creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty" (Hofstede 2005). The opposite ranking indicates "the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risk" (Hofstede 2005).
Influences on learning style derived from Hofstede's classifications very quick comparison of Australia, the Arab World (which Hofstede investigated monolithically) and a representative Asian nation (which will have great areas of commonality with the others) can help determine what the learning styles of each area are likely to emphasize.
Australia's cultural expectations
The Hofstede analysis for Australia puts its Individualism score at 90, the second highest country surveyed and right behind the United States,…… [Read More]
A merger is not about one business dominated another. It should be seen more like a marriage where both parties involved should have an equal say in all matters. It cannot be stated enough that the merger must be seen as a win-win situation for all parties involved. If anyone is feeling slighted or uncomfortable, the situation must be brought to the manager's attention and addressed immediately.
The main thing for the manager to understand is that staff wants to feel appreciated. They do not want to get lost in all the events surrounding the merger. Appreciation ranks high on the list of what staff members need in order to feel a sense of obligation to remain at the hospital after the merger has taken place. If there is a sense of appreciation and the staff members have a connection with the community in which the hospital is located, there is a strong change that they will remain with the hospital and work hard to be sure that the merger is a success (Cameron et al., 2010).
Not only do staff members need to feel of sense of community and that they are appreciated, they also need to have a sense of job satisfaction. If there was job satisfaction before the merger, the manager must work hard to let the staff know that they can expect the same level of job satisfaction they had after the merger as they had before. There need not be substantial changes made after the merger which could lead to job dissatisfaction among employees. The major factors in determining job satisfaction among hospital workers are pay, benefits and workload (Morgan et al., 2010). If workers are overworked, feel they are properly compensated and are happy with their benefits package the likelihood of job satisfaction will be high.
Thompson states that when the company she worked for merged with a similar company, training and development was not only provided for employees in order to strengthen the retention rate, special attention was also paid to managers to help retain them and to also help them help their employees. She states that managers were given special classes on how to coach and motivate employees which turned out to be a successful program (2010). This is a prime example of how the needs of all parties involved in the…… [Read More]