Furthermore, alcoholism causes brain damage and
"thiamine deficiency is a common occurrence in people with alcoholism"
(NIAA 2004). The fact that brain damage is caused by excessive alcohol
abuse is a serious concern and one which cannot be overlooked. But
alcoholics are not alike and alcoholism has different origins for different
people. Therefore the effects vary considerably. But these, among many
other effects of alcohol abuse can be expected or at least there is a
possibility for them to exist.
Alcohol abuse also poses a risk on one's psychology. Although one
initially feels relaxed after drinking, this will soon turn into a negative
feeling. Someone who drinks too much will experience anxiety and this can
possibly lead to depression. Alcohol abuse is also related to sleep
problems, mood-swings, violent behavior, and possible suicide as 2/3 of all
suicide attempts involve alcohol (BUPA 2006). This is an extreme effect of
alcohol abuse and likely linked to the fact that alcohol is a depressant
and it stimulator of the parts of the brain which seeks please, but that
alcohol helps, but eventually inhibits future happy activity. There are
many well-known side effects of alcohol that are considered positive, and
these surely lead people to drink more. But these side effects, known as
drunkenness, even on a moderate level lead alcohol intake to be a negative
effect on a person. While the benefits of alcohol may encourage alcohol
abuse, these are actually negative effects acting on a person. For
example, the room spinning or blurred vision is the result of chemical
reactions in the body that are not natural and thus cannot be considered
positive. One indication of alcohol abuse to the point of overdose is
ataxia, which means that body moves in uncontrolled jerking motions. There
are countless other disorders caused by…… [Read More]
Great Depression refers to the serious economic decline that started in the United States towards the end of 1929 and spread to most industrial countries of the world, lasting until the early 1940s. The period saw sharp declines in the production and sale of goods and a sudden, severe rise in unemployment. Numerous businesses and banks closed down or went bankrupt, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and large sections of the population in hitherto prosperous countries had to depend on charity to survive. Economists have discussed and dissected the causes of the Depression ever since and its long-term effects have not even been fully overcome even today. In this paper we shall discuss some of the important causes and effects of the Great Depression.
The popular misconception about the Great Depression is that the sudden stock market crash of October 1929 caused it. Although the stock market collapse certainly contributed to the subsequent economic downturn, the crash itself was more a symptom than a cause of the economic disease. Some of the major causes of the Great Depression are discussed below:
Economic Inequality and Easy Credit
The end of the World War I saw the American nation withdraw towards an inward looking policy of heightened individualism and the single-minded pursuit of getting rich. New technological innovations in the modern industry enabled quantum increase in industrial productivity. Unrestrained consumerism was promoted through the newly acquired art of advertising. People were persuaded to buy new, attractive products such as the automobile, the radio and household appliances. The problem was that while the public could be easily seduced into abandoning their habits of saving and frugality, the majority of the American public did not have the required buying capacity due to great inequalities in incomes. For example, during the "roaring" twenties (between 1923 and 1929), manufacturing output per person-hour increased…… [Read More]
Cars: Cause and Effect
The use of cars has been a major factor in modern life. Although most people would consider cars to be indispensable, there are many effects that cars cause on the environment and quality of life.
The environmental impact upon the environment is strong. Using a car is one of the most polluting activities an individual can do.(EPA) In turn, the consequences of the resulting pollution include such problems as smog, respiratory problems, acid rain, and ozone depletion. However, improving on the efficiency of cars can help counteract this problem by reducing the emissions they produce. (Albrecht ) Indeed, the effect of switching from high fuel consumption vehicles to "greener" alternatives can have a significant effect on these problems.
Interestingly, environmental effects are not the only consequences of using cars, for they also affect human safety and health -- from accidents, obesity, and violence due to road rage, to the overall quality of human life as a whole -- including traffic, lack of exercise, and an increase in urban sprawl.(Stop) In addition, physical space is effected as well (a bicycle takes up four times less room, a bus thirty times less),( Energie-Cites) as well as housing patterns -- for drivers have…… [Read More]
What causes women to risk their health? Clearly the hoped-for effect is to improve their performances. Sutton explains that a woman on anabolic steroids will have less body fat and her body muscle mass will offer her more strength. "She may also develop euphoria and a heightened self-esteem… and have much more energy" (Sutton, 4). Moreover, women on steroids may experience "…heightened sexual arousal" and athletically inclined men are apt to be more attracted to her. She will have negative effects too, such as being irritable, experiencing dramatic mood swings, and she may even go into a "roid rage" -- or become depressed -- when she sees a woman that looks better than she does (Sutton, 5).
It should also be explained that women on anabolic steroids may begin to develop a body that is more like a man's body (after all, anabolic steroids increase testosterone production). Her breasts may decrease in size, her jaw line can begin to become more square, and unlike what happens with men, when women stop using anabolic steroids, their bodies don't go back to what they were; in fact "…sometimes the effects can last for life" (Specificity, 2012).
What are the effects from the continuing use of anabolic steroids?
The Medline Plus component of the National Institutes of Health explains that there are several negative effects associated with use / abuse of anabolic steroids. They are: acne and cysts; breast growth and shrinking of testicles in men; voice deepening and growth of body hair in women; possible heart attacks; disease of the liver (which may include cancer); and aggressive behaviors (Medline Plus).
In conclusion, when the cause is so important to a major league baseball player like Ken Caminiti that he takes larges doses of anabolic steroids to improve his performance, the effect is death. Caminiti was MVP of the National League in 1996; "I got really strong, really quick," Caminiti explained (Mileur, 2004); he was the first MLB player…… [Read More]
Deployment on Military Families
Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)
The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.
The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children
The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression or anxiety -- is significant and is being carefully studied by psychologists. An article in the peer-reviewed Journal of Clinical Psychology explains that having a parent sent to "an active combat zone" with no exact date set for returning to the family "…may rank as one of the most stressful events of childhood" (Lincoln, et al., 2008, p. 984). Additional stress may be placed on that child because the parent that remains at home may be "compromised by his or her own distress and uncertainty" by what may happen to the deployed person, Lincoln continues (984).
In order to fully understand what effects a family endures when there is separation due to a military obligation to deploy there must first be an understanding of the "unique culture of military life," Lincoln explains on page 985. First of all the military culture is faced with more than just separation when a parent deploys; in fact there is always the fear that the deployed parent could be injured or even killed. Also, in order to understand the military culture one must be familiar with the "cycle of deployment," which has five very distinct phases, according to Lincoln (985).
Those five phases include: a) "predeployment" (extends from the announcement that the parent will be deployed to the actual departure); b) deployment (from leaving to returning); c) sustainment…… [Read More]
A number of individual, school and family risk factors contribute to this risk. Studies have identified exposure to domestic violence, child maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems, low self-worth and reduced assertiveness to increase children's risk of being bullied." (Shakoor, Jaffe et al., 380). In other words, victims may already be in a position where they could very well suffer mental health issues later in life, but it is undeniable that the bullying worsens any prognosis. Indeed, Farrington et al. In a 2011 study have shown that if anything victims tend to understate their own mental health difficulties (at least in contrast to parental assessments): they write that "victimization (being bullied) according to mothers was a strong and significant predictor of depression, even after controlling for ten key risk factors. Victimization according to boys was a weak but nevertheless significant predictor, especially when it was measured at the youngest age of 10. These results suggest that being bullied is followed by an increased risk of depression, and consequently that intervention programmes that prevent bullying would cause a decreased risk of depression." (Farrington et al., 80)
In conclusion, the causal connection between bullying and later mental health problems on the part of victims is definitely established. It may not be possible to blame the bullying entirely, if (as seems likely) selection of victims is based on perception of factors which might already contribute to the victim's mental instability. However, it is clear that the bullying distinctly worsens any prognosis, and that the cause-and-effect relationship is established by the available scientific literature.
Works… [Read More]
If the team managers were to infuse players with a greater sense of camaraderie and a winning approach to playing, the team may perform well.
Often the media uses derogatory terms when describing the team, such as the team that "spoiled" the best stadium in the nation (Spagnolo, 2007). Proclamations as this can also turn sentiment into reality, and cause poor self-esteem among players. It seems as though the owners and managers have also made poor choices when it comes to trading and keeping players, trading out certain players that may have helped the team achieve victory, and adopting players that did not affect the team positively. Some team members during the last decade experienced injuries resulting in further loss of good players.
There is also evidence of team managers hiring players who averaged well over the "average" number of strikeouts one would expect from a decent player (Spagnolo, 2007). Even celebrities have commented on the Pirates, bashing them in public or mocking their attempts to establish themselves as a legitimate force to be reckoned with in the baseball field. In summary, one may conclude the Pirates continue to experience loss because of multiple causes.
These include poor motivation or team spirit, poor camaraderie, the trading of good players for bad players, and poor management decisions. Unfriendly attention from the media also contributes to the declining face of the Pirates. Without attention to all of these matters, it is unlikely the Pirates will realize a winning season in the near future, even with their large fan base. The only chance the Pirates have for a winning season is a complete overhaul of the management, the image the Pirates have in the media, and the ability of managers to infuse players with "team spirit."… [Read More]
Cause and Effects of Teen Smoking
For more than a half-century, the deadly effects of cancer smoking in humans has been well-known and scientifically documented. Due to the strong addiction element of cigarettes, a nationwide anti-smoking campaign, meant for full efficiency, soon appeared to be doomed, as smokers continued smoking, despite knowing about the deadly effects of cigarettes.
Slowly, the scientific community was able to effectively bring a halt to the legal selling of nicotine products to children under the age of 18. For years after the initial banning of adolescent tobacco use, these children were still targeted for advertisement as the incoming generation of smoking adults, a crucial demographic for cigarette companies. The causes of teen smoking include targeted advertisement by tobacco companies and the ever-present problem of peer pressure, and the negative effects of teenage tobacco use are early symptoms of lung disease, cancer, and lifelong addiction.
American presents to the world a very conservative and very sheltered medium in many respects. From personal experience, I can attest to the fact that societies in Europe, Latin America, and Africa are much more fluid with age limits. For instance, in some of these societies, one can observe a teen smoker or drinker and not think very much of it.
Yet no matter what society says, cigarettes can kill and unfortunately many do not seem to grasp this concept, especially in light of the addictive nature of cigarettes, a fact that tobacco companies often seem to overlook, in search for profit. Teens are an important age group for tobacco companies because of the ever present need to gain new lifelong smokers to replace those that die each year, and peer pressure and the addictive properties of tobacco do nothing to diminish this aspect.
Young people living in households where adults smoke are, furthermore, at a greater risk for tobacco use. This problem arises due to the fact that, psychologically, a child will think it is all right to smoke, due to the fact that his or…… [Read More]
Behavior-Cause and Effects
Cause and effect.
There are many circumstances in life that result in positive as well as negative effects. The causes or causative factors that result in certain effects however cannot just be considered from a purely subjective point-of-view. One should also consider the environmental and societal factors that act as causes that affect one's feelings and behaviour in life. A central thesis therefore that will be explored in this paper is that social and environmental factors determine one's life and experiences but that knowledge of the way one's life is affected can be used positively in terms of contentment and satisfaction.
If one thinks in the larger context one has to come to the conclusion that certain social, socio-economic as well as political factors are causative factors in our lives. One could consider as a primary factor in our lives the various social and political structures which result in the categorization of people into classes and social "types."
We also have to consider the nature vs. nurture debate. This includes the view that our lives are shaped and determined to a great degree by our genetic makeup. The extent of genetics as a causative feature in our happiness or otherwise is a point of contention in modern thought: as one researcher in this field states;
Contrary to the argument that genetics determines one's sustainable happiness is the "position that happiness changes throughout one's life as a result of life circumstances and intentional activities. Therefore, one is not simply born with a permanent disposition to happiness as genetics research suggests. (Gironda et al.)
One could also argue that these social and governmental factors also determine how much access we have to knowledge and also determine our lives as consumers of goods. There is also the argument that society and the forces such as the mainstream media dictate who and what we are, as well as what thoughts we think, what we can do with our lives, who our friends and…… [Read More]
School Violence: Cause and Effect
Leary el al. (2003) have noted that, "Case studies were conducted of 15 school shootings between 1995 and 2001 to examine the possible role of social rejection in school violence. Acute or chronic rejection -- in the form of ostracism, bullying, and/or romantic rejection -- was present in all but two of the incidents." This study drew extremely clear connections between incidents of social ostracism, bulling, and social rejection and incidents of school violence, including shootings. For example, incidents of school violence frequently occur as a direct result of negative interaction between members of a peer group. Researchers such as Leary et al. have provided conclusive evidence of this link. School violence prevention must, therefore, focus on ways in which school communities can mitigate these negative and potentially harmful social interactions and issues. In this sense, the cause of school violence is bullying and negative social experiences that often occur in school settings. The effect is that schools must carefully consider their school's social and disciplinary climate in order to effectively prevent incidents of interpersonal violence (Leary el al, 2003).
The Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA summarizes the issue of school violence with the statement, "Individuals suffering from true internal pathology represent a relatively small segment of the population. A caring society tries to provide the best services for such individuals; doing so includes taking great care not to misdiagnose others whose "symptoms" may be similar, but are caused by factors other than internal pathology." In this perspective, the cause of school violence is a direct product of pathological conduct disorders and anti-social behaviors. The guidelines created by the Center for Mental…… [Read More]
Smoking: Cause and Effect
Smoking has always been a serious and controversial issue since it is on the one hand projected as a health hazard while on the other, we see all the glamorous, so-called health conscious people with cigarettes in their hands all around us. Therefore most people find themselves faced with a dilemma when it comes to the issue of quitting smoking. They cannot be convinced that it is a health hazard that could not only reduce number of years in one's life but can also affect one's quality of life. It is therefore extremely important to focus on the effects of smoking in the light of research and explain that smoking is actually the cause of several health problems.
Let us first focus on the effects of Smoking on Life expectancy. As mentioned earlier, smoking is a serious health hazard that can reduce the number of years in an otherwise healthy person's life. Recent research proves that smoking kills 120,000 people every year. These are not numbers but actual human beings who could have lived longer had they quit smoking. We already know that in these modern times, the life expectancy for men is 75 and almost 80 for women, yet quarter of the smoking population dies before they reach their 69th birthday. (Peto et al. 1994)
The same research shows that those who continue smoking for a large part of their lives die 16 years earlier compared to non-smokers. It has also been found that smoking is the biggest killer for younger people. According to an estimate, of every 1000 smokers aged 20 years, 250 are likely to die from smoking as they reach middle age. It is even more surprisingly to know that out of the same number, only one person is likely to get murdered and six are estimated to die in road accidents. (Peto et al. 1994)
Apart from reducing life expectancy, smoking is now an established cause of major heart and lung diseases. It has been found that at least 80% of lung and heart disease cases are directly connected…… [Read More]
Cause and Effect: A Misunderstanding
At three in the afternoon their parents were still at work and they had the house to themselves. They had left campus at lunch, nobody the wiser. This had been going on for months. Today they were at Sebastian's in the garage. Both of their parents worked in order to make ends meet. Because of this they had little supervision in the afternoon. For Sebastian and May it was a bonus, free time.
"I don't like what you're doing," said May.
"Yes you do," Sebastian swung hard.
May tried to dodge, but was too slow and got hit in the middle of the forehead. "Damn it!"
"That's game." Sebastian put the paddle down next to his cell phone on the work bench and walked around the ping-pong table.
And I should care beeeecaaauussee?" She flirted.
"Because at five cents a point you now own me eighty-seven dollars and sixty-five cents. Unless you'd like to take it out in trade?" he laughed.
"Fat chance!" she laughed rubbing her belly.
From the garage they could hear a knock on the front door.
Sebastian shrugged his shoulder as if to say 'what can I do', and walked through the garage door connecting to the house.
May looked around the garage, now was her opportunity. She picked up Sebastian's cell phone and perused the recent calls.
When Sebastian got back May was gone and his cell phone was in pieces on the garage floor.
Two years passed.…… [Read More]
Running by Luis Rodriguez
Cause and Effect as Found in Always Running La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.
A by Luis Rodriguez
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction" Sir Isaac Newton once wrote. Such is the case in the life of author Luis Rodriguez. The short essay found on pages 160-164 of his book, Always Running, describes the unjust imprisonment (effect) Rodriguez faced following his participation in the "Chicano Moratorium Against the Vietnam War" protest of August 29th, 1970. (cause) (p.160)
Before discussing the effects of his actions, it is important to know the reasons behind his behavior. Rodriguez wanted to attend the march because he was interested in being a part of a cause greater than he was.
The Vietnam War was going on. Many Hispanics were opposed to the war because of the large numbers of Hispanic casualties overseas. The number of Hispanics dying was not in proportion to the amount of Hispanics found in American society at that time. (p. 160) Rodriguez wanted to show his support of the anti-war movement, and his commitment to the Hispanic brotherhood, La Raza (p.160) so he attended the rally.
At first, Rodriguez went along with the crowd, shouting slogans and walking along. Then some of the younger members of the protest started fighting the police assigned to control the crowd. Many even "threw bottles at the police squad cars smashing windshields." (p. 161) This did nothing but create a tense situation between the police and the marchers.
The crowd then gathered at a park and began listening to speeches. Next, the police tried to end the rally by moving through the crowd asking people to leave. This is when Rodriguez decided to make his stand for his "cause," and face the penalty for his actions.
A police officer shouted at Rodriguez to move (maybe assuming he was one of the trouble making teenagers). Rodriguez, filled with pride for himself and at the gathering of his people united for a common cause…… [Read More]
Gillard's Government is a party to a UN agreement that Climate Change Minister Greg Combet signed in December at a under which approximately 10 per cent of carbon taxes in developed countries will go to a Green Climate Fund. While Ms Gillard has been denying she would support a carbon tax last August, her government had already committed to spend $599 million on climate change handouts over the current three-year Budget period. This will occur mainly in the Pacific and South-East Asia, $470 million of which has been allocated already (Murray 2011).
Solutions and Reclamation
So, what is the middle path? Can a compromise be reached? While there was some support in the time of the former Howard government, the current situation may jeopardize this as the then administration assessed its options with regard to the situation Australian Government 2011). This was also the opinion expressed in a Bloomberg piece that "Australia's carbon-tax policy is discouraging investment in the nation's power industry, resulting in possible shortages in as little as five years, electricity supplier TRUenergy Holdings Pty said."The fear is that it will choke off available investment money (Raja 2011)."
The solution would then have to come from the investment community itself and from a promise of profit from new green technology. In this author's opinion, it is simply a matter of combining the momentum of profit from new green technologies into the mix.
This is precisely what is happening in Great Britain and we should be able to learn something from it where the benefits and profits from green industries should be able to help mitigate the losses in old industrial industries such as coal (Totaro, 2011). Ultimately, green technological industries attached to the mining industry could provide whole new engines of economic growth for Australia as it becomes a profitable competitor in the race to equip infrastructure with energy and pollution saving innovations.… [Read More]
Asperger Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes and Effects
Symptoms at birth
At Six to Eighteen Months
At Three to Eleven Years
At 12+ Years
Causes of Asperger syndrome
Treatments for Asperger Syndrome
Students with Asperger Syndrome
Adults with Asperger syndrome
Violence in Asperger Syndrome
Hang Asperger, a pediatrician, researched on Asperger syndrome but Lorna Wing, a psychiatrist and physician, was the one who familiarized the world with Asperger syndrome (Lyons, Fitzgerald, & Fitzgerald, 2005). In 1994, Asperger researched on four children who were unable to interact socially due to their lack of nonverbal communication skills. He called this condition "Autistic psychopathy." But in 1981, Dr. Wing published some case studies of children with similar symptoms. She was the one who called it "Asperger's syndrome." The term was added to world Health Organization's diagnostic manual in 1992, although it was equated with highly functioning autism (National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, 2012).
Asperger syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder i.e. ASD. Autism is a mental condition which exists from childhood in a person and causes communication, relationship and psychological difficulties. Asperger syndrome means that the person is unable to communicate non-verbally and lack social skills. It is a neurodevelopment disorder which includes repetitive routines and limited stereotyped arrangement of behaviors which the person feels compelled to follow (National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, 2012) . Asperger is described in several other ways as well; it is described as person with autism having normal IQ and only verbal communication or individuals with mild lack of social skills and have distinctive interests (Ghaziuddin, 2005).
According to Ghaziuddin (2005) the two most common characteristics among people with Asperger syndrome are that they are unable to understand the emotions and feeling of other people; and show very narrow area of interest for activities and have very normal IQ level. This disorder is not only now common in children but also in adults. This paper will provide a detailed study of symptoms of Asperger syndrome, its…… [Read More]
When the storm occurs, people are asked to restrict their outdoor activities so they will breathe in the polluted air. The magnitude of impact is directly connected with the intensity of the storm. The more severe ones can cause problems for people going to work and hence can disrupt economic activities. Some of the respiratory problems caused by the YDS can be severe enough to prove fatal. It has been noticed that in areas that encounter yellow dust storms annually, there is an increase in mortality rate.
The effect on farm land is also serious in nature. While the dust itself doesn't harm the farm activities, it is the sulphuric emission and acid rain resulting from the storm that destroy crop by damaging the soil. When soil is affected, animal life is also seriously harmed by the storms especially the cattle. But the effect on sea life is even graver. The economic effects are also especially troublesome as hundreds of flights are cancelled, construction is stopped, manufacturing faces obstacles and general delays crop up in every economic area. (Ai, 2003)
To help us gauge the possible effects of YDS, researches Guo and his colleagues (2005) cite examples of two storm cases and resulting destruction: "a YDS occurred in 1993 in Gansu Province, China directly affected area of 1.1 million square kilometers, caused 85 deaths and 246 injuries, destroyed 4,412 houses, killed 120,000 livestock, and damaged 373,000 hectares of crops land. The direct economic cost of the YDS alone was estimated to be more than 550 million RMB, or about $66 million at current exchange rate. Another YDS in April 2000 in Beijing shut down nearly 60 million square meters construction sites, caused 129 flight delays, and increased road accidents of 20-30% over normal conditions."
Thus it would be wrong to say that Yellow Dust storms are not as harmless as the name sounds. They are not just dust storms that you generally see in every area. They are particularly hazardous because of their severity and the havoc they wreck on the lives of…… [Read More]
Radiation Exposure, Causes and Effects
With the advent of technology comes high risk. This small truth applies especially well when one speaks about nuclear weapons, which derive form nuclear technology, and which were pioneered in the midst of the Second World War in the previous century. Nuclear energy is not inherently dangerous; in fact, it can help the world quite a lot, but with enriched uranium comes the weapon, which, as seen in the Second World War, can destroy a city completely in a matter of minutes. Yet nuclear energy has also proven highly dangerous, despite all its positives. In order to illustrate this latter fact, the paper will examine three distinct instances when humans were exposed to radiation: the bombing of Hiroshima, the accident at Chernobyl, and the accident at Three Mile Island.
The first instance, at Hiroshima, was an attack on the Japanese by the United States, which helped our country win World War Two, but at what price? According to statistics, the Japanese, at this life changing point in history, on a bright, sunny day, were exposed to so much radiation that hundreds of thousands died. According to historical accounts, radiation inflicted severe injuries on those even two to three kilometers form the hypocenter. Many people died either immediately, or a few days after the attack. Yet, radiation effects were felt months and years after the attacked, by even children of those who had experienced the attacks and who were not yet born.
The attacks on Hiroshima completely flattened the city. However, in the second case, at Chernobyl, the effects were not experienced quite in the same way. In this instance, the power plant's reactor exploded, sending lethal doses of radiation that not only evacuated the citizens of a whole city and shut down the plant completely, but also put in place…… [Read More]
It is evident that job stress is a reality for police or law enforcement officers; therefore, developing educating program as well as, providing counseling to the police officers will definitely increase efficiency of the organization. Study shows that programs implemented for individuals or for the organizations usually help in reducing organizational stress. In most cases stress can be recognized, but it cannot be taken out of police work, and as a result, this can reduce stress among police officers and their families. In conclusion, more studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of stress management interventions among recruits and police officers. In addition, several recommendations such as the police officers should ensure that they conduct evaluation research in regards to their current stress management interventions such as random assignment should be proposed for future research. The second recommendation is that, stress management interventions for police officers should mainly focus on specific types of stress. Lastly, more qualitative data is also needed to contextualize the participants' experience with the intervention.… [Read More]
negative effects of degradation of the environment. It will first discuss human population as a cause for environmental degradation by also relating to afferent effects. It will then bring into equation urbanization and industrialization which are closely linked. Ultimately, the general effects of global warming, as both a cause and an effect in itself, will be considered.
Key terms: environment, population density, urbanization, industrialization, global warming.
Man has impacted the environment since the beginning of times but, unlike nowadays, the effects were then negligible. As the number of population increased and spread around the globe, so did changes in the environment. Defining the environment has taken many forms throughout the years. The broader and most common understanding is that it represents the sum of conditions and natural factors that influence human activity. The environment is understood in terms of a dynamic system with a well defined structure where its components, the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and the biosphere, interrelate and collaborate to form the equilibrium of the planet. Earth however was not always perceived such as we are able to nowadays given that new technologies have made it possible to view the planet in perspective only since the 1960s. Space explorations have indeed allowed researchers to gain more insight as to the interdependent components of Earth and to reaffirm that its constitution is that of a changing system. The planet thus is subjected to transformational processes which come about as the result of units in motion: the thin shell of gas surrounding the planet which forms the atmosphere is in constant motion, the Earth's interior layers change due to internal heat causing a change also on its surface, etc. It is important to understand that changes in a particular unit will thus affect other components as well and, ultimately, the overall environment. A similar parallel can be drawn to reflect the effects of changes in the environment that have not produced naturally but as a result of human interference. If we take for example China's case of smog pollution which unfolds at this very moment, this is believed to have repercussions worldwide on a long-term basis. In fact, pollution as the result of industrialization has become a recurring and more concerning issue than even before in our societies. In such a context, industrialization becomes the cause for environmental degradation and pollution…… [Read More]
The Great Depression
The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.
The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (Robbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper value of the stocks (Robbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The initial response from politicians and major business leaders was one of optimism, and predictions for a rapid recovery. However, the depression was to carry on for more than a decade, with the stock market crash being only the first problem. By 1933, unemployment had increased to 25%, when it had only been 3.2% in 1929, and the fall in the stock market continued, with the total value being work less than 20% of its value prior to the crash (Robbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). Farm incomes fell by 50%, by 1932 industrial output had decreased by 45% and many banks suffered and failed (Robbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). Numerous banks had invested their account holders' money in the stock market, resulting in looses, which led to bank customers withdrawing funds, afraid of loosing savings, increasing the pressure on banks and accelerating closures (Cecchetti, 1992).
The impacts across the country were…… [Read More]