Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Furthermore, alcoholism causes brain damage and
"thiamine deficiency is a common occurrence in people with alcoholism"
(NIAA 2004). The fact that brain damage is caused by excessive alcohol
abuse is a serious concern and one which cannot be overlooked. But
alcoholics are not alike and alcoholism has different origins for different
people. Therefore the effects vary considerably. But these, among many
other effects of alcohol abuse can be expected or at least there is a
possibility for them to exist.
Alcohol abuse also poses a risk on one's psychology. Although one
initially feels relaxed after drinking, this will soon turn into a negative
feeling. Someone who drinks too much will experience anxiety and this can
possibly lead to depression. Alcohol abuse is also related to sleep
problems, mood-swings, violent behavior, and possible suicide as 2/3 of all
suicide attempts involve alcohol (BUPA 2006). This is an extreme effect of
"ALCOHOL'S DAMAGING EFFECTS ON THE BRAIN." National Institute on Alcohol
Abuse. Oct. 2004. 25 Apr. 2007
"Heavy Drinking Dangers." Nov. 2003. 25 Apr. 2007 .
"Sensible Drinking." PUBA. 2006. 25 Apr. 2007
Great Depression refers to the serious economic decline that started in the United States towards the end of 1929 and spread to most industrial countries of the world, lasting until the early 1940s. The period saw sharp declines in the production and sale of goods and a sudden, severe rise in unemployment. Numerous businesses and banks closed down or went bankrupt, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and large sections of the population in hitherto prosperous countries had to depend on charity to survive. Economists have discussed and dissected the causes of the Depression ever since and its long-term effects have not even been fully overcome even today. In this paper we shall discuss some of the important causes and effects of the Great Depression.
The popular misconception about the Great Depression is that the sudden stock market crash of October 1929 caused it. Although the stock market…
DeLong, J. Bradford. "Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century" 1997. Brad Delong's Website. March 26, 2004. http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/TCEH/Slouch_Crash14.html
Great Depression in the United States." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Gusmorino, Paul A., III. "Main Causes of the Great Depression." Gusmorino World. May 13, 1996. March 26, 2004. http://www.gusmorino.com/pag3/greatdepression/index.html
McElvaine, Robert S. The Great Depression: America 1929-1941 Times Books: New York, 1981
Cars: Cause and ffect
The use of cars has been a major factor in modern life. Although most people would consider cars to be indispensable, there are many effects that cars cause on the environment and quality of life.
The environmental impact upon the environment is strong. Using a car is one of the most polluting activities an individual can do.(PA) In turn, the consequences of the resulting pollution include such problems as smog, respiratory problems, acid rain, and ozone depletion. However, improving on the efficiency of cars can help counteract this problem by reducing the emissions they produce. (Albrecht ) Indeed, the effect of switching from high fuel consumption vehicles to "greener" alternatives can have a significant effect on these problems.
Interestingly, environmental effects are not the only consequences of using cars, for they also affect human safety and health -- from accidents, obesity, and…
Energie-cites, Org. "The Toll of Automobiles." Homepage. 16 Mar. 2001. 16 Feb 2004
hat causes women to risk their health? Clearly the hoped-for effect is to improve their performances. Sutton explains that a woman on anabolic steroids will have less body fat and her body muscle mass will offer her more strength. "She may also develop euphoria and a heightened self-esteem… and have much more energy" (Sutton, 4). Moreover, women on steroids may experience "…heightened sexual arousal" and athletically inclined men are apt to be more attracted to her. She will have negative effects too, such as being irritable, experiencing dramatic mood swings, and she may even go into a "roid rage" -- or become depressed -- when she sees a woman that looks better than she does (Sutton, 5).
It should also be explained that women on anabolic steroids may begin to develop a body that is more like a man's body (after all, anabolic steroids increase testosterone production). Her breasts may…
Centers for Disease Control. (2010). Corticosteroid Therapy / Information for people with Diamond Blackfan anemia, and their families. Retrieved August 9, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Medline Plus. (2009). Anabolic Steroids / Also Called Anabolic-androgenic steroids,
Performance-enhancing drugs. Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www.nim.hih.gov/medlineplus/anabolicsteroids.html.
Mileur, Ray. (2004). Steroids claim the life of Ken Caminiti -- Was it worth it? The Birdhouse.
A number of individual, school and family risk factors contribute to this risk. Studies have identified exposure to domestic violence, child maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems, low self-worth and reduced assertiveness to increase children's risk of being bullied." (Shakoor, Jaffe et al., 380). In other words, victims may already be in a position where they could very well suffer mental health issues later in life, but it is undeniable that the bullying worsens any prognosis. Indeed, Farrington et al. In a 2011 study have shown that if anything victims tend to understate their own mental health difficulties (at least in contrast to parental assessments): they write that "victimization (being bullied) according to mothers was a strong and significant predictor of depression, even after controlling for ten key risk factors. Victimization according to boys was a weak but nevertheless significant predictor, especially when it was measured at the youngest age of…
Farrington, David, Loeber, Rolf, et al. "Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Predictors of Delinquency and Depression in the Pittsburgh Youth Study." Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research 3(2): 2011. 74-81. Print.
Menesini, Ersilia, Modena, Marco, and Tani, Franca. "Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Concurrent and Stable Roles and Psychological Health Symptoms." Journal of Genetic Psychology 17(2): 2009. 115-133. Print.
Shakoor, Sania, Jaffe, Sara, et al. "Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39: 2011. 379-387. Print.
If the team managers were to infuse players with a greater sense of camaraderie and a winning approach to playing, the team may perform well.
Often the media uses derogatory terms when describing the team, such as the team that "spoiled" the best stadium in the nation (Spagnolo, 2007). Proclamations as this can also turn sentiment into reality, and cause poor self-esteem among players. It seems as though the owners and managers have also made poor choices when it comes to trading and keeping players, trading out certain players that may have helped the team achieve victory, and adopting players that did not affect the team positively. Some team members during the last decade experienced injuries resulting in further loss of good players.
There is also evidence of team managers hiring players who averaged well over the "average" number of strikeouts one would expect from a decent player (Spagnolo, 2007).…
Spagnolo, D. (2007). Baseball season preview: Pittsburgh Pirates. Retrieved 6, Aug, 2007:
Cause and Effects of Teen Smoking
For more than a half-century, the deadly effects of cancer smoking in humans has been well-known and scientifically documented. Due to the strong addiction element of cigarettes, a nationwide anti-smoking campaign, meant for full efficiency, soon appeared to be doomed, as smokers continued smoking, despite knowing about the deadly effects of cigarettes.
Slowly, the scientific community was able to effectively bring a halt to the legal selling of nicotine products to children under the age of 18. For years after the initial banning of adolescent tobacco use, these children were still targeted for advertisement as the incoming generation of smoking adults, a crucial demographic for cigarette companies. The causes of teen smoking include targeted advertisement by tobacco companies and the ever-present problem of peer pressure, and the negative effects of teenage tobacco use are early symptoms of lung disease, cancer, and lifelong…
"Smoking." (2011). Teens Health. Retrieved December 30, from .
"Effects of Teen Smoking." (2011). Teen Smoking. Retrieved December 30, from .
"Teens and Smoking Tobacco." (2011). Teen Drug Abuse. Retrieved December 30, from .
Behavior-Cause and Effects
Cause and effect.
There are many circumstances in life that result in positive as well as negative effects. The causes or causative factors that result in certain effects however cannot just be considered from a purely subjective point-of-view. One should also consider the environmental and societal factors that act as causes that affect one's feelings and behaviour in life. A central thesis therefore that will be explored in this paper is that social and environmental factors determine one's life and experiences but that knowledge of the way one's life is affected can be used positively in terms of contentment and satisfaction.
If one thinks in the larger context one has to come to the conclusion that certain social, socio-economic as well as political factors are causative factors in our lives. One could consider as a primary factor in our lives the various social and political structures which…
As Time Goes By. Retrieved from http://timeaftime.blogspot.com/
Gironda et al. Born Happy: How Much Does Genetics Determine our Happiness
Throughout Our Lives? Retrieved from http://www.estebancalvo.com/files/teaching_files/Genetics_v2.pdf
School Violence: Cause and Effect
Leary el al. (2003) have noted that, "Case studies were conducted of 15 school shootings between 1995 and 2001 to examine the possible role of social rejection in school violence. Acute or chronic rejection -- in the form of ostracism, bullying, and/or romantic rejection -- was present in all but two of the incidents." This study drew extremely clear connections between incidents of social ostracism, bulling, and social rejection and incidents of school violence, including shootings. For example, incidents of school violence frequently occur as a direct result of negative interaction between members of a peer group. esearchers such as Leary et al. have provided conclusive evidence of this link. School violence prevention must, therefore, focus on ways in which school communities can mitigate these negative and potentially harmful social interactions and issues. In this sense, the cause of school violence is bullying and negative…
Thrust for Educational Leadership, Reprinted from Youth violence: Cause & solutions, (David Brown, D.E., October 1994)?School Violence In World of Criminal Justice, (Gale, 2002). Retrieved from: http://www.credoreference.com/entry/worldcrims/school_violence
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. (2008). Conduct and Behavior
Problems Related to School Aged Youth. Los Angeles, CA: Author.
Leary, M.R., Kowalski, R.M., Smith, L. And Phillips, S. (2003), Teasing, rejection, and violence: Case studies of the school shootings. Aggressive Behavior, 29: 202 -- 214. doi: 10.1002/ab.10061
Smoking: Cause and Effect
Smoking has always been a serious and controversial issue since it is on the one hand projected as a health hazard while on the other, we see all the glamorous, so-called health conscious people with cigarettes in their hands all around us. Therefore most people find themselves faced with a dilemma when it comes to the issue of quitting smoking. They cannot be convinced that it is a health hazard that could not only reduce number of years in one's life but can also affect one's quality of life. It is therefore extremely important to focus on the effects of smoking in the light of research and explain that smoking is actually the cause of several health problems.
Let us first focus on the effects of Smoking on Life expectancy. As mentioned earlier, smoking is a serious health hazard that can reduce the number of years…
Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J. et al.: Imperial Cancer Research Fund and World Health Organisation. Mortality from smoking in developing countries 1950-2000 Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994
Frank J. Chaloupka, Kenneth Warner: The Economics of Smoking, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 1999
Nicotine Addiction in Britain: Retrieved online 27th August 2004 at http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/pubs/books/nicotine/2-physical.htm
Cause and Effect: A Misunderstanding
At three in the afternoon their parents were still at work and they had the house to themselves. They had left campus at lunch, nobody the wiser. This had been going on for months. Today they were at Sebastian's in the garage. Both of their parents worked in order to make ends meet. Because of this they had little supervision in the afternoon. For Sebastian and May it was a bonus, free time.
"I don't like what you're doing," said May.
"Yes you do," Sebastian swung hard.
May tried to dodge, but was too slow and got hit in the middle of the forehead. "Damn it!"
"That's game." Sebastian put the paddle down next to his cell phone on the work bench and walked around the ping-pong table.
And I should care beeeecaaauussee?" She flirted.
"Because at five cents a point you now own…
Running by Luis Rodriguez
Cause and Effect as Found in Always Running La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.
A by Luis Rodriguez
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction" Sir Isaac Newton once wrote. Such is the case in the life of author Luis Rodriguez. The short essay found on pages 160-164 of his book, Always Running, describes the unjust imprisonment (effect) Rodriguez faced following his participation in the "Chicano Moratorium Against the Vietnam ar" protest of August 29th, 1970. (cause) (p.160)
Before discussing the effects of his actions, it is important to know the reasons behind his behavior. Rodriguez wanted to attend the march because he was interested in being a part of a cause greater than he was.
The Vietnam ar was going on. Many Hispanics were opposed to the war because of the large numbers of Hispanic casualties overseas. The number of Hispanics dying was…
Rodriguez, Luis. Always Running La Vida Loca: Gang Days in LA. Pages 160-164. CT: Curbstone Press, 1993.
The Cause and Effect Essay. The Writing Center. http://www.delmar.edu/engl/wrtctr/handouts/cause_effect.htm
When the storm occurs, people are asked to restrict their outdoor activities so they will breathe in the polluted air. The magnitude of impact is directly connected with the intensity of the storm. The more severe ones can cause problems for people going to work and hence can disrupt economic activities. Some of the respiratory problems caused by the YDS can be severe enough to prove fatal. It has been noticed that in areas that encounter yellow dust storms annually, there is an increase in mortality rate.
The effect on farm land is also serious in nature. While the dust itself doesn't harm the farm activities, it is the sulphuric emission and acid rain resulting from the storm that destroy crop by damaging the soil. When soil is affected, animal life is also seriously harmed by the storms especially the cattle. But the effect on sea life is even graver.…
Zhan Guo, Karen R. Polenske, Ning Ai, Evaluation of Yellow-Dust Storms and Countermeasure Policies in North China Using Regional Input-Output Models. 2005
Guo et al. 2005
Gillard's Government is a party to a UN agreement that Climate Change Minister Greg Combet signed in December at a under which approximately 10 per cent of carbon taxes in developed countries will go to a Green Climate Fund. While Ms Gillard has been denying she would support a carbon tax last August, her government had already committed to spend $599 million on climate change handouts over the current three-year Budget period. This will occur mainly in the Pacific and South-East Asia, $470 million of which has been allocated already (Murray 2011).
Solutions and eclamation
So, what is the middle path? Can a compromise be reached? While there was some support in the time of the former Howard government, the current situation may jeopardize this as the then administration assessed its options with regard to the situation Australian Government 2011). This was also the opinion expressed in a Bloomberg piece…
Adams, P. (2007). Insurance against Catastrophic Climate Change: How Much Will an Emissions Trading Scheme Cost Australia? East Victoria, Australia: Monash
At-a-glance: Carbon taxes around the world. (2011)Available:
http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/1492651/at-a-glance-carbon-taxes-around-t he-world. Last accessed 21 May 2011.
pecial Education Teachers
pecial Education Vacancies
Recruitment, Hiring, and Retention
Barriers to Hiring
Barriers to retaining special education personnel.
Incentives used to improve retention.
Recommendations to Improve Recruitment and Retention
Adequate upply of pecial Education Professionals
Teachers today are subject to more stress than ever. Increasing certification requirements, re-certification, assessments, federal standards, demanding children, apathetic parents and an unsupportive administration are just the tip of the iceberg. pecial education teachers have special circumstances. While other schoolteachers have some teachers who don't want to learn, special ed teachers are charged with the task of teaching to students who have difficulty learning, whose behavior problems are associated with an illness or handicap, whose needs for special attention are great. Teacher burnout is on the rise, and it's no wonder. This study will examine existing sources as well as conducting a survey of a sample population to assess the primary causes of…
Sources of Teacher Stress in State High Schools, Department of Sociology, La Trobe University Press, Melbourne, 1983.
Schwab, R.L. And Iwanicki. E.F. (1982). Received role conflict, role ambiguity, and teacher burnout. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18, 60-74.
Seeman, M. (1959). On the meaning of alienation. American Sociological Review, 24 (7), 83-91.
Seeman, M. (1975). Alienation studies. Annual Review of Sociology 1, 91-123.
Sparks, D. And Hammond, J. (1981). Managing Teacher Stress and Burnout. Washington, DC, ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education.
College and High School Life
High School and College education are the last two phases in an individual's life as one prepares to go and live in the 'real world.' These phases in an individual's educational development is necessary to make a person well-equipped with the necessary tools that all people need in going through life in the real world: knowledge and skills. Through knowledge and skills, an individual can develop himself better, and what better way to become successful in the real world but to live high school and college life in the most productive way as possible.
Although high school and college education are both part of an individual's educational development, they vary in treatment and scope of learning of an individual. In comparing these two educational developments, three important classifications are important: first, the scope of educational learning of an individual, second, the degree of social interaction…
Writing doesnt have to be a chore.
To prove it, heres a cause and effect essay example that gets down and dirty with a semi-controversial issue that polarizes a lot of people (no pun intended): yes, were talking about climate change.
This topic has been in the news for a good long while.
There have been movies made about it, conferences held about it, and many works of scholarly and not-so-scholarly literature written about it.
So lets take a look at how to turn this subject into the main topic of a cause and effect essay.
Well start off with a title, give you the hook, underline the thesis, and highlight some important parts for you to consider.
Best of all, well show you how to have fun with your essay. Lets go!
b. Did climate change cause Harvey et al.?
Deployment on Military Families
Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)
The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.
The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children
The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…
Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-
Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom
Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.
Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
The problem of juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal, and crime prevention programs are either unequipped to deal with the present realities or do not exist. Many developing countries have done little or nothing to deal with these problems, and international programs are obviously insufficient. Developed countries are engaged in activities aimed at juvenile crime prevention, but the overall effect of these programs is rather weak because the mechanisms in place are often inadequate to address the existing situation. On the whole, current efforts to fight juvenile delinquency are characterized by the lack of systematic action and the absence of task-oriented and effective social work with both offenders and victims, whether real or potential. Analysis is further complicated by a lack of international comparative data. (WY, 2003) The paper is a meditation and investigation of the causes of juvenile delinquency. While it…
Ali, M. (2008). Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 17223, Available from: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17223/ .
Chowdry, I.A., Khan, M.M., & Uddin, I. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Bangladesh: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(4), 1 -- 11.
Loeber, R. (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1 -- 41.
Tigar, Michael E. "What Are We Doing to the Children?: An Essay on Juvenile (In)justice." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 47, No. 849, 849 -- 866, 2010.
However, unlike Leucippus, Holbach is not simply interested in the science of materialism, and is more apt to entertain different explanations for specific types of matter. There is more to be understood than mere appearance in the rearrangement of material essences: "Determinism is universal, in Holbach's view, but different sorts of bodies may have peculiar properties that require peculiar explanations. Despite his avowed materialism, Holbach does not demand the sorts of reductive explanations of mental events that materialism might ordinarily seem to require (LeBuffe 2002). For Holbach, there is more interesting unpredictability in the behavior of types of matter, and the observation of what Leucippus might call mere surface differences.
Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.
The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (obbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper…
Bernanke, BS, (1983), Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, The American Economic Review, 73(3), 257-276
Cecchetti, G, (1992). Sources of Output Fluctuations During the Interwar Period: Further Evidence on the Causes of the Great Depression, Working Paper No. 4049, National Bureau of Economic Research
Robbins, Lionel; Weidenbaum, Murray, (2009), The Great Depression, Transaction Publishers
1st orld ar (I) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria…
Collins, F. Ross. World War One. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
Howard, Michael. The First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.
Kelly, Martin. Top 5 Causes of World War 1. 5 January, 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
*****. Consequences of World War I.17 march, 2005.Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
"In toy stores, children can become accustomed to food brands early by buying a Hostess bake set, Barbie's Pizza Hut play set or Fisher-Price's Oreo Matchin' Middles game. and, for budding math whizzes, there is a series of books from Hershey's Kisses on addition, subtraction and fractions" (Barboza, 2002).
Of course, the most notorious innovation in fast food, even more so than the Happy Meal, targeted at children, is the Supersized Meal. For people without children, for people for whom taste is not much of an issue, the issue of value often trumps everything. Supersizing means increasing the size of the cheapest parts of the traditional combo meal, the potatoes (starch) and the soda (high fructose corn syrup, cheaper even than real sugar). For only pennies more, people can get much larger portions, but because people tend to eat more food when more food is placed before them, this causes…
Barboza, David. (5 Aug 2003). "Fast Food Industry Zeroes in on Children
International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at http://www.rense.com/general39/fast.htm
Schlosser, Eric. (3 Sept 1998). "Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost of America's Diet."
Rolling Stone. Issue 794. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/rollingstone1.html
"Real-time" communications is expedient as well as efficient which are two desired elements in the industry. The pursuit of foreign markets by the United States as well as those of the European and Latin American markets is causative factor in globalization. The companies that compete throughout the world are seeking methods for integration of all aspects of their corporation. Furthermore, companies sue 'international growth strategies for the express purpose of "acquiring suppliers of vital resources." (Abboushi, 1999) Expansion can also be accounted for due to the fact that companies in the United States seek expansion on an international basis because they are unable to obtain certain products in the United States.
II. Necessity: Policy Results
Another viewpoint is that globalization most likely arose out of necessity of some type. One example of the idea presented may be found in the Scandinavian Acta Sociologica in a work entitled" the Future of…
Garrett, Geoffrey (2000) the Causes of Globalization 2000 April [Online available at http://www.yale.edu/leitner/pdf/2000-02.pdf
O'Rourke, Kevin, H. (2002) Europe and the Causes of Globalization 1790 to 2000
Benner, Mats (2003) the Future of the Advanced Welfare States in the Knowledge Economy" Scandinavian Sociological Association 2003 Vol. 46, No. 2 132-149 (2003)
Gomory, Ralph E. (2003) Globalization: Causes and Effects Online [available at www.findarticles.com//articles/mi_qa3522/is_200307/ai_n9293477/print
Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects
hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).
There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…
Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal
Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook
Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
causes of violence, John Monahan details the limited knowledge and research that currently exists. He argues that, although biological, sociological, and psychological factors contribute individually to causing violence, the root of the problem lies in a combination of all three. In attempting to develop a multi-causal explanation, Monahan points to the influence and role of the family.
Although many theories have emphasized the importance of biological factors, such as hormones, chemical imbalances, brain injury, and genetics, in the causation of violence, the present level of scientific research has failed to identify any definite links. However, this same research has also failed to categorically disprove biological factors as a potential cause, thus supporting Monahan's call for an increase in the funding of study and research in this area.
The most commonly cited causes of violence are the many, and varied sociological factors. Although social science has been able to build an…
Monahan, J. (1994). The Causes of Violence. In Eskridge, C. Criminal Justice: Concepts and Issues (pp. 63-67). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…
Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?
Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.
Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195
DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
downsizing on Manufacturing Industries
The amount of information on the effects of down sizing on manufacturing was not plentiful, however one main point that flows through all of the articles is that even though down sizing may be done to help a company it can end up hurting them in the long run. In the paragraphs to follow we look at the effects that downsizing has on people and companies as well as look at whether or not downsizing is truly the answer.
Parker (2003)eports that in 2003 the expected job losses among the manufacturing industries in Great Britain would create the effects of rising input costs and oil price increase on the job cuts; Downturn of the purchasing managers' index for manufacturing; Decrease in the rate of manufacturer's orders. So even though these cuts may be necessary he pointed out that it would have an overall negative effect.
Budros, A. (1997). The New Capitalism and Organizational Rationality., 76, 229-250.
Budros, A. (1999, Jan/Feb). A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Why Organizations Downsize.. Organization Science, 10(1), 69-83.
Isabella, L.A. (1999, May). Downsizing: Survivors' assessment. Business Horizons, 32(3),
Labib, N. (1993). Strategic Downsizing: A Human Resources Perspective. Human Resource Planning, 16(4), 69-93.
Panic of 1857
"In the life of a nation, every year has its failures and disappointments, but 1857 had more than its share." ~ Kenneth M. Stampp[footnoteRef:1] [1: Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857 a Nation on the Brink. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.]
There have been many times in American history where the people of the country gave into fear and paranoia and subsequently made what could have been a minor difficulty into a crisis of epic proportions. During the middle of the 19th century, several incidents occurred which had a decidedly negative effect on the American economy and the nation's moral overall. The economic setbacks followed by the discovery that several executives in charge of government finance were corrupted caused American citizens to turn against the nation's authority figures. This feeling of distrust, accompanied by the panic of an unstable economy laid the groundwork for the American…
Ayers, Edward L. American Passages a History of the United States. New York [u.a.:
Wadsworth, 2007. Print.
Huston, James L. The Panic of 1857 and the Coming of the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana
State UP, 1987. Print.
mental illness on the individual, family, and community, and identify mental health resources for individuals experiencing mental illness. Mental illness does not just affect the patient, it affects the entire patient's family and friends, and it can affect them throughout their life. Unfortunately, mental illness still invokes a stigma in this country, which has a negative affect on patients suffering from mental illness.
Even when people attempt to be open minded, there is still a stigma that revolves around people who suffer from mental health issues. Two authors note, "People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of our society" (Overton & Medina, 2008). This is just one of the negative affects of suffering from mental illness, and it can be as debilitating as the disease itself. In the past, (such as the middle ages, people…
Corrigan, P.W., Watson, A.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Problem of public health or social justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363+.
Neugeboren, J. (2006, October 6). Side effects. Commonweal, 133, 38.
Overton, S.L., & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143+.
Cause of Homelessness in America
has numerous social problems. Homelessness seems to be one of the most important ones. There are several causes that determine homelessness. However, the primary cause of homelessness can be considered the reduced affordable housing level and the national increase in poverty. Other causes of homelessness refer to high unemployment rates, low salary levels in certain urban and rural areas, the inability of certain individuals to pay health care bills, the inability qualify for public assistance, domestic violence, mental illness, addiction disorders, and others. It is important to understand that there are specific factors that influence homelessness in the U.S., but these factors are allowed to develop because of the state's authorities. In other words, these authorities seem to not be able to manage the social situation of individuals in a homeless situation. If their situation is analyzed, it can be established that homeless people's actions…
1. Top Causes of Homelessness in America (2012). HomeAid. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://www.homeaid.org/HomeAid-Stories/69/top-causes-of-homelessness .
2. Causes of Homelessness (2011). Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://www.homelessofhc.org/index.php/get-educated-information-homelessness/causes-of-homelessness.
3. Crane, M. et al. (2005). The Causes of Homeless in Later Life: Findings from a Three Nations Study. Journal of Gerontology. Retrieved April 3.
4. Fischer, P. (1992). Victimization and Homelessness: Cause and Effect. New England Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Teratology is the scientific study of causes and mechanisms of malformation during the human development. Fetal diseases, mechanical effects and retarded development of the embryo and the fetus are some of the causes of CDDs (congenital developmental disorders) according to various studies. oth mystical and scientific theories were developed in the past to explain the origin of Teratology; some theories stating that it originated from the position of the stars, maternal impressions, hybridization, and oligohy dramnios, among others. Today, biological assumptions on abnormalities seem to have more weight than the unproven theories given in the past. Scientific studies have revealed that the real causes of congenital developmental disorders include: mechanical effects, biological factors, physical factors and chemical substances (Ujhazy, Mach, Navarova, rucknerova, & Dubovicky, 2012).
Fig. 1. 1. The irth of Modern Teratology (McCormick, 2012)
The contemporary science of teratology started in the 1930s with the release of a study…
Agrawal, S. (2007). Genetic Causes of Congenital Malformation. Anthropologist Special, 425-434 .
Can, O. G. (2007). Principles of Human Teratology: Drug, Chemical, and Infectious Exposure. JOGC, 911-917.
Chung, W. (n.d.). TERATOGENS AND THEIR EFFECTS. 1-8. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt23-Teratogens.pdf
HoRC. (n.d.). FASD and alcohol consumption patterns. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia: http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/fasd/report/chapter2.htm
Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. esearch has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang…
Cahill, et al. (2015). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program. Retrieved online: http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000622-Evaluation-of-the-Los-Angeles-Gang-Reduction-and-Youth-Development-Program-Year-4-Evaluation-Report.pdf
Freng, A. & Taylor, T.J. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity: what are their roles in gang membership? United States Department of Justice. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/243474.pdf
"Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," (n.d.). Retreived online: http://family.jrank.org/pages/674/Gangs-Family-Gangs-Gang-Family.html
Hoover, M. (1999). Where all the madness began. 28 May, 1999. Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/gangcolor/madness.htm
Cause of Armed Conflict
In the aftermath of 911 and as an effect of the 'War on Terror', religion can be clearly seen as major cause of armed conflict. Such views, however, have fallen on fertile ground, following the massive debates about Samuel P. Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis, and the increased analytical attention to the interface between religion and conflict throughout most of the 1990s. Although few analysts will argue that religion is a more prominent factor in conflict now than before, the alteration of awareness is in itself a significant change. This reflects, as Oliver McTernan points out, the "opinion of a number of academics that have recognized in the midst of social, historical, political, cultural and economic factors the salience of religion also" (McTernan 2003: 87-88).
eligion may feed conflict when its normative system is considered to legitimize the use of violence. As Elise Boulding has pointed…
McTernan, Oliver. 2003. Violence in God's Name: Religion in an Age of Conflict. New York: Orbis's Books.
Boulding, Elise. 1986. "Two Cultures of Religion as Obstacles to Peace." Zygon
Appleby, R. Scott. 1996. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding." Pp. 821-840 in The Challenges of Managing International
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers
This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.
It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…
Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners
Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.
Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.
(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
Causes of Increased Child Obesity
Causes of Increased Childhood Obesity in the 21st Century
Over the last several decades, the issue of childhood obesity has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the overall number of children who are overweight or obese have risen dramatically. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Institute of Health (NIH). They found that the total number of children and teenagers who are obese / overweight is one out of every three. This is the highest amount of young people ever reported in either category. As, the underlying trends have continued to increase dramatically in the last 30 years. This is troubling, because in the future these individuals will more than likely suffer from a number of health issues. A few of the most notable include: hypertension, type two diabetes,…
Causes of Childhood Obesity. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/causes-of-childhood-obesity.html
Citalpram Side Effects. (2011). Side Effects Hub. Retrieved from: http://sideeffectshub.com/citalopram-side-effects/
Childhood Obesity Statistics. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/childhood-obesity-statistics-p2.html
Research Links. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /Features/Obesity/
Causes of Global Warming
In the past twenty (20) years, human society has consumed and emitted yearly total emissions of about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" gases worldwide, according to National Geographic (2011). These yearly emissions may seem irrelevant as a number, but this is the amount of gases emitted that contributed to the worsening condition of global warming in the world today. Global warming has so far resulted to the alarming and gradual climate change happening in most parts of the world today. Summer time could be shortened because of global warming, followed by a period of strong rains in unexpected seasons. Harvest period for farmers are significantly changed as a result of unexpected draughts or shorter periods of rain in another part of the country. What was expected as rain turned out to be a shower of hail stones. These are just observed changes in…
"What causes global climate change?" (2005). Climate Change Information Resources- New York Metropolitan Region. Available at: http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf
"What causes global warming?" (2011). National Geographic Official Website. Available at: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-causes
Brown, N..; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19
Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-elated marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Profs.com. etrieved February 20, 2005: http://www.marketingprofs.com/5/fogel2.asp
Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause elated Marketing." Business in the Community. Available: http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/research/research_publications/brand_benefits.html
IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report." Sponsorship.com, 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."
Kelley, C.L. & Kowalczyk, T.K. (2003). "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors." The CPA Journal, 73(2):15
Marken, G.A. (2001). "P has to be more involved in company branding." Public
elations Quarterly, 46 (4): 31
NSPCC. (2002). "NSPCC - Cause related marketing." NSPCC Online. etrieved February 17, 2005: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/fundraisingvolunteering/causerelatedmarketing.htm
Pringle, H. & Thompson, M. (2000). "Brand Spirit - How cause related marketing builds brands." New…
Brown, N.R.; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19
Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-Related marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Profs.com. Retrieved February 20, 2005: http://www.marketingprofs.com/5/fogel2.asp
Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause Related Marketing." Business in the Community. Available: http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/research/research_publications/brand_benefits.html
IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report." Sponsorship.com, 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."
Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction.
However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals. By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions
(already described); except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct (Schmalleger, 2001). Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact.
The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview…
Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Needing to borrow money can be a source of shame and a seeming sign of weakness for some people. Feeling ashamed can cause Tom to resent Rob for being wealthier than he is. Tom may feel even as ashamed as to avoid going out with Rob until the money is paid back. Once again, what was once a friendship built on good times becomes more like a business relationship and a power struggle. The effects of the imbalance could last for a long time. Tom might feel permanently inferior to Rob, who never needed to borrow money himself.
On the other hand, borrowing and lending money between friends can cause friction because the person who asks for money also places him or herself in a position of power. Unlike borrowing money from a bank, paying back money to a friend is completely voluntary. Most of the time, the friends do…
Causes of Financial Crisis
Ireland developed high growth rates based on rapid expansion of credit and a buildup of personal debt fueled by rising property prices (Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it?). This lead to risky bank lending practices. Banks also engaged in short-term borrowing from wholesale money markets causing increased risk appetite. Supervisors and regulators failed to identify and act on the emerging risks. Where construction was a large part of the employment and economy, it caused high unemployment rates and major bank losses in a bubble burst when household income could not afford to pay mortgage debt. Property value decreased making it harder to recover the mortgage value for banks. In turn, it created difficulty for the banks to pay back the short-term borrowing to the wholesale money markets. Where risks were not identified, no plans were put in place…
Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it? 22 Feb 2012. article retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy/irelands_economic_crisis/index_en.htm . 1 Mar 2014.
Long, Stephen. Explainer: Behind the Cyprus financial crisis. 22 Mar 2013. article retrieved from http://www.ace.net.au/news/2013-03-22/explainer-behind-the-cyprus-financial-crisis/4588736. 1 Mar 2014.
Pettinger, Tejuan. Portugal Economic Crisis. 4 Dec 2012. article retrieved from http://www.economichelp.org/blog/6423/economics/portugal-economic-crisis. Mar 2014.
Q&A: Greece's financial crisis explained. 26 Mar 2010. article retrieved from http:www.cnn.com/2010/Business/02/10/greek.debt.ganda/index.html. 1 Mar 2014.
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
An Analysis of the Causes and Effects of Littering
Littering may be defined as a human behavior that results in the improper or inappropriate disposal of waste products. Litter can range from anything such as plastic bags and wrappers to appliances, electronics and biological hazardous materials. Litter can be classified as illegal dumping if the former crosses a level of quantity or volume. egardless of the volume, however, littering can have detrimental effects. In fact, studies show that even though littering "has decreased in the past 40 years" (Schultz, Stein, 2009, p. 6), "litter is still quite common" (Littering Behavior in America, 2009, p. 2). There is really only one primary cause of littering, which is nothing more than harmful human behavior. The effects of littering on humans, animals and the environment, however, are much more varied and diverse. This paper will analyze how human behavior causes littering to…
Cardi, N. (2012). Littering Facts: The Causes and Effects of Littering. Cereplast.
Retrieved from http://www.cereplast.com/littering-facts-the-causes-and-effects-of-littering/
Couteaux, M. et al. (1995). Litter decomposition, climate and litter quality. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10(2): 63-66.
The EarthWorks Group. (1990). 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Save the Earth. KC:
According to many historians, that relief effort was instrumental in propelling Hoover into the national spotlight and eventually helped him win the 1929 presidential election.
The Mississippi Flood as the ause of Racial Tension
Approximately 650,000 people were directly affected by the Mississippi Flood of 1927, having to relocate because their homes, property, and entire communities were completely destroyed by the flood. Almost half of them were housed in relief camps of whom almost three-quarters were African-American. In many cases, the conditions sparked racial tensions and events such as what occurred in Greenville, Mississippi. More than 10,000 people were stranded without drinking water, food, or any other supplies for several days.
When boats finally arrived, they initially rescued only children and white women, leaving white men, and African-Americans. In another event that made nationwide headlines, police had been sent to round up relief workers from the "Negro" areas. When an…
The Mississippi Flood of 1927 was a natural disaster not attributable to human error or oversight. Unprecedented rainfall simply overwhelmed the physical barriers provided by the levees that relied on early 20th century technology, materials, and building methods. Ironically, major aspects of the federal government's response to the disaster and the subsequent relief efforts were so efficient that they helped propel their principal architect to the U.S. presidency two years later.
On the other hand, the immediate aftermath of the flood also rekindled intense racial inequalities and showed many African-Americans that the American South was simply not a place where they could ever hope to achieve racial or economic equality. As a result, many southern African-Americans decided to migrate north, more so than at any other time since the end of the American Civil War. To a great degree, the modern-day demographics of many Northeastern American cities reflect the long-term results of events that were initially caused by the Mississippi Flood of 1927.
What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…
Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html
Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ
O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html
Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
MEDIATOR & MODERATOR EFFECTS
There are several goals of the article "Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research." (Frazier et al., 2004) One of the primary goals of the piece is clear delineation of each term and clear explanation of the differences (and similarities) between the two. Another goal of the authors' research is to reveal to researchers and professionals the potential depth and precision their research could achieve with knowledge and application of mediators and moderators in their studies. ith awareness and tracking of mediators and moderators, researchers can make more precise predictions, compile richer data, and provide more insightful analyses & conclusions after the study.
Interaction effects are not only important for intervention studies, however. There are many other instances in which researchers are interested in whether relations between predictor and outcome variables are stronger for some people than for others. The identification of…
We focus particularly on the differential implications for choice of experimental design, research operations, and plan of statistical analysis. We also claim that there are conceptual implications of the failure to appreciate the moderator-mediator distinction. Among the issues we will discuss in this regard are missed opportunities to probe more deeply into the nature of causal mechanisms and integrate seemingly irreconcilable theoretical positions. For example, it is possible that in some problem areas disagreements about mediators can be resolved by treating certain variable as moderators. (Baron & Kenny, The Moderator-Mediator Distinction, 1986)
There task for such distinction is still incomplete as the Frazier piece is written eighteen years later and the distinction still has not been made -- and they introduce considering these terms on three levels: conceptual, strategic, and statistical. (2004) Considering mediators and moderators in the ways proposed by Frazier et al. (2004) on the levels proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986) marks the intersection among mediators, moderators, and applications in management. This is yet another way the article by Frazier et al. demonstrates value to readers and researchers.
It is possible for an effect size to be fairly small in order for us to find it interesting. Frazier et al. remind the readers more than once that research into the distinctions between and the subsequent implications for those differences has not been researched a great deal. They mention in their conclusion how their study provides only a model and further implementation is necessary before commenting on a larger body of data. That larger body of data relevant specifically to mediator and moderator effects has not been made, as evidenced for example, by the eighteen year gap in two of the articles, yet their intention is nearly the exact same. Therefore, it is the opinion of the author that effect size need not be the primary issue, though effect sizes should be taken into consideration. The attention and tracking of mediators and moderators during the study is more relevant than the effect size because there is no great body of work to compare against. When there are more studies with many different effect sizes, then that question will be more significant and there is a greater possibility of a relevant, insightful answer. Both moderators and mediators contribute to effect size as they in essence represent the "when" & "for whom" and the "why" & "how" respectively. (Frazier et al., 2004) When a mediation occurs and why a moderation occurs both influence effect size. Their influence is different, but still quantifiable and qualifiable.
Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury
Exposure Effects of Mercury and Arsenic
Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury
Mercury is considered as toxic metal causing neurological disorders while Arsenic is considered as a human carcinogen. Mercury mainly affects areas which are associated with the sensory, visual and auditory functions and those concerned with co-ordination. On the other hand, Arsenic exposure results in chronic diseases pertaining to skin tumors, hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis of palms. This paper revolves around the explanation of symptoms pertaining to the harmful exposure effects of mercury and arsenic, and also highlights how the symptoms of both differ from each other.
Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury
Elevated levels of exposure to Mercury and Arsenic cause harmful effects to human health, deteriorating human reproductive and nervous systems. Coal burning power plants emit mercury; home thermometers, "button" batteries, the new energy-saving fluorescent…
Keil, D., E., Ritchie, B., J. & McMillin, G., A. (2011). Testing for Toxic Elements: A Focus on Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Lab Medicine, 42, Pp. 735-742, Retrieved
December 21, 2012, from http://labmed.ascpjournals.org/content/42/12/735.full
WHO (2010), Exposure to Arsenic: A Major Public Health Concern, WHO Document
Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland, Pp. 1-5, Retrieved December 21, 2011, from http://www.who.int/ipcs/features/arsenic.pdf
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…
Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8
Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246
Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364
Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.
Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…
Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).
Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984
Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.
James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.
Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),
The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…
Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
The Effects of Downsizing
A noted scholar recently assessed downsizing as "probably the most pervasive yet understudied phenomenon in the business world" (Cameron, 1994). While we have become numbed by the near daily accounts of new layoffs, a New York Times national survey finding is perhaps more telling: since 1980, a family member in one-third of all U.S. households has been laid off (New York Times, 1996). By some measures, downsizing has failed abjectly as a tool to achieve the main raison d'etre, reduced costs. According to a Wyatt Company survey covering the period between 1985 and 1990, 89% of organizations, which engaged in downsizing, reported expense reduction as their primary goal, while only 42% actually reduced expenses. Downsizing for the sake of cost reduction alone has been castigated intellectually as shortsighted and neglectful of what resources will be needed to increase the revenue stream of the future (Hamel…
Argyris, C. (1992). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bennis, W. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bridges, W. (1988). Surviving the survivor syndrome. William Bridges and Associates (pamphlet, 14 pages).
____ (1994). Job shift: How to prosper in a world without jobs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.
Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.
Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…
Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.
Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin
Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.
Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.
Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).
Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…
Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.
Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.
Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
The member nations of OPEC are relatively few, making it easier for them to form a producing conglomerate; the idea of a consumer conglomerate is untenable, as OPEC will always be able to find an extensive enough market for its commodity with other countries not in this conglomerate, and thus they can still control the price.
The oil industry is not fueled by supply or demand so much as it is by the simple motivator of most economic decisions -- greed. Economies exist precisely because there is competition for limited resources. Any more, the resources that are actually necessary for life are not limited in the developed world, and the competition for unnecessary resources ends up depriving other regions of basic necessities. The oil producing countries of the world are cashing in on the system like and "intelligent" economic actor.
Econbrowser. "New study of the effects of…
Econbrowser. "New study of the effects of oil price shocks on the economy." Accessed 1 November 2009. http://www.econbrowser.com/archives/2007/05/new_study_of_th_1.html
Katayama, Munechika. "Declining Effects of Oil=price Shocks." University of California, San Diego. Accessed 1 November 2009. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~m1kataya/paper/OilShock.pdf
Lorde, Troy; Jackman, Mahalia and Thomas, Chrystol. "The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago." Accessed 1 November 2009. http://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v37y2009i7p2708-2716.html
Reynolds, Alan. "Oil Prices: Cause and Effect." Cato Institute. Accessed 1 November 2009. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=3947
Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:
Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....
Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....
Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:
Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Hourly ounds Effectiveness as a Solution
The proposed solution of increasing and monitoring hourly nursing rounds to help reduce falls, prevent ulcers and increased call light use is being brought into question in this essay to highlight its effectiveness as a means to address these types and related problems. This essay will explain the methods and variables needed in this strategy in order to fairly and honestly judge the quality of research in this effort.
Any method must approach this subject from both a qualitative and quantitative standpoint in order to hold any true value in the practical world. The ability to successfully quantify subjective variables will be an underlying aim throughout this research as many components of an hourly round is subjective in nature. The quantitative aspects of this research effort are simple and plain to see and provides the ability to provide strong empirical evidence. The hypothesis is…
Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, 24(2), 105-112.
Laschinger, H. K. S., & Havens, D. S. (1996). Staff nurse work empowerment and perceived control over nursing practice: conditions for work effectiveness. Journal of Nursing Administration, 26(9), 27-35.
Thomas, B. H., Ciliska, D., Dobbins, M., & Micucci, S. (2004). A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing,1(3), 176-184.