Canadian Culture Essays (Examples)

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Canadian Nationalism & Margaret Atwood

Words: 4221 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58839754

And "civilized" also means being corrupted by rampant economic temptations and in the process, ruining the land; and the narrator goes to great lengths to show that she "...wishes to not be human," which is a linking of "guilt and self-knowledge," according to Janice Fiamengo's essay (in The American Review of Canadian Studies). Essayist Fiamengo quotes Atwood from a 1972 interview (Surfacing was published in 1972) in which the author says that if "you define yourself as intrinsically innocent...then you have a lot of problems, because in fact you aren't." The narrator wishes " be not human," Atwood said, "because being human inevitably involves being guilty."

She's not likely saying that we're all guilty due to "original sin," but rather because we as the human race bear the responsibility for the misbehavior and inhumanity of those who came before us, such as the Europeans who "conquered" North America and while doing so slaughtered untold thousands of natives and drove a dagger into the heart of their aboriginal culture.

And, Fiamengo goes on, "What is the source of this guilt?" Indeed, given that there are myriad "...provocative and theoretically sophisticated" - and deep - psychological studies of Surfacing, still, the narrator's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atwood, Margaret. Surfacing. New York: Anchor Books / Doubleday. 1998.

Barsto, Jane M. "Surfacing." Masterplots II: British and Commonwealth Fiction Series (2006),

Retrieved August 6, 2006, from MagillOnLiterature Plus, Accession Number 9220000314.

Brydon, Diana. "Beyond Violent Dualities: Atwood in Postcolonial Contexts." Approaches to Teaching Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale and Other Works. Ed. Sharon R. Wilson, Thomas
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Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos Personal

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10414840

Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos

PERSONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.

My social status is mostly a reflection of the fact that I come from a low to moderate income culture of people who respect work, opportunities, and the ties we have to our families (McBride, nd). The Filipino culture is strongly linked to English and Western practices and really emphasizes our commitment to hard work, accomplishment…… [Read More]


Andrews, M. et al. (2010). Theoretical Basis for Transcultural Care. Section II. Foundations of Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Vol. 21. DOI: 10.1177/1043659610374321.

Canadian Nursing Association (2005). Social Determinants of Health and Nursing: A summary of Issues. Canadian Nursing Association. Viewable at

Castillo, M.V. (nd). Caring in the Diaspora: Filipino Immigrants, Health Care, Healing, and Religion. Religious Healing in Boston. Viewable at

McBride, M. (nd). Health and Health Care of Filipino Elders. Stanford Geriatric Education Center. Viewable at
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Canadian Labour in The Honest

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72652970

For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.

The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial Revolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and the fruits of labour. Industrialization and capitalism changed the essential features of the artisan model. Just as aboriginal skilled labour became integrated into the capitalist labour market, so too was European skilled labour. Marketable skills like pelting or molding derived wage value instead of direct product value. The wage labour…… [Read More]


DeLottinville, P. "Joe Beef of Montreal: Working-Class Culture and the Tavern, 1869-1889." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 190-214.

Kealey, G.S. "The Honest Workingman and Workers' Control: The experience of Toronto Skilled Workers, 1860-1892." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 112-142.

Lutz, J. "After the Fur Trade: The Aboriginal Labouring Class of British Columbia 1849-1890" in Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 235-259.
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Culture Dismantling Identity Politics The

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9652411

374). It has been assumed that despite these internal cultural differences, overarching political similarities, shared history, or an interest in national diversity would be enough to unite the Canadian people under a single identity.

However, Kymlicka's (2003) close examination of the national and international has illustrated that they are largely shared by most modern, Western nations. Any presumed Canadian uniqueness is largely mythical (p. 368). Of course, mythology can be exceedingly unifying, and there is certainly an interest in Canada of perpetuating the dominant national myths of identity: Canadians as good global citizens, as part of the Western tradition, as a young modern nations, and as distinctly non-American. These national characteristics are generally championed as core parts of a unified Canadian identity, despite their largely exaggerated characteristics and despite the fact that these values do not necessarily unify the myriad subcultural groups within the nation. Aboriginal groups will probably always persist as distinct social and political units within Canada. Every attempt to nationalize the Quebecois have only managed to strengthen their sub-state nationalism (Kymlicka, 2003: p. 373). After centuries of attempting to force a singular vision of national identity on all subcultural groups within Canada that is uniquely Canadian, increasingly…… [Read More]


Kymlicka, W. (2003). Being Canadian. Government and Opposition, 38(3), pp. 357-385.
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Canadian Perspectives of Capitalism as

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23279868

One of the failures of the current system is that it often does not account for cultural and resource differences between nations - instead a one-size fits all economic system is imposed universally. Over time, each society will find its own path. Some societies will fail to adapt and ultimately disappear. That is part of the evolutionary process. The key is that right now all societies are not given the same opportunity to succeed whereas the fundamental principles of capitalism suggest they should be.

As more people realize that happiness is more important than money, we will see profound shifts towards knowledge and culture, and the pursuit of wealth will be taken up by other cultures. As they too achieve the type of sustained comfort experienced today in many Western societies, they too will shift towards the pursuit of happiness over money. There will be a major obstacle to overcome - that being the depletion of resources key to today's lifestyles. This may ultimately be the catalyst for the shift towards happiness and equality, but not before the pursuit of material wealth drives us towards conflict. This sort of test is a natural part of the evolutionary process, and will…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Saul, John Ralston. (2000). LaFontane-Baldwin Symposium, Inaugural Lecture. Speech online. Accessed April 3, 2008 at

Saul, John Ralston.(2005). The Collapse of Globalism and the Re-Invention of the World. Toronto: Penguin Canada.

Saul, John Ralston (1995). The Unconscious Civilian. Toronto: Anansi, Massey College.

Sahtouris, Elisabet. Globalization as a Natural Evolutionary Process. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at
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Canadian Canada Is One of the Largest

Words: 1775 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56377051


Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).

Values that the Canadians uphold

The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in peacekeeping missions across the world. Since the inception of the United Nations, Canada has always been at the forefront in supporting the several peacekeeping missions (Conrad, p. 249). Their contribution to these peacekeeping missions, in terms of providing troops for the missions, has been declining in the recent years. Even…… [Read More]

Works cited

Conrad, John D. Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping.

Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2011. Internet resource.

De, la T.M. Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies. Los Angeles: Getty

Conservation Institute, 2005. Print.
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Culture Refers to the Accumulated

Words: 4685 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87152746

In history, in most of the Indian families, the inheritance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the year 1956, the law in India has always treated females and males as equals in matters of inheritance where there is no legal will written. Currently, Indians have become wiser and are using legal wills for the inheritance and succession of property. The usage of legal wills at of the year 2004 stands at about 20%.

The rate of divorce in India is extremely low. It stands at 1% as compared to 40% which is experienced in the U.S. These statistics of divorce do not, however, give a complete picture of the divorce situation in India. This is because many marriages that end up being split do so without a formal divorce. There is a research gap in the scientific studies or surveys that are conducted on marriages in India where the perspective of both the husbands and the wives are not solicited in-depth.

Surveys that have been conducted regarding Indian marriages suggest that the issues with marriages that take place under the Indian culture are the same trend wise to…… [Read More]

references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x

Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526

Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.

Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978

Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
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Culture Case Study it Is

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62749661

A merger is not about one business dominated another. It should be seen more like a marriage where both parties involved should have an equal say in all matters. It cannot be stated enough that the merger must be seen as a win-win situation for all parties involved. If anyone is feeling slighted or uncomfortable, the situation must be brought to the manager's attention and addressed immediately.

The main thing for the manager to understand is that staff wants to feel appreciated. They do not want to get lost in all the events surrounding the merger. Appreciation ranks high on the list of what staff members need in order to feel a sense of obligation to remain at the hospital after the merger has taken place. If there is a sense of appreciation and the staff members have a connection with the community in which the hospital is located, there is a strong change that they will remain with the hospital and work hard to be sure that the merger is a success (Cameron et al., 2010).

Not only do staff members need to feel of sense of community and that they are appreciated, they also need to have a…… [Read More]


Brannen, M.Y. And Peterson, M.F. (2009). Merging without alienating: Interventions promoting cross-cultural organizational integration and their limitations. Journal of International

Business Studies, 40(3), 468-489.

Cameron, P.J., Este, D.C., and Worthington, C.A. (2010). Physician retention in rural Alberta:

Key community factors. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(1), 79-82.
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Canadian Corrections and Criminal Justice System

Words: 1715 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96252447

Canadian criminal justice system corrections

The Canadian justice system

Since the last decade, there's been a huge hue and cry pertaining unjust convictions and its disastrous consequences. As in the case of Canada, there have been numerous high profile cases which concluded with unjust verdicts, putting the Canadian justice system and its judicial process in question. Even though, the media's attention has increased on this matter, academic literature on the issue is razor-thin in case of Canada (Denov & Campbell, 2005). The media's coverage of crimes and criminal justice is now excessively given coverage during the last decade, since it's a form of entertainment and news. Criminal justice and crime have emerged as a viable form of entertainment across the media spectrum. In case of TV shows, depictions of criminal justice and crime are observed in courtroom TV seasons as well as daily talk's shows.

Popular culture and criminal courts

The crime investigation TV shows are in intense demand which gave birth to CSI and Law and Order. Majority of the people have no practical experience with criminal justice courts, hence their sole source of information is the media. Hence, fictitious and non-fictitious (TV shows, movies and real-life cases) form…… [Read More]


Blatchford, C. (2015, Febuary 27). News. Retrieved from National Post:

Denov, M., & Campbell, K. (2005). Understanding the Causes, Effects, and Responses to Wrongful Conviction in Canada. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice.

Entmann, R., & Gross, K. (2008). Race to judgment: stereotyping media and criminal defendants. 93-133. Retrieved from:

Gallant, J. (2015, Febuary 23). Crime. Retrieved from The Star:
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Intersecting Cultures Are Creating a

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29984481

When Europeans colonized Brazil, for example, the indigenous peoples intermarried or otherwise bonded intimately with those Europeans and the result was a hybrid identity, "mestizaje," which Noh refers to as a native Brazilian combining his or her identity with a Portuguese identity.

Hence, in the twentieth century hybridity has been transformed into a "…cultural phenomenon" which is now explored by anthropologists and other social scientists -- and it means that growing volumes of people are moving "…from one place to another" and as they move they create "…new cultural and sociodemographic spaces and are themselves reshaped in the process" (Luke, 2003, p. 379). The point of Noh's article -- boiled down to a safe overview -- is that cultural borders between countries and regions "…have been blurred" and in their place is an "intercultural mixture" because "…all cultures are involved in one another" (p. 7). In fact some scholars insist that there is "…no such thing as a 'pure' culture" and indeed it is possible that authentic, pure cultural forms "or indigenous traditions" have never truly existed, Noh goes on (p. 7).

If one is to accept Noh's assertions about hybridization, there are points that must be accepted, and on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruno, D.C., Scott, J., and Hinton, C. (2012). Educational Research and Innovation Languages

in a Global World Learning for Better Cultural Understanding: Learning for Better

Cultural Understanding. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

Fleras, a. (2011). "From Mosaic to Multiversality": Repriming Multicultural Governance
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Deviance Among Canadian Youths Deviation Refers to

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86389545

Deviance Among Canadian Youths

Deviation refers to the violation of the acceptable norms and values that have maintained within the cultural framework of a society. Norms are very important in every society since they allow the people of a given society to coexist with one another, and create the best environment for human living. The Canadian society like other societies is guided by certain norms and values, which are useful for the normal operation of the Canadian society. It is on this account that the issue of deviance cannot be underestimated. One cannot underestimate the issue of deviance, and the way it has caught up with many youths in the Canadian societal setting. Deviance comes with a number of consequences, especially to the youth who are expected to be the future leaders of the nation (Platt, 1999).

Canada has experienced increased numbers of youths who have taken on deviant behavior. In this context, many youths have been found guilty engaging in activities or organizations that have taken on activities that are opposed to the accepted norms of the Canadian society. This study looks at deviance as a problem that is eating into the lives of many youths in Canada. The…… [Read More]


Flowers, R. (2003). Crime and deviance: exploring its causes, dynamics, and nature. New York: Charles C. Thomas Publisher

Platt, A. (1999). Thinking and Unthinking 'Social Control. Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 72 -- 79.

Thomas, P. (2002). The Power of Crime Detection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Hockey I Am I Canadian

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67938961

Of course, Fuller is not the only one to draw connections among hockey, the media, and differences between Canadian and American national identities. In fact, Gruneau and Whitson get the name of their book from Canada's most famous television program -- Hockey Night in Canada. Like learning to skate before learning to walk, the pair suggest that the Saturday night "TV program made us feel like part of a national community" (2). Thus, Fuller suggests that hockey is of utmost importance to the nation's identity, not only as a sport, but also as a major media event. In this world of globalization and satellite and Internet television broadcasting, media has become the defining feature of many nations. Thus, the use of media to depict Canadian and American values so antithetically is of utmost importance to Canadians and suggests that the sport is integral in the defining of a national identity.

In addition to simply highlighting the differences between Canadians and Americans, especially through media depictions, hockey has also been seen as a symbol of Canada's own values. This is most apart through Fuller's description of the documentary, Shinny. In fact, "the twelve rules of Shinny," around which the document is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fuller, Patricia Hughes. "Am I Canadian?': Hockey as 'National' Culture." PROVIDE


Gruneau, Richard and Whitson, David. Hockey Night in Canada. Toronto: Garmond,
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History of Canadian Labour- the

Words: 2713 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59351269

Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)

Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms of cultural approaches to work and labor. More precisely, "the key to intra-working-class conflict was immigrants' different expectations before arriving in Canada. Asians were cheap and docile because they faced worse conditions in their countries of origin and expected nothing better than they found in Canada; while European, especially British…… [Read More]


Creese, G. (1988) "Exclusion or solidarity? Vancouver Workers confront the 'Oriental Problem." BC Studies, University of British Columbia Press.

Heron, C. (1984) '"Laborism and the Canadian Working Class." Labor / Le Travail. Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Marks, L. (1991) "The Knights of Labor and the Salvation Army: religion and working-class culture in Ontario, 1882-1890." Labor / Le Travail, 28, 89-127.

Phelan, C. (2000) Grand Master Workman: Terence Powderly and the Knights of Labor. Westport: Greenwood Press.
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CIBC the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce

Words: 1923 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22709913


The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is one of the "Big Five" Canadian banks. It was founded in 1961 by the merger of the Canadian Bank of Commerce (founded 1867) and the Imperial Bank of Canada (founded 1875). Today, the CIBC is the fifth-largest of these by total revenue, earning $12.09 billion in FY2010 (PWC, 2011). This report will evaluate the CIBC in terms of a number of different factors in order make a judgment about the merits of investing in the bank's stock. The analysis will comprise of an industry analysis, a company analysis, and a valuation analysis.

According to the company's 2011 Annual Report, the CIBC earned total revenue of $12.249 billion in FY2011. This was split between interest income (51.8%) and non-interest income (48.2%). From this, the bank earned a net income of $3.079 billion. The recession years of 2008 and 2009 saw a sharp decline in the bank's revenue and profitability, from which the bank has recovered. Steep writedowns in FY2008 resulted in an operating loss, and revenues were down a couple of billion dollars in FY2009 from normal levels. Growth in both revenue and profit has since been restored. The decline, however, was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alexander, D. (2010). CIBC may have C$211 million debt writedown in third quarter, Mihelic says. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from

CIBC 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from (2012). Various pages. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from

Mavin, D. (2008). CIBC's writedown woes not over, analyist says. National Post. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from
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Red Dog Culture Exists in

Words: 2235 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85560096

But this does not mean that this family cannot be understood as a political constellation. The family members relate to the world with violence, trying to make others conform to their desires with guns and drugs, a path that leads finally to a terrible action. This action transforms the novel from a type of ethnography and the characters from symbols of a certain kind of cultural actors into themselves, into individuals who believe they can no longer hide in the shadows of their culture and their history. The characters step out in front of the landscape, step out of the shadows of generalities, of being movers in a Great Canadian Novel.

Essential to understanding the novel and its characters is to trace the history of the family as it moves from America to Canada, from one geographical and historical site of colonization to another. In their home in British Columbia, the Stark family believe themselves to be less culpable. They are not like the Americans who do not believe in history, they are people who understand history and so are released from its bonds.

Canadians, in this narrative and in other narratives as well, stand in as a sort of…… [Read More]


Gilbert, H. & Tompkins, J. (1996). Post-colonial drama: Theory, practice, politics. New York: Routledge.

hooks, b. (1990). Yearning: Race, gender and cultural politics. Boston: South End.

Lane, P. (2006). Red dog. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
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Organizational Culture Use the Job Characteristics Model

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75882975

Organizational Culture

Use the job characteristics model to explain why female MDs are working fewer hours

The most common job characteristics model used to explain why female doctors work fewer hours than their male colleagues is that female individuals retain the disproportionate burden of child and house care, in contrast to their male professional colleagues in the medical profession. Thus, to maintain some semblance of order in the home, and to greater balance home and family life, female doctors are statistically likely to be working fewer hours, as more and more female doctors enter the medical profession. As the medical profession's women no longer is made up only of die-hard future doctors, determined to sacrifice everything in their personal lives for the sake of work, they are less apt to work as many hours to retain that balance.

Another, related, corollary explanation is that female doctors desire, at the expense of professional ambitions, to remain home with their children for more hours than their male colleagues. The demands of motherhood are not only practical but also emotional, and many women find, after having children, that they wish to spend time with their children as well as to work as doctors…… [Read More]

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Nursing Culture Overcoming Barriers to Change Introduction

Words: 5230 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4699596

Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below.

Statement of the Problem

According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and performance levels that requires further examination. For example, based on their analysis of several hundred companies, Recardo and Jolly (1999) maintain that "Organizations that closely align their culture to support their business strategy tend to outperform those whose strategy and culture are not aligned. Since culture drives the behaviors of…… [Read More]


Banyard, V.L., & Miller, K.E. (1998). The powerful potential of qualitative research for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 485.

Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.

Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.

Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: A plan for investment, a plan for reform. London:
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Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

Words: 3934 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22341787

Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (Ryan and Jetha, 2010).

Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital relationships (Ryan and Jetha, 2010).

In SEX AT DAWN, the authors and analysts Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jetha expose virtually every little thing we "think we understand" about sex.

Ryan and Jetha demonstrate how our promiscuous previous activities haunt our present battles relating to monogamy, sexual preference, and household characteristics.…… [Read More]


Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.

Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.

Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.

Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
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Perceived Effect of Culture on

Words: 14190 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64453060

This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.

Polley and Ribbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and Ribbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).

Polley and Ribbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high performance teams. These five aspects are: monitoring; maintenance; creating productive group procedures; support teams all the way through; work routines that reduce stress (Beech and Crane, 1999).

Katzenbach and Smith (1993) articulate that creating diversity within teams is bound to increase performance. This is because diversity leads to higher levels…… [Read More]


Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.

Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.

Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
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Russian Culture and the Application

Words: 2449 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51879034

Another important factor is that the modern Russian family structure also reflects the stress of the society as a whole. "Family stress is related to the local variant of the widespread crisis in the Russian economy (Wolfe and Vitebsky, 2002, p. 73)

This leads to the question of how social roles are defined. Social roles are linked to the authority structure in the family and are usually hierarchical and patriarchal. However, this situation is open to many variations, especially in the light of the recent changes that the society has undergone. As Schultze ( 2000) states, "Although the man is usually considered the authority in the house, the woman provides most of the discipline and the affection for the children"(Schultze, 2000, p. 45).

3. Attitudes towards activities and problem solving.

It should be borne in mind that there is a greater sense of conservatism among Russians generally than is found in developed Western countries. "Russians are more likely to be cautious and conservative defenders of the status quo. Their cruel climate, harsh history, and skeptical outlook on life has caused Russians to value stability, security, social order, and predictability, avoiding risk" ( Goehner). Coupled with this is a more relaxed…… [Read More]


Byers, E.S., & Slattery, G. (1997). Sexology in Russia and Estonia: Reflections on an Exchange. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 6(1), 53+.

Dupont-Joshua, a. (Ed.). (2002). Working Inter-Culturally in Counselling Settings. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Questia database:

Elenkov, D.S. (1997). Differences and Similarities in Managerial Values between U.S. And Russian Managers: An Empirical Study. International Studies of Management & Organization, 27(1), 85+. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Questia database:

Goehner D. Russian / American Cultural Contrasts. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from
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Submarine Culture in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand

Words: 1566 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9359919

Submarine Culture in Jules Verne's "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"

This paper presents a detailed discussion about Jules Verne's book Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea. The writer of this paper takes the reader on an exploratory journey of the story itself then works to compare the culture of the people on the submarine to the actual cultures. The writer finishes with a discussion about the comparison. There were four sources used to complete this paper.


Many times in literature the author will use the story to portray or convey some truth in fiction about the culture he is writing about. This was the case with Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea. In this book the author takes painstaking efforts to convey many details with extreme accuracy relating to the culture of life at sea and the findings that occur. Other aspects of the culture are not as easily defined because of the various nations that the shipmates come from. Howewver, the culture of sea life is a culture that crosses all barriers and Verne does an excellent job of painting a mental picture for the reader about the culture that his…… [Read More]

References submarines

Verne, Jules. Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. Classic Paperbacks 1990

____(1998, March).Books: Old Favourite., The Daily Telegraph, 03-14-1998.

____(1988, January).World Literature, Philosophy, and Religion: Jules Verne
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American Sports of NFL and NBA and Their Influence in Popular Culture

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70386722

Sports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)


Pop Culture

Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:





Books and Cartoons and comics


It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:

Classical music


Conventional theatre

In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).


The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure activities. These activities consisted of hunting and war-like nature as well as dancing and other activities. The romans admired games that had gladiatorial and military effect to them while the Greeks loved the human body and its beauty. Later on in the Middle Ages, they had religious festivals and knight…… [Read More]

Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).

Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).

In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
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American Ethnic Culture

Words: 3266 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12368146

American Ethnic Culture

What is an American?

It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization

"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)

The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but as well was represented by the "pre-industrial and industrial cultures, and even class cultures…" (p.323) Americanization is stated by Meyer to have been an important movement for the adjustment of immigrant workers to a new industrial environment" and to the conditions in urban America and conditions of industry. (Meyer, nd,…… [Read More]


Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.

Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008

Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"

Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at:, Americancoercion.pdf
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Political Culture of Racism and

Words: 1248 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70038013

The roots of social control theory can be traced back to Emile Durkheim, who in the late 1800s proposed that "The more weakened the groups to which [the individual] belongs, the less he depends on them, the more he consequently depends only on himself and recognizes no other rules of conduct than what are founded on his private interests" (209). Hirschi expanded upon this theory to include the influence of social bonding on antisocial behavior. As described by Tittle (1995), Hirschi's social control theory "contends that everybody is motivated toward deviance, but only those who are relatively free of the bonds of commitment to, and belief in, the conventional order, attachment to others, and involvement with conventional institutions of society actually manifest their deviant motivation in unacceptable behavior" (7).

There is little question that ethnic minorities are the ones most likely fall into this category. This is not because they are 'born criminals' but rather because they are frequently isolated from conventional society and therefore are not tied to the conventional institutions of acceptable behavior. Unfortunately, the more people tend to believe that criminal behavior is innate to certain races and ethnicities, the more isolated these groups become, and in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Apple, Michael, W. And Assen, Peter. The State and the Politics of Knowledge, Routledge, 2003. Print.

Durkheim, Emile. Suicide, transl. By J.A. Spaulding and G. Simpson, New York: Free Press . 1951.

Halsey, Mark. Assembling Recidivism: The Promise And Contingencies Of Post- Release Life, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 2007. 97, pp. 101-53. Print.

Hirschi, Travis. Causes of delinquency. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 1969
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Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles When Dealing

Words: 3001 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34542765

Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles

When dealing with businessmen globally, it's critical to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that shape their negotiation style and business behavior. This is imperative for successful and positive business relationship because not all cultural foster similar beliefs and hence there can vast differences in negotiation styles. These differences become more pronounced as we move from west to east because while most western countries may have few things similar in terms of culture and education, the same is not true for eastern countries. In this paper we shall compare the negotiation style of Chinese and Canadians. This will help us understand what a business person from the west need to know about the Chinese business communication style in order to be successful in their relationship with them.

Negotiation refers to the process where two or more parties communicate with each other in order to reach a solution or agreement. In business negotiation takes place often when two parties come to deadlock and in order to move forward, they need to start a process of communication with the primary purpose of getting rid of the deadlock, reach an agreement and finally moving forward. However…… [Read More]


Graham J. And Lam, M. 2006 The Chinese Negotiation. Harvard Business Review.

Silverman, J. (1997). Doing business internationally. New Jersey: Princeton Training


James, D. (2003) Communication guide lines for doing business in Asia
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Eradicating Suicide Canadian Aboriginal Youth

Words: 3080 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28505221


Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People

Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People

The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.

The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole, 2010). Suicide is the most common habit among the aboriginal people of Canada, and in the recent past, aboriginals of Canada have experienced higher rates of suicide than the general population. This has seen to increased attention on the social problem, and many investigators are studying some of the predisposing…… [Read More]


Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.

Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.

Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.

Halifax: Fernwood Pub.
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Post Confederation Canadian History

Words: 1541 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5705118

British Parliament proclaimed the British North America Act; with this, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were made into the Dominion of Canada. Ever since this event a number of events and trends have threatened to pull Canada apart, but ultimately held it together. Such a large, varied, and sparsely settled nation resisted any obvious prescriptions of nationalism, and often, it seemed that the differences between the people and cultures that have lived in Canada were all that mattered. Nevertheless, Canada has been threaded together with first, the expansion of the railroad; second, its successful contribution to and advancement from the pressures of World War; and third, its devotion to maintaining a peaceable and pluralistic existence. Superficially, Canada seems to be a haphazardly thrown together nation, in which the land and the people tend to defy any typical characterizations. Yet, it is just this diversity that grants Canada its character: it has become almost synonymous with peaceful harmony and compromise.

The very first Prime Minster of Canada, John A. MacDonald, proposed a "National Policy," which emphasized national unity, progress, and accord. Under his plan, "Tariffs on imports would be raised. A transcontinental railroad would be built. An aggressive immigration policy…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Chui, Tina and Kelly Tran et al. 2005. "Chinese Canadians: Enriching the Cultural Mosaic." Canadian Social Trends, Spring 11 (8): 24-32.

2. Joyce, William W. And Richard Beach. 1997. Touching Canada. Washington D.C.: National Council for the Social Studies.

3. Leacock, Stephen. 1996. Social Criticism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

4. Manning, Erin. 2003. Ephemeral Territories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
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Social Work History Like America Canadian Social

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5338792

Social Work History

Like America, Canadian social work has always been about helping the poor and distressed citizens of the nation. The ideas from England had migrated to America and Canada. Both countries are based on migrants from other countries. There were many movements that developed and promoted social work and the ways that social work was implemented. The industrial revolution had left many unemployed without proper job training for the new work. Migrants were migrating from country to country and from rural areas to the cities causing cities to be overcrowded with unemployment, low wages, and homelessness.

One area that differed from American social work and Canadian social work was the way the poor and disadvantaged were viewed and the systematic investigation approach in Canada. The poor were viewed negatively by other citizens. It was felt the problems the poor had were a result of a weakness of character. (Drover) The Canadians felt that if the head of household did not provide in case of death, the responsibility fell to the wife and she didn't deserve to be relived from the consequences of the husband not having provisions for the family when he died. It sounds as if the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Directory M. Articles. (n.d.). Retrieved from History of Social Work:

Drover, G. (n.d.). Social Work. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: systematic. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Free Dictionary:
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Robert Hilles a Canadian Poet Now Living

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47919060

Robert Hilles, a Canadian poet (now living in Thailand), is a work that dates from 1976 and looks backward on boyhood memories, which in this case are not particularly uplifting. In fact, Hilles' poem is a kind of questioning paean in an oblique universe that fails to see the beauty in sacrifice or the reward in virtue. No path is lit toward future happiness -- all is bitter, brittle, and cold. This paper will analyze Hilles' "Then" and attempt to explain its focus on banality and depression.

The first line (begun without capitalization, as all the lines of "Then" are begun) implies the abysmal state of education: "poverty teaches no one." It is a rebellious assertion in the face of pressing absurdity: how can poverty be a virtue -- a way to humility? The poet (fresh out of adolescence and bewildered by the lack of masculinity and direction in adulthood -- noted in his father's existence between two non-existent realms) looks back on his childhood in Canada and places his dumbfounded expressions in the mind of a child. There is a tone of disgust and revulsion in Hilles' assertion -- but also a certain amount of resistance. Could it be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Then -- Poem Posted June 2, 2010." Robert Hilles, Poet and Novelist. 2010. Web. 14

June 2011.
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Cultural Influence in Education Culture

Words: 3232 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76073622

A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)

Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational opportunity for their sons and their daughters, as they seek to become successful in the global world. (Haddad, Smith & Moore, 2006, p. 13) (Elnour & Bashir-Ali, 2003, p. 62)

Islamic education, in its history was in part intended as a unifying force. Islamic education was foundational to pan-Islamic ideals…… [Read More]


Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.

Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.

Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.

Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
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Cultural Anthropology Cree and Intuit Cultures

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97074810

Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Conditions in the Arctic North

The first human occupation of the Americas occurred in Berengia during the last glaciation of the region. Later, it was more widely accepted that the primary center of population expansion was in Alaska, subsequently spreading into the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. The physical environment of the populated regions influenced the developing cultures of each group, affected by access to resources, barriers to trade routes, and weather and land conditions. As a result of environmental impact, religion, technological adaptations, economy and food source acquirement varied among the cultural populations, and is still seen in ethnic societies of the Arctic region today, evidence of the cultural sustainability of such adapted groups.

To define "culture," it is the combination of values, practices, and relationships of a population, with a number of factors influencing its development. Considering environment as a key point to cultural development requires the consideration of its subfactors and outcomes, as demonstrated by examining societies environmentally diverse from one another. It is important to first point out that indigenous cultures directly interplay with the region in which they exist. For instance, they are concerned with the aspects of nature concerned with their…… [Read More]


Brown, Chris. "Beyond the 'Invented Indian': Acknowledging Original Conservation."

Terralingua. 1997. Partnerships for Linguistic and Biological Diversity. 4 Mar. 2004.

Freimund, Wayne et al. "Principles of Koyukon Worldview." Native American Perspectives on Wilderness Preservation & Management. 1997. Chapter 12, 225-235. 4 Mar. 2004.

Greider, Brett. "Religion and Region." Religious Studies Web Resources. 20 Jan. 2003.
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Coast Salish Culture

Words: 3450 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17909114

Ceremonies and Celebrations

The Coast Salish people are people from Nations and Tribes whose traditional roots are found along the west coast of British Columbia and Washington State. Actually, the Coast Salish region expands from the northern Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland regions to western part of the Washington State. Most of the Coast Salish First Nations Groups are found in British Columbia and Washington State ("Coast Salish Fast Facts," p.1). The Coast Salish people seemingly have some similarities with other cultures in the Pacific Northwest Coast. An analysis of their traditions and customs and ceremonies and celebrations demonstrates that they are different from the other cultures, which make them distinct people. The process of proving this thesis will entail examining a brief history of Coast Salish people and thorough evaluation of their traditions and customs as well as ceremonies and celebrations.

The Coast Salish People of British Columbia

As previously mentioned, Coast Salish is a term that refers to several distinct languages from one branch of the huge Salishan language family. The Coast Salish people are a group of linguistically and ethnically related Indigenous people from the Pacific Northwest Coast who currently live in British Columbia and Washington State.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"COAST SALISH FAST FACTS." S'abadeb -- The Gifts: Pacific Coast Salish Art and Artists. Royal BC Museum, 17 Nov. 2009. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish." First Nations - Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia. First Nations, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish Peoples." The Seattle Times. Newspapers in Education and Hibulb Cultural Center, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish Spinning and Weaving." Coast Salish Wool Dog Poster. Coast Salish Fashion, 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .
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Social Unit My Social Unit Is Canada

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6547329

Social Unit

My social unit is Canada, which is a sovereign nation. I'm not sure how to redefine it, unless Canada expanded its borders or something. Perhaps by expanding the definition from strict geographic borders to incorporate all Canadians, living anywhere in the world. Canada is one of the most globalized nations in the world. As an immigrant nation, it features cities with some of the highest percentages of foreign-born people. Furthermore, with a large and globalized economy, Canada scores highly on many globalized indexes, and would score higher if those indexes took into account having immigrants from all over the world.

The first article is Zhang & Smith (2012). This article outlines the effects of globalization on workplace performance in Canada. There are a few different dimensions to this paper. The authors make several findings. First, they find that productivity is higher at foreign-owned firms, and productivity is also higher at firms with an export orientation. This hints that globalization as a force serves to bring companies into more global competition. With global competition and a global mindset, firms are forced to be more productive than domestic firms that mainly operate in a domestic context.

The second is MacDonald…… [Read More]


Laroche, M. (2011). Globalization, culture and marketing strategy: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 64 (9) 931-933.

MacDonald, A. (2013). Consideration of identity in teachers' attitudes toward teaching controversial issues under conditions of globalization: A critical democratic perspective from Canada. Ontario Institute for Studies. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from 

Slaymaker, O. & French, H. (2012). The changing Canadian cryosphere, globalization and global environmental change. Changing Cold Environments: A Canadian Perspective.

Zhang, H. & Smith, M. (2012). Globalization and workplace performance in Canada: Cross-sectional and dynamic analyses of productivity and wage outcomes. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 30 (3) 310-327.
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Canada's Role in Olympic 2012

Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70084033

Canada's Role In Olympics 2012

Canada is a multicultural, multi-ethnic and bi lingual country where people from all parts of the world travel to in search of a new life, of better earning and educational opportunities. The state is a democracy or parliamentary democracy, as the people select the cabinet and the Prime Minister but it is still a colony of the British Empire as Queen Elizabeth is considered the actual head of the country. Area wise Canada is the second largest country and has a population of 33.4 million. Its average income places it at the ninth position, signifying wealthy, prosperous land and people. Canadians are avid sports fans and participate in a number of games. The most popular and official sports are: Ice Hockey and Lacrosse. Other sports played in the country include: Baseball, Soccer, Basketball, Canadian Football, Swimming, Tennis, Volleyball, Snowshoeing, Gymnastics, Cricket etc. (West, J.T & Lindsay, P. L, 2012).

Canada has been a regular participant of the Olympics except for the 1896 Summer Olympics and 1980 Summer Olympics which they boycotted. The country has secured at least one medal per competition. It does not hold a lot of records but two important ones are: Cindy…… [Read More]


CNC World Channel (2012). Team Canada's Olympic Campaign. Retrieved July 22 from

The Hudson Bay Co. (2011). Hudson's Bay Company: Canadian Olympic Team London2012 Collection. Retrieved July 22, from,

Campbell, D. (2012). CTV Olympics: Chasing History. Retrieved July 22, 2012, from

West, J.T & Lindsay, P. L (2012) The Canadian Encyclopedia: Sports History. Retrieved July 22, 2012 from
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Breastfeeding Among South Asian Immigrant

Words: 4252 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77576149

Data in this study indicates that these events preceded the discontinuation of breastfeeding. The following figure illustrates the Schema for Breastfeeding Definition provided by the Canadian Minister of Health (1997) which was adopted from the work of Labbok and Krasovec (1990)

Schema for Breastfeeding Definition

Source: Canadian Minister of Health (1997) adopted from the work of Labbok and Krasovec (1990)

Vietnam and Cambodian Cultures Examined

Several cultures are examined in this study including those of the Vietnamese, Cambodians and those from Laos and it is stated the largest part of these children "are typically breastfed for more than year." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) it is related that imported formula is not affordable or not readily available therefore, breastfeeding is "simply the norm." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) This work relates that when no supplement formula is available that breast milk "is commonly supplemented with prechewed rice paste or rice and sugar porridge." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) at six months of age the child's diet begins to include "a thin gruel of boiled rice flour (bot) followed by porridges." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) it is related that infants in urban areas of Vietnam nd Cambodia "are more likely…… [Read More]


Immigration and Health (2005) Health Canada Science and Research. 9 Aug 2005. Online available at

Sheehan, Debbie; Watt, Susan; Krueger, Paul; and Sword, Wendy (2006) the Impact of New Universal Postpartum Program on Breastfeeding Outcomes. International Lactation Consultant Association. Online available at

The Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. Breastfeeding Statement of the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada; 2002.

The Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. The Baby-Friendly initiative in community health services: A Canadian implementation guide. Toronto, on: The Breastfeeding Committee for Canada; 2002..
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Hockey in the United States

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13023286

The spectre of assimilation, was even more pronounced in the native community. In the Hockey Game, Wes Fineday relates the memory of a game played on his reserve. Children were taken to boarding schools, where even the food was unfamiliar. Hockey was the one thing that Fineday could relate to and it brought him fond memories of home. The boarding school experience illustrates Canada's policies towards natives for most of the 20th century. This contempt towards native culture coloured the histories of hockey from that era. Thus, the history of hockey writing was coloured by racism that specifically excluded any special recognition of natives. Thus, even today it is mainly native people who are versed on the history of hockey among native Canadians.

Another contributing factor to the whitewashing of hockey's history is the fact that hockey is viewed as a national icon. Hockey is "an authentic and autonomous expression of Canadian culture" (Gruneau & Wilson). The very definition of Canadian culture, however, was largely shaped by whites. Whites controlled the media, and as we have seen discounted the role of native Canadians is the country's culture and history. It can be reasonably argued that it was not until the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brownell, Susan. (1995). "Training the Body for China" University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Gruneau, Richard & Whitson, David (1993). "Hockey Night in Canada" Garamond Press, Toronto

Bellegarde, a.J. (2005). "Aboriginal Hockey" Backcheck: A Hockey Retrospective. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at

Beardsley, Doug. (2005). "Our Game: An All-Star Collection of Hockey Fiction" Raincoast Books, Vancouver.
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Horses Canada Arrival of Horses

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21225606

Many considered horses a source of power and social activity, as well as pride and prestige within Canada (Hedley, 1988). Horses enabled mechanization of many agrarian tasks and changed the way many farmers and other rural citizens underwent daily living. Researchers have continually explored the ways horses have transformed society both from a cultural and environmental standpoint.

Significance of Study

Hedley (1988) points out that it is vital to understand the extend and ways the "practices of agrarian households are constrained through their involvement in commodity" and through the emergence of new tools or practices (p. 67). Many people fail to realize the significance of seemingly small events such as the arrival of horses into agrarian lifestyles and rural developments in the 1800s.

At present there is relatively little research that has been conducted related to the impact the arrival of horses have had not only on farm households but also rural developments in general during the early 1800s and beyond. This paper will examine the impacts the arrival of the horses had on social existence and on productive processes so that researchers can better appreciate the relevance on history this change resulted in.


Martin (1995) suggests that historians…… [Read More]


Crowe, H.S., McNaught, Kenneth & Reid, J.H. A source book of Canadian history:

Selected documents and personal papers. Toronto: Longmans Canada, 1964.

Hambleton, Josephine & Lanctot, Gustave. A history of Canada: Volume one from its origins to the Royale Regime, 1663. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1963.

Hedley, M.J. "The peasant within: Agrarian life in New Zealand and Canada." Canadian
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Children's Literature to Explore Social

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1123079

Because schools matter so greatly in shaping the destiny of each child, they have always been the focus of intense, often unfriendly, attention. Criticisms of the system have always been abundant, and the targets of dissatisfaction have remained virtually the same over generations (13).

By properly utilizing children's literature to identify and then to address social issues, more equity can be engendered within a social system in which those from "privileged backgrounds" are favored.

An analysis of present and previous literature on the methodology of most prudently employing children's literature to address social issues readily indicates that the most successful, thought-provoking manner for doing so lies in utilizing an approach of cultural literacy. This principle denotes an active exploration on the process of both children and their teacher to bring their viewpoints to the literary works they are engaged in, in order to "construct meaning" (Responding to Literature, 419). Critical literacy revolves around constantly questioning literature, such as determining who the author is, what his or her reason for writing the text may have been, why certain events took place and what their significance is, etc. This process of questioning literature is referred to as interrogating texts (Responding to Literature,…… [Read More]


Pinnell, G.S., Fountas, I.C. (2007). The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades K-8. Portsmouth: Heinneman.

Energizing Ontario Education. (2008). Reach Every Student. Retrieved from 

For the Love of Learning. (1994). Ontario: Queens Printer.

No author. (2010). "Literacy Statistics." Retrieved from
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Mackenzie Valley Region

Words: 4029 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23682792

Mackenzie Valley Region

The River Mackenzie measures up to around one thousand, one hundred and twenty miles that is equivalent to almost eighteen hundred kilometers of length. It originates from Canada, more specifically the Great Slave Lake in Northwest Territories. It passes through a delta, which is at the northwest of the Arctic Ocean. It is called the Slave River when it glows between the Lake Athabasca and the Great Slave Lake (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2010).

The river system known as the Final Peace along with the Lake Athabasca connects with the Mackenzie. The "Finlay Peace Mackenzie system" which is the second biggest uninterrupted flow of river in North America measures up to four thousand and two hundred kilometers long. The biggest tributary directly meeting the Mackenzie is the Liard River. Navigation is possible all the way from the Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean only between the months of June and October (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2010).

There exist rapids of around twenty three km between the Lake Athabasca and the Great Slave Lake that need to be portaged. There are navigable waters of more than four hundred miles beyond the rapids. Between the Arctic, Fort Nelson and British…… [Read More]


Berger, Thomas R. (1977a). Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, vol. 1. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

Berger, Thomas R. (1977b). Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, vol. 2. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

Blake, Phillip. (1977). Statement to the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, 9 July 1075. In Dene Nation: The Colony Within, ed. Mel Watkins, pp. 5-9. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Canadian Dimension. (2005). People, Petroleum, and Pipelines in the Mackenzie Valley: a Chronology. Vol. 39, Issue 2.
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Twentieth Century Was a Century of Technological

Words: 1774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34709409

Twentieth century was a century of technological progress, century when most of democratic and social principles were realized on practice, which made society more open, liberal, free and advanced. Human progress is dynamic and its development reached unseen results in last decades. New means of technology such as telecommunication, wireless communication, internet and simply development of transportation and interaction of different countries had introduced new concept to our world, concept of popular culture, culture of popular stereotypes which is resulted by means of mass media.

Mass media and press are often called fourth "power" which supplements three existing powers and contributes to the development and simply to the nature of relations on different levels in society. Its informative purposes have an essential meaning for society, as they provide people with different kind of information, help them to form their opinion about different evens, help them in creating their point-of-view and they also stimulate passive and active participation of people in cultural, social and political development of the country they live in.

Besides mass media, the influence of simple communication and interaction on society in Canada is great. It resulted that Canadian society is one of the most developed and liberal…… [Read More]


1. Gidengil, Elisabeth Everrit, Joanna Conventional Coverage/Unconventional Politicians:Gender and Media Coverage of Canadian Leaders' Debates, 1993, 1997, 2000 article from Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique, Canadian Political Science Association, 2003 available on web:

2. McDowell, Stephen D. Canadian Communication and Cultural Policies: Coping with Globalization and Digital Media, Article

available on:

3. Buchwald, Cheryl Cowan. Canadian Universality Policy and the Information Infrastructure: Past Lessons, Future Directions. Canadian Journal of Communication. 22-2, 1997 p.161-194
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Sociology of Technology in One

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81007146

As a result they demand more convenient means of addressing communications needs like text messaging and are more prone to use Blackberry-like devices for their SMS needs. The development of the Blackberry came far after Hong Kong users had mastered the art of SMS on standard cellphones. The product "mapping," as Norman (1996) describes, is more intuitive on the Blackberry but the technology arrived too late to compete with the Hong Kong market. This supports what (author of "Do Artifacts Have Politics") describes as the "social determination of technology."

Sociological theories of technology suggest that artifacts may reflect political and cultural realities. Differential cellular phone usage between North America and Canada reflects a political and cultural reality: telecommunications infrastructure in the United States and Canada continues to emphasize land lines, and cellular phone services are less entrenched as a result. In Hong Kong the reverse is true: land lines were far less embedded in the culture. Consumers embraced the new technology readily in Hong Kong because unlike in North America there was no need to transfer land line services over to cellular phones. Cellular phone service is more widespread and reliable in Hong Kong and consumers there expect to use…… [Read More]


Cell Phone Usage Statistics." Retrieved April 1, 2007 at

Chowdhury, Mridul & Yeung, Steve. "Hong Kong SAR." Retrieved April 1, 2007 at

Do Artifacts Have Politics?"

Heilbroner, Robert L. (1967). "Do Machines Make History?" Technology and Culture. 8(3). July 1967: 335-345.
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Abo Fem Towards Hearing and

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77718654

It is in this way that fiction from female aboriginal Canadian writers both empowers the authors and their people and brings to light better understandings of what native Canadians have faced and must continue to face. One native scholar on the subject has been quoted as saying, "our task…is two fold. To examine the past and culturally affirm toward a new future" (Armstrong, in Acoose 227). It is not simply a rumination on past injuries that this literature provides, but a way of analyzing the past that allows for forward movement.

It is also impossible to consider the literature produced by members of this community as pure fictions, but rather some historical knowledge is necessary to fully appreciate the intricacies and events of stories like in Search of April Raintree. The largely negative nature of the events of the novel and the rapidity with which they take place is easily misinterpreted as literary heavy-handedness until one examines some brief statistics and historical details regarding life for indigenous Canadians in the twentieth century (Perreault). In this way, the literature of authors like Mosionier also provide a direct understanding of the practical realities faced by indigenous peoples, directly educating readers while at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acoose, J. "The Problem of 'Searching' for April Raintree." In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Penguis Publishers, 1999.

Groening, Laura Smyth. Listening to Old Women Speak: Natives and alterNatives in Canadian Literature. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2004.

Mosionier, Beatrice Culleton. In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Penguis Publishers, 1999.

Perreault, Jeanne. "In Search of Cheryl Raintree, and Her Mother." In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Penguis Publishers, 1999.
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Product Launch Plan for Two

Words: 3731 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75226315

As regards its advantages in the Italian market -- the Italian culture places a rich emphasis on food and wine, is interested in expanding its export business, and with a reputable wine export business flourishing in Italy, Kudler can gain a foothold with its own wine products.

Weaknesses: Possible discrepancies between American and Canadian definitions of 'organic' may cause concerns. Then too, there is the reluctance of Canadian winemakers to allow alien influences to penetrate their market. Their aptitude in aggressively marketing themselves against current imports may pose challenges to Kudler.

As regards Italy, current economic difficulties cause the Italian population to prefer discount stores and cheaper food. Similarly too, the Italian retail market and European Union competitors may be unwelcoming to an American competitor that is attempting to enter their field.

Opportunities: There is an explosion in the demand for organic food. The Canadian wine market is still experimenting with its wine tastes, and is still in the process of emerging. Kudler, with its distinctive Californian wines, can make an impression on shaping the Canadian taste profile for wines. Similarly, too, with the Italian market: the Californian wines can carve their own distinctive niche in the market, aside from…… [Read More]

Wagner, P. (3/24/2009). Wine distribution, Retrieved January 6, 2011 from

Welcome to the Golden State. (2005). California Wines. Retrieved January 6, 2011 from

Wines of Canada. (n.d.) Organic wines. Retrieved January 6, 2011 from
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Hockey the Universal Individual Hockey

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27569260

While hockey may have masculine connotations for the single sportsman watching a game, a father watching the same game may see the sport as a way to bring the family together, while a mother next to him in the stands may marvel at its sociological implications as she watches her daughter bond with her father while discussing the intricacies of the game.

While viewing hockey as an art form allows Canadians to draw a variety of meanings from the game, the game's implications on Canadian society are hard to deny. A community affair, hockey has had the power to bind Canadians together, bringing communities and families into stands or next to television screens across the country to enjoy a good game. While some may view the action of the game to be "hypermasculine," the consequences are anything but, but are instead a common ground for community interaction -- a rather feminine model for community organization. Gruneau and Whitson call hockey "a form of backyard play" and "a community symbol" (27). Much like its American cousin, baseball, hockey's ability to bring people together is one of the main reasons that it rose in fame and popularity in Canada. Although many Canadians…… [Read More]

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Shoeless Joe American Dreams How

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94483215

And so America continues to search subconsciously for ways back, for snorkels to lower to those buried souls. Consider the resurgence of magical literature in America over the last decade and a half. Never since Tolkien has the fantasy genre -- the Twilight books and the wealth of vampire chronicles accompanying for example -- been so widely successful. J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels are a recent manifestation of that search for snorkels. What could be more escapist than to imagine being a wizard estranged and insulated from his magical heritage and forced into the mundane -- muggle -- world? As Shoeless Joe was to Ray Kinsella, as writing was to W.P. Kinsella, so has Harry Potter been to a recent generation of Americans. Harry Potter is a mythological symbol of the type Campbell knows has been lost to the detriment of the people. He is the truth Americans wish they possessed, and he too defies the whole world of productivity and bureaucrats and fixes onto what Joyce called the "grave and constant in human suffering." Novels of this sort provide a vehicle back into the heartland and so capture the imagination of a public that knows not what it searches…… [Read More]


1. Kinsella, W.P. Shoeless Joe. New York: First Mariner Books, 1999. Print.

2. Twigg, Alan. "Kinsella, W.P." ABCBookworld, BC Bookworld. 2005. Web. 28 April 2010.

3. Besner, Neil. "Kinsella, William Patrick" the Canadian Encyclopedia. 2010. Web. 28 April 2010.

4. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. California: Joseph Campbell Foundation, 2008. Print.
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Social Dynamics Have Resulted in

Words: 2444 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7067047

(Green Left, 1999).The gap between the rich and the poor is also soaring because vast most of the wealth generated from Canada's recent economic growth goes to the richest Canadians instead of being channeled to the poor Canadians who are the majority of the Canadian population.

The shrinking Middle class

According to Macionis & Gerber (2002), approximately 40 to 50% of the Canadian population belongs to the middle class. Due to its size, it heavily influences the nature of Canadian culture. This class has a considerable level of racial as well as ethnic diversity. This class is never characterized by familiarity and exclusivity with which the upper class carries. Over half of the families in this category are referred to as the "upper-middle" class and is characterized by families having incomes ranging $50,000- $100,000. The salaries of the upper middle class are mainly earned from professional and upper managerial positions (Macionis & Gerber (2002). The rest of the middle class population does work in less prestigious occupations that are white-collar or in highly skilled jobs that are blue-collar. The middle class has been noted be the dominant class in the Calgary Stampede

It has been noted that while persons in…… [Read More]


Baker, L (2009), "A boom in office towers in Calgary," New York Times, 2009-01-20, retrieved 2011-02-17

Barber, J (2007).Toronto Divided: a Tale of Three Cities." John Barber, Globe and Mail,

December 20, 2007.
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Early Chinese History

Words: 2053 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87377950

Immigration, Spatial, And Cultural Aspects of the Canadian Pacific Railway

At the turn of the 19th century, Chinese emigration began in Canada. The Chinese saw Canada as a place for new and prosperous opportunities in order to send money and goods back to their relatives in China. Voyagers from Hong Kong to Canada would take three weeks on water. Often they left China after being poverty or destitution.

From the 1880's up till the 1920's the kind of labor the Chinese were involved in was the raw work of a beginning industrial economy. The Chinese workers were either semiskilled or skilled and worked in the British Columbia salmon canneries and sawmills. While some worked in the factories and sawmills, still others worked farming, clearing land, or becoming shopkeepers, peddlers, or even restaurateurs. The Chinese immigrants who were unskilled, typically found work in the laundry trade.

Before the 1920's however, Chinese people have lived in Vancouver since 1788 with the first small group of artisans, 50 in total, were contracted by Captain John Meares to aid in setting up a trading post on Vancouver Island to sell and trade otter pelts. Only until 1858, that the Chinese began immigrating to Canada…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cleveland, Jennifer, and Brittany Dewar. Connecting Canada: a History of the Railway through Rogers Pass from 1865 to 1916. British Columbia: University of Victoria, BC, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. < >.

Downey, Jack C. "The Chinese in Canada - The Good, The Bad and the Ugly by Jack CD Downey AKA The Gallopping Geezer." Canadian Culture- Canada's Number 1 Supportive Networking Directory - Find yourself here Canada. N.p., 2012. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. .

FCCRWC. "The Ties that Bind." MHSO - Multicultural History Society of Ontario. MHSO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. .

"History of the Chinese in Canada." Welcome to Mysteries of Canada. Debates of the Senate (Hansard) 1st Session, 36th Parliament, Vol. 137, 2 Feb. 1999. Web. 23 Nov. 2013. .
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War Changed Everything Authors J L Granatstein and

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91054621

War Changed Everything," authors J.L. Granatstein and Desmond Morton argue that the Second World War benefited Canada and Canadian society. Stating that "The Second World War was the one good war," Granatstein and Morton claim that World War Two improved the Canadian economy, improved Canada's position as a world power, and created a more just and egalitarian society (323). The article is divided into several sections, including "What the War Changed for Canada," "Canada and the World," and "Canada and Canadians." In the first section, "What the War Changed for Canada," the authors focus mainly on the Canadian economy, noting "The Second World War saw a quantum leap in the extent and complexity of munitions production," (324). In the article's second section, the authors describe how World War Two altered Canada's role in international politics. In the section entitled "Canada and Canadians," the authors argue that the Second World War made Canada a "kinder, gentler place," (328). Although "The War Changed Everything" is a brief article, the authors do not cite any sources. Furthermore, the authors use broad, general issues to back up their thesis rather than specific examples.

World War Two was filled with horrors such as the Nazi…… [Read More]

references to source material and the article contains no reference documentation.

Furthermore, the authors do not discuss exceptions to their argument. The most glaring omission from the essay is the Japanese internment camps. Although Canada had "loosened up" and became more tolerant in general, the nation also demonstrated great flaws in the way it dealt with social and economic situations. Not everyone benefited from the war. Therefore, "The War Changed Everything" glorifies World War Two without admitting that not everything about the war was wonderful.
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Movie Critique Double Happiness

Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92795601

Double Happiness

Mina Shum's 1994 movie Double Happiness combines cultural and parental friction with a touching coming of age story. Jade Li (Sandra Oh) is a young Chinese-Canadian who struggles to distance herself from her father's traditional set of values without becoming totally ostracized like her brother, who was disowned by their overbearing parents. Jade's father expects a lot from her: in his eyes Jade should be the ideal Chinese daughter, obedient and malleable to his image of her. Instead, Jade's creative energy and vivacious spirit help her blend well into Canadian culture. Her desire to be an actress widens the gap between her and her father. Their already strained relationship threatens to fall apart completely when she falls in love with a Caucasian man. Her forbidden romance and her forbidden career ambitions force Jade to ultimately choose between her family's wishes and her own.

Mina Shum illustrates the father-daughter conflict through intense and well-written dialogue, making the story accessible to…… [Read More]

Mina Shum's 1994 movie Double Happiness combines cultural and parental friction with a touching coming of age story. Jade Li (Sandra Oh) is a young Chinese-Canadian who struggles to distance herself from her father's traditional set of values without becoming totally ostracized like her brother, who was disowned by their overbearing parents. Jade's father expects a lot from her: in his eyes Jade should be the ideal Chinese daughter, obedient and malleable to his image of her. Instead, Jade's creative energy and vivacious spirit help her blend well into Canadian culture. Her desire to be an actress widens the gap between her and her father. Their already strained relationship threatens to fall apart completely when she falls in love with a Caucasian man. Her forbidden romance and her forbidden career ambitions force Jade to ultimately choose between her family's wishes and her own.

Mina Shum illustrates the father-daughter conflict through intense and well-written dialogue, making the story accessible to a wide audience. Although the characters may appear one-dimensional and stereotypical, the actors do a fine job of fleshing out their roles. Sandra Oh's performance lights up the screen; Stephen Chang effectively portrays the stern, stubborn father whose love for his daughter is obscured by his fierce clinging to tradition. Callum Keith Rennie plays Jade's boyfriend with an acute sensitivity to his role. The film is strongly character-driven, which may cause some audiences to yawn and others to heave a sigh of relief.

Double Happiness offers audiences windows into a relevant segment of North American culture without resorting either to political correctness or caricatures. The clash of cultures is palpable and accessible to people of any background. The themes of the film are universal, even if they are specific to Asian culture in Shum's film. The fact that there is no clear closure to the conflict at the end of the film makes Double Happiness an even more realistic portrayal of Chinese-Canadian cultural and family struggles.