Cause And Effect Essays (Examples)

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Cause And Effect Essays (Examples)

A cause and effect essay looks at why things happen and what actually happens.  These can be difficult because, generally, there are multiple causes that influence a single effect, so singling out one cause can make your essay seem weak.  Therefore, in order to establish cause-and-effect, it is important to demonstrate that, if the cause had not occurred, the effect would not have occurred, even if additional things had to occur in order to produce the effect.

Below are cause and effect essays (examples), which you can use in helping you write your own paper.  We provide high quality titles, topic recommendations, outlines, and resources to assist you.  All of our cause and effect essays include introductions, thesis statements, bodies, conclusions, and a properly cited reference page.

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Deployment on Military Families Cause Deployment Effect

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51479252

Deployment on Military Families

Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)

The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.

The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children

The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-

Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom

Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.

Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
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Causes and Effects of Environmental Degradation

Words: 2641 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29376352

negative effects of degradation of the environment. It will first discuss human population as a cause for environmental degradation by also relating to afferent effects. It will then bring into equation urbanization and industrialization which are closely linked. Ultimately, the general effects of global warming, as both a cause and an effect in itself, will be considered.

Key terms: environment, population density, urbanization, industrialization, global warming.

Man has impacted the environment since the beginning of times but, unlike nowadays, the effects were then negligible. As the number of population increased and spread around the globe, so did changes in the environment. Defining the environment has taken many forms throughout the years. The broader and most common understanding is that it represents the sum of conditions and natural factors that influence human activity. The environment is understood in terms of a dynamic system with a well defined structure where its components,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Ahmad, F. (2012). India's economic development: Nexus between poverty and environmental degradation. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 1(5), 61-66. Retrieved from  http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/june2012/Indias-Economic-Development-Nexus-Between-Poverty-And-Environmental-Degradation.pdf 

Beck, M.W., Shepard, C.C, Birkmann, J., Rhyner, J., Welle, T., Witting, M., Wolfertz, J., Martens, J., Maurer, K., Mucke, P., & Radtke, K. (2012). WorldRiskReport 2012. Berlin: Alliance Development Works, ISBN 978-3-9814495-0-3.

Duraiappah, A. (1996). Poverty and environmental degradation: A literature review and analysis. CREED Working Paper Series No 8. Amsterdam: Institute for Environmental Studies. Retrieved from  http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/8127IIED.pdf 

Malthus, T. (1998). An essay on the principle of population (Electronic ed.). Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project. Retrieved from  http://www.esp.org/books/malthus/population/malthus.pdf
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Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10505048

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Criminal Justice

The problem of juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal, and crime prevention programs are either unequipped to deal with the present realities or do not exist. Many developing countries have done little or nothing to deal with these problems, and international programs are obviously insufficient. Developed countries are engaged in activities aimed at juvenile crime prevention, but the overall effect of these programs is rather weak because the mechanisms in place are often inadequate to address the existing situation. On the whole, current efforts to fight juvenile delinquency are characterized by the lack of systematic action and the absence of task-oriented and effective social work with both offenders and victims, whether real or potential. Analysis is further complicated by a lack of international comparative data. (WY, 2003) The paper is a meditation and investigation of the causes of juvenile delinquency. While it…… [Read More]

References:

Ali, M. (2008). Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 17223, Available from: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17223/.

Chowdry, I.A., Khan, M.M., & Uddin, I. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Bangladesh: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(4), 1 -- 11.

Loeber, R. (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1 -- 41.

Tigar, Michael E. "What Are We Doing to the Children?: An Essay on Juvenile (In)justice." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 47, No. 849, 849 -- 866, 2010.
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Causes of Human Behavior Compare

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66568588

However, unlike Leucippus, Holbach is not simply interested in the science of materialism, and is more apt to entertain different explanations for specific types of matter. There is more to be understood than mere appearance in the rearrangement of material essences: "Determinism is universal, in Holbach's view, but different sorts of bodies may have peculiar properties that require peculiar explanations. Despite his avowed materialism, Holbach does not demand the sorts of reductive explanations of mental events that materialism might ordinarily seem to require (LeBuffe 2002). For Holbach, there is more interesting unpredictability in the behavior of types of matter, and the observation of what Leucippus might call mere surface differences.

orks Cited

Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leucippus/#2

LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/holbach/#2… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leucippus/#2 

LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/holbach/#2
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Causes and Effects of World War I

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10394223

1st orld ar (I) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, F. Ross. World War One. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Howard, Michael. The First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.

Kelly, Martin. Top 5 Causes of World War 1. 5 January, 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.

*****. Consequences of World War I.17 march, 2005.Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
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Causes for the Popularity of

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47551676

"In toy stores, children can become accustomed to food brands early by buying a Hostess bake set, Barbie's Pizza Hut play set or Fisher-Price's Oreo Matchin' Middles game. and, for budding math whizzes, there is a series of books from Hershey's Kisses on addition, subtraction and fractions" (Barboza, 2002).

Of course, the most notorious innovation in fast food, even more so than the Happy Meal, targeted at children, is the Supersized Meal. For people without children, for people for whom taste is not much of an issue, the issue of value often trumps everything. Supersizing means increasing the size of the cheapest parts of the traditional combo meal, the potatoes (starch) and the soda (high fructose corn syrup, cheaper even than real sugar). For only pennies more, people can get much larger portions, but because people tend to eat more food when more food is placed before them, this causes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barboza, David. (5 Aug 2003). "Fast Food Industry Zeroes in on Children

International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at  http://www.rense.com/general39/fast.htm 

Schlosser, Eric. (3 Sept 1998). "Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost of America's Diet."

Rolling Stone. Issue 794. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at  http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/rollingstone1.html
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Causes of Globalization Introduction Means

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7934659

"Real-time" communications is expedient as well as efficient which are two desired elements in the industry. The pursuit of foreign markets by the United States as well as those of the European and Latin American markets is causative factor in globalization. The companies that compete throughout the world are seeking methods for integration of all aspects of their corporation. Furthermore, companies sue 'international growth strategies for the express purpose of "acquiring suppliers of vital resources." (Abboushi, 1999) Expansion can also be accounted for due to the fact that companies in the United States seek expansion on an international basis because they are unable to obtain certain products in the United States.

II. Necessity: Policy Results

Another viewpoint is that globalization most likely arose out of necessity of some type. One example of the idea presented may be found in the Scandinavian Acta Sociologica in a work entitled" the Future of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garrett, Geoffrey (2000) the Causes of Globalization 2000 April [Online available at http://www.yale.edu/leitner/pdf/2000-02.pdf

O'Rourke, Kevin, H. (2002) Europe and the Causes of Globalization 1790 to 2000

Benner, Mats (2003) the Future of the Advanced Welfare States in the Knowledge Economy" Scandinavian Sociological Association 2003 Vol. 46, No. 2 132-149 (2003)

Gomory, Ralph E. (2003) Globalization: Causes and Effects Online [available at www.findarticles.com//articles/mi_qa3522/is_200307/ai_n9293477/print
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Causes Effects of Racism on US

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69906479

Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects

hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).

There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal

Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook

Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
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Causes of Violence John Monahan Details the

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62247616

causes of violence, John Monahan details the limited knowledge and research that currently exists. He argues that, although biological, sociological, and psychological factors contribute individually to causing violence, the root of the problem lies in a combination of all three. In attempting to develop a multi-causal explanation, Monahan points to the influence and role of the family.

Although many theories have emphasized the importance of biological factors, such as hormones, chemical imbalances, brain injury, and genetics, in the causation of violence, the present level of scientific research has failed to identify any definite links. However, this same research has also failed to categorically disprove biological factors as a potential cause, thus supporting Monahan's call for an increase in the funding of study and research in this area.

The most commonly cited causes of violence are the many, and varied sociological factors. Although social science has been able to build an…… [Read More]

References

Monahan, J. (1994). The Causes of Violence. In Eskridge, C. Criminal Justice: Concepts and Issues (pp. 63-67). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Co.
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Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
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Effects of Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6389413

Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…… [Read More]

References

Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
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Effect of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries

Words: 6191 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78581859

downsizing on Manufacturing Industries

The amount of information on the effects of down sizing on manufacturing was not plentiful, however one main point that flows through all of the articles is that even though down sizing may be done to help a company it can end up hurting them in the long run. In the paragraphs to follow we look at the effects that downsizing has on people and companies as well as look at whether or not downsizing is truly the answer.

Parker (2003)eports that in 2003 the expected job losses among the manufacturing industries in Great Britain would create the effects of rising input costs and oil price increase on the job cuts; Downturn of the purchasing managers' index for manufacturing; Decrease in the rate of manufacturer's orders. So even though these cuts may be necessary he pointed out that it would have an overall negative effect.

The…… [Read More]

References

Budros, A. (1997). The New Capitalism and Organizational Rationality., 76, 229-250.

Budros, A. (1999, Jan/Feb). A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Why Organizations Downsize.. Organization Science, 10(1), 69-83.

Isabella, L.A. (1999, May). Downsizing: Survivors' assessment. Business Horizons, 32(3),

Labib, N. (1993). Strategic Downsizing: A Human Resources Perspective. Human Resource Planning, 16(4), 69-93.
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Causes of the Panic of 1857

Words: 2449 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23961384

Panic of 1857

"In the life of a nation, every year has its failures and disappointments, but 1857 had more than its share." ~ Kenneth M. Stampp[footnoteRef:1] [1: Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857 a Nation on the Brink. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.]

There have been many times in American history where the people of the country gave into fear and paranoia and subsequently made what could have been a minor difficulty into a crisis of epic proportions. During the middle of the 19th century, several incidents occurred which had a decidedly negative effect on the American economy and the nation's moral overall. The economic setbacks followed by the discovery that several executives in charge of government finance were corrupted caused American citizens to turn against the nation's authority figures. This feeling of distrust, accompanied by the panic of an unstable economy laid the groundwork for the American…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ayers, Edward L. American Passages a History of the United States. New York [u.a.:

Wadsworth, 2007. Print.

Huston, James L. The Panic of 1857 and the Coming of the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana

State UP, 1987. Print.
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Effects of Mental Illness

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92256514

mental illness on the individual, family, and community, and identify mental health resources for individuals experiencing mental illness. Mental illness does not just affect the patient, it affects the entire patient's family and friends, and it can affect them throughout their life. Unfortunately, mental illness still invokes a stigma in this country, which has a negative affect on patients suffering from mental illness.

Even when people attempt to be open minded, there is still a stigma that revolves around people who suffer from mental health issues. Two authors note, "People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of our society" (Overton & Medina, 2008). This is just one of the negative affects of suffering from mental illness, and it can be as debilitating as the disease itself. In the past, (such as the middle ages, people…… [Read More]

References

Corrigan, P.W., Watson, A.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Problem of public health or social justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363+.

Neugeboren, J. (2006, October 6). Side effects. Commonweal, 133, 38.

Overton, S.L., & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143+.
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Effect of Motivation of Employee Performance

Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26599792

Teamwork and Motivation

Various elements of an organization motivation plan are always aimed at encouraging low turnover, high-quality work, high productivity, and high job satisfaction. The first approach involved is the appreciation of employee feedback. The element of the motivation program includes the need to ensure that feedback offer the employees with established objectives. Organizational managers provide feedback through continuous processes without outright conformity during quarterly meetings. Managers focus on ensuring that they meet employees every quarter and updating them on the company's performance (Keller, 2009). Formal motivational reviews on a monthly basis are necessary and should exist in writing as opposed to other informal reviews under suggestions of weekly tracking. The quarterly feedback from top management becomes the basis for motivation plan evaluation and achievement determination for the employees. Objective ratings are based on scales of the set aspects of employee management. This element develops direct link to the…… [Read More]

References

Blankenship, D., (2012) A Collection of Compelling Motivational Thoughts. New York: AuthorHouse

Keller J., (2009) Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach. New York: Springer

Kornberger M., Pitsis T., Clegg S., (2014) Managing, and Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE

Rainey H., (2009) Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons
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What Is the Primary Cause of Homelessness in America

Words: 2223 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86416038

Cause of Homelessness in America

has numerous social problems. Homelessness seems to be one of the most important ones. There are several causes that determine homelessness. However, the primary cause of homelessness can be considered the reduced affordable housing level and the national increase in poverty. Other causes of homelessness refer to high unemployment rates, low salary levels in certain urban and rural areas, the inability of certain individuals to pay health care bills, the inability qualify for public assistance, domestic violence, mental illness, addiction disorders, and others. It is important to understand that there are specific factors that influence homelessness in the U.S., but these factors are allowed to develop because of the state's authorities. In other words, these authorities seem to not be able to manage the social situation of individuals in a homeless situation. If their situation is analyzed, it can be established that homeless people's actions…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Top Causes of Homelessness in America (2012). HomeAid. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from  http://www.homeaid.org/HomeAid-Stories/69/top-causes-of-homelessness .

2. Causes of Homelessness (2011). Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://www.homelessofhc.org/index.php/get-educated-information-homelessness/causes-of-homelessness.

3. Crane, M. et al. (2005). The Causes of Homeless in Later Life: Findings from a Three Nations Study. Journal of Gerontology. Retrieved April 3.

4. Fischer, P. (1992). Victimization and Homelessness: Cause and Effect. New England Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
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Principles Causes and Effects of Teratology

Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51844912

Teratology is the scientific study of causes and mechanisms of malformation during the human development. Fetal diseases, mechanical effects and retarded development of the embryo and the fetus are some of the causes of CDDs (congenital developmental disorders) according to various studies. oth mystical and scientific theories were developed in the past to explain the origin of Teratology; some theories stating that it originated from the position of the stars, maternal impressions, hybridization, and oligohy dramnios, among others. Today, biological assumptions on abnormalities seem to have more weight than the unproven theories given in the past. Scientific studies have revealed that the real causes of congenital developmental disorders include: mechanical effects, biological factors, physical factors and chemical substances (Ujhazy, Mach, Navarova, rucknerova, & Dubovicky, 2012).

Fig. 1. 1. The irth of Modern Teratology (McCormick, 2012)

The contemporary science of teratology started in the 1930s with the release of a study…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agrawal, S. (2007). Genetic Causes of Congenital Malformation. Anthropologist Special, 425-434 .

Can, O. G. (2007). Principles of Human Teratology: Drug, Chemical, and Infectious Exposure. JOGC, 911-917.

Chung, W. (n.d.). TERATOGENS AND THEIR EFFECTS. 1-8. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt23-Teratogens.pdf

HoRC. (n.d.). FASD and alcohol consumption patterns. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia: http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/fasd/report/chapter2.htm
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The Causes and Effects of Gangs

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31989989

Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. esearch has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang…… [Read More]

References

Cahill, et al. (2015). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program. Retrieved online: http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000622-Evaluation-of-the-Los-Angeles-Gang-Reduction-and-Youth-Development-Program-Year-4-Evaluation-Report.pdf

Freng, A. & Taylor, T.J. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity: what are their roles in gang membership? United States Department of Justice. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/243474.pdf

"Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," (n.d.). Retreived online: http://family.jrank.org/pages/674/Gangs-Family-Gangs-Gang-Family.html

Hoover, M. (1999). Where all the madness began. 28 May, 1999. Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/gangcolor/madness.htm
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Cause of Armed Conflict in the Aftermath

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89719048

Cause of Armed Conflict

In the aftermath of 911 and as an effect of the 'War on Terror', religion can be clearly seen as major cause of armed conflict. Such views, however, have fallen on fertile ground, following the massive debates about Samuel P. Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis, and the increased analytical attention to the interface between religion and conflict throughout most of the 1990s. Although few analysts will argue that religion is a more prominent factor in conflict now than before, the alteration of awareness is in itself a significant change. This reflects, as Oliver McTernan points out, the "opinion of a number of academics that have recognized in the midst of social, historical, political, cultural and economic factors the salience of religion also" (McTernan 2003: 87-88).

eligion may feed conflict when its normative system is considered to legitimize the use of violence. As Elise Boulding has pointed…… [Read More]

References

McTernan, Oliver. 2003. Violence in God's Name: Religion in an Age of Conflict. New York: Orbis's Books.

Boulding, Elise. 1986. "Two Cultures of Religion as Obstacles to Peace." Zygon

21:501-518.

Appleby, R. Scott. 1996. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding." Pp. 821-840 in The Challenges of Managing International
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…… [Read More]

References

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
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Causes of Increased Child Obesity Causes of

Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41183802

Causes of Increased Child Obesity

Causes of Increased Childhood Obesity in the 21st Century

Over the last several decades, the issue of childhood obesity has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the overall number of children who are overweight or obese have risen dramatically. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Institute of Health (NIH). They found that the total number of children and teenagers who are obese / overweight is one out of every three. This is the highest amount of young people ever reported in either category. As, the underlying trends have continued to increase dramatically in the last 30 years. This is troubling, because in the future these individuals will more than likely suffer from a number of health issues. A few of the most notable include: hypertension, type two diabetes,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Causes of Childhood Obesity. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/causes-of-childhood-obesity.html

Citalpram Side Effects. (2011). Side Effects Hub. Retrieved from: http://sideeffectshub.com/citalopram-side-effects/

Childhood Obesity Statistics. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/childhood-obesity-statistics-p2.html

Research Links. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov /Features/Obesity/
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Causes of Global Warming in the Past

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56795757

Causes of Global Warming

In the past twenty (20) years, human society has consumed and emitted yearly total emissions of about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" gases worldwide, according to National Geographic (2011). These yearly emissions may seem irrelevant as a number, but this is the amount of gases emitted that contributed to the worsening condition of global warming in the world today. Global warming has so far resulted to the alarming and gradual climate change happening in most parts of the world today. Summer time could be shortened because of global warming, followed by a period of strong rains in unexpected seasons. Harvest period for farmers are significantly changed as a result of unexpected draughts or shorter periods of rain in another part of the country. What was expected as rain turned out to be a shower of hail stones. These are just observed changes in…… [Read More]

References

"What causes global climate change?" (2005). Climate Change Information Resources- New York Metropolitan Region. Available at:  http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf 

"What causes global warming?" (2011). National Geographic Official Website. Available at:  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-causes
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Cause Related Marketing Does CRM

Words: 1501 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58114947



eferences

Brown, N..; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19

Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-elated marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Profs.com. etrieved February 20, 2005: http://www.marketingprofs.com/5/fogel2.asp

Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause elated Marketing." Business in the Community. Available: http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/research/research_publications/brand_benefits.html

IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report." Sponsorship.com, 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."

Kelley, C.L. & Kowalczyk, T.K. (2003). "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors." The CPA Journal, 73(2):15

Marken, G.A. (2001). "P has to be more involved in company branding." Public

elations Quarterly, 46 (4): 31

NSPCC. (2002). "NSPCC - Cause related marketing." NSPCC Online. etrieved February 17, 2005: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/fundraisingvolunteering/causerelatedmarketing.htm

Pringle, H. & Thompson, M. (2000). "Brand Spirit - How cause related marketing builds brands." New…… [Read More]

References

Brown, N.R.; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19

Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-Related marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Profs.com. Retrieved February 20, 2005:  http://www.marketingprofs.com/5/fogel2.asp 

Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause Related Marketing." Business in the Community. Available: http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/research/research_publications/brand_benefits.html

IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report." Sponsorship.com, 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."
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Causes of Crime - Categories

Words: 1570 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95486408

Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction.

However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals. By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions

(already described); except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct (Schmalleger, 2001). Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact.

The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:

Pearson.
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Cause Effect Neither a Borrower

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23213622

Needing to borrow money can be a source of shame and a seeming sign of weakness for some people. Feeling ashamed can cause Tom to resent Rob for being wealthier than he is. Tom may feel even as ashamed as to avoid going out with Rob until the money is paid back. Once again, what was once a friendship built on good times becomes more like a business relationship and a power struggle. The effects of the imbalance could last for a long time. Tom might feel permanently inferior to Rob, who never needed to borrow money himself.

On the other hand, borrowing and lending money between friends can cause friction because the person who asks for money also places him or herself in a position of power. Unlike borrowing money from a bank, paying back money to a friend is completely voluntary. Most of the time, the friends do…… [Read More]

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Causes of Financial Crisis

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80383908

Causes of Financial Crisis

Ireland developed high growth rates based on rapid expansion of credit and a buildup of personal debt fueled by rising property prices (Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it?). This lead to risky bank lending practices. Banks also engaged in short-term borrowing from wholesale money markets causing increased risk appetite. Supervisors and regulators failed to identify and act on the emerging risks. Where construction was a large part of the employment and economy, it caused high unemployment rates and major bank losses in a bubble burst when household income could not afford to pay mortgage debt. Property value decreased making it harder to recover the mortgage value for banks. In turn, it created difficulty for the banks to pay back the short-term borrowing to the wholesale money markets. Where risks were not identified, no plans were put in place…… [Read More]

References

Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it? 22 Feb 2012. article retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy/irelands_economic_crisis/index_en.htm. 1 Mar 2014.

Long, Stephen. Explainer: Behind the Cyprus financial crisis. 22 Mar 2013. article retrieved from http://www.ace.net.au/news/2013-03-22/explainer-behind-the-cyprus-financial-crisis/4588736. 1 Mar 2014.

Pettinger, Tejuan. Portugal Economic Crisis. 4 Dec 2012. article retrieved from http://www.economichelp.org/blog/6423/economics/portugal-economic-crisis. Mar 2014.

Q&A: Greece's financial crisis explained. 26 Mar 2010. article retrieved from http:www.cnn.com/2010/Business/02/10/greek.debt.ganda/index.html. 1 Mar 2014.
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Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19489453

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…… [Read More]

References

Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
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Causes and Effects of Mexican American War

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14523127

Mexican-American War was fought between 1846 and 1848 and marked the first war for the United States that was primary fought on foreign soil. The war was initiated by the United States, with President Polk seeking to expand American territory under the doctrine of manifest destiny. This doctrine argued that the United States should spread across all of North America, and was used as justification military action such as this one. The major outcome of the war was a massive expansion of the United States across much of what is now the American Southwest. The U.S. absorbed New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and California as the result of this conflict, something that shapes America in many ways today (History.com, 2016).

Background

At the outbreak of the war, Mexico held much of the territory that now comprises the U.S. southwest. Mexico was, however, a weak country. Its government was headquartered in…… [Read More]

References

History.com (2016). Mexican-American War. History.com. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from http://www.history.com/topics/mexican-american-war

Smithsonian (2016). Mexican war. National Museum of American History. Smithsonian. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/printable/section.asp?id=4

US Department of State (2016). The annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American war, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845-1848. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/texas-annexation
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Litter an Analysis of the Causes and

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49702213

Litter

An Analysis of the Causes and Effects of Littering

Littering may be defined as a human behavior that results in the improper or inappropriate disposal of waste products. Litter can range from anything such as plastic bags and wrappers to appliances, electronics and biological hazardous materials. Litter can be classified as illegal dumping if the former crosses a level of quantity or volume. egardless of the volume, however, littering can have detrimental effects. In fact, studies show that even though littering "has decreased in the past 40 years" (Schultz, Stein, 2009, p. 6), "litter is still quite common" (Littering Behavior in America, 2009, p. 2). There is really only one primary cause of littering, which is nothing more than harmful human behavior. The effects of littering on humans, animals and the environment, however, are much more varied and diverse. This paper will analyze how human behavior causes littering to…… [Read More]

Reference List

Cardi, N. (2012). Littering Facts: The Causes and Effects of Littering. Cereplast.

Retrieved from http://www.cereplast.com/littering-facts-the-causes-and-effects-of-littering/

Couteaux, M. et al. (1995). Litter decomposition, climate and litter quality. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10(2): 63-66.

The EarthWorks Group. (1990). 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Save the Earth. KC:
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Fatal Flood -- Causes and

Words: 1040 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92118770

According to many historians, that relief effort was instrumental in propelling Hoover into the national spotlight and eventually helped him win the 1929 presidential election.

The Mississippi Flood as the ause of Racial Tension

Approximately 650,000 people were directly affected by the Mississippi Flood of 1927, having to relocate because their homes, property, and entire communities were completely destroyed by the flood. Almost half of them were housed in relief camps of whom almost three-quarters were African-American. In many cases, the conditions sparked racial tensions and events such as what occurred in Greenville, Mississippi. More than 10,000 people were stranded without drinking water, food, or any other supplies for several days.

When boats finally arrived, they initially rescued only children and white women, leaving white men, and African-Americans. In another event that made nationwide headlines, police had been sent to round up relief workers from the "Negro" areas. When an…… [Read More]

Conclusion

The Mississippi Flood of 1927 was a natural disaster not attributable to human error or oversight. Unprecedented rainfall simply overwhelmed the physical barriers provided by the levees that relied on early 20th century technology, materials, and building methods. Ironically, major aspects of the federal government's response to the disaster and the subsequent relief efforts were so efficient that they helped propel their principal architect to the U.S. presidency two years later.

On the other hand, the immediate aftermath of the flood also rekindled intense racial inequalities and showed many African-Americans that the American South was simply not a place where they could ever hope to achieve racial or economic equality. As a result, many southern African-Americans decided to migrate north, more so than at any other time since the end of the American Civil War. To a great degree, the modern-day demographics of many Northeastern American cities reflect the long-term results of events that were initially caused by the Mississippi Flood of 1927.
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Solar Flares What Causes Solar Storms Why

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21146803

Solar Flares

What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…… [Read More]

References

Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html

Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ

O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html

Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online:  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
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Mediator & Moderator Effects Applied Statistics There

Words: 811 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44595515

MEDIATOR & MODERATOR EFFECTS

Applied Statistics

There are several goals of the article "Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research." (Frazier et al., 2004) One of the primary goals of the piece is clear delineation of each term and clear explanation of the differences (and similarities) between the two. Another goal of the authors' research is to reveal to researchers and professionals the potential depth and precision their research could achieve with knowledge and application of mediators and moderators in their studies. ith awareness and tracking of mediators and moderators, researchers can make more precise predictions, compile richer data, and provide more insightful analyses & conclusions after the study.

Interaction effects are not only important for intervention studies, however. There are many other instances in which researchers are interested in whether relations between predictor and outcome variables are stronger for some people than for others. The identification of…… [Read More]

We focus particularly on the differential implications for choice of experimental design, research operations, and plan of statistical analysis. We also claim that there are conceptual implications of the failure to appreciate the moderator-mediator distinction. Among the issues we will discuss in this regard are missed opportunities to probe more deeply into the nature of causal mechanisms and integrate seemingly irreconcilable theoretical positions. For example, it is possible that in some problem areas disagreements about mediators can be resolved by treating certain variable as moderators. (Baron & Kenny, The Moderator-Mediator Distinction, 1986)

There task for such distinction is still incomplete as the Frazier piece is written eighteen years later and the distinction still has not been made -- and they introduce considering these terms on three levels: conceptual, strategic, and statistical. (2004) Considering mediators and moderators in the ways proposed by Frazier et al. (2004) on the levels proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986) marks the intersection among mediators, moderators, and applications in management. This is yet another way the article by Frazier et al. demonstrates value to readers and researchers.

It is possible for an effect size to be fairly small in order for us to find it interesting. Frazier et al. remind the readers more than once that research into the distinctions between and the subsequent implications for those differences has not been researched a great deal. They mention in their conclusion how their study provides only a model and further implementation is necessary before commenting on a larger body of data. That larger body of data relevant specifically to mediator and moderator effects has not been made, as evidenced for example, by the eighteen year gap in two of the articles, yet their intention is nearly the exact same. Therefore, it is the opinion of the author that effect size need not be the primary issue, though effect sizes should be taken into consideration. The attention and tracking of mediators and moderators during the study is more relevant than the effect size because there is no great body of work to compare against. When there are more studies with many different effect sizes, then that question will be more significant and there is a greater possibility of a relevant, insightful answer. Both moderators and mediators contribute to effect size as they in essence represent the "when" & "for whom" and the "why" & "how" respectively. (Frazier et al., 2004) When a mediation occurs and why a moderation occurs both influence effect size. Their influence is different, but still quantifiable and qualifiable.
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Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury Exposure

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29326897

Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury

Exposure Effects of Mercury and Arsenic

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Mercury is considered as toxic metal causing neurological disorders while Arsenic is considered as a human carcinogen. Mercury mainly affects areas which are associated with the sensory, visual and auditory functions and those concerned with co-ordination. On the other hand, Arsenic exposure results in chronic diseases pertaining to skin tumors, hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis of palms. This paper revolves around the explanation of symptoms pertaining to the harmful exposure effects of mercury and arsenic, and also highlights how the symptoms of both differ from each other.

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Elevated levels of exposure to Mercury and Arsenic cause harmful effects to human health, deteriorating human reproductive and nervous systems. Coal burning power plants emit mercury; home thermometers, "button" batteries, the new energy-saving fluorescent…… [Read More]

References

Keil, D., E., Ritchie, B., J. & McMillin, G., A. (2011). Testing for Toxic Elements: A Focus on Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Lab Medicine, 42, Pp. 735-742, Retrieved

December 21, 2012, from http://labmed.ascpjournals.org/content/42/12/735.full

WHO (2010), Exposure to Arsenic: A Major Public Health Concern, WHO Document

Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland, Pp. 1-5, Retrieved December 21, 2011, from  http://www.who.int/ipcs/features/arsenic.pdf
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Flapper Movement the Effect of the Flappers

Words: 8916 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71316040

Flapper Movement

The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women

The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.

Evolution of the Flapper

Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…… [Read More]

References

Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:

Harper and Row.

Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.

Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
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Mitigating the Effects of Emerging Water Pollutants

Words: 2538 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46682089

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment

Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.

Introduction

A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…… [Read More]

References

Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8

Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246

Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
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Government - The Diversionary Effects

Words: 6491 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80363526

In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.

Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).

Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984

Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.

James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.
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Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48342686

Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…… [Read More]

Reference

Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
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Downsizing the Effects of Downsizing a Noted

Words: 3315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18759968

Downsizing

The Effects of Downsizing

A noted scholar recently assessed downsizing as "probably the most pervasive yet understudied phenomenon in the business world" (Cameron, 1994). While we have become numbed by the near daily accounts of new layoffs, a New York Times national survey finding is perhaps more telling: since 1980, a family member in one-third of all U.S. households has been laid off (New York Times, 1996). By some measures, downsizing has failed abjectly as a tool to achieve the main raison d'etre, reduced costs. According to a Wyatt Company survey covering the period between 1985 and 1990, 89% of organizations, which engaged in downsizing, reported expense reduction as their primary goal, while only 42% actually reduced expenses. Downsizing for the sake of cost reduction alone has been castigated intellectually as shortsighted and neglectful of what resources will be needed to increase the revenue stream of the future (Hamel…… [Read More]

References

Argyris, C. (1992). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bennis, W. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Bridges, W. (1988). Surviving the survivor syndrome. William Bridges and Associates (pamphlet, 14 pages).

____ (1994). Job shift: How to prosper in a world without jobs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
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Different Parenting Styles and Their Effect on Children's Behavior

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71442817

Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior

Different Parenting Styles

This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.

Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…… [Read More]

References

Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.

Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.

Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.

Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
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Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31344353

Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).

It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.

Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin

Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.

Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
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International Environmental Laws on Oil Gas Production Effects

Words: 2138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30626844

International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Production

Effects of Oil and Gas Production to the Environment in Norway

Over the years, oil and gas production companies have been a serious global concern. This is due to impacts on the environment associated with its production. International principles setup aims at governing the extraction and usage of such sources of energy. Norway is located in Europe, located near North Sea. Its high level of energy production has highly boosted the Gross National product (GNP) of Europe. Oil, gas and hydroelectric power having contributed significantly to the rapid development of industries in Europe and contribute around 50% to the economy. Discovery of oil and gas was in early 1960's, and currently, Norway is the seventh largest producer of oil and gas internationally. There have been contravenes between energy producing industries and the environmental activists. Several principles set to govern energy production have been set,…… [Read More]

References

Development of E.C.O.A., 2001. Environmental Performance Reviews: Norway. Holand: OECD publishers.

Edwards, J., 1998. Europe. Scandinavia: Nelson Thornes Publishers.

Fitzmaurie, M., 2010. Research Handbook on Iinternational Environmental Law. 3rd ed. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gardinerr, S., Caney, S. & Jamieson, D., 2003. Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. 1 ed. Chicago: Springer.
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Perceived Effect of Culture on

Words: 14190 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64453060

This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.

Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).

Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…… [Read More]

References

Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.

Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.

Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.