Cause And Effect Essays (Examples)

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Cause And Effect Essays (Examples)

A cause and effect essay looks at why things happen and what actually happens.  These can be difficult because, generally, there are multiple causes that influence a single effect, so singling out one cause can make your essay seem weak.  Therefore, in order to establish cause-and-effect, it is important to demonstrate that, if the cause had not occurred, the effect would not have occurred, even if additional things had to occur in order to produce the effect.

Below are cause and effect essays (examples), which you can use in helping you write your own paper.  We provide high quality titles, topic recommendations, outlines, and resources to assist you.  All of our cause and effect essays include introductions, thesis statements, bodies, conclusions, and a properly cited reference page.

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Deployment on Military Families Cause Deployment Effect

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51479252

Deployment on Military Families

Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)

The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.

The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children

The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-

Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom

Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.

Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
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Police Officer's Stress Causes and Effects

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34713275



Conclusion

It is evident that job stress is a reality for police or law enforcement officers; therefore, developing educating program as well as, providing counseling to the police officers will definitely increase efficiency of the organization. Study shows that programs implemented for individuals or for the organizations usually help in reducing organizational stress. In most cases stress can be recognized, but it cannot be taken out of police work, and as a result, this can reduce stress among police officers and their families. In conclusion, more studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of stress management interventions among recruits and police officers. In addition, several recommendations such as the police officers should ensure that they conduct evaluation research in regards to their current stress management interventions such as random assignment should be proposed for future research. The second recommendation is that, stress management interventions for police officers should mainly focus…… [Read More]

References

Snipes E (2004). Emotional Effects of Stress on Employees and Police Officers. PoliceOne. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from http://www.policeone.com/columnists/DawnEliseSnipes/articles/77082-Emotional-Effects-of-Stress-on-Employees-and-Police-Officers

Baker, L. (2008). Researchers Investigate Impact of Stress on Police Officers' Physical and Mental Health. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from  http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2008/09/9660.html
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Causes and Effects of Environmental Degradation

Words: 2641 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29376352

negative effects of degradation of the environment. It will first discuss human population as a cause for environmental degradation by also relating to afferent effects. It will then bring into equation urbanization and industrialization which are closely linked. Ultimately, the general effects of global warming, as both a cause and an effect in itself, will be considered.

Key terms: environment, population density, urbanization, industrialization, global warming.

Man has impacted the environment since the beginning of times but, unlike nowadays, the effects were then negligible. As the number of population increased and spread around the globe, so did changes in the environment. Defining the environment has taken many forms throughout the years. The broader and most common understanding is that it represents the sum of conditions and natural factors that influence human activity. The environment is understood in terms of a dynamic system with a well defined structure where its components,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Ahmad, F. (2012). India's economic development: Nexus between poverty and environmental degradation. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 1(5), 61-66. Retrieved from   http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/june2012/Indias-Economic-Development-Nexus-Between-Poverty-And-Environmental-Degradation.pdf  

Beck, M.W., Shepard, C.C, Birkmann, J., Rhyner, J., Welle, T., Witting, M., Wolfertz, J., Martens, J., Maurer, K., Mucke, P., & Radtke, K. (2012). WorldRiskReport 2012. Berlin: Alliance Development Works, ISBN 978-3-9814495-0-3.

Duraiappah, A. (1996). Poverty and environmental degradation: A literature review and analysis. CREED Working Paper Series No 8. Amsterdam: Institute for Environmental Studies. Retrieved from   http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/8127IIED.pdf  

Malthus, T. (1998). An essay on the principle of population (Electronic ed.). Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project. Retrieved from   http://www.esp.org/books/malthus/population/malthus.pdf
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Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10505048

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Criminal Justice

The problem of juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal, and crime prevention programs are either unequipped to deal with the present realities or do not exist. Many developing countries have done little or nothing to deal with these problems, and international programs are obviously insufficient. Developed countries are engaged in activities aimed at juvenile crime prevention, but the overall effect of these programs is rather weak because the mechanisms in place are often inadequate to address the existing situation. On the whole, current efforts to fight juvenile delinquency are characterized by the lack of systematic action and the absence of task-oriented and effective social work with both offenders and victims, whether real or potential. Analysis is further complicated by a lack of international comparative data. (WY, 2003) The paper is a meditation and investigation of the causes of juvenile delinquency. While it…… [Read More]

References:

Ali, M. (2008). Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 17223, Available from: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17223/.

Chowdry, I.A., Khan, M.M., & Uddin, I. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Bangladesh: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(4), 1 -- 11.

Loeber, R. (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1 -- 41.

Tigar, Michael E. "What Are We Doing to the Children?: An Essay on Juvenile (In)justice." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 47, No. 849, 849 -- 866, 2010.
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Causes of Human Behavior Compare

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66568588

However, unlike Leucippus, Holbach is not simply interested in the science of materialism, and is more apt to entertain different explanations for specific types of matter. There is more to be understood than mere appearance in the rearrangement of material essences: "Determinism is universal, in Holbach's view, but different sorts of bodies may have peculiar properties that require peculiar explanations. Despite his avowed materialism, Holbach does not demand the sorts of reductive explanations of mental events that materialism might ordinarily seem to require (LeBuffe 2002). For Holbach, there is more interesting unpredictability in the behavior of types of matter, and the observation of what Leucippus might call mere surface differences.

orks Cited

Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leucippus/#2

LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/holbach/#2… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leucippus/#2 

LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/holbach/#2
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Causes and Effects of World War I

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10394223

1st orld ar (I) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, F. Ross. World War One. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Howard, Michael. The First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.

Kelly, Martin. Top 5 Causes of World War 1. 5 January, 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.

*****. Consequences of World War I.17 march, 2005.Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
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Causes for the Popularity of

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47551676

"In toy stores, children can become accustomed to food brands early by buying a Hostess bake set, Barbie's Pizza Hut play set or Fisher-Price's Oreo Matchin' Middles game. and, for budding math whizzes, there is a series of books from Hershey's Kisses on addition, subtraction and fractions" (Barboza, 2002).

Of course, the most notorious innovation in fast food, even more so than the Happy Meal, targeted at children, is the Supersized Meal. For people without children, for people for whom taste is not much of an issue, the issue of value often trumps everything. Supersizing means increasing the size of the cheapest parts of the traditional combo meal, the potatoes (starch) and the soda (high fructose corn syrup, cheaper even than real sugar). For only pennies more, people can get much larger portions, but because people tend to eat more food when more food is placed before them, this causes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barboza, David. (5 Aug 2003). "Fast Food Industry Zeroes in on Children

International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at  http://www.rense.com/general39/fast.htm 

Schlosser, Eric. (3 Sept 1998). "Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost of America's Diet."

Rolling Stone. Issue 794. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at  http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/rollingstone1.html
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Causes of Globalization Introduction Means

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7934659

"Real-time" communications is expedient as well as efficient which are two desired elements in the industry. The pursuit of foreign markets by the United States as well as those of the European and Latin American markets is causative factor in globalization. The companies that compete throughout the world are seeking methods for integration of all aspects of their corporation. Furthermore, companies sue 'international growth strategies for the express purpose of "acquiring suppliers of vital resources." (Abboushi, 1999) Expansion can also be accounted for due to the fact that companies in the United States seek expansion on an international basis because they are unable to obtain certain products in the United States.

II. Necessity: Policy Results

Another viewpoint is that globalization most likely arose out of necessity of some type. One example of the idea presented may be found in the Scandinavian Acta Sociologica in a work entitled" the Future of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garrett, Geoffrey (2000) the Causes of Globalization 2000 April [Online available at http://www.yale.edu/leitner/pdf/2000-02.pdf

O'Rourke, Kevin, H. (2002) Europe and the Causes of Globalization 1790 to 2000

Benner, Mats (2003) the Future of the Advanced Welfare States in the Knowledge Economy" Scandinavian Sociological Association 2003 Vol. 46, No. 2 132-149 (2003)

Gomory, Ralph E. (2003) Globalization: Causes and Effects Online [available at www.findarticles.com//articles/mi_qa3522/is_200307/ai_n9293477/print
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Causes Effects of Racism on US

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69906479

Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects

hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).

There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal

Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook

Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
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Causes of Violence John Monahan Details the

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62247616

causes of violence, John Monahan details the limited knowledge and research that currently exists. He argues that, although biological, sociological, and psychological factors contribute individually to causing violence, the root of the problem lies in a combination of all three. In attempting to develop a multi-causal explanation, Monahan points to the influence and role of the family.

Although many theories have emphasized the importance of biological factors, such as hormones, chemical imbalances, brain injury, and genetics, in the causation of violence, the present level of scientific research has failed to identify any definite links. However, this same research has also failed to categorically disprove biological factors as a potential cause, thus supporting Monahan's call for an increase in the funding of study and research in this area.

The most commonly cited causes of violence are the many, and varied sociological factors. Although social science has been able to build an…… [Read More]

References

Monahan, J. (1994). The Causes of Violence. In Eskridge, C. Criminal Justice: Concepts and Issues (pp. 63-67). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Co.
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Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
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Effects of Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6389413

Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…… [Read More]

References

Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
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Effect of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries

Words: 6191 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78581859

downsizing on Manufacturing Industries

The amount of information on the effects of down sizing on manufacturing was not plentiful, however one main point that flows through all of the articles is that even though down sizing may be done to help a company it can end up hurting them in the long run. In the paragraphs to follow we look at the effects that downsizing has on people and companies as well as look at whether or not downsizing is truly the answer.

Parker (2003)eports that in 2003 the expected job losses among the manufacturing industries in Great Britain would create the effects of rising input costs and oil price increase on the job cuts; Downturn of the purchasing managers' index for manufacturing; Decrease in the rate of manufacturer's orders. So even though these cuts may be necessary he pointed out that it would have an overall negative effect.

The…… [Read More]

References

Budros, A. (1997). The New Capitalism and Organizational Rationality., 76, 229-250.

Budros, A. (1999, Jan/Feb). A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Why Organizations Downsize.. Organization Science, 10(1), 69-83.

Isabella, L.A. (1999, May). Downsizing: Survivors' assessment. Business Horizons, 32(3),

Labib, N. (1993). Strategic Downsizing: A Human Resources Perspective. Human Resource Planning, 16(4), 69-93.
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Causes of the Panic of 1857

Words: 2449 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23961384

Panic of 1857

"In the life of a nation, every year has its failures and disappointments, but 1857 had more than its share." ~ Kenneth M. Stampp[footnoteRef:1] [1: Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857 a Nation on the Brink. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.]

There have been many times in American history where the people of the country gave into fear and paranoia and subsequently made what could have been a minor difficulty into a crisis of epic proportions. During the middle of the 19th century, several incidents occurred which had a decidedly negative effect on the American economy and the nation's moral overall. The economic setbacks followed by the discovery that several executives in charge of government finance were corrupted caused American citizens to turn against the nation's authority figures. This feeling of distrust, accompanied by the panic of an unstable economy laid the groundwork for the American…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ayers, Edward L. American Passages a History of the United States. New York [u.a.:

Wadsworth, 2007. Print.

Huston, James L. The Panic of 1857 and the Coming of the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana

State UP, 1987. Print.
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Effects of Mental Illness

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92256514

mental illness on the individual, family, and community, and identify mental health resources for individuals experiencing mental illness. Mental illness does not just affect the patient, it affects the entire patient's family and friends, and it can affect them throughout their life. Unfortunately, mental illness still invokes a stigma in this country, which has a negative affect on patients suffering from mental illness.

Even when people attempt to be open minded, there is still a stigma that revolves around people who suffer from mental health issues. Two authors note, "People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of our society" (Overton & Medina, 2008). This is just one of the negative affects of suffering from mental illness, and it can be as debilitating as the disease itself. In the past, (such as the middle ages, people…… [Read More]

References

Corrigan, P.W., Watson, A.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Problem of public health or social justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363+.

Neugeboren, J. (2006, October 6). Side effects. Commonweal, 133, 38.

Overton, S.L., & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143+.
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Effect of Motivation of Employee Performance

Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26599792

Teamwork and Motivation

Various elements of an organization motivation plan are always aimed at encouraging low turnover, high-quality work, high productivity, and high job satisfaction. The first approach involved is the appreciation of employee feedback. The element of the motivation program includes the need to ensure that feedback offer the employees with established objectives. Organizational managers provide feedback through continuous processes without outright conformity during quarterly meetings. Managers focus on ensuring that they meet employees every quarter and updating them on the company's performance (Keller, 2009). Formal motivational reviews on a monthly basis are necessary and should exist in writing as opposed to other informal reviews under suggestions of weekly tracking. The quarterly feedback from top management becomes the basis for motivation plan evaluation and achievement determination for the employees. Objective ratings are based on scales of the set aspects of employee management. This element develops direct link to the…… [Read More]

References

Blankenship, D., (2012) A Collection of Compelling Motivational Thoughts. New York: AuthorHouse

Keller J., (2009) Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach. New York: Springer

Kornberger M., Pitsis T., Clegg S., (2014) Managing, and Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE

Rainey H., (2009) Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons
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What Is the Primary Cause of Homelessness in America

Words: 2223 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86416038

Cause of Homelessness in America

has numerous social problems. Homelessness seems to be one of the most important ones. There are several causes that determine homelessness. However, the primary cause of homelessness can be considered the reduced affordable housing level and the national increase in poverty. Other causes of homelessness refer to high unemployment rates, low salary levels in certain urban and rural areas, the inability of certain individuals to pay health care bills, the inability qualify for public assistance, domestic violence, mental illness, addiction disorders, and others. It is important to understand that there are specific factors that influence homelessness in the U.S., but these factors are allowed to develop because of the state's authorities. In other words, these authorities seem to not be able to manage the social situation of individuals in a homeless situation. If their situation is analyzed, it can be established that homeless people's actions…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Top Causes of Homelessness in America (2012). HomeAid. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from  http://www.homeaid.org/HomeAid-Stories/69/top-causes-of-homelessness .

2. Causes of Homelessness (2011). Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://www.homelessofhc.org/index.php/get-educated-information-homelessness/causes-of-homelessness.

3. Crane, M. et al. (2005). The Causes of Homeless in Later Life: Findings from a Three Nations Study. Journal of Gerontology. Retrieved April 3.

4. Fischer, P. (1992). Victimization and Homelessness: Cause and Effect. New England Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
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Principles Causes and Effects of Teratology

Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51844912

Teratology is the scientific study of causes and mechanisms of malformation during the human development. Fetal diseases, mechanical effects and retarded development of the embryo and the fetus are some of the causes of CDDs (congenital developmental disorders) according to various studies. oth mystical and scientific theories were developed in the past to explain the origin of Teratology; some theories stating that it originated from the position of the stars, maternal impressions, hybridization, and oligohy dramnios, among others. Today, biological assumptions on abnormalities seem to have more weight than the unproven theories given in the past. Scientific studies have revealed that the real causes of congenital developmental disorders include: mechanical effects, biological factors, physical factors and chemical substances (Ujhazy, Mach, Navarova, rucknerova, & Dubovicky, 2012).

Fig. 1. 1. The irth of Modern Teratology (McCormick, 2012)

The contemporary science of teratology started in the 1930s with the release of a study…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agrawal, S. (2007). Genetic Causes of Congenital Malformation. Anthropologist Special, 425-434 .

Can, O. G. (2007). Principles of Human Teratology: Drug, Chemical, and Infectious Exposure. JOGC, 911-917.

Chung, W. (n.d.). TERATOGENS AND THEIR EFFECTS. 1-8. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt23-Teratogens.pdf

HoRC. (n.d.). FASD and alcohol consumption patterns. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia: http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/fasd/report/chapter2.htm
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The Causes and Effects of Gangs

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31989989

Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. esearch has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang…… [Read More]

References

Cahill, et al. (2015). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program. Retrieved online: http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000622-Evaluation-of-the-Los-Angeles-Gang-Reduction-and-Youth-Development-Program-Year-4-Evaluation-Report.pdf

Freng, A. & Taylor, T.J. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity: what are their roles in gang membership? United States Department of Justice. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/243474.pdf

"Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," (n.d.). Retreived online: http://family.jrank.org/pages/674/Gangs-Family-Gangs-Gang-Family.html

Hoover, M. (1999). Where all the madness began. 28 May, 1999. Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/gangcolor/madness.htm
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Causes of World Hunger May Be One

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63096669

Causes of orld Hunger

Hunger may be one of the most serious and least understood of all world problems. Many people believe that hunger is the result of a lack of available food, which is a myth that is perpetuated by many well-meaning news organizations. Discussions of famine and drought make it seem as if hunger occurs because there is simply not enough food to feed people. The reality is that worldwide food supplies significantly exceed worldwide food demand. Moreover, even in those countries with excess food production and the means to distribute food to starving people, people starve. Instead, there are a multitude of causes of the world hunger problem: poverty, free market economics, large land ownership, food exports, diversion of land to non-food production, foreign aid, and last, but certainly not least, misconceptions about the causes of poverty that perpetuate, rather than alleviate the problem.

ithout discussing the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Knight, Danielle. "It is a Myth that World Hunger is Due to Scarcity of Food." PSRAST. N.p.

16 Oct. 1998. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Madakufamba, Munetsi. "Unequal 'Freetrade' Threatens Food Security." The Mail & Guardian.

N.p. 13 Aug. 2001. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
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Cause of Armed Conflict in the Aftermath

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89719048

Cause of Armed Conflict

In the aftermath of 911 and as an effect of the 'War on Terror', religion can be clearly seen as major cause of armed conflict. Such views, however, have fallen on fertile ground, following the massive debates about Samuel P. Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis, and the increased analytical attention to the interface between religion and conflict throughout most of the 1990s. Although few analysts will argue that religion is a more prominent factor in conflict now than before, the alteration of awareness is in itself a significant change. This reflects, as Oliver McTernan points out, the "opinion of a number of academics that have recognized in the midst of social, historical, political, cultural and economic factors the salience of religion also" (McTernan 2003: 87-88).

eligion may feed conflict when its normative system is considered to legitimize the use of violence. As Elise Boulding has pointed…… [Read More]

References

McTernan, Oliver. 2003. Violence in God's Name: Religion in an Age of Conflict. New York: Orbis's Books.

Boulding, Elise. 1986. "Two Cultures of Religion as Obstacles to Peace." Zygon

21:501-518.

Appleby, R. Scott. 1996. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding." Pp. 821-840 in The Challenges of Managing International
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…… [Read More]

References

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
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Causes of Increased Child Obesity Causes of

Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41183802

Causes of Increased Child Obesity

Causes of Increased Childhood Obesity in the 21st Century

Over the last several decades, the issue of childhood obesity has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the overall number of children who are overweight or obese have risen dramatically. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Institute of Health (NIH). They found that the total number of children and teenagers who are obese / overweight is one out of every three. This is the highest amount of young people ever reported in either category. As, the underlying trends have continued to increase dramatically in the last 30 years. This is troubling, because in the future these individuals will more than likely suffer from a number of health issues. A few of the most notable include: hypertension, type two diabetes,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Causes of Childhood Obesity. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/causes-of-childhood-obesity.html

Citalpram Side Effects. (2011). Side Effects Hub. Retrieved from: http://sideeffectshub.com/citalopram-side-effects/

Childhood Obesity Statistics. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/childhood-obesity-statistics-p2.html

Research Links. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov /Features/Obesity/
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Causes of Global Warming in the Past

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56795757

Causes of Global Warming

In the past twenty (20) years, human society has consumed and emitted yearly total emissions of about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" gases worldwide, according to National Geographic (2011). These yearly emissions may seem irrelevant as a number, but this is the amount of gases emitted that contributed to the worsening condition of global warming in the world today. Global warming has so far resulted to the alarming and gradual climate change happening in most parts of the world today. Summer time could be shortened because of global warming, followed by a period of strong rains in unexpected seasons. Harvest period for farmers are significantly changed as a result of unexpected draughts or shorter periods of rain in another part of the country. What was expected as rain turned out to be a shower of hail stones. These are just observed changes in…… [Read More]

References

"What causes global climate change?" (2005). Climate Change Information Resources- New York Metropolitan Region. Available at:  http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf 

"What causes global warming?" (2011). National Geographic Official Website. Available at:  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-causes
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Cause Related Marketing Does CRM

Words: 1501 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58114947



eferences

Brown, N..; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19

Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-elated marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Profs.com. etrieved February 20, 2005: http://www.marketingprofs.com/5/fogel2.asp

Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause elated Marketing." Business in the Community. Available: http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/research/research_publications/brand_benefits.html

IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report." Sponsorship.com, 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."

Kelley, C.L. & Kowalczyk, T.K. (2003). "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors." The CPA Journal, 73(2):15

Marken, G.A. (2001). "P has to be more involved in company branding." Public

elations Quarterly, 46 (4): 31

NSPCC. (2002). "NSPCC - Cause related marketing." NSPCC Online. etrieved February 17, 2005: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/fundraisingvolunteering/causerelatedmarketing.htm

Pringle, H. & Thompson, M. (2000). "Brand Spirit - How cause related marketing builds brands." New…… [Read More]

References

Brown, N.R.; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19

Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-Related marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Profs.com. Retrieved February 20, 2005:  http://www.marketingprofs.com/5/fogel2.asp 

Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause Related Marketing." Business in the Community. Available: http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/research/research_publications/brand_benefits.html

IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report." Sponsorship.com, 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."
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Causes of Crime - Categories

Words: 1570 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95486408

Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction.

However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals. By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions

(already described); except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct (Schmalleger, 2001). Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact.

The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:

Pearson.
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Cause Effect Neither a Borrower

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23213622

Needing to borrow money can be a source of shame and a seeming sign of weakness for some people. Feeling ashamed can cause Tom to resent Rob for being wealthier than he is. Tom may feel even as ashamed as to avoid going out with Rob until the money is paid back. Once again, what was once a friendship built on good times becomes more like a business relationship and a power struggle. The effects of the imbalance could last for a long time. Tom might feel permanently inferior to Rob, who never needed to borrow money himself.

On the other hand, borrowing and lending money between friends can cause friction because the person who asks for money also places him or herself in a position of power. Unlike borrowing money from a bank, paying back money to a friend is completely voluntary. Most of the time, the friends do…… [Read More]

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Cause Effect Educational Issue the Strict

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50889528

Karl P's school, for example, introduced a Prevention, Action Resolution (PAR) Comprehensive Behavior Management system. This is a process-based model where collaborative teams join together to form consensus on a positive and supportive school-wide approach to behavior management for all children. It consists of plans and strategies to pecifically, plans and strategies to 1) prevent the occurrence of troubling behavior; 2) act, or respond to, instances of rule compliance and noncompliance in a consistent fashion; and 3) resolve many of the issues that underlie or cause troubling behavior (Rosenberg, 2004, p.12).

In this process, rules, procedures, and routines allow the adults in the school to communicate the behavioral standards and expectations of the learning environment to their students. pecifically, rules identify, define, and operationalize the school's conceptualization of acceptable behavior, and procedures spell out the steps necessary for the successful and appropriate completion of an activity, task, or operation. uccinct…… [Read More]

Scott, T.M. & Barrett, S.B. (2004) "Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS" 6(1), 21-28.

Silverman, F. (2004) "Student suits: districts are spending up to $100,000 a year on insurance protection against lawsuits. Will an Ohio law giving protection to staff reach your district." District Administration, 40, 34-38

Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Lewis, TJ., Nelson, C.M., et al. (2000). Applying positive behavioral support and functional assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 131-143.
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Causes of Financial Crisis

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80383908

Causes of Financial Crisis

Ireland developed high growth rates based on rapid expansion of credit and a buildup of personal debt fueled by rising property prices (Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it?). This lead to risky bank lending practices. Banks also engaged in short-term borrowing from wholesale money markets causing increased risk appetite. Supervisors and regulators failed to identify and act on the emerging risks. Where construction was a large part of the employment and economy, it caused high unemployment rates and major bank losses in a bubble burst when household income could not afford to pay mortgage debt. Property value decreased making it harder to recover the mortgage value for banks. In turn, it created difficulty for the banks to pay back the short-term borrowing to the wholesale money markets. Where risks were not identified, no plans were put in place…… [Read More]

References

Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it? 22 Feb 2012. article retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy/irelands_economic_crisis/index_en.htm. 1 Mar 2014.

Long, Stephen. Explainer: Behind the Cyprus financial crisis. 22 Mar 2013. article retrieved from http://www.ace.net.au/news/2013-03-22/explainer-behind-the-cyprus-financial-crisis/4588736. 1 Mar 2014.

Pettinger, Tejuan. Portugal Economic Crisis. 4 Dec 2012. article retrieved from http://www.economichelp.org/blog/6423/economics/portugal-economic-crisis. Mar 2014.

Q&A: Greece's financial crisis explained. 26 Mar 2010. article retrieved from http:www.cnn.com/2010/Business/02/10/greek.debt.ganda/index.html. 1 Mar 2014.
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Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19489453

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…… [Read More]

References

Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
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Causes and Effects of Zimbabwe Hyperinflation

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41508994

Hyperinflation

One recent case of hyperinflation was in Zimbabwe. This hit the country in 2009, and ended in 2015 when the country's currency was phased out in favor of the USD, at a valuation of $1 quadrillion to $ USD. According to reports, people with accounts up to 175 quadrillion will be paid out $5 USD. The Zimbabwe dollar was essentially abandoned in 2009 because of the hyperinflation, but people there were using USD and ZA long before that. Those two were the official currencies of the country for many years, with new currencies such as the yuan, AUD, yen and Indian rupee (for some reason) joining the list of currencies that were accepted in the country in 2014 (T, 2015).

Hyperinflation, of course, is the rapid increase in the money supply. This is usually a response to supply shocks, and often a rapid depreciation of the currency will have…… [Read More]

References

CIA World Factbook (2016). Zimbabwe. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 22,2016 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/zi.html

Investopedia (2016). What is hyperinflation. Investopedia. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hyperinflation.asp

Mohan, M. (2016). What factors contributed to the hyperinflation of the Zimbabwean dollar? Quora.com. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from https://www.quora.com/What-factors-contributed-to-the-hyperinflation-of-the-Zimbabwean-Dollar

RT. (2015). Zimbabwe phases out local currency at 35 quadrillion to $1 U.S.. RT.com. Retrieved April 22,2016 from https://www.rt.com/business/267244-zimbabwe-currency-compensation-hyperinflation/
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Causes and Effects of Mexican American War

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14523127

Mexican-American War was fought between 1846 and 1848 and marked the first war for the United States that was primary fought on foreign soil. The war was initiated by the United States, with President Polk seeking to expand American territory under the doctrine of manifest destiny. This doctrine argued that the United States should spread across all of North America, and was used as justification military action such as this one. The major outcome of the war was a massive expansion of the United States across much of what is now the American Southwest. The U.S. absorbed New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and California as the result of this conflict, something that shapes America in many ways today (History.com, 2016).

Background

At the outbreak of the war, Mexico held much of the territory that now comprises the U.S. southwest. Mexico was, however, a weak country. Its government was headquartered in…… [Read More]

References

History.com (2016). Mexican-American War. History.com. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from http://www.history.com/topics/mexican-american-war

Smithsonian (2016). Mexican war. National Museum of American History. Smithsonian. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/printable/section.asp?id=4

US Department of State (2016). The annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American war, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845-1848. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/texas-annexation
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Litter an Analysis of the Causes and

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49702213

Litter

An Analysis of the Causes and Effects of Littering

Littering may be defined as a human behavior that results in the improper or inappropriate disposal of waste products. Litter can range from anything such as plastic bags and wrappers to appliances, electronics and biological hazardous materials. Litter can be classified as illegal dumping if the former crosses a level of quantity or volume. egardless of the volume, however, littering can have detrimental effects. In fact, studies show that even though littering "has decreased in the past 40 years" (Schultz, Stein, 2009, p. 6), "litter is still quite common" (Littering Behavior in America, 2009, p. 2). There is really only one primary cause of littering, which is nothing more than harmful human behavior. The effects of littering on humans, animals and the environment, however, are much more varied and diverse. This paper will analyze how human behavior causes littering to…… [Read More]

Reference List

Cardi, N. (2012). Littering Facts: The Causes and Effects of Littering. Cereplast.

Retrieved from http://www.cereplast.com/littering-facts-the-causes-and-effects-of-littering/

Couteaux, M. et al. (1995). Litter decomposition, climate and litter quality. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10(2): 63-66.

The EarthWorks Group. (1990). 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Save the Earth. KC:
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Fatal Flood -- Causes and

Words: 1040 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92118770

According to many historians, that relief effort was instrumental in propelling Hoover into the national spotlight and eventually helped him win the 1929 presidential election.

The Mississippi Flood as the ause of Racial Tension

Approximately 650,000 people were directly affected by the Mississippi Flood of 1927, having to relocate because their homes, property, and entire communities were completely destroyed by the flood. Almost half of them were housed in relief camps of whom almost three-quarters were African-American. In many cases, the conditions sparked racial tensions and events such as what occurred in Greenville, Mississippi. More than 10,000 people were stranded without drinking water, food, or any other supplies for several days.

When boats finally arrived, they initially rescued only children and white women, leaving white men, and African-Americans. In another event that made nationwide headlines, police had been sent to round up relief workers from the "Negro" areas. When an…… [Read More]

Conclusion

The Mississippi Flood of 1927 was a natural disaster not attributable to human error or oversight. Unprecedented rainfall simply overwhelmed the physical barriers provided by the levees that relied on early 20th century technology, materials, and building methods. Ironically, major aspects of the federal government's response to the disaster and the subsequent relief efforts were so efficient that they helped propel their principal architect to the U.S. presidency two years later.

On the other hand, the immediate aftermath of the flood also rekindled intense racial inequalities and showed many African-Americans that the American South was simply not a place where they could ever hope to achieve racial or economic equality. As a result, many southern African-Americans decided to migrate north, more so than at any other time since the end of the American Civil War. To a great degree, the modern-day demographics of many Northeastern American cities reflect the long-term results of events that were initially caused by the Mississippi Flood of 1927.
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Racism Socioeconomic Effects

Words: 1566 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72350370

Socioeconomic Causes and Effects of Racism

Racism is directly caused by the belief that some races or groups are superior to others. In most cases, racism is based on the false idea that different physical characteristics, such as the color of one's skin, make certain people better than others.

The problem of racism is inherent in attitude; in the fear and ignorance people have of others who are different than them. Racism is not limited to prejudice and discrimination against black and colored people. The Holocaust, during which six million Jews were murdered, represents one of the most heinous examples of racism ever seen (Lewis, 1998).

Racism is a fear people that people possess of others who are different, regarding language, sex, color or nationality, usually causes racism (Searing, 1989). This fear is instigated by beliefs and stereotypes that are passed between different generations.

Racism is a dangerous way of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

South Africa, History of." Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 16 Mar, 2003. retrieved on the Internet at: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117926.

Fish, Stanley. Reverse Racism, or How the Pot Got to Call the Kettle Black. The Atlantic, November, 1993.

Gladwell, Malcolm. "The Subtler Shades of Racism." Washington Post, July 15, 1991, A3.

Gutteridge, William (ed.) South Africa. From Apartheid to National Unity, 1894-1994. Dartmouth, 1995.
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Solar Flares What Causes Solar Storms Why

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21146803

Solar Flares

What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…… [Read More]

References

Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html

Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ

O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html

Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online:  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
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Mediator & Moderator Effects Applied Statistics There

Words: 811 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44595515

MEDIATOR & MODERATOR EFFECTS

Applied Statistics

There are several goals of the article "Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research." (Frazier et al., 2004) One of the primary goals of the piece is clear delineation of each term and clear explanation of the differences (and similarities) between the two. Another goal of the authors' research is to reveal to researchers and professionals the potential depth and precision their research could achieve with knowledge and application of mediators and moderators in their studies. ith awareness and tracking of mediators and moderators, researchers can make more precise predictions, compile richer data, and provide more insightful analyses & conclusions after the study.

Interaction effects are not only important for intervention studies, however. There are many other instances in which researchers are interested in whether relations between predictor and outcome variables are stronger for some people than for others. The identification of…… [Read More]

We focus particularly on the differential implications for choice of experimental design, research operations, and plan of statistical analysis. We also claim that there are conceptual implications of the failure to appreciate the moderator-mediator distinction. Among the issues we will discuss in this regard are missed opportunities to probe more deeply into the nature of causal mechanisms and integrate seemingly irreconcilable theoretical positions. For example, it is possible that in some problem areas disagreements about mediators can be resolved by treating certain variable as moderators. (Baron & Kenny, The Moderator-Mediator Distinction, 1986)

There task for such distinction is still incomplete as the Frazier piece is written eighteen years later and the distinction still has not been made -- and they introduce considering these terms on three levels: conceptual, strategic, and statistical. (2004) Considering mediators and moderators in the ways proposed by Frazier et al. (2004) on the levels proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986) marks the intersection among mediators, moderators, and applications in management. This is yet another way the article by Frazier et al. demonstrates value to readers and researchers.

It is possible for an effect size to be fairly small in order for us to find it interesting. Frazier et al. remind the readers more than once that research into the distinctions between and the subsequent implications for those differences has not been researched a great deal. They mention in their conclusion how their study provides only a model and further implementation is necessary before commenting on a larger body of data. That larger body of data relevant specifically to mediator and moderator effects has not been made, as evidenced for example, by the eighteen year gap in two of the articles, yet their intention is nearly the exact same. Therefore, it is the opinion of the author that effect size need not be the primary issue, though effect sizes should be taken into consideration. The attention and tracking of mediators and moderators during the study is more relevant than the effect size because there is no great body of work to compare against. When there are more studies with many different effect sizes, then that question will be more significant and there is a greater possibility of a relevant, insightful answer. Both moderators and mediators contribute to effect size as they in essence represent the "when" & "for whom" and the "why" & "how" respectively. (Frazier et al., 2004) When a mediation occurs and why a moderation occurs both influence effect size. Their influence is different, but still quantifiable and qualifiable.
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Heroin and Cocaine Addiction and Overdose and How it Effects Families

Words: 2045 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7830573

Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a stimulant, appetite suppressant and a sodium channel blocker that causes it to be an anesthetic at low doses. It is highly addictive because of its effect on the brain's reward pathways. Cocaine is more dangerous than many other stimulants because of its effect on the sodium channel in the body's chemistry, which, under higher dosages may cause sudden cardiac arrest. Cocaine is unique as a molecule because it has pockets that allow it to cross the blood-brain barrier quite quickly and easily (Sommers, 2008). High dosages or repeated use may also cause a breakdown in the blood-brain barrier, allowing the user to experience greater psychoactive episodes from other substances (Sharma, H., et al., 2009).

Historical Background - From a historical perspective, the use of cocaine and other psychoactive substances is neither novel nor new.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthenelli, D. (2010). Vaccine for Cocaine Addiction: A Promising new Immunotherapy. Current Psychiatry, 9(9), 16-19.

Clarke, P., & Myers, J. (2012). Developmental Counseling and Therapy. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(4), 23-37. Retrieved from Journal of Mental Health Counseling.

Goldbaum, E. (2012, May 9). Chronic Cocaine Use Triggers Changes in Brain's Neuron Structure. Retrieved from University at Buffalo News Center:    http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2012/05/13420.html   

Gootenberg, P. (2008). Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
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Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury Exposure

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29326897

Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury

Exposure Effects of Mercury and Arsenic

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Mercury is considered as toxic metal causing neurological disorders while Arsenic is considered as a human carcinogen. Mercury mainly affects areas which are associated with the sensory, visual and auditory functions and those concerned with co-ordination. On the other hand, Arsenic exposure results in chronic diseases pertaining to skin tumors, hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis of palms. This paper revolves around the explanation of symptoms pertaining to the harmful exposure effects of mercury and arsenic, and also highlights how the symptoms of both differ from each other.

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Elevated levels of exposure to Mercury and Arsenic cause harmful effects to human health, deteriorating human reproductive and nervous systems. Coal burning power plants emit mercury; home thermometers, "button" batteries, the new energy-saving fluorescent…… [Read More]

References

Keil, D., E., Ritchie, B., J. & McMillin, G., A. (2011). Testing for Toxic Elements: A Focus on Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Lab Medicine, 42, Pp. 735-742, Retrieved

December 21, 2012, from http://labmed.ascpjournals.org/content/42/12/735.full

WHO (2010), Exposure to Arsenic: A Major Public Health Concern, WHO Document

Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland, Pp. 1-5, Retrieved December 21, 2011, from  http://www.who.int/ipcs/features/arsenic.pdf
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Flapper Movement the Effect of the Flappers

Words: 8916 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71316040

Flapper Movement

The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women

The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.

Evolution of the Flapper

Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…… [Read More]

References

Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:

Harper and Row.

Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.

Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
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Mitigating the Effects of Emerging Water Pollutants

Words: 2538 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46682089

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment

Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.

Introduction

A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…… [Read More]

References

Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8

Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246

Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
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Government - The Diversionary Effects

Words: 6491 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80363526

In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.

Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).

Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984

Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.

James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.
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Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48342686

Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…… [Read More]

Reference

Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
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Downsizing the Effects of Downsizing a Noted

Words: 3315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18759968

Downsizing

The Effects of Downsizing

A noted scholar recently assessed downsizing as "probably the most pervasive yet understudied phenomenon in the business world" (Cameron, 1994). While we have become numbed by the near daily accounts of new layoffs, a New York Times national survey finding is perhaps more telling: since 1980, a family member in one-third of all U.S. households has been laid off (New York Times, 1996). By some measures, downsizing has failed abjectly as a tool to achieve the main raison d'etre, reduced costs. According to a Wyatt Company survey covering the period between 1985 and 1990, 89% of organizations, which engaged in downsizing, reported expense reduction as their primary goal, while only 42% actually reduced expenses. Downsizing for the sake of cost reduction alone has been castigated intellectually as shortsighted and neglectful of what resources will be needed to increase the revenue stream of the future (Hamel…… [Read More]

References

Argyris, C. (1992). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bennis, W. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Bridges, W. (1988). Surviving the survivor syndrome. William Bridges and Associates (pamphlet, 14 pages).

____ (1994). Job shift: How to prosper in a world without jobs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
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Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31344353

Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).

It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.

Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin

Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.

Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
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International Environmental Laws on Oil Gas Production Effects

Words: 2138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30626844

International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Production

Effects of Oil and Gas Production to the Environment in Norway

Over the years, oil and gas production companies have been a serious global concern. This is due to impacts on the environment associated with its production. International principles setup aims at governing the extraction and usage of such sources of energy. Norway is located in Europe, located near North Sea. Its high level of energy production has highly boosted the Gross National product (GNP) of Europe. Oil, gas and hydroelectric power having contributed significantly to the rapid development of industries in Europe and contribute around 50% to the economy. Discovery of oil and gas was in early 1960's, and currently, Norway is the seventh largest producer of oil and gas internationally. There have been contravenes between energy producing industries and the environmental activists. Several principles set to govern energy production have been set,…… [Read More]

References

Development of E.C.O.A., 2001. Environmental Performance Reviews: Norway. Holand: OECD publishers.

Edwards, J., 1998. Europe. Scandinavia: Nelson Thornes Publishers.

Fitzmaurie, M., 2010. Research Handbook on Iinternational Environmental Law. 3rd ed. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gardinerr, S., Caney, S. & Jamieson, D., 2003. Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. 1 ed. Chicago: Springer.
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Perceived Effect of Culture on

Words: 14190 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64453060

This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.

Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).

Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…… [Read More]

References

Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.

Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.

Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
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Oil Prices the Effects of

Words: 1772 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86678855

The member nations of OPEC are relatively few, making it easier for them to form a producing conglomerate; the idea of a consumer conglomerate is untenable, as OPEC will always be able to find an extensive enough market for its commodity with other countries not in this conglomerate, and thus they can still control the price.

Conclusion

The oil industry is not fueled by supply or demand so much as it is by the simple motivator of most economic decisions -- greed. Economies exist precisely because there is competition for limited resources. Any more, the resources that are actually necessary for life are not limited in the developed world, and the competition for unnecessary resources ends up depriving other regions of basic necessities. The oil producing countries of the world are cashing in on the system like and "intelligent" economic actor.

orks Cited

Econbrowser. "New study of the effects of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Econbrowser. "New study of the effects of oil price shocks on the economy." Accessed 1 November 2009. http://www.econbrowser.com/archives/2007/05/new_study_of_th_1.html

Katayama, Munechika. "Declining Effects of Oil=price Shocks." University of California, San Diego. Accessed 1 November 2009. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~m1kataya/paper/OilShock.pdf

Lorde, Troy; Jackman, Mahalia and Thomas, Chrystol. "The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago." Accessed 1 November 2009. http://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v37y2009i7p2708-2716.html

Reynolds, Alan. "Oil Prices: Cause and Effect." Cato Institute. Accessed 1 November 2009. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=3947
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Classical Causes of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88141669

43)

Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:

Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....

Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....

Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…… [Read More]

References

Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-53431.

Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.
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Positive and Negative Effects Video Games Have in Relation to Addiction Human Interaction and Violence

Words: 5997 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31230091

Computer Games esearch

When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.

Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…… [Read More]

References Cited

Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.

Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.

Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34

Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
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Hourly Calls Effecting Solutions

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90312977

Hourly ounds Effectiveness as a Solution

The proposed solution of increasing and monitoring hourly nursing rounds to help reduce falls, prevent ulcers and increased call light use is being brought into question in this essay to highlight its effectiveness as a means to address these types and related problems. This essay will explain the methods and variables needed in this strategy in order to fairly and honestly judge the quality of research in this effort.

Any method must approach this subject from both a qualitative and quantitative standpoint in order to hold any true value in the practical world. The ability to successfully quantify subjective variables will be an underlying aim throughout this research as many components of an hourly round is subjective in nature. The quantitative aspects of this research effort are simple and plain to see and provides the ability to provide strong empirical evidence. The hypothesis is…… [Read More]

References

Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, 24(2), 105-112.

Laschinger, H. K. S., & Havens, D. S. (1996). Staff nurse work empowerment and perceived control over nursing practice: conditions for work effectiveness. Journal of Nursing Administration, 26(9), 27-35.

Thomas, B. H., Ciliska, D., Dobbins, M., & Micucci, S. (2004). A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing,1(3), 176-184.
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Causes of Climate Change It Is Ideal

Words: 2783 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63582807

causes of Climate Change?

It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are

Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.

Web. 01 Mar. 2013.

"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
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Cause-Effect the Work Having Our

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84229208

(55) This instilled in the Delany sisters a strong sense of family resulting in their lifelong bond as sisters, who lived together and supported one another through their entire lives. As a family the Delany's formed a band, all ten children playing an instrument led by their father who was an accomplished organ player. All of these factors, in addition to the wise and simple pronouncements from their parents on everything from money to faith combined to create two fantastic and wise women, who never fail to share their wisdom.

The passages in the work that most express the challenges that the Delany's faced together with pride have to do with the social changes that occurred post-reformation at the beginning of the Jim Crow Era. The Delany sisters refer to the beginning of Jim Crow in North Carolina as "the day that everything changed." (73) Though segregation had long been…… [Read More]

Sources

Delany, Sarah L. And a. Elizabeth with Amy Hill Hearth, Having Our Say, Delta,

Bantam Doubleday Dell: New York, NY, 1997.
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Causes of Unemployment and of Crime the

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60155150

Causes of Unemployment and of Crime

The primary causes of the national unemployment rate and of a number of statistics that are involved with the rate of crime in the United States can be attributed to federal initiatives -- or the lack of such nationally-based measures -- that play a significant influence on these two highly valued concerns of American citizens. This statement certainly holds true for the national unemployment rate, which has consistently been above 8% for the past 29 months (and which is the longest streak of this sort since the Great Depression in the 1930s) (Associated Press, 2011). Due to what has widely been attributed to a global recession, the United States economy has been attempting to rise from a state of perceivable low status (in which its currency, the dollar, has been continually devalued, particularly in comparison to other international currency, such as the Euro). The…… [Read More]

References

Associated Press. (2011). "National Unemployment Rate Climbs to 9.2%." Retrieved from  http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/07/national_unemployment_rate_cli.htmlW 

Haq, H. (2010). "U.S. Crime Rate is Down: Six Key Reasons." The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2010/0524/U.S.-crime-rate-is-down-six-key-reasons
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Effects of Outsourcing in Today's Economy

Words: 3115 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48438653

Outsourcing Its Impact

The effects of outsourcing in today's economy

Effects on People

Being an expatriate

Breaking the language barrier

Culture Shock

Outsourcing and people dynamics: Impact on company

Effects on Economy

Capital flows

Impact on technology

Global management and outsourcing

The effects of outsourcing in today's economy

Outsourcing has become an increasingly popular business strategy for transnational organizations. Many of the U.S. corporations started outsourcing their manufacturing operations since late 1980s. This was due to the potential advantages, both from an economic as well as regulatory perspective that business operations in foreign lands provided to these businesses. Initially, the U.S. firms running in financial troubles chose to set their cost intensive operations abroad such as manufacturing and call centers in low cost countries. Gradually, when the cost benefits were realized, other companies from various industrial sectors also strengthened this trend of outsourcing. Pharmaceutical industry was the first to witness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartel, Ann, Saul Lach, and Nachum Sicherman. Outsourcing and technological change. No. w11158. National Bureau of Economic Research, (2005): 1-41.

Caligiuri, Paula, and Victoria Di Santo. "Global competence: what is it, and can it be developed through global assignments?" Human Resource Planning 24.3 (2001): 27-35.

Drezner, Daniel W. "Outsourcing Bogeyman, The." Foreign Aff. 83 (2004): 22.

Dunleavy, Patrick, and Christopher Hood. "From old public administration to new public management." Public money & management 14.3 (1994): 9-16.
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Effects of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54457372

Sexual Harrassment

Effects Of Sexual Harrassment In The Workplace

The problems of sexual harassment cases are prevalent in almost all of the companies. In today's workplace, incidents of sexual harassment have become common. It is not unusual that a majority of companies in America are facing countless suits on sexual harassments. While many companies have addressed the problem of sexual harassment at the organizational level with policy statements and other memos, management has not paid the real attention on lowering the number of sexual harassment in the workplace. The main problem occurs, as it is not clear what is a right conduct and what is a wrong conduct in case of the sexual harassment situation.

DEVELOPMENT OF PARAGRAPHS

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 makes sexual harassment illegal, considering it to be a form of sexual discrimination. The statute, however, does not cover what kind of behavior…… [Read More]

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Causes World Hunger The Most

Words: 501 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65148944

For example, in countries such as India, Mexico, and the Philippines, grain production and exports have increased, yet hunger persists (Knight Pp). Although nature is easy to blame for the world's hunger, food is always available for those who can afford it (Knight Pp). In places such as south Asia and Africa, many people are deprived of land ownership by a "powerful few," and/or are "trapped in the unremitting grip of debt, or miserably paid" (Knight Pp).

Another common myth concerning world hunger is population growth, however, according to the report, "For every Bangladesh, a densely populated and hungry country, we find a Nigeria, Brazil or Bolivia where abundant food resources coexist with hunger" (Knight Pp). Costa Rica, with only half of Honduras' cropped acres per person, has a life expectancy of eleven years longer than that of Honduras (Knight Pp).

Large farms, the free-market, free trade and more aid…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Knight, Danielle. "Food: New Report Exposes Myths About World Hunger."

Inter-Press Service English News Wire. 10/17/1998; Pp.
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Causes of Depression O in Preschoolers

Words: 1736 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87816276

Depression Among Preschoolers

Depression is an illness where one gets bad feelings that hang on for weeks or even longer. The feelings don't go away that easily just like the way bad feelings do after a day or few hours, it hangs on a bit longer and could as well lead to a disease which ought to be treated. When you one is depressed one feel sad, angry, hopeless and discouraged. Physically one may feel tired all the time and have constant headaches. Different individuals have a number of reasons that makes them depressed such as; work related, family reasons, unfulfilled desires, sickness, financial strains just to name a few. All this are reasons that cause worry but if they change to become uncontrollable it leads to depression (ey & Birmaher, 2009). Those found to exhibit such tendencies are known to be depressed. Such people are unable to think clearly…… [Read More]

Reference

Rey, J., & Birmaher, B. (2009). Treating child and adolescent depression. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rutledge, R., & Bannister, T. (2007). The everything parent's guide to children with depression: An authoritative handbook on identifying symptoms, choosing treatments, and raising a happy and healthy child. Avon, Mass: Adams Media.

Huberty, T.J.R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention. New York: Springer.