Cause And Effect Essays (Examples)

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cause and effect essays

A cause and effect essay looks at why things happen and what actually happens.  These can be difficult because, generally, there are multiple causes that influence a single effect, so singling out one cause can make your essay seem weak.  Therefore, in order to establish cause-and-effect, it is important to demonstrate that, if the cause had not occurred, the effect would not have occurred, even if additional things had to occur in order to produce the effect.

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Deployment on Military Families Cause Deployment Effect

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51479252

Deployment on Military Families

Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)

The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.

The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children

The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression or anxiety -- is significant and is being carefully studied by psychologists. An article in the peer-reviewed Journal of Clinical Psychology explains that having a parent sent to "an active combat zone" with no exact date set for returning to the family "…may rank as one of the most stressful…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-

Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom

Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.

Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
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Police Officer's Stress Causes and Effects

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34713275


It is evident that job stress is a reality for police or law enforcement officers; therefore, developing educating program as well as, providing counseling to the police officers will definitely increase efficiency of the organization. Study shows that programs implemented for individuals or for the organizations usually help in reducing organizational stress. In most cases stress can be recognized, but it cannot be taken out of police work, and as a result, this can reduce stress among police officers and their families. In conclusion, more studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of stress management interventions among recruits and police officers. In addition, several recommendations such as the police officers should ensure that they conduct evaluation research in regards to their current stress management interventions such as random assignment should be proposed for future research. The second recommendation is that, stress management interventions for police officers should mainly focus on specific types of stress. Lastly, more qualitative data is also needed to contextualize the participants' experience with the intervention.… [Read More]


Snipes E (2004). Emotional Effects of Stress on Employees and Police Officers. PoliceOne. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from

Baker, L. (2008). Researchers Investigate Impact of Stress on Police Officers' Physical and Mental Health. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from
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Causes and Effects of Environmental Degradation

Words: 2641 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29376352

negative effects of degradation of the environment. It will first discuss human population as a cause for environmental degradation by also relating to afferent effects. It will then bring into equation urbanization and industrialization which are closely linked. Ultimately, the general effects of global warming, as both a cause and an effect in itself, will be considered.

Key terms: environment, population density, urbanization, industrialization, global warming.

Man has impacted the environment since the beginning of times but, unlike nowadays, the effects were then negligible. As the number of population increased and spread around the globe, so did changes in the environment. Defining the environment has taken many forms throughout the years. The broader and most common understanding is that it represents the sum of conditions and natural factors that influence human activity. The environment is understood in terms of a dynamic system with a well defined structure where its components, the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and the biosphere, interrelate and collaborate to form the equilibrium of the planet. Earth however was not always perceived such as we are able to nowadays given that new technologies have made it possible to view the planet in perspective only since the 1960s. Space explorations…… [Read More]

Reference List

Ahmad, F. (2012). India's economic development: Nexus between poverty and environmental degradation. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 1(5), 61-66. Retrieved from 

Beck, M.W., Shepard, C.C, Birkmann, J., Rhyner, J., Welle, T., Witting, M., Wolfertz, J., Martens, J., Maurer, K., Mucke, P., & Radtke, K. (2012). WorldRiskReport 2012. Berlin: Alliance Development Works, ISBN 978-3-9814495-0-3.

Duraiappah, A. (1996). Poverty and environmental degradation: A literature review and analysis. CREED Working Paper Series No 8. Amsterdam: Institute for Environmental Studies. Retrieved from

Malthus, T. (1998). An essay on the principle of population (Electronic ed.). Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project. Retrieved from
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Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10505048

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Criminal Justice

The problem of juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal, and crime prevention programs are either unequipped to deal with the present realities or do not exist. Many developing countries have done little or nothing to deal with these problems, and international programs are obviously insufficient. Developed countries are engaged in activities aimed at juvenile crime prevention, but the overall effect of these programs is rather weak because the mechanisms in place are often inadequate to address the existing situation. On the whole, current efforts to fight juvenile delinquency are characterized by the lack of systematic action and the absence of task-oriented and effective social work with both offenders and victims, whether real or potential. Analysis is further complicated by a lack of international comparative data. (WYR, 2003) The paper is a meditation and investigation of the causes of juvenile delinquency. While it is a discreet issue in of itself, juvenile delinquency is a symptom or result of greater problems present within a society.

We live in a world where human beings of any age commit and are punished for menial to heinous crimes. In other words, humans at every stage of life…… [Read More]


Ali, M. (2008). Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 17223, Available from:

Chowdry, I.A., Khan, M.M., & Uddin, I. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Bangladesh: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(4), 1 -- 11.

Loeber, R. (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1 -- 41.

Tigar, Michael E. "What Are We Doing to the Children?: An Essay on Juvenile (In)justice." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 47, No. 849, 849 -- 866, 2010.
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Causes of Human Behavior Compare

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66568588

However, unlike Leucippus, Holbach is not simply interested in the science of materialism, and is more apt to entertain different explanations for specific types of matter. There is more to be understood than mere appearance in the rearrangement of material essences: "Determinism is universal, in Holbach's view, but different sorts of bodies may have peculiar properties that require peculiar explanations. Despite his avowed materialism, Holbach does not demand the sorts of reductive explanations of mental events that materialism might ordinarily seem to require (LeBuffe 2002). For Holbach, there is more interesting unpredictability in the behavior of types of matter, and the observation of what Leucippus might call mere surface differences.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009. 

LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
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Causes and Effects of World War I

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10394223

1st World War (WWI) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria -- which were initially neutral, and Austria-Hungary and Germany. The nations that maintained their neutrality included Spain, Albania, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Norway (Howard 2; Kelly).

Underlying Factors or Causes Contributing to World War One

As complicated as its genesis was, the First World War essentially emerged from the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, F. Ross. World War One. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Howard, Michael. The First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.

Kelly, Martin. Top 5 Causes of World War 1. 5 January, 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.

*****. Consequences of World War I.17 march, 2005.Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
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Causes for the Popularity of

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47551676

"In toy stores, children can become accustomed to food brands early by buying a Hostess bake set, Barbie's Pizza Hut play set or Fisher-Price's Oreo Matchin' Middles game. and, for budding math whizzes, there is a series of books from Hershey's Kisses on addition, subtraction and fractions" (Barboza, 2002).

Of course, the most notorious innovation in fast food, even more so than the Happy Meal, targeted at children, is the Supersized Meal. For people without children, for people for whom taste is not much of an issue, the issue of value often trumps everything. Supersizing means increasing the size of the cheapest parts of the traditional combo meal, the potatoes (starch) and the soda (high fructose corn syrup, cheaper even than real sugar). For only pennies more, people can get much larger portions, but because people tend to eat more food when more food is placed before them, this causes an increase in consumption. Of course, some nutritionists might tsk-tsk and add that the can of tuna and salad is even cheaper than an Extra Value Meal. But fast food is not simply food -- it is, even for adults, a kind of cheap entertainment, and evening out, or a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barboza, David. (5 Aug 2003). "Fast Food Industry Zeroes in on Children

International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at 

Schlosser, Eric. (3 Sept 1998). "Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost of America's Diet."

Rolling Stone. Issue 794. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at
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Causes of Globalization Introduction Means

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7934659

"Real-time" communications is expedient as well as efficient which are two desired elements in the industry. The pursuit of foreign markets by the United States as well as those of the European and Latin American markets is causative factor in globalization. The companies that compete throughout the world are seeking methods for integration of all aspects of their corporation. Furthermore, companies sue 'international growth strategies for the express purpose of "acquiring suppliers of vital resources." (Abboushi, 1999) Expansion can also be accounted for due to the fact that companies in the United States seek expansion on an international basis because they are unable to obtain certain products in the United States.

II. Necessity: Policy Results

Another viewpoint is that globalization most likely arose out of necessity of some type. One example of the idea presented may be found in the Scandinavian Acta Sociologica in a work entitled" the Future of Advanced Welfare States in the Knowledge Economy" states that a new model of welfare, employment and economic governance has been developed and is based on universal access to fax-financial social services and social insurance, full employments secure by expansive macro-economic policies and active labor market policies, highly organized labor markets,…… [Read More]


Garrett, Geoffrey (2000) the Causes of Globalization 2000 April [Online available at

O'Rourke, Kevin, H. (2002) Europe and the Causes of Globalization 1790 to 2000

Benner, Mats (2003) the Future of the Advanced Welfare States in the Knowledge Economy" Scandinavian Sociological Association 2003 Vol. 46, No. 2 132-149 (2003)

Gomory, Ralph E. (2003) Globalization: Causes and Effects Online [available at
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Causes Effects of Racism on US

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69906479

Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects

Why has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? What causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).

There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried from generation to generation.

The Legacy and Institutionalization of Racist Beliefs and Behaviors

Jim Wallis writes in the peer-reviewed journal Crosscurrents that the most visible "…and painful sign of racism's continuation is the economic inequality between blacks and whites" (Wallis, 2007, 199). This is a classic example of the cause…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal

Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook

Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
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Effects That Online Education Has on Students

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28533332

Online Education Has on Students

The potential of an entirely virtual or online educational platform has many advantages over traditional in-class teaching, as the former can be aligned more accurately to students' needs. The effects of online education on students continue to show potential in math and science disciplines that require continual reinforcement of complex concepts through practice and problem solving (Calafiore, Damianov, 2011). Using online applications and platforms, complex concepts can be simplified and broken down for ease of learning. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the effect that online education has on students.

Analysis Of The Effects That Online Education Has On Students

The most significant effect that online education has on students ins the ability to tailor complex concepts into relatively simpler frameworks for ease of analysis, reputation and learning by students. The cause-and-effect of using these frameworks and repetitive approaches to simplifying complex learning has shown to increase scores in math and science subjects significantly. Interactivity during the learning process provides a greater sense of mastery and control over the learning environment, giving students greater confidence in their overall learning experience (Liza, 2007). Time spent with interactive applications also increases concept and contextual recognition…… [Read More]


Calafiore, P., & Damianov, D.S. (2011). The effect of time spent online on student achievement in online economics and finance courses. Journal of Economic Education, 42(3), 209.

Mia Liza, A.L. (2007). Can interactivity make a difference? effects of interactivity on the comprehension of and attitudes toward online health content. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(6), 766.

Najjar, M. (2008). On scaffolding adaptive teaching prompts within virtual labs. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 6(2), 35-54.
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Causes of Violence John Monahan Details the

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62247616

causes of violence, John Monahan details the limited knowledge and research that currently exists. He argues that, although biological, sociological, and psychological factors contribute individually to causing violence, the root of the problem lies in a combination of all three. In attempting to develop a multi-causal explanation, Monahan points to the influence and role of the family.

Although many theories have emphasized the importance of biological factors, such as hormones, chemical imbalances, brain injury, and genetics, in the causation of violence, the present level of scientific research has failed to identify any definite links. However, this same research has also failed to categorically disprove biological factors as a potential cause, thus supporting Monahan's call for an increase in the funding of study and research in this area.

The most commonly cited causes of violence are the many, and varied sociological factors. Although social science has been able to build an extensive database of studies and research within this topic, the huge range of factors and their potential interdependence make it difficult for concrete, isolated conclusions to be reached. Factors such as poverty; unemployment; gender; age; education; race; and geography have all been identified as potential causes of violence. However, they…… [Read More]


Monahan, J. (1994). The Causes of Violence. In Eskridge, C. Criminal Justice: Concepts and Issues (pp. 63-67). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Co.
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Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright lights at night.

From USA Today's article Working Night Shift may Raise Breast Cancer Risk, two studies published in the Journal of National Cancer Institute (JNCI) indicated a link between breast cancer and night shift work. The article states that The studies, both appearing in the Journal of the National…… [Read More]


Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site:

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
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Effects of Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6389413

Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the effects of this oppressive religious dogma as it relates to their lives. Violence against women in many cases is legitimized by religious authority which gives men the legal authority to discipline women. When domestic violence spills over into the mistreatment of children, though, there are other and more fundamental issues…… [Read More]


Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
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Effect of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries

Words: 6191 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78581859

downsizing on Manufacturing Industries

The amount of information on the effects of down sizing on manufacturing was not plentiful, however one main point that flows through all of the articles is that even though down sizing may be done to help a company it can end up hurting them in the long run. In the paragraphs to follow we look at the effects that downsizing has on people and companies as well as look at whether or not downsizing is truly the answer.

Parker (2003)Reports that in 2003 the expected job losses among the manufacturing industries in Great Britain would create the effects of rising input costs and oil price increase on the job cuts; Downturn of the purchasing managers' index for manufacturing; Decrease in the rate of manufacturer's orders. So even though these cuts may be necessary he pointed out that it would have an overall negative effect.

The Midwest may be the focus of manufacturing layoffs and financial woes (Link, 2005), but according to this survey, people who live in the area of the country that includes Cleveland and Detroit in the low- to moderate-income lax bracket are using less of their income to pay for housing than…… [Read More]


Budros, A. (1997). The New Capitalism and Organizational Rationality., 76, 229-250.

Budros, A. (1999, Jan/Feb). A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Why Organizations Downsize.. Organization Science, 10(1), 69-83.

Isabella, L.A. (1999, May). Downsizing: Survivors' assessment. Business Horizons, 32(3),

Labib, N. (1993). Strategic Downsizing: A Human Resources Perspective. Human Resource Planning, 16(4), 69-93.
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Causes of the Panic of 1857

Words: 2449 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23961384

Panic of 1857

"In the life of a nation, every year has its failures and disappointments, but 1857 had more than its share." ~ Kenneth M. Stampp[footnoteRef:1] [1: Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857 a Nation on the Brink. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.]

There have been many times in American history where the people of the country gave into fear and paranoia and subsequently made what could have been a minor difficulty into a crisis of epic proportions. During the middle of the 19th century, several incidents occurred which had a decidedly negative effect on the American economy and the nation's moral overall. The economic setbacks followed by the discovery that several executives in charge of government finance were corrupted caused American citizens to turn against the nation's authority figures. This feeling of distrust, accompanied by the panic of an unstable economy laid the groundwork for the American Civil War and nearly tore the United States of America asunder.

A year after the Panic of 1857, banker Robert Morris wrote the book The Banks of New York Their Dealers, the Clearing House, and the Panic of 1857. In this book, he illustrated what it was like for someone…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ayers, Edward L. American Passages a History of the United States. New York [u.a.:

Wadsworth, 2007. Print.

Huston, James L. The Panic of 1857 and the Coming of the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana

State UP, 1987. Print.
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Effects of Mental Illness

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92256514

mental illness on the individual, family, and community, and identify mental health resources for individuals experiencing mental illness. Mental illness does not just affect the patient, it affects the entire patient's family and friends, and it can affect them throughout their life. Unfortunately, mental illness still invokes a stigma in this country, which has a negative affect on patients suffering from mental illness.

Even when people attempt to be open minded, there is still a stigma that revolves around people who suffer from mental health issues. Two authors note, "People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of our society" (Overton & Medina, 2008). This is just one of the negative affects of suffering from mental illness, and it can be as debilitating as the disease itself. In the past, (such as the middle ages, people who suffered from mental illness were often jailed, seen as weak individuals, and sometimes even put to death (Overton & Medina, 2008). Therefore, the stigma of a family member with a mental illness is a cause for concern for family members and friends, because the stigma can reach out to…… [Read More]


Corrigan, P.W., Watson, A.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Problem of public health or social justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363+.

Neugeboren, J. (2006, October 6). Side effects. Commonweal, 133, 38.

Overton, S.L., & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143+.
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Effect of Motivation of Employee Performance

Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26599792

Teamwork and Motivation

Various elements of an organization motivation plan are always aimed at encouraging low turnover, high-quality work, high productivity, and high job satisfaction. The first approach involved is the appreciation of employee feedback. The element of the motivation program includes the need to ensure that feedback offer the employees with established objectives. Organizational managers provide feedback through continuous processes without outright conformity during quarterly meetings. Managers focus on ensuring that they meet employees every quarter and updating them on the company's performance (Keller, 2009). Formal motivational reviews on a monthly basis are necessary and should exist in writing as opposed to other informal reviews under suggestions of weekly tracking. The quarterly feedback from top management becomes the basis for motivation plan evaluation and achievement determination for the employees. Objective ratings are based on scales of the set aspects of employee management. This element develops direct link to the percentage payments on rating while resultant efforts are based on bonus payments.

The second variable is trust. The efficient management is trusted and trusts while promoting fairness and honesty through keeping deadlines and promises. Such managers expect and demand excellence among employees and have increased awareness of the potential. The…… [Read More]


Blankenship, D., (2012) A Collection of Compelling Motivational Thoughts. New York: AuthorHouse

Keller J., (2009) Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach. New York: Springer

Kornberger M., Pitsis T., Clegg S., (2014) Managing, and Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE

Rainey H., (2009) Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons
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What Is the Primary Cause of Homelessness in America

Words: 2223 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86416038

Cause of Homelessness in America

has numerous social problems. Homelessness seems to be one of the most important ones. There are several causes that determine homelessness. However, the primary cause of homelessness can be considered the reduced affordable housing level and the national increase in poverty. Other causes of homelessness refer to high unemployment rates, low salary levels in certain urban and rural areas, the inability of certain individuals to pay health care bills, the inability qualify for public assistance, domestic violence, mental illness, addiction disorders, and others. It is important to understand that there are specific factors that influence homelessness in the U.S., but these factors are allowed to develop because of the state's authorities. In other words, these authorities seem to not be able to manage the social situation of individuals in a homeless situation. If their situation is analyzed, it can be established that homeless people's actions have determined their situation. But this does not mean that the authorities should not work their best in order to improve their situation, and to reduce the level of homelessness in the U.S. Certain people accuse homeless individuals of not working, and this is considered the cause of homelessness. The…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Top Causes of Homelessness in America (2012). HomeAid. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from .

2. Causes of Homelessness (2011). Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from

3. Crane, M. et al. (2005). The Causes of Homeless in Later Life: Findings from a Three Nations Study. Journal of Gerontology. Retrieved April 3.

4. Fischer, P. (1992). Victimization and Homelessness: Cause and Effect. New England Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
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Principles Causes and Effects of Teratology

Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51844912

Teratology is the scientific study of causes and mechanisms of malformation during the human development. Fetal diseases, mechanical effects and retarded development of the embryo and the fetus are some of the causes of CDDs (congenital developmental disorders) according to various studies. Both mystical and scientific theories were developed in the past to explain the origin of Teratology; some theories stating that it originated from the position of the stars, maternal impressions, hybridization, and oligohy dramnios, among others. Today, biological assumptions on abnormalities seem to have more weight than the unproven theories given in the past. Scientific studies have revealed that the real causes of congenital developmental disorders include: mechanical effects, biological factors, physical factors and chemical substances (Ujhazy, Mach, Navarova, Brucknerova, & Dubovicky, 2012).

Fig. 1. 1. The Birth of Modern Teratology (McCormick, 2012)

The contemporary science of teratology started in the 1930s with the release of a study that was done on expectant pigs. During the experiment, the pigs were given food lacking vitamin A. The results showed malformed piglets, especially lack of eyes, leading to a summary that, lack of the vitamins is central to the poor development of the body parts like the eyes. The father…… [Read More]


Agrawal, S. (2007). Genetic Causes of Congenital Malformation. Anthropologist Special, 425-434 .

Can, O. G. (2007). Principles of Human Teratology: Drug, Chemical, and Infectious Exposure. JOGC, 911-917.

Chung, W. (n.d.). TERATOGENS AND THEIR EFFECTS. 1-8. Retrieved from:

HoRC. (n.d.). FASD and alcohol consumption patterns. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia:
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The Causes and Effects of Gangs

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31989989

Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. Research has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," n.d.). Older brothers, uncles, and even parents and grandparents who were or are members of a specific gang might "expect" the young men in the family to become members of the same organization ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," n.d.). Those expectations may be communicated using direct…… [Read More]


Cahill, et al. (2015). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program. Retrieved online:

Freng, A. & Taylor, T.J. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity: what are their roles in gang membership? United States Department of Justice. Retrieved online:

"Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," (n.d.). Retreived online:

Hoover, M. (1999). Where all the madness began. 28 May, 1999. Retrieved online:
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Causes of World Hunger May Be One

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63096669

Causes of World Hunger

Hunger may be one of the most serious and least understood of all world problems. Many people believe that hunger is the result of a lack of available food, which is a myth that is perpetuated by many well-meaning news organizations. Discussions of famine and drought make it seem as if hunger occurs because there is simply not enough food to feed people. The reality is that worldwide food supplies significantly exceed worldwide food demand. Moreover, even in those countries with excess food production and the means to distribute food to starving people, people starve. Instead, there are a multitude of causes of the world hunger problem: poverty, free market economics, large land ownership, food exports, diversion of land to non-food production, foreign aid, and last, but certainly not least, misconceptions about the causes of poverty that perpetuate, rather than alleviate the problem.

Without discussing the other pros and cons of a free-market capitalist approach to asset distribution, it is important to recognize that a free market economy is one of the driving factors behind global hunger. "As the market responds to money and not to actual need, it can only work to eliminate hunger when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Knight, Danielle. "It is a Myth that World Hunger is Due to Scarcity of Food." PSRAST. N.p.

16 Oct. 1998. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Madakufamba, Munetsi. "Unequal 'Freetrade' Threatens Food Security." The Mail & Guardian.

N.p. 13 Aug. 2001. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
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Cause of Armed Conflict in the Aftermath

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89719048

Cause of Armed Conflict

In the aftermath of 911 and as an effect of the 'War on Terror', religion can be clearly seen as major cause of armed conflict. Such views, however, have fallen on fertile ground, following the massive debates about Samuel P. Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis, and the increased analytical attention to the interface between religion and conflict throughout most of the 1990s. Although few analysts will argue that religion is a more prominent factor in conflict now than before, the alteration of awareness is in itself a significant change. This reflects, as Oliver McTernan points out, the "opinion of a number of academics that have recognized in the midst of social, historical, political, cultural and economic factors the salience of religion also" (McTernan 2003: 87-88).

Religion may feed conflict when its normative system is considered to legitimize the use of violence. As Elise Boulding has pointed out, however, there is a duality in religious cultures as they entail notions of the "holy war" as well as the "peaceable kingdom" (Boulding 1986). We could add that in most religions there is a real tension between the two (see: Appleby 1996: 823). Hence, any attempt to explain the…… [Read More]


McTernan, Oliver. 2003. Violence in God's Name: Religion in an Age of Conflict. New York: Orbis's Books.

Boulding, Elise. 1986. "Two Cultures of Religion as Obstacles to Peace." Zygon


Appleby, R. Scott. 1996. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding." Pp. 821-840 in The Challenges of Managing International
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. Rosenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi, grain mite, grain weevil and also antibiotics used in feed along with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde and many types of organic matter. Thus every occupation has its own health hazards. The modern factories and mines have mitigated the hazards with safety practices. (Rosenman, 2012)

There are laws that require adherence to…… [Read More]


Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
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Causes of Increased Child Obesity Causes of

Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41183802

Causes of Increased Child Obesity

Causes of Increased Childhood Obesity in the 21st Century

Over the last several decades, the issue of childhood obesity has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the overall number of children who are overweight or obese have risen dramatically. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Institute of Health (NIH). They found that the total number of children and teenagers who are obese / overweight is one out of every three. This is the highest amount of young people ever reported in either category. As, the underlying trends have continued to increase dramatically in the last 30 years. This is troubling, because in the future these individuals will more than likely suffer from a number of health issues. A few of the most notable include: hypertension, type two diabetes, liver disease, joint / orthopedic issues and mental illness. To address the problem, requires understanding the causes as to why these numbers have increased so much. Once this occurs, it will offer specific insights as to why this is taking place.

The Causes of Childhood Obesity

Since the 1960's, the…… [Read More]


Causes of Childhood Obesity. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from:

Citalpram Side Effects. (2011). Side Effects Hub. Retrieved from:

Childhood Obesity Statistics. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from:

Research Links. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from:
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Causes of Global Warming in the Past

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56795757

Causes of Global Warming

In the past twenty (20) years, human society has consumed and emitted yearly total emissions of about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" gases worldwide, according to National Geographic (2011). These yearly emissions may seem irrelevant as a number, but this is the amount of gases emitted that contributed to the worsening condition of global warming in the world today. Global warming has so far resulted to the alarming and gradual climate change happening in most parts of the world today. Summer time could be shortened because of global warming, followed by a period of strong rains in unexpected seasons. Harvest period for farmers are significantly changed as a result of unexpected draughts or shorter periods of rain in another part of the country. What was expected as rain turned out to be a shower of hail stones. These are just observed changes in the climate and environment that inadvertently affects every aspect of our lives: food supply and demand and topography change, among many others.

Critical to understand, then, is what causes global warming. Over the years, studies have shown that several factors significantly contributed to this worsening 'event' in human history, citing…… [Read More]


"What causes global climate change?" (2005). Climate Change Information Resources- New York Metropolitan Region. Available at: 

"What causes global warming?" (2011). National Geographic Official Website. Available at:
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Cause Related Marketing Does CRM

Words: 1501 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58114947

[Read More]


Brown, N.R.; Olsen, G.D. & Pracejus, J.W. (2003). "On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in advertising: Cause related marketing." Journal of Advertising, 32(4):19

Fogel, E. (2005, January). "Cause-Related marketing: Does corporate America genuinely care?" Marketing Retrieved February 20, 2005: 

Holmes, C. (2004, April). "Brand Benefits - Cause Related Marketing." Business in the Community. Available:

IEG. (2001). "IEG sponsorship report.", 20 (24): 4-5; From: Kelley & Kowalczyk, (2003), "Cause marketing: Opportunities for assisting exempt organizations and sponsors."
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Causes of Crime - Categories

Words: 1570 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95486408

Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction.

However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals. By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions

(already described); except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct (Schmalleger, 2001). Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact.

The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview of criminal law. Rather, they are addressable through other avenues, such as political efforts and social reform intended to improve the quality education and the social environment to achieve a more nearly uniform society. Ultimately, this is a fundamental responsibility of society but not of criminal law, in particular.… [Read More]


Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:

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Cause Effect Neither a Borrower

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23213622

Needing to borrow money can be a source of shame and a seeming sign of weakness for some people. Feeling ashamed can cause Tom to resent Rob for being wealthier than he is. Tom may feel even as ashamed as to avoid going out with Rob until the money is paid back. Once again, what was once a friendship built on good times becomes more like a business relationship and a power struggle. The effects of the imbalance could last for a long time. Tom might feel permanently inferior to Rob, who never needed to borrow money himself.

On the other hand, borrowing and lending money between friends can cause friction because the person who asks for money also places him or herself in a position of power. Unlike borrowing money from a bank, paying back money to a friend is completely voluntary. Most of the time, the friends do not write down the time, date, or amount of the loan. In some situations, the friend borrowing the money feels self-righteous. For example, if Greg asks Brad when he can pay back the $100, Brad might respond, "Chill out, Greg, you know I'm good for it!" Such attitudes of self-righteousness…… [Read More]

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Cause Effect Educational Issue the Strict

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50889528

Karl P's school, for example, introduced a Prevention, Action Resolution (PAR) Comprehensive Behavior Management system. This is a process-based model where collaborative teams join together to form consensus on a positive and supportive school-wide approach to behavior management for all children. It consists of plans and strategies to Specifically, plans and strategies to 1) prevent the occurrence of troubling behavior; 2) act, or respond to, instances of rule compliance and noncompliance in a consistent fashion; and 3) resolve many of the issues that underlie or cause troubling behavior (Rosenberg, 2004, p.12).

In this process, rules, procedures, and routines allow the adults in the school to communicate the behavioral standards and expectations of the learning environment to their students. Specifically, rules identify, define, and operationalize the school's conceptualization of acceptable behavior, and procedures spell out the steps necessary for the successful and appropriate completion of an activity, task, or operation. Succinct unambiguous rules and procedures serve as the discriminative stimuli for appropriate classroom behavior and actually motivate students to adhere to behavioral standards (ibid).

Another approach is the use of Positive Behavior Interventions System (PBIS), or "the application of positive behavioral interventions and systems to achieve socially important behavior change" (Sugai…… [Read More]

Scott, T.M. & Barrett, S.B. (2004) "Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS" 6(1), 21-28.

Silverman, F. (2004) "Student suits: districts are spending up to $100,000 a year on insurance protection against lawsuits. Will an Ohio law giving protection to staff reach your district." District Administration, 40, 34-38

Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Lewis, TJ., Nelson, C.M., et al. (2000). Applying positive behavioral support and functional assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 131-143.
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Causes of Financial Crisis

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80383908

Causes of Financial Crisis

Ireland developed high growth rates based on rapid expansion of credit and a buildup of personal debt fueled by rising property prices (Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it?). This lead to risky bank lending practices. Banks also engaged in short-term borrowing from wholesale money markets causing increased risk appetite. Supervisors and regulators failed to identify and act on the emerging risks. Where construction was a large part of the employment and economy, it caused high unemployment rates and major bank losses in a bubble burst when household income could not afford to pay mortgage debt. Property value decreased making it harder to recover the mortgage value for banks. In turn, it created difficulty for the banks to pay back the short-term borrowing to the wholesale money markets. Where risks were not identified, no plans were put in place for mitigation.

Cyprus' banking system had grown to five times its GDP (Long). Cyprus banks were lending heavily abroad, so in a global financial crisis, banks sustained major losses from bonds and exposure to other countries' banks, primarily Greece. In rescue efforts, Cyprus was required to place levies on all…… [Read More]


Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it? 22 Feb 2012. article retrieved from 1 Mar 2014.

Long, Stephen. Explainer: Behind the Cyprus financial crisis. 22 Mar 2013. article retrieved from 1 Mar 2014.

Pettinger, Tejuan. Portugal Economic Crisis. 4 Dec 2012. article retrieved from Mar 2014.

Q&A: Greece's financial crisis explained. 26 Mar 2010. article retrieved from 1 Mar 2014.
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Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19489453

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP Research dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related to alcohol and drug abuse (Bar-on, 2002). It is increasingly difficult to draw the line between alcohol abuse and drug abuse amongst college freshmen because many of them combine both alcohol and drugs making it virtually impossible to distinguish the exclusive effect of one from those of the other. The…… [Read More]


Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
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Causes and Effects of Zimbabwe Hyperinflation

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41508994


One recent case of hyperinflation was in Zimbabwe. This hit the country in 2009, and ended in 2015 when the country's currency was phased out in favor of the USD, at a valuation of $1 quadrillion to $ USD. According to reports, people with accounts up to 175 quadrillion will be paid out $5 USD. The Zimbabwe dollar was essentially abandoned in 2009 because of the hyperinflation, but people there were using USD and ZAR long before that. Those two were the official currencies of the country for many years, with new currencies such as the yuan, AUD, yen and Indian rupee (for some reason) joining the list of currencies that were accepted in the country in 2014 (RT, 2015).

Hyperinflation, of course, is the rapid increase in the money supply. This is usually a response to supply shocks, and often a rapid depreciation of the currency will have already been underway before the hyperinflation sets in. Hyperinflation reflects a situation where the market does not have any particular faith in the government that issues the currency to honor its value -- the hyperinflation is the risk premium that is attached to that currency. There is no set definition…… [Read More]


CIA World Factbook (2016). Zimbabwe. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 22,2016 from

Investopedia (2016). What is hyperinflation. Investopedia. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from

Mohan, M. (2016). What factors contributed to the hyperinflation of the Zimbabwean dollar? Retrieved April 22, 2016 from

RT. (2015). Zimbabwe phases out local currency at 35 quadrillion to $1 U.S.. Retrieved April 22,2016 from
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Causes and Effects of Mexican American War

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14523127

Mexican-American War was fought between 1846 and 1848 and marked the first war for the United States that was primary fought on foreign soil. The war was initiated by the United States, with President Polk seeking to expand American territory under the doctrine of manifest destiny. This doctrine argued that the United States should spread across all of North America, and was used as justification military action such as this one. The major outcome of the war was a massive expansion of the United States across much of what is now the American Southwest. The U.S. absorbed New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and California as the result of this conflict, something that shapes America in many ways today (, 2016).


At the outbreak of the war, Mexico held much of the territory that now comprises the U.S. southwest. Mexico was, however, a weak country. Its government was headquartered in Mexico City, removed from the territory by thousands of miles of desert. Mexico was founded in 1821 after a war of independence from Spain. The country's capital was Mexico City, as it is today, in a heavily-populated and agriculturally-rich region that was home to the Aztec Empire. Mexico had sought…… [Read More]

References (2016). Mexican-American War. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from

Smithsonian (2016). Mexican war. National Museum of American History. Smithsonian. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from

US Department of State (2016). The annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American war, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845-1848. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved April 15, 2016 from
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Litter an Analysis of the Causes and

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49702213


An Analysis of the Causes and Effects of Littering

Littering may be defined as a human behavior that results in the improper or inappropriate disposal of waste products. Litter can range from anything such as plastic bags and wrappers to appliances, electronics and biological hazardous materials. Litter can be classified as illegal dumping if the former crosses a level of quantity or volume. Regardless of the volume, however, littering can have detrimental effects. In fact, studies show that even though littering "has decreased in the past 40 years" (Schultz, Stein, 2009, p. 6), "litter is still quite common" (Littering Behavior in America, 2009, p. 2). There is really only one primary cause of littering, which is nothing more than harmful human behavior. The effects of littering on humans, animals and the environment, however, are much more varied and diverse. This paper will analyze how human behavior causes littering to continue to proliferate, how the various detrimental effects of littering are felt by environments, humans and animals; and finally show what can be done to curb littering.

The Main Cause of Littering

It may be argued that the main cause of littering in the world is nothing more than the…… [Read More]

Reference List

Cardi, N. (2012). Littering Facts: The Causes and Effects of Littering. Cereplast.

Retrieved from

Couteaux, M. et al. (1995). Litter decomposition, climate and litter quality. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10(2): 63-66.

The EarthWorks Group. (1990). 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Save the Earth. KC: