Child Labor Essays Examples

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Labor Issues Around the World

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41802451



Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.

Companies like Nike and Reebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.

In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have suffered or have witnessed sexual and verbal abuse. Laborers also reported that they were asked to work "illegal forms of overtime." Many were denied both sick leave and annual leave.

The Global Alliance, an international coalition dedicated to improving the lives of factory workers, interviewed more than 4,000 workers at…… [Read More]

Sources:
2001). Hazardous forms of Child Labor in Nepal. GEFONT Paper presented in Preparatory Meeting on Developing Asian Network on Hazardous Child Labour

Manila 26-28, 2001. (Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gefont.org/views/2001/child_labour.htm.(March 13, 2003). Informal sector marred by poor working condition. Mercantile Communications. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nepalnews.com.np/contents/englishdaily/trn/2003/mar/mar13/local1.htm.
View Full Essay

Labor Issue of Children

Words: 1478 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86718457

Child Labor

The prevailing child labor practices in the world not only jeopardize the childhood of the children but also adversely effects their cognitive, physical, mental, behavioral and social aspects of life. The child labor practices are followed due to the rate of increased poverty and cultural beliefs which enforces the children to contribute in the house hold income. The lawsuits against the child labor exist but are not applied to the fullest due to the poverty rate and lack of educational and institutional services for the under privileged children. Therefore, the awareness among the parents and adults should be increased about the hazards of child labor on the life of children and families should be provided with adequate support to refrain their dependency on the earnings of their children.

Contents

Child Labor

Causes of Child Labor

Child Labor Statistics

Law Suits against Child Labor

Steps to Eradicate Child Labor

Conclusion

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1

Appendix -- 1 1

Appendix -- 2 1

Appendix -- 3 1

Child Labor

Children are the future and their healthy childhood not only develops cognitive ability but it also ensures that the child is being developed in the most appropriate manner with respect to the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Labor Weak Protections Under U S Law Allow

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80330013

Labor

"Weak protections under U.S. law allow children as young as 12 to work unlimited hours outside of school on tobacco farms of any size, and there is no minimum age for children to work on small farms. Despite the known risks of nicotine poisoning, there are no special provisions in U.S. laws or regulations to protect children from the unique hazards of tobacco work."

I was aware that there were a few exceptions to child labor laws on family farms. This alone is a sensitive issue given the potential for injury with lifelong consequences, along with the conscription of children into farming labor that may detract from their ability to pursue other careers. Yet until reading this passage, I had no idea that child labor was still permitted in a larger context in the United States, especially in large farm contexts. When it comes to exposure to pesticides, dangerous machinery and other hazards of the farming industry, it does not seem humane to employ children. This article, and this passage, reveals the need to tighten loopholes related to child labor in the United States.

The passage does admit that United States labor laws are "weak" with regards to children…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Labor Markets and Their Many Aspects

Words: 1374 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10389131

Labor Markets and Their Many Aspects

The negative aspects of a loosely-regulated labor market:

The dangers of under-regulation

The labor laws of the state of Pennsylvania are still highly influenced by the unionization movement that began in the steel mills of the state. It is said that "no state in America has a richer labor history than Pennsylvania" (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). The AFL and CIO were founded in the state. "The 1877 railroad strike, the 1892 battle of Homestead, and the 1919 steel strike" are all nationally famous incidents that were highly influential upon the development of the modern labor movement and remain potent, collective state memories (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). However, "the struggle against child labor, sweatshops and oppressive working conditions unfortunately continue today in the global economy. Workers' rights to form unions and collectively bargain, to have a safe and healthful workplace, and to have health care and secure pensions are still contested in this country and around the world" (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). While Pennsylvania's laws are more protective of workers than federal labor laws and laws in many states of the union, it is far from exempt from many of the negative…… [Read More]

References:
About labor-management cooperation. (2011). PA Department of Labor & Industry. Retrieved October 21, 2011 at  http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/labor-management_cooperation/10484 

Bernhardt, Annette Ruth Milkman & Nik Theodore. (2009). Working without laws. The Nation.
View Full Essay

Child Sex Tourism Consent in Human Trafficking

Words: 4907 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39655172

Child Sex Tourism

Consent in human trafficking

Child prostitution

Bias in the application of police discretion

Failure to identify the victim in human trafficking

Push and Pull Factors

What theories explain trafficking in India

Measures to control

Prevention measures

Investigations / Prosecutions

India is regarded as the one of the source, transit, and a destination country for the bonded labor and child sex trafficking. The ranking of the country has been Tier 2 W. since 2005 and stayed constant until the 2010. In the year 2011 and 2012 the ranking is Tier 2. The ranking system reflects the compliance ranking of the Trafficking Victim Protection Act (TVPA) standards in the country. The tier one reflects complete compliance with the standards. However the tier two is regarding the countries that are not complying completely with the TVPA but making significant progress in terms of their implementation. The tier 2 W. denoted that the country is not completely complying with the Act however making a significant progress and is one the watch list for compliance with the absolute number of victims. There is a failure to provide evidence for increasing efforts in combating the sever forms of trafficking. The determination that the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Aronowitz, A.A. (2009). Human Trafficking, Human Misery [Electronic Resource]: The Global Trade in Human Beings. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Bales, K. (2006).Testing a Theory of modern slavery. Available on the net: www. freetheslaves. net.
View Full Essay

Child Trafficking

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86148684

Child Trafficking

Slave labor and child trafficking are commonplace in cocoa industry in the Ivory Coast, and the makers of the documentary The Dark Side of Chocolate (2010) found them working as slaves everywhere on the cocoa plantations there. Even though the largest chocolate companies in the world, including Nestle, Archer Daniels and Cargill signed a protocol with the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 2001 that mandated the end of child labor and trafficking by 2008, this has not occurred. Nestle and these other giant multinational corporations denied any knowledge of these practices or any control over slave labor on these Ivory Coast plantations, but they did not wish t see the evidence in the film. Interpol knew about these practices because it has railed the plantations and rescued dozens of children from slavery, even though the government of the Ivory Coast and the cocoa exporters denied that child trafficking was occurring. Altogether, this film revealed a general indifference and callousness at high levels of governments and corporations to the fact that much of the world's chocolate is produced by child slaves, and even the ILO often felt helpless in attempting to deal with this problem. It is not a…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
REFERENCES

Mistrati, Miki and U. Roberto Romano Dirs. 2010. The Dark Side of Chocolate. 46 mins. Bastard Film and TV Productions.
View Full Essay

Children's Literature

Words: 2790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44250974

Children's Literature

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. We are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or indeed Jill. An examination of how the concept of "work" is constructed within Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Louisa May Alcott's Little Women can give us some sense of how work and play were complicated by issues of economics, including gender and slavery.

One of the most famous…… [Read More]

Resources:
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Edited with an introduction by Elaine Showalter. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Edited with an introduction by John Seelye. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.
View Full Essay

Labor Relations Have Changed Tremendously

Words: 361 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96377356

The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.

The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.

References

Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://bostonreview.net/BR21.6/freeman.html… [Read More]

References:
Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://bostonreview.net/BR21.6/freeman.html
View Full Essay

Child Soldiers

Words: 3266 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11878451

Child Soldiers

"The question of children and armed conflict is an integral part of the United Nations' core responsibilities for the maintenance of international peace and security, for the advancement of human rights and for sustainable human development."

Secretary-General Kofi Annan in a speech to the Security Council, 26 July 2000

In every part of the world, children more particularly from underdeveloped or developing countries are selected and recruited by various groups, for instance the armed forces, terrorist groups and opposition groups at war; these recruited children are then trained to become fighters and exploited enough to become commandoes. Children posses a vulnerable personality, hence they can be easily molded and manipulated into committing serious crimes for instance atrocious crimes like rape and murder of innocent civilians, they carry around rifles such as AK-47's and G4's as if they were born with it. To test their loyalty with their group they are sometimes even forced to injure or kill their own family members or friends. Those who are spared a less tragic fate are chosen to serve as sex slaves, cooks, porters, guards and spies (Baker.1999).

According to various human research reports, 250,000 children, most of them under the age…… [Read More]

Sources:
Al Arjani, S.E., Thabet, A.A., & Vostanis, P. (2008). Coping strategies of traumatized children lost their father in the current conflict. Arabpsynet e. Journal: N_ 18&19 -- Spring & summer, 226 -- 237.

Baker, A. (1999). Effects of political and military traumas on children: The Palestinian case. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 935 -- 950.
View Full Essay

Labor and Union Studies the

Words: 2077 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78255908



The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great Railroad Strike, 2006).

There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 is Occupy Wall Street (Mullen, 2011). It never amazes to see how history always repeats itself.

While police and troops made those late 19th century strikes as violent as Occupy Wall Street protests have been peaceful, the two sets of events are inextricably bound by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from  http://libcom.org/history/articles/us -rail-strikes-1877

Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.
View Full Essay

Child Abuse in the United

Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62744955

Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).

The Religious Theory

The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church, believe in certain values and customs, and that anything else is wrong. Writer Innaiah cites several forms of child abuse that can result from religious practices and beliefs. They include: sexual abuse by priests in the Catholic Church that has been ignored or downplayed for decades, the condoning of female…… [Read More]

Resources:
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.
View Full Essay

Labor in China as it

Words: 2890 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15194650



While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CSR and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CSR in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor Rights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://64.233.161.104/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."

Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer attention to the attitudes and treatments of the companies that own the sweatshops.

This is important if the worldwide human rights activists want the workers in China's sweatshops to rise up and demand change those workers have to be comfortable that there will be at least a minimum standard of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Frequently Asked Questions About Sweatshops and Women Workers

 http://www.feminist.org/other/sweatshops/sweatfaq.html  (Accessed 5-25-06)
View Full Essay

Labor Union Giving an Overview

Words: 3220 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15802917

The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal immigrations and to address the problem of short supply of workers in many areas such as hospitals, restaurants, hotels etc. However, on the other hand it is also essential that the problems of labor unions in this regard should be addressed seriously.

It is commonly considered that the youth of…… [Read More]

Sources:
Baldwin, R.E. (2002). The Decline of Us Labor Unions and the Role of Trade. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.

This book depicts the history of labor unions and tells us the circumstances under most of the labor unions declined. It tells us about the role played by labor unions in the past and what were their failures due to which they faced their decline. Besides this, it also relates the labor unions with trade.
View Full Essay

Child Support Laws History of

Words: 2995 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18876596

The state parent locator service lessens the delay of collection of child support. The child support enforcement agencies in most states have the authority to order genetic testing in order to establish the parentage in cases of paternity. Child support payments can be ordered once the parent is found. Withholding of wages and seizure and sales of properties may be used to enforce child support.

Cash Assistance Programs:

Under the Title IV-a, Assistance for Families with Dependant Children (AFDC), cash assistant or welfare of these families was managed at State level. President Gerald Ford signed into law the Title IV-D of the Social Security Act on January 4, 1975 which created a state-federal child support enforcement program (Morgan par, 2). Through the enforcement of child support, the program had two goals i.e. cost avoidance (helping families on welfare leave the assistance roll while those not on the assistance rolls avoid turning to it) and cost recovery (recover the costs of public assistance paid to families both for the state and federal governments).

With the intention of the Title IV-D program being to reduce expenses for public assistance, an applicant and recipient of cash assistance were to co-operate with the State…… [Read More]

References:
Amneus, Daniel. "The Case for Father Custody." Fathermag.com. Fathermag.com. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. < http://www.fathermag.com/9607/father-custody/ >.

"Annulment Laws." AboutDivorce.org. AboutDivorce.org. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. .
View Full Essay

Labor Relations What Do You Believe Are

Words: 4099 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64941467

Labor Relations

What do you believe are the benefits to being an employee of a company vs. A contractor? Which would you prefer to be? Why?

The benefits of being an employee include the right to self-organization, to bargain collectively, or form a labor organization (Carrell & Heavrin, 2007). Employees have pre-determined work days and duties under the leadership and direction of the employer and are not required to incur costs or make investments in the work they produce. Typically, only general education and experience is required, with some employers paying for additional training and specializations. All income, Social Security and Medicare taxes that fall under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) are handled by the employer (Strawson, 2003) For most employees, there are also employer contributions made to pensions and other retirement plans, health and disability insurance for self and family members, and unemployment compensation after a lay off or termination. Worker's compensation is available in the event of a workplace injury and employees have the protection of workplace safety and anti-discrimination laws. There are also federal and state wage and hour laws.

An independent contractor sells professional services to the highest bidder. He or she has the flexibility…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Carrell, M.R., & Heavrin, C. (2007). Labor relations and collective bargaining: Cases, practice, and law (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fleck, L.M. (2011). Just Caring: Defining a Basic Benefit Package. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy, 36(6), 589-611
View Full Essay

Child Sex Trafficking Problem

Words: 3820 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1585276

Child Sex Trafficking:

Sex trafficking is basically defined as the enlisting, harboring, provision, moving, or acquisition of an individual for the main goal of a commercial sex act. In this case, an individual who has not attained 18 years old is forced or coerced to perform sexual acts. Generally, a person is forced or coerced for the purpose of debt bondage, involuntary servitude, or slavery. In the past few years, child sex trafficking has become a major epidemic not only in the United States but also across the world. While many people know the issue of child sex trafficking, they are not aware of the extent of uncontrolled exploitation of children and its impact. Given the severity of the impact of child sex trafficking, it is increasingly important to understand this crime and develop appropriate policy measures to reduce its prevalence.

The Problem of Child Trafficking:

As previously mentioned, child sex trafficking is defined as recruitment, movement, provision, or obtaining of an individual who has not attained 18 years old and coercing or forcing him/her to perform sexual acts ("What is Sex Trafficking?" n.d.). This crime has become an ever-growing epidemic across the globe even though many people may have…… [Read More]

References:
Beyrer, C. (2004, December). Global Child Trafficking. The Lancet, 364, 16-7. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/199016132?accountid=8289 

Farrell, A., McDevitt, J. & Fahy, S. (2008, December). Understanding and Improving Law
View Full Essay

Labor Organizations Discuss the Similarities and Differences

Words: 1361 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5821750

Labor Organizations

Discuss the similarities and differences between at least three labor organizations discussed in Chapter 3.

The Knights of Labor was a standard labor union comprised of individual workers across the nation. They were inclusive in terms, employing both skilled workers in crafts industries as well as unskilled laborers such as coalminers. (Rayback, 1966, p. 168). They had limited political objectives such as the eight-hour workday and the prohibition of child and convict labor. Their broader objectives were social: to improve the image and social status of the working man.

The AFL was not a labor organization, but a federation of affiliated labor unions. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 138). The AFL was exclusive, accepting skilled workers in crafts industries and skilled workers in industry. The AFL's goals were economic, they provided financial and political support for affiliated labor unions in contract negotiations with employers. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 139). The political objectives they did pursue usually had to do with the nature of labor negotiations.

The IWW was neither a traditional labor union or a federation of labor unions, but a labor union comprised with many members of other labor organizations. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 195).…… [Read More]

Sources:
Chaison, G. (2006). Unions in America.

Foner, P.S. (1997). History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 4: The Industrial Workers of the World 1905-1917.
View Full Essay

Children Should Be Required to Read More

Words: 1764 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76985546

Children Should Be Required to Read More

Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").

It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. Reading cannot be explained as a phenomenon that occurs naturally. Children learn to read independently by attaining component skills little by little. The love for reading in a child only develops when the home environment emphasizes on reading for pleasure. As said before, children cannot be forced or encouraged to read. It…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Copperman, Paul. Taking Books to Heart: How to Develop a Love of Reading in Your Child. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1986. 223-226. Web. 4 Nov 2011.
"Engaging Children While Reading Will Help Them Love Books."Daily Herald July 20, 2008. 2. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. .
View Full Essay

Labor the Department of Labor Is Present

Words: 2901 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7859708

Labor

The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.

The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.

The basic feature of the labor system is to ensure that jobs are equally spread out through the country. The labor system therefore petitions the government for channeling more of the federal budget towards the production of labor. Therefore, jobs are created either in government offices, through construction or through small business.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.

Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.
View Full Essay

Child Case Study The Story

Words: 1816 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44209188

In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax. Regrettably for Manuel the existing tendency in the New York City School system is to be able to get students to enthrall grammar by means of content learning instead of repetition conjugation and maneuvers. I really believe that there is something that can said for both. My view is that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.

Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.
View Full Essay

Labor Economics -- the Ripple

Words: 3344 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69895382

That is, if the foreclosure is the only black mark on a person's credit rating, that credit card holder may be able to "rehabilitate their record and garner better loans and card rates in 24 months," Ulzheimer goes on, attempting to clear the air in a very cloudy, confusing and even toxic credit card dynamic.

The third consequence of foreclosure, according to Melia's narrative, is the struggle waiting for those wishing to buy another home. Fannie Mae, for example, relates the bleak realities for those who have foreclosed their homes and who hope to purchase another one. For those borrowers who "have made reckless debt decisions," they can't get a new mortgage for a new home until 5 years has passed. It was 4 years previously but in this time of economic recession, money is tight so if the investigation into a person's credit shows Fannie Mae that "reckless" financing decisions were made (that led to the foreclosure) that person must wait the extra year (www.bankrate.com). However, if the applicant can explain to the lender that he or she was foreclosed due to "situations beyond someone's control" -- "like a job loss" -- then only 3 years must pass prior…… [Read More]

Sources:
ABC News. "Tax Cut Deal: President Obama Announces Agreement on Bush Cuts." Retrieved

Dec. 6, 2010, from  http://abcnews.go.com .
View Full Essay

Laboring Women Jennifer L Morgan's

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61695440

It would be difficult as a women to try and understand exactly what these women had to live through (in the name of commerce and production), but Morgan is sensitive while making her points, which has to be admired.

Of particular interest in this book is the whole talk of "creolization" -- a term not often heard. Essentially, Morgan discusses creolization and how this event is directly associated with reproduction. The entire Creole history, she claims, required black women's giving birth to these children. This is an area of history that perhaps isn't written about or talked about enough.

Perhaps one of the most original and interesting parts of Morgan's book is that she begins with the women in Africa and she follows them through the Middle Passage and then into America and thus the reader is able to get a real sense of the journal and the cultural differences that the women endured. Often in history books we fail to consider exactly where slaves came from, their journey and what they endured on the journey. It is easy to suddenly imagine these slaves plunked down somewhere without considering where they came from. Morgan does something different in this book…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Labor and Employment Law

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68794209

Labor and Employment Law

WORKPLACE SITUATIONS

Situation A -- The Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 or FMLA was enacted to help employees balance family and work requirements (WHD, 2013). It aims at protecting and helping those with family or personal health problems. The rise in single-parent households and women employees often leads them to compromise work for family or vice versa. The law intends to strike a balance between. If an employer is connected to FMLA, an employee who has worked for one year or 1,250 hours in the preceding year is entitled to 12 weeks of unpaid leave within the 12-month period. The employer is qualified to offer FMLA if it has 50 or more employees. Employee A and his employer are, thus, qualified (WHD).

The qualified employer is obliged by law to grant FMLA leave when the qualified employee requests it with a qualified reason (WHD, 2013). If Employee A does not accrued leave, he can use his FMLA leave as unpaid time. If he has accrued leave, he may use it or his employer may require him to use it. Using his paid leave will decrease his allotment under FMLA days. If he exhausts his paid…… [Read More]

Resources:
Resource Management. Retrieved on September 25, 2013 from http://www.shrm.org/LegalIssues/FederalResources/Federalstatutes/RegulationsandGuidanc/Pages/AgeDiscriminationEmploymentActof1967.aspx

WHD (2013). Family and Medical Leave Act of 1963. Wage and Hour Division: U.S.

Department of Labor. Retrieved on September 25, 2013 from http://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla
View Full Essay

Labor and the Industrial Revolution

Words: 3156 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69742315

Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.

Growth of Cities

According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.

The British population increased about 15% every decade during the eighteenth century creating a demand for goods and a population to support the corresponding need for labor. The living conditions these people faced in their new environment were often miserable. They faced long hours of labor every day in crowded factories. Poor sewage…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html

Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from  http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp 
View Full Essay

Labor Economic

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99131376

Labor Economics

Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.

Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.

Outline

Abstract

Introduction

Important Components of Labor Economics

Labor Supply and Demand

Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)

Wages

Non-Wage Labor Costs

Wage Differentials

Workers Mobility

Pay & Productivity

8. Economics of Discrimination

9. Social Accountability

10. Trade Unions

Conclusions

Bibliography

Introduction

Describing labor as a commodity [1] may seem as an obscene idea to some humanitarian idealist but the truth is that in modern economy labor is bought and sold with its price being set by supply and demand [2]. In the slave economy, the laborer himself was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~dackerma/labsyllabus.pdf#search='What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'

2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005, http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/wage-labour/Ch04.htm
View Full Essay

Labor Law Mine Safety and Health Act

Words: 1744 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26759982

Labor Law: Mine Safety and Health Act

The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act passed in 1969 and were last substantially amended in 1977. There has been just one amendment to the Act since 1977; that was a penalty increase in 1990 enacted not for safety and health policy reasons, but to raise revenue for the federal government.

The Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, and the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, have been among the most successful laws that the Congress has every enacted. It provides for a comprehensive approach to mine safety and health combining enforcement with education and training as well as a wide range of cooperative efforts to promote safety and health throughout the mining industry. Total mine fatalities in the decade before enactment of the 1977 law ranged from 435 to 254. In the 1990's, annual deaths in mining have ranged from 112 to 80.The American mining industry today is the world leader in safety and health. This is a significant accomplishment for which industry, labor, and government all deserve credit (Ruffennach C. Gregory, Saving Lives or Wasting Resources? The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act)

But while the Mine Act…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Children and the Revolution A

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84200721

She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.

New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment for women's "unpaid" care giving work.

Else's study supports Craig's study in an obscure way. Craig did not address attitudes towards working outside of the home, only the number of hours spent. Else's study found that traditional gender roles were still valid during the time of the sampling of Craig's…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Craig, L. 2006. Children and the revolution: A time-diary analysis of the impact of motherhood on daily workload. Journal of Sociology. 42, p.125.

Else, a. 1997. Having it Both Ways?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. 9, pp.16-26
View Full Essay

Labor and the American Economy

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49526952

This implies that an increase in the wage of one member of the household gives rise not only to changed incentives for work on the market, but also to a shift from more to less time-intensive product on and consumption of goods produced by the household. But as noted by the Nobel-prize winning 20th century University of Chicago economist Gary Becker, as real wages increase, along with the possibilities of substituting capital for labor in housework, labor is released in the household, so that it becomes more and more uneconomical to let one member of the household specialize wholly in household production (for instance, child care). As a result, some of the family's previous social and economic functions are shifted to other institutions such as firms, schools and other public agencies. This creates more jobs, but also means that more luxury jobs may become necessities, such as maids. (Gary Becker, Nobel Prize, 2004)

Works Cited

Gary S. Becker. (2004) Nobel Prize. Official Website. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker/Nobel/nobel.html… [Read More]

References:
Gary S. Becker. (2004) Nobel Prize. Official Website. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker/Nobel/nobel.html
View Full Essay

Children's Literature the Young Adult

Words: 513 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92345183



Thus, the key to Esperanza's successful "rising" are the presence of strong adults that surround her in her life. From these positive adult role models, Esperanza is able to learn about her own strengths and discover that she is able to make it on her own and not be dependent on adults. For example, although her father is long dead, it is his ongoing advice that helps Esperanza deal with and, more importantly, overcome current dilemmas. Take for example a point where Esperanza is working her first independent job as a babysitter. Here, when things do not go right an she finds herself facing anguish and despair and about to give up, she hears the voice of her father who reminds her to, "wait a little while and the fruit will fall into your hand." Following her father's advice, things do turn around and Esperanza begins to succeed creating her own life of wealth- both in terms of family, friends and money.

The story of Esperanza Rising is a coming of age story that includes a cultural aspect with important parallels for today. At its core is the central theme that no one can succeed on their own and are…… [Read More]

Sources:
Ryan, Pam Munoz. (2000): Esperanza Rising. New York: Scholastic Inc.
View Full Essay

Global Labor Standards Labor Standards

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5231407

However, when child labor is burnt the entire economy may be deflected towards another equilibrium that may not be inferior to the first equilibrium (Basu, 2003). The global labor standards should therefore not ban child labor whenever it is deemed to be happening but ensure that conditions for banning child labor are compatible with adherence to the Pareto principle.

It is a fact that certain contracts, unanimously accepted by both sides, can lead to Pareto improvement. Nevertheless, if the contracts were to be allowed and used by the masses, there would be significant changes in market parameters that would leave some people worse off. Global labor standards should use the large numbers principle to justify banning of certain kinds of contracts like unjust labor practices.

In as much as the international labor organizations would want to use the above named principles to check against unjust labor laws a lot of care has to be taken to guard against the risk of using these principles as alibi to intervene whenever they feel so. Discretion has to be sought when any intervention is to be executed. Theory has to be supported by empirical evidence that a given intervention satisfies the spelt out…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Basu, K. (2003). Global Labor Standards and Local Freedoms. Retrieved from www.wider.unu.edu/publications/.../en.../annual-lecture-2003.pdf

Neeman, Z. (1999). The Freedom to Contract and the Free-Rider Problem. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 15(3): 685-703.
View Full Essay

Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9544807

Juveniles

Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law. In Roman times, children were regarded as not culpable for crimes, a position later adopted by the Church. In the nineteenth century, children younger than seven years old were believed incapable of crime. Children from the age of seven forward were considered responsible for their actions. Therefore, they could face…… [Read More]

Resources:
 http://law.jrank.org/pages/12069/Juvenile-Justice-Changing-social-attitudes-toward-children.html 

Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from: http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53
View Full Essay

American Labor Movement History of Labor Movement

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83699111

American Labor Movement

The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.

The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "What should constitute full participation in American society? What standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil War until the beginning of World War I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian society to an industrialized society and gave rise to significantly wealthy railroad barons such as Jay Gould, banking princes such as Jay Cooke, oil kings such as John D. Rockefeller and industrial tycoons such as Andrew Carnegie (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services).

While the Industrial Revolution created enormous…… [Read More]

References:
AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.

Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.
View Full Essay

Maritime Labor Convention Many Seafarers Ply Across

Words: 2983 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40024614

Maritime Labor Convention

Many seafarers ply across waters distant miles away from their homes. The categories of people in the maritime transport include the seafarers and ship owners. These people are often from different nationalities as ships operate under different flags, from their origin to other countries. The seafarers often face difficult conditions of working from their occupational risks. The fact that they work far from homes exposes them to challenges such as exploitation, abuse, non-paid wages, and non-compliance to the contracts, poor diet, poor living conditions and sometimes abandonment in foreign ports. This necessitated the industry to contract laws and expectations governing the industry. This is what constitutes the Maritime Labor Convention 2006. These set out the expected conditions of working, to grow the maritime standards into globalized standards. The STCW is among the security and quality management bodies of ships.

The maritime labor convention

The Maritime Labor Convention (MLC) drives the principles of international maritime organization ensuring safety and quality of working standards in the industry. It facilitates the means of enforcing the standards through a clear system of certification and inspection from the flag state and port authorities (The Maritime Labor Convention, 2006). The MLC covers various…… [Read More]

Sources:
Dimitrova, D.N., & Blanpain, R. (2010). Seafarers' rights in the globalized maritime industry.

Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.
View Full Essay

Current State of Labor Movements

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19766554

labor movement in the United States started due to the need for protecting the common interest of workers. For those in the industrial sector, the labor unions normally fought for various things including reasonable working hours, better wages and safer working conditions. The labor movement led efforts in stopping child labor, providing aid to workers that were injured or retired and even giving health benefits to them. The origins of this labor movement lay in the formative years of the American nation when there was the emergence of a free wage labor market in the artisan trades during the late colonial period. The earliest documented strike took place in 1768 when the New York journeymen tailors expressed their dissatisfaction with the wage reduction.in 1794 the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers in Philadelphia was formed which marked the beginning of sustained trade union organization among the workers in America ( A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014). From then hence forth there was proliferation of local craft unions in cities that went ahead to publish lists of "prices" for their work, the defense against diluted and cheap labor and increasingly demanding for short working days. This led to the emergence of a job-conscious…… [Read More]

References:
A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014).Labor Movement.Retrieved May 13,2014 from  http://www.history.com/topics/labor 

Teamsters for a democratic union.(2014).Building Solidarity Beyond Your Workplace or Local. .Retrieved May 13,2014 from http://www.tdu.org/resources/building-solidarity-beyond-your-workplace-or-local