Child Labor Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:


View Full Essay

Child Labour 1880-1920

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40186438

Child Labour: 1880-1920 -- Annotated Bibliography

Paterson, . (2006). Bread and roses, too. New York: Clarion Books.

This book, a secondary resource, is a children's historical novel that depicts the 1912 Lawrence Strike (also known as Bread and Roses) from the perspective of two children, Rosa Serutti and Jake Beale. Born to Italian parents, Rosa attends school, while her mother and sister work at a mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Even though they work in the mill, Rosa's family cannot afford the clothes they make. Rosa is portrayed as the protector of Beale, who also works in the mills and resides in the streets to avoid his abusive father. Written by an award-winning author, the novel chronicles one of the most infamous strikes in the history of the U.S. The strike was the first in the country to be organised by women, with immigrants from 25 different nationalities participating in it.…… [Read More]

Klein, C. (2012). The strike that shook America. Retrieved from:

Smithsonian Source (2016). Primary sources. Retrieved from:

The History Place (2016). Child labour in America 1908-1912. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Labor Issues Around the World

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41802451

Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.

Companies like Nike and eebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.

In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have…… [Read More]


2001). Hazardous forms of Child Labor in Nepal. GEFONT Paper presented in Preparatory Meeting on Developing Asian Network on Hazardous Child Labour

Manila 26-28, 2001. (Retrieved from the Internet at 13, 2003). Informal sector marred by poor working condition. Mercantile Communications. Retrieved from the Internet at (February 22, 2001). Abuse rife at Nike's Indonesia plants. Retrieved from the Internet at

Ellis, Becky. (2000). Globalisation, Sweatshops and Indonesian Women Workers. Retrieved from the Internet at .
View Full Essay

Labor Issue of Children

Words: 1478 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86718457

Child Labor

The prevailing child labor practices in the world not only jeopardize the childhood of the children but also adversely effects their cognitive, physical, mental, behavioral and social aspects of life. The child labor practices are followed due to the rate of increased poverty and cultural beliefs which enforces the children to contribute in the house hold income. The lawsuits against the child labor exist but are not applied to the fullest due to the poverty rate and lack of educational and institutional services for the under privileged children. Therefore, the awareness among the parents and adults should be increased about the hazards of child labor on the life of children and families should be provided with adequate support to refrain their dependency on the earnings of their children.


Child Labor

Causes of Child Labor

Child Labor Statistics

Law Suits against Child Labor

Steps to Eradicate Child Labor…… [Read More]


Grootaert, C., & Kanbur, R. (1995). Child labor: A review. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (1454).

International Labor Organization (2012).Making progress against child labor. Available from:

Moehling, C.M. (1999). State child labor laws and the decline of child labor. Explorations in Economic History, 36(1), 72-106.

Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000).From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
View Full Essay

Labor Weak Protections Under U S Law Allow

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80330013


"eak protections under U.S. law allow children as young as 12 to work unlimited hours outside of school on tobacco farms of any size, and there is no minimum age for children to work on small farms. Despite the known risks of nicotine poisoning, there are no special provisions in U.S. laws or regulations to protect children from the unique hazards of tobacco work."

I was aware that there were a few exceptions to child labor laws on family farms. This alone is a sensitive issue given the potential for injury with lifelong consequences, along with the conscription of children into farming labor that may detract from their ability to pursue other careers. Yet until reading this passage, I had no idea that child labor was still permitted in a larger context in the United States, especially in large farm contexts. hen it comes to exposure to pesticides, dangerous…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Dorsey, James. "Study asserts that controversial gulf labor regime reduces global inequality." The World Post. 2014. Retrieved online:
View Full Essay

Labor Markets and Their Many Aspects

Words: 1374 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10389131

Labor Markets and Their Many Aspects

The negative aspects of a loosely-regulated labor market:

The dangers of under-regulation

The labor laws of the state of Pennsylvania are still highly influenced by the unionization movement that began in the steel mills of the state. It is said that "no state in America has a richer labor history than Pennsylvania" (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). The AFL and CIO were founded in the state. "The 1877 railroad strike, the 1892 battle of Homestead, and the 1919 steel strike" are all nationally famous incidents that were highly influential upon the development of the modern labor movement and remain potent, collective state memories (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). However, "the struggle against child labor, sweatshops and oppressive working conditions unfortunately continue today in the global economy. Workers' rights to form unions and collectively bargain, to have a safe and healthful workplace, and to have…… [Read More]


About labor-management cooperation. (2011). PA Department of Labor & Industry. Retrieved October 21, 2011 at 

Bernhardt, Annette Ruth Milkman & Nik Theodore. (2009). Working without laws. The Nation.

Retrieved October 21, 2011 at

Fischer, Charles. (2010). Labor's laboring effort. The Berkley Blog. Retrieved October 21, 2011
View Full Essay

Child Trafficking

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86148684

Child Trafficking

Slave labor and child trafficking are commonplace in cocoa industry in the Ivory Coast, and the makers of the documentary The Dark Side of Chocolate (2010) found them working as slaves everywhere on the cocoa plantations there. Even though the largest chocolate companies in the world, including Nestle, Archer Daniels and Cargill signed a protocol with the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 2001 that mandated the end of child labor and trafficking by 2008, this has not occurred. Nestle and these other giant multinational corporations denied any knowledge of these practices or any control over slave labor on these Ivory Coast plantations, but they did not wish t see the evidence in the film. Interpol knew about these practices because it has railed the plantations and rescued dozens of children from slavery, even though the government of the Ivory Coast and the cocoa exporters denied that child trafficking…… [Read More]


Mistrati, Miki and U. Roberto Romano Dirs. 2010. The Dark Side of Chocolate. 46 mins. Bastard Film and TV Productions.
View Full Essay

Children's Literature

Words: 2790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44250974

Children's Literature

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. e are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Edited with an introduction by Elaine Showalter. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Edited with an introduction by John Seelye. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.
View Full Essay

Labor and Union Studies Define

Words: 4045 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5326538

All of the employees on an airplane, for example, could form themselves into a vertical bargaining unit if they chose, the unit including stewards and stewardesses, as well as pilots. Similarly, in a school, teachers, janitors, and office staff could all form a vertical unit. In contrast a horizontal bargaining unit unites all those who perform similar work. The fact that the pilots at Spirit Airlines belong to a pilots union that includes pilots from other airlines means that they constitute a horizontal bargaining unit. As well, teachers in the Chico school could form a horizontal bargaining unit if they joined with other teachers at different schools, and even in different districts. Members of a bargaining unit agree to work together because they share common interests and goals. Bargaining units appear either as elements of unions or as workers uniting for a common purpose. An entire union is also frequently…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Arbitration panel rules in Favor of Spirit Airlines pilots in days-off conflict." Airline Industry Information, 18 March 2009. URL:

Beam, Christopher. "Uncivil Union: Does card check kill the secret ballot or not?" 10 March 2009. URL:

Craggs, Tommy. "King NBA: What's with the overpraise for pro-basketball commissioner David Stern?" 19 February 2009. URL:

Epstein, Richard a. "Epstein: Mandatory Labor Arbitration." Washington Times. 24 March, 2009. URL: .
View Full Essay

Labor Relations Have Changed Tremendously

Words: 361 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96377356

The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.

The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.…… [Read More]


Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at
View Full Essay

Labor and Union Studies the

Words: 2077 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78255908

The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).

There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…… [Read More]


1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from -rail-strikes-1877

Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.

Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.

Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.
View Full Essay

Child Protection States of Japan

Words: 3482 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69519954

Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.

Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]


BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008.

Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008.

Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008.,1305105,00.html

Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
View Full Essay

Child Abuse in the United

Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62744955

Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).

The eligious Theory

The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…… [Read More]


Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.

Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.

Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
View Full Essay

Labor in China as it

Words: 2890 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15194650

While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement ("

Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…… [Read More]


Frequently Asked Questions About Sweatshops and Women Workers       (Accessed 5-25-06)

US union to tour China factories (Accessed 5-25-06)
View Full Essay

Labor Union Giving an Overview

Words: 3220 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15802917

The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal…… [Read More]


Baldwin, R.E. (2002). The Decline of Us Labor Unions and the Role of Trade. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.

This book depicts the history of labor unions and tells us the circumstances under most of the labor unions declined. It tells us about the role played by labor unions in the past and what were their failures due to which they faced their decline. Besides this, it also relates the labor unions with trade.

Compa, L. (1993). Labor Rights and Labor Standards in International Trade. Law and Policy in International Business, 165-191.

Compa, in this article describes the problems that labor faces in many companies and how due to these problems many of the members of these unions leave their team. This article tells that it is imperative that labor unions should not involve in each and every matter of the company but should only involve in such matters where they think it is suitable.
View Full Essay

Child Sex Trafficking Problem

Words: 3820 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1585276

Child Sex Trafficking:

Sex trafficking is basically defined as the enlisting, harboring, provision, moving, or acquisition of an individual for the main goal of a commercial sex act. In this case, an individual who has not attained 18 years old is forced or coerced to perform sexual acts. Generally, a person is forced or coerced for the purpose of debt bondage, involuntary servitude, or slavery. In the past few years, child sex trafficking has become a major epidemic not only in the United States but also across the world. While many people know the issue of child sex trafficking, they are not aware of the extent of uncontrolled exploitation of children and its impact. Given the severity of the impact of child sex trafficking, it is increasingly important to understand this crime and develop appropriate policy measures to reduce its prevalence.

The Problem of Child Trafficking:

As previously mentioned, child…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Research-Based Literature. Institute for the Study of International Migration, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. Retrieved from: 

Harden, N. (2013, November 11). Eight Facts You Didn't Know About Child Sex Trafficking.

The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 20, 2014, from 

Hume, T., Cohen, L. & Sorvino, M. (2013, December). The Women who Sold their Daughters

into Sex Slavery. CNN. Retrieved June 20, 2014, from
View Full Essay

Labor Organizations Discuss the Similarities and Differences

Words: 1361 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5821750

Labor Organizations

Discuss the similarities and differences between at least three labor organizations discussed in Chapter 3.

The Knights of Labor was a standard labor union comprised of individual workers across the nation. They were inclusive in terms, employing both skilled workers in crafts industries as well as unskilled laborers such as coalminers. (Rayback, 1966, p. 168). They had limited political objectives such as the eight-hour workday and the prohibition of child and convict labor. Their broader objectives were social: to improve the image and social status of the working man.

The AFL was not a labor organization, but a federation of affiliated labor unions. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 138). The AFL was exclusive, accepting skilled workers in crafts industries and skilled workers in industry. The AFL's goals were economic, they provided financial and political support for affiliated labor unions in contract negotiations with employers. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaison, G. (2006). Unions in America.

Foner, P.S. (1997). History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 4: The Industrial Workers of the World 1905-1917.

Rayback, J.G. (1966). A History of American Labor.

Dubofsky, M. & Foster, R. (2004). Labor in America: A History.
View Full Essay

Children Should Be Required to Read More

Words: 1764 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76985546

Children Should Be equired to ead More

Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").

It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. eading cannot…… [Read More]


Copperman, Paul. Taking Books to Heart: How to Develop a Love of Reading in Your Child. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1986. 223-226. Web. 4 Nov 2011.
"Engaging Children While Reading Will Help Them Love Books."Daily Herald July 20, 2008. 2. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. .

"Why Reading to Children Is Important." Early Moments sharing the gift of reading. Sandvik Publishing, n.d. Web. 4 Nov 2011. .
View Full Essay

Labor the Department of Labor Is Present

Words: 2901 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7859708


The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.

The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.

The basic…… [Read More]


Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.

Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.

Democratizing the Global Economy: Empowering Workers, Building Democracy, Achieving Shared Prosperity. (2005). [e-book] Available through: AFL-CIO  [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].

Lindsey, A. (1964). The pullman strike. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
View Full Essay

Labor and Union Studies in Washington and Oregon State

Words: 3095 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79832287

Labor and Union Studies in ashington and Oregon States

The United States labor movement has its roots in the complex trappings of the industrial revolution. Laborers were just starting to come to the United States from foreign countries because they had learned that there were many jobs available for even the most unskilled worker. People were also moving from rural areas in America to the cities in an attempt ti have a better life also without the uncertainties that governed farm profits. The growth in many industries was a result of new technologies that allowed people to purchase items that had previously been made by hand far cheaper because the products could now be mass produced in the factories. The problem was that the owners of these factories did not care how the workers were treated because there were many more begging to have a low-paying job in a factory…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom, Nick, Toby Kretschmer, and John van Reenen. Work-Life Balance, Management Practices and Productivity. London: London School Of Economics -- Center for Economic Performance, 2006. Print.

Brundage, Michael. "Working at Microsoft." qbrundage. Web.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Union Membership in Oregon -- 2010." United States Department of Labor (2010). Web.

Grant, Michel, and Jean Harvey. "Unions and Productivity: Convergence or Divergence in Perspectives." International Studies of Management & Organization 22.4 (1992): 93-98. Print.
View Full Essay

Child Case Study The Story

Words: 1816 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44209188

In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.

Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.

Clay, M.M. (2005, June 6). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Teaching procedures. NH: Heinemann. Atlanta, Georgia.

Rodgers, E.M. (2004). Interactions that scaffold reading performance. Journal of Literacy Research, 12(7), 23-67.
View Full Essay

Labor Economics -- the Ripple

Words: 3344 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69895382

That is, if the foreclosure is the only black mark on a person's credit rating, that credit card holder may be able to "rehabilitate their record and garner better loans and card rates in 24 months," Ulzheimer goes on, attempting to clear the air in a very cloudy, confusing and even toxic credit card dynamic.

The third consequence of foreclosure, according to Melia's narrative, is the struggle waiting for those wishing to buy another home. Fannie Mae, for example, relates the bleak realities for those who have foreclosed their homes and who hope to purchase another one. For those borrowers who "have made reckless debt decisions," they can't get a new mortgage for a new home until 5 years has passed. It was 4 years previously but in this time of economic recession, money is tight so if the investigation into a person's credit shows Fannie Mae that "reckless" financing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ABC News. "Tax Cut Deal: President Obama Announces Agreement on Bush Cuts." Retrieved

Dec. 6, 2010, from .

Bureau of Labor Statistics. "The Employment Situation -- November 2010." U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from . (2010).

Fitzpatrick, Dylan J., toner Erin a., and Sommers, Paul M. "The skinny on obesity rates and the U.S. economy." Atlantic Economic Journal. 38.1 (2010): 119-121.
View Full Essay

Laboring Women Jennifer L Morgan's

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61695440

It would be difficult as a women to try and understand exactly what these women had to live through (in the name of commerce and production), but Morgan is sensitive while making her points, which has to be admired.

Of particular interest in this book is the whole talk of "creolization" -- a term not often heard. Essentially, Morgan discusses creolization and how this event is directly associated with reproduction. The entire Creole history, she claims, required black women's giving birth to these children. This is an area of history that perhaps isn't written about or talked about enough.

Perhaps one of the most original and interesting parts of Morgan's book is that she begins with the women in Africa and she follows them through the Middle Passage and then into America and thus the reader is able to get a real sense of the journal and the cultural differences…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Labor and Employment Law

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68794209

Labor and Employment Law


Situation A -- The Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 or FMLA was enacted to help employees balance family and work requirements (WHD, 2013). It aims at protecting and helping those with family or personal health problems. The rise in single-parent households and women employees often leads them to compromise work for family or vice versa. The law intends to strike a balance between. If an employer is connected to FMLA, an employee who has worked for one year or 1,250 hours in the preceding year is entitled to 12 weeks of unpaid leave within the 12-month period. The employer is qualified to offer FMLA if it has 50 or more employees. Employee A and his employer are, thus, qualified (WHD).

The qualified employer is obliged by law to grant FMLA leave when the qualified employee requests it with a qualified reason (WHD, 2013).…… [Read More]


EEOC (2013). The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The U.S. Equal Employment

Opportunities Commission. Retrieved on September 25, 2013 from 

SHRM (2013). Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. Society for Human

Resource Management. Retrieved on September 25, 2013 from
View Full Essay

Children's Literature Diverges From Adult

Words: 1310 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15085439

Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.

Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…… [Read More]


Fritz, Jean. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: Putnam Juvenile, 2002.

Lester, Julius. John Henry. New York: Puffin, 1999.

Osborn, Mary Pope. American Tall Tales. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991.
View Full Essay

Labor and the Industrial Revolution

Words: 3156 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69742315

Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.

Growth of Cities

According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.

The British population…… [Read More]


Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from

Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from 

"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from

Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from
View Full Essay

Labor Economic

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99131376

Labor Economics

Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.

Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.




Important Components of Labor Economics

Labor Supply and Demand

Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)


Non-Wage Labor Costs

Wage Differentials

Workers Mobility

Pay & Productivity

8. Economics of Discrimination

9. Social Accountability

10. Trade Unions…… [Read More]


1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005,'What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'

2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005,

3. Labor Economics, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, 

4. From Encyclopedia Wikipedia, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005,
View Full Essay

Children and the Revolution A

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84200721

She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.

New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…… [Read More]


Craig, L. 2006. Children and the revolution: A time-diary analysis of the impact of motherhood on daily workload. Journal of Sociology. 42, p.125.

Else, a. 1997. Having it Both Ways?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. 9, pp.16-26

Gjerdingen, D. 2000.

Expectant Parents' Anticipated Changes in Workload After the Birth of Their First Child. Journal of Family Practice. 27 Apr. 2007.
View Full Essay

Labor and the American Economy

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49526952

This implies that an increase in the wage of one member of the household gives rise not only to changed incentives for work on the market, but also to a shift from more to less time-intensive product on and consumption of goods produced by the household. But as noted by the Nobel-prize winning 20th century University of Chicago economist Gary Becker, as real wages increase, along with the possibilities of substituting capital for labor in housework, labor is released in the household, so that it becomes more and more uneconomical to let one member of the household specialize wholly in household production (for instance, child care). As a result, some of the family's previous social and economic functions are shifted to other institutions such as firms, schools and other public agencies. This creates more jobs, but also means that more luxury jobs may become necessities, such as maids. (Gary Becker,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gary S. Becker. (2004) Nobel Prize. Official Website. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at
View Full Essay

Labor and Union Studies Canadian

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195473

In 2007, it established that about two thirds of Canadians concur that immigration has a very affirmative or rather affirmative influence on Canada. Immigrants' view their choice to come to Canada as affirmative as well. While those coming into the country in 2000 were not pleased about their financial outcomes, the majority of the two thirds who stayed had a fairly affirmative feeling about their choice to come to Canada and to have stayed there (Picot, 2008).

On the whole, immigration for the country of Canada is a good thing. It helps to aid the economy in a very positive way. This can be seen in Canada's decision to increase their immigration efforts during the current recession as opposed to what a lot of other countries have done, which has been to decrease the effort. It has been shown that even those immigrants are often faced with adverse financial circumstances…… [Read More]


Canada welcomes largest number of immigrants in 50 years. (2008). Retrieved February 23,

2011, from Web site:

From Generation to Generation: Utilizing the Human Capital of Newcomer Parents to Benefit

Families. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2011, from Web site:
View Full Essay

Children's Literature the Young Adult

Words: 513 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92345183

Thus, the key to Esperanza's successful "rising" are the presence of strong adults that surround her in her life. From these positive adult role models, Esperanza is able to learn about her own strengths and discover that she is able to make it on her own and not be dependent on adults. For example, although her father is long dead, it is his ongoing advice that helps Esperanza deal with and, more importantly, overcome current dilemmas. Take for example a point where Esperanza is working her first independent job as a babysitter. Here, when things do not go right an she finds herself facing anguish and despair and about to give up, she hears the voice of her father who reminds her to, "wait a little while and the fruit will fall into your hand." Following her father's advice, things do turn around and Esperanza begins to succeed creating her…… [Read More]


Ryan, Pam Munoz. (2000): Esperanza Rising. New York: Scholastic Inc.
View Full Essay

Diversity and or How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

Words: 3623 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45470755

Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention

Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an…… [Read More]


Chan, K.L. (2012). Comparison of parent and child reports on child maltreatment in a representative household sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Violence, 27 (1), 11-


Fallon, B., Trocme, N., & MacLaurin, B. (2011). Should child protective services respond differently to maltreatment, risk of maltreatment, and risk of harm? Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 236 -- 239.

Fallon, B., Trocme, N., Fluke, J., & Turcotte, D. (2011). Responding to child maltreatment in Canada: Context for international comparisons. Advances in Mental Health, 11 (1), 76-
View Full Essay

Global Labor Standards Labor Standards

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5231407

However, when child labor is burnt the entire economy may be deflected towards another equilibrium that may not be inferior to the first equilibrium (Basu, 2003). The global labor standards should therefore not ban child labor whenever it is deemed to be happening but ensure that conditions for banning child labor are compatible with adherence to the Pareto principle.

It is a fact that certain contracts, unanimously accepted by both sides, can lead to Pareto improvement. Nevertheless, if the contracts were to be allowed and used by the masses, there would be significant changes in market parameters that would leave some people worse off. Global labor standards should use the large numbers principle to justify banning of certain kinds of contracts like unjust labor practices.

In as much as the international labor organizations would want to use the above named principles to check against unjust labor laws a lot of…… [Read More]

References List

Basu, K. (2003). Global Labor Standards and Local Freedoms. Retrieved from

Neeman, Z. (1999). The Freedom to Contract and the Free-Rider Problem. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 15(3): 685-703.
View Full Essay

Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9544807


Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…… [Read More]


Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from: 

Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
View Full Essay

American Labor Movement History of Labor Movement

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83699111

American Labor Movement

The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.

The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.

Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.

D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Web site. Web. 7 February 2012., LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
View Full Essay

Current State of Labor Movements

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19766554

labor movement in the United States started due to the need for protecting the common interest of workers. For those in the industrial sector, the labor unions normally fought for various things including reasonable working hours, better wages and safer working conditions. The labor movement led efforts in stopping child labor, providing aid to workers that were injured or retired and even giving health benefits to them. The origins of this labor movement lay in the formative years of the American nation when there was the emergence of a free wage labor market in the artisan trades during the late colonial period. The earliest documented strike took place in 1768 when the New York journeymen tailors expressed their dissatisfaction with the wage 1794 the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers in Philadelphia was formed which marked the beginning of sustained trade union organization among the workers in America ( A&E…… [Read More]


A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014).Labor Movement.Retrieved May 13,2014 from 

Teamsters for a democratic union.(2014).Building Solidarity Beyond Your Workplace or Local. .Retrieved May 13,2014 from
View Full Essay

Ilo International Labour Organization the

Words: 3260 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32573087

During that time he was director of labour market policies, coordinated technical work in eastern Europe following the collapse of the erlin wall and was director of the ILO's Socio-Economic Security Program. In 1998-99, he served as a member of the transition team of the new Director General Juan Somavia. It would be fair to say that he knows the ILO inside out. Now Professor of Economic Security at the University of ath in the UK, he is well placed to reflect on the organization's potential and failings. (Standing)

Focus of the ILO

The roots of the ILO's current problems began in the 1970s, according to Standing, with the rise of economic philosophies that tended to view any kind of regulation as a 'market distortion'. It was not long before the ILO was seen as a symbol of an antiquated way of thinking. The U.S.A. actually pulled out from 1977…… [Read More]


Alston, Philip 2. "Core Labour Standards' and the Transformation of the International Labour

Rights Regime." 2004. Oxford Journals. 29 January 2009

Alston, Philip. Facing up to the Complexities of the ILO's Core Labour Standards Agenda.

Working Paper. New York: New York University School of Law, 2005.
View Full Essay

International Labor Organization Ilo

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76371528

International Labor Organization (ILO)

The history of the International Labor Organization is an interesting one which actually points to the history of organized conflict within the world. At a micro level, the organization was formed in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles which helped to end World War I. The establishers of this organization were convinced that in order to preserve international peace for all time that social justice needed to reign -- perhaps the key driving force behind social injustice is the regular exploitation of the laborer from his labor and the capital benefits it produces.

However, from a macro level, the creation of the ILO extends much further than the political motives associated with the first World War. Prior to the waging of that war and ever since the industrial revolution took place and the means by which laborers were displaced from the results of their…… [Read More]


International Labor Organization. (1996). Origins and history. Retrieved from -- en/index.htm

International Labor Organization. (1996). Mission and objectives. Retrieved from -- en/index.htm
View Full Essay

Fair Labor Standards Act Vice President of

Words: 477 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87641179

Fair Labor Standards Act

Vice President of EatNGas Inc.

It has come to the attention of the human resources department that EatNGas is potentially in violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which is a federal offense.

FLSA was founded in 1938 and established a standard for minimum wage, time-and-a-half for overtime, and child labor restrictions. Besides a few exempt employees which are protected in other ways, employers must comply to these laws for the protection of their employees (Grossman, n.d.).

The assistant manager position at EatNGas works fifty to sixty hours per work week and is exempt from overtime rates in exchange for a one dollar per hour raise. This is a violation of FLSA in the following ways:

FLSA requires that most employees in the United States be paid overtime at one and one-half of their regular rate for all hours worked over forty hours in one…… [Read More]


Department of Labor. (2004). FLSA overtime security advisor. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from

Department of Labor. (2008). Wage and hour division. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from 

Department of Labor. (2011). Wage and hour division. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from

Grossman, J. (n.d.). Fair labor standards act of 1938: Maximum struggle for a minimum wage.
View Full Essay

Scope of Child Sex Tourism and the Pertinent Laws

Words: 2503 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71139954

international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).

The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…… [Read More]


African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. (2009). African charter on the rights and welfare of the child: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.

Banse, R., Schmidt, A.F., & Clarbour, J. (2010). Indirect measures of sexual interest in child sex offenders: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.

Debabrata, R. (1998). When police act as pimps: Glimpses into child prostitution in India: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.

Fraley, A. (2005). Child sex tourism legislation under the protect act: Does it really protect: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
View Full Essay

Fair Labor Standards Act

Words: 7038 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35805820

Human esources: Fair Labor Standards Act

An Examination of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and Its Implications for American Workers Today

Although most Americans take for granted the wide range of social programs that are in place for their protection, many of these initiatives are fairly recent in origin, but one that has been around for quite some time is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The legislation established a minimum standard wage and a maximum work week of 40 hours in industries that were engaged in interstate commerce. The implications of the Act were profound, and today, in what has become a classic pattern over the years, calls for increases to the federal minimum wage are followed by impassioned cries from industry leaders that such an initiative will do more to harm business than it will to help minimum-wage workers. ather than routinely bankrupt America's businesses,…… [Read More]


An overview of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (2005). U.S. Office of Personnel Management.

Retrieved May 12, 2005 from

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Cocheo, S. (2004). Banks Must Labor to Comply with New Overtime Rules; Fair Labor
View Full Essay

Impact of Globalization on Labour

Words: 2641 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69610725

Globalization and Labor

Globalization is a term used in a multiplicity of senses, such as the global interdependence of nations, the growth of a world system, accumulation on a world scale, and the global village (Petras Pp). All of these concepts, as well as many others, are rooted in the general notion that the "accumulation of capital, trade and investment is no longer confined to a nation-state" (Petras Pp). Globalization in the most general sense refers to the "cross-national flows of goods, investment, production and technology," and for advocates, the scope and depth of these flows have created a new world order, "with its own institutions and configurations of power that have replace the structures of nation-states" (Petras Pp). Globalization has deepened and extended the international division of labor, with everything from automobile parts to information collection and analysis now out-sourced to labor in distant nation-states (Petras Pp). Exporting labor…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Petras, James. "Globalization: A Critical Analysis."

Journal of Contemporary Asia; 3/1/1999; Pp.

Williamson Jr., Handy. "Globalization and Poverty: Lessons From the Theory and Practice of Food Security Discussion." American Journal of Agricultural Economics; 8/1/2001; Pp.

Bacon, David. "Globalization: Two Faces, Both Ugly." Dollars & Sense; 3/1/2000;
View Full Essay

Evolution of Labor Unions Solidarity

Words: 1923 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69579306

An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).

A New Global Labor Federation

Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…… [Read More]


Associated Press (2006). Delegates launch global labor union. Deseret News: Deseret

News Publishing Company. Retrieved on June 8, 2009 from;col1

Encyclopedia of Small Business (2002). Labor unions. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved

on June 8, 2009 from;col1
View Full Essay

The Exploitation of Children in the Mills as Told by Dorsey Dixon

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90575243

Babies in the Mill" By Dorsey Dixon

The historical context of "Babies in the Mill" by Dorsey Dixon is in both the words of the song and the presentation of the song (folk/blues). Composed in the 1960s by Dorsey Dixon, the song memorializes a time from 1880 to 1920 when child labor was used in the textile mills -- where Dorsey himself had worked (and seen firsthand that exploitation of children as described in the song).

From the 1880s to the 1920s, American industrialism had brought about a major change in the workforce. Mills like the textile mills and cotton mills described in Dixon's song were producing more and more product as labor was more and more divided up into simple tasks. Cheap labor allowed mill owners to drive up profit margins, as at the time there were no federal laws regulating the use of child labor. In fact, throughout…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Violence and Abuse of Children and Women Nursery Rhymes

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89778300

Domestic Violence

Not all nursery rhymes, folktales, and fables depict 'sweet' stories. The horrific images of women held in captivity in pumpkin shells and starving dogs demonstrate examples of atrocities portrayed in the early stories. Over the years, Mary Goose stories have undergone 'sanitization'. Earlier versions of the stories portrayed a myriad of atrocities. Earlier versions of the rhymes depict gruesomeness of the violence. Domestic violence occurs as a core theme in the old Mary Goose nursery. Wives and daughters suffered the brunt of abuse that included beatings and murder. Early Victorians believed that the rhymes would encourage their daughters to grow and become dutiful and obedient wives.

Nature of domestic violence

The stories present a multifaceted and complex approach to the issue of domestic violence. For example, the story of an old woman who lived in a shoe presents depicts a bizarre meaning of the text that talks about…… [Read More]


Gustafson, S. (2014). Favorite Nursery Rhymes from Mother Goose. New York: Artisan

White, J.W., Koss, M.P., Kazdin, A. (2011). Violence against Women and Children: Mapping the terrain. New York: American Psychological Association
View Full Essay

Child Abuse From All Angles

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44047446

The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.

Sexual Abuse

The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]


Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.

Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.

Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at

Child Abuse Statistics. Available at
View Full Essay

Child Han China's One Child

Words: 3495 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66771740

Ethnographic/Social Considerations

Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).

The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]


Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469

Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163

Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,

Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
View Full Essay

Labor a Cost for a

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9722561

The law, in its present shape, and operating ethically in fact stalls managers and companies from becoming socially accountable. The regulations make business purpose. Enterprises consider their obligation to the common interest involving functioning in accordance with the law and operating ethically. Abiding by the law comes at a cost. Directors and Officers provide scanty attention to the reality that these practices might spoil the common interest. Business law spread moral and social matters as immaterial, or as faltering impediments to the basic authorization of the corporation. External to the corporation, the impact is increasingly damaging. It is seen that the law that guides companies to purposely ignore damage to every other interest excepting those concerning the shareholders. When noxious chemicals are leaked, forests depleted, workers roll in financial distress, or communities ravaged through closure of factories, companies take these as inconsequential passing events beyond the realm of lookout. (How…… [Read More]

6. If it is true that companies that are more socially responsible achieve greater profitability than companies that are less socially responsible, the why is Levi Strauss, a very socially responsible company, losing money and market share and seeing a decline in sales?

Levi Strauss & Company known to be a very socially responsible company has been registering decreased profits and retrenching employees which appear to be an irreversible fast depletion in U.S. sales. The company is laid up with a dismal loss of boldness- heart attack in fashion industry parlance. Where did this boldness evaporate? It transferred to the same individuals who were relegated by the fashion professionals as "sociopaths" during the 1980s and 1990s. They are the children shooting girdle in the high-rise buildings, the break dancers ruling the roost in the high school halls, the children of abused garment workers born in America. It is the type of people who hardly ever came into the limelight of fashion billboards. Currently, boldness, remains within the youth preferring riot of colors and their adored hip-hop. Furthermore, in order that they ensure their continued business existence to raise their heads in the new millennium, Gap and Levi's should take that poise back. (From sweatshop to hip-hop: once ignored by fashion, youth of color become the focus of its marketing - Culture)

The inception of NAFTA during 1993 was considered adverse to the American firms like Levi Strauss. With inception of NAFTA the small and volatile jeans producing companies
View Full Essay

Labor Relations Collective Bargaining

Words: 2165 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91974793

Black Women in White Male Industries

evise and esubmit

You have chosen in this paper a topic that has both national and international significance. How indeed inclusive, fair, and just are so called "inclusion or set-aside" initiatives? How open and accessible are the programs to new immigrants and minorities? These are all very interesting questions that your paper raises.

But you don't fully address whether or not the rational approach considers such programs to be either fair, effective, and even legitimate. Are these programs acceptable or legitimate in the eyes of a policy analyst or maker who subscribes to the rational choice perspective? Why and why not? Your paper also seems to contain a few sentences at the end that are not properly paraphrased but yet are not under quotation marks. This needs to be paraphrased or removed or quoted to avoid plagiarism.

Please find below your Paper 1 Grade…… [Read More]


Clemons, R., Mcbeth, M., (2001). Public Policy Praxis: A Case approach for understanding policy and analysis.

Miller, G. (2004). Frontier Masculinity in the oil industry: The experience of women engineers. Gender, Work & Organization, 11(1): 47-73.

Williams, C., Kilanski, K., Muller, C. (2014). Corporate diversity programs and gender inequality in the oil and gas industry. Work and Occupation, 41(4): 440-476.
View Full Essay

Labour Party Present Day

Words: 833 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79708235

British Labour Party and Education in the UK

Since 1997, there has been a quiet revolution in the education policies of the Labour Party. Rather than merely continuing the Conservative ideas that had been set in place by the previous leadership, we in the New Labour Party have made education a central goal of our administration. e believe that education is a basic right of all British citizens. In the words of Prime Minister Tony Blair, our educational ideology is "based on a notion of equality that is not about outcomes or incomes, but about equal worth" (Blair 2001b).

The Labor Party has already taken many concrete steps towards this goal. In contrast to the Tories, who would slash 20% from the education budget, the Labour Party is committed to ensuring a "fair deal" for everyone in the education community -- from students to parents to educators. e believe that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blair, Tony. 2001. Extracts from Blair's TUC speech, Guardian, 12 September.

British Labour Party. 2003. "Education." British Labour Party website. available at

Paterson, Lindsay. 2003. "The three educational ideologies of the British Labour Party, 1997-2001." Oxford Review of Education, 29(2): 165-188.

British Labour Party and Education in the UK
View Full Essay

Child Shall Lead Them --

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91245416

Of course, it conveniently satisfied the needs of the American government, although this purpose was hidden, even to some of the devoutly Christian teachers at the schools.

So long rendered voiceless, and forced to speak in the language of their oppressors, Adams makes a heroic effort to find the real words and real impressions of these children in prose: "By evening I was too tired to play and just fell asleep wherever I sat down. I think this is why the boys and girls ran away from school; why some became ill; why it was so hard to learn. e were too tired to study" (Adams 153). Children were kept busy in line with the Protestant work ethic -- work was supposed to be good for the soul, and if the children were worked hard, it was thought that they would be less apt to revolt, question what they were…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School

Experience, 1875-1928. University Press of Kansas, 1997.
View Full Essay

Child I Contemplated a Career

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73209260

Nurses are also usually the first medical professionals to encounter patients, and so they have to be good at making quick assessments of a patient's condition, to ensure that the patient gets the appropriate care. Obviously, an emergency room nurse might need better triage skills than a nurse in a doctor's office, but all nurses have to be able to identify potentially contagious patients and deal with them appropriately. In hospital settings, nurses are often the consistent element of a patient's care plan, and a nurse's involvement can ensure that a patient gets the type of care that he or she needs to recover. Nurses also play an important emotional role in the life of the patient, providing the patient with a caring person who can answer questions and listen to concerns.

Of course, at this point in my life, I cannot say what type of nurse I would like…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Department of Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23084225

Labor elations and Collective Bargaining

What is European Union's Social Charter

The Social Charter of Europe is a treaty by the European Council which guarantees fundamental economic and social freedoms. It is an equivalent of the European Human ights Convention, which deals with political and civil freedoms. It guards a wide range of day-to-day freedoms of human beings that have to do with education, housing, social welfare and protection, employment and health. The Charter is particularly focused on protecting minority people like children, the disabled, the aged as well as migrants. The Charter emphasizes on the granting of the freedoms stated above, free from discrimination. The Charter is the only Pan-European legal instrument that has the power to give such complete and extensive social rights protection. It is also used as reference in the laws of the EU. In fact, the Fundamental ights Charter of the EU came up with…… [Read More]


Council of Europe. (n.d.). The charter in four steps. Retrieved from

Council of Europe. (n.d.). The European Social Charter. Retrieved from

Kowal, T. (2011, May 13). The differences between public and private sector unions. Union Watch. Retrieved from private-sector-unions/
View Full Essay

Why Labor Unions Prefer Seniority Strategies

Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98484476

Labor Relations

Unions give lots of credit to workers who have seniority because unions are known for their wiliness to repay loyalty, for one thing. If a worker has been in a union for a lengthy period of time that shows dedication to the union and the company; and also it shows respect for the union leadership. According to journalist Gregory Hamel, gaining seniority in a union takes a long time, so workers may be "reluctant to quit their jobs because doing so might erase their seniority" (Hamel, 2012). A new hire in a union will receive a certain base pay rate, and a worker who has been in the union for five years would also receive that base pay rate "plus an additional amount based upon years of service" (Hamel, p. 1). Union workers with seniority may get more vacation time, and in the event of a layoff, new…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hamel, G. (2012).How Is Seniority Important to a Union? Demand Media. Retrieved April

16, 2015, from  .

HR Council. (2011). Keeping the Right People / Performance Management. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from .

Magloff, L. (2012). Compressed Working Seek Vs. Flextime. Demand Media. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from
View Full Essay

Overcoming Organizational Challenges Children Health Fund

Words: 836 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78182626

Children Health Fund

Providing comprehensive medical services in a given jurisdiction may involve the use of mobile clinics alongside main medical services. The service attempts to reach out to the wider community whom due to various reasons does not get sufficient medical services. These services are updated to ensure that they meet optimal quality at all times. This analysis investigates the Children's Health Fund of New York, implications of the Fund, and recommendation for betterment.

The Child Health Fund of 1987 is instrumental in assisting clinicians provide comprehensive medical covers to children. The Organization was founded to enable contemporary clinic services as well as, mobile services with an objective of offering services to low income earners and destitute children. The organization has provided up-to-date facilities, with the ability to integrate complex medical facilities in mobile clinics. As a result, there has been a need to mobilize funds to respond to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Human Services Child and Family Welfare

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86645697

children actually came to be respected on account of the important role they play in the social order. Society previously believed that parents should be provided with the power to decide what they wanted to do with their children and the Bible actually emphasizes that Abraham was unhesitant about sacrificing his son, thus showing that the child was little more than a tool in his hands. As society progressed children continued to be treated with discrimination and those whose parents were unable to care for them resorted to becoming outcasts constantly in need of basic resources.

Society actually promoted attitudes that directly harmed children and saw the opportunity to exploit their vulnerability. Throughout time children were used as labor and were sexually abused by unscrupulous individuals. hile attitudes change during recent centuries, it was not until an 1838 Pennsylvania court removed children from the custody of their parents that the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"Protecting Children When Families Cannot"
View Full Essay

Mothering Styles During Labor All

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79431642

On the other side of the scale is the mom that takes a more relaxed approach to parenting. They rely on the fact that when the baby is hungry, the baby will let them know. When the baby is sleepy, they will let them know that too. The parenting books may be dog-eared here and there, but none of them have been read from cover to cover. The nursery decor is a mix of the patterns, fabrics, and toys that they found cute, but don't necessarily match. Then again, it's entirely possible that the baby doesn't even sleep in the nursery, but in the rocker or bed with mom when they both finally fell asleep.

This method has its ups and downs as well. Even though there is no strict schedule, mom might still feel a little frazzled since they are always on the lookout for signs that the baby…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Critique on an International Relations Study on Poverty and Inequality Among Children

Words: 2326 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68900885

Poverty and Inequality Among Children

Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).

In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…… [Read More]


1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000.

2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997.

3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995.

4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003.
View Full Essay

China's One-Child Policy the Current

Words: 1656 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 887492


China's growth rate has slowed dramatically in the last 30 years under the auspice of the One-Child Policy. In fact, at this point it is believed that growth rate is under 2% and that the population replacement rate is at 2.1%, meaning that if these numbers are accurate and hold up, the population of China could actually decrease at some point in the future.

Hence, the One-Child Policy could be seen to be an immense success. But at what cost?

The 'side effects' of the Policy have and likely will continue to have a staggering effect on Chinese society. The sterility and abortion atrocities by the government, like the abandonment and infanticide of female infants by the parents, not only scream of a Policy that has lost its moral compass, but it has created a huge disparity between the number of males to females. This disparity means there a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC NEWS. Chinese Facing Shortage of Wives. 12 January 2007

Fitzpatrick, Laura. A Brief History of China's One-Child Policy. 27 July 2009
View Full Essay

Parents Raise Children Adequately Single

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3308654

132). hen women reported that their desire for greater social support was satisfied, the outcomes reported for their children improved dramatically.

The negative associations with single parenting thus have more to do with the circumstances that can give birth to single parenting, or are attached to single parenting because of the way our society is structured. In society, we have come to regard the nuclear family as the norm and single parents do not always have the multigenerational support that could give their children positive role models of both genders that they may have in previous eras. Single parents are more likely to be female, and females are traditionally underpaid for their labor. Additionally companies are not always willing to make accommodations for male or female single parent's need for flexible schedules. But the problem is not with single parenting; rather the problem is with how our society views parenthood…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burden, Dianne S. "Single Parents and the Work Setting: The Impact of Multiple Job and Homelife Responsibilities." Family Relations. Vol. 35. No. 1. The Single Parent Family. Jan., 1986. pp. 37-43

Hanson, Shirley M. "Single Parents and the Work Setting: The Impact of Multiple Job and Homelife Responsibilities." Family Relations. Vol. 35. No. 1. The Single Parent Family. Jan., 1986. pp. 125-132.

DeLeire, Thomas & Ariel Kalil. "Good things come in 3's: Single-parent multigenerational family structure and adolescent adjustment." Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies. Oct 2001. 4 Apr 2008.

Walker, Victoria. Pagewise. 2002. 4 Apr 2008.
View Full Essay

Effects of Homosexual Parents on Children

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52426995

Homosexual Parents on Children

Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.

Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…… [Read More]


(1978). Children of gays: Sexually 'normal'. Science News, 113(24), 389.

Chan, R., Brooks, R., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 402-419. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.12.3.402.

Cramer, D. (1986). Gay Parents and Their Children: A Review of Research and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 504.

Gabb, J. (2004). Sexuality education: how children of lesbian mothers 'learn' about sex/uality. Sex Education, 4(1), 19-34.
View Full Essay

Katrina Children Lost Forgotten and

Words: 4667 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68383934

For children, going to school, even a new school, provided a sense of order. It also gave parents time to plan for the future. Wealthier parents were able to enroll their children in private schools. Poorer families faced a greater struggle.

In Texas, officials reported enrolling19,000 children displaced by the storm (Katrowitz and reslau, 2005). They were able to waive normal rules, such as proving residency or providing immunization records. The opportunity to start over was critical for thousands of families, including Kathy Jemison and her daughter, Sarah McClelland, 17. The night before the storm hit, they gathered their clothes, keepsakes and important documents (such as birth certificates and Social Security cards). As the storm was destroying their home, they drove 15 hours to a friend's house in San Antonio. Sarah began her senior year at San Antonio's MacArthur High School, and Kathy, who worked for a bank in New…… [Read More]


Abramson, David, and Richard Garfield. (April, 2006). On the Edge: Children and Families Displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Face a Looming Medical and Mental Health Crisis. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, National Center for Disaster Preparedness.

Brown, Donal. (November 16, 2005). 1,000 Katrina Children Still Missing. Mother Jones.

Callimachi, Rukmini. (April 23, 2006). Katrina's Children Struggle With Fears. The Associated Press.

Cass, Julia. (June 13, 2006). For Many of Katrina's Young Victims, the Scars Are More Than Skin Deep. The Washington Post; A01.
View Full Essay

Impoverished Australian Children

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62704426

Team was comprised of an informal group of social workers who are interested in the current situation facing Australian children in terms of marginalization with respect to percentages of children living below the poverty line. The information required was considered unprotected since it is available to the general public (Information sharing: Policy and procedure guidelines, 2008).

Information-collection method, tests for relevance and timeliness, and formatting approach

The information needed by the team of social workers was collected from relevant Australian government online resources as well as nonprofit organizations, peer-reviewed and scholarly sources as well as the mainstream media. The information collected was limited to reports published within the last 4 years to ensure timeliness and all reports that were not specifically targeted at Australian children were excluded from the analysis to ensure relevance. The information was presented in a systematic format that addressed each issue of interest in turn.

c.…… [Read More]


Child poverty. (2014). Australian Council of Social Service. Retrieved from http://www.acoss.

Cox, J. (2013, July 30). Poverty in Australia: Statistics and facts. Poverty Living. Retrieved from

Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.