Child Labor and Society: A Detrimental Situation
Child labor is detrimental to the well-being of the subject as well as the society to which he belongs. Throughout history, sundry civilizations have borne witness to the harsh reality termed as "child labor." The agrarian realm enlisted the help of small hands from the beginning of time. Innocent children as young as six or seven persevered in arduous working conditions on farms. However, the Industrial Revolution escalated this cruel trend to new heights. A job in the factory now meant twelve to eighteen hours of work a day, six days a week. The early and mid-1800s foresaw the release of litigation that addressed the issue of child labor for the first time (Online). Despite the fact that child labor has been globally condemned for almost two centuries, there is a long way to go.
It is one of the most pressing social…… [Read More]
However, by comparison, children in America have much better conditions that children in Africa who rarely receive payment for their services and most often they are deprived of any schooling activity or leisure time (Child Labor: when it is right/wrong?, n.d.).
The actors involved in the process of child labor include the states which allow this, most of them being African and Asian states, as well as the international organizations which try to deal with the issues arising from child labor. In terms of solutions, these are strictly related to the actors involved. Therefore, the states where such activities are practiced must take into account the legal means to regulate them to such an extent as to not pose a threat to the lives and futures of children. On the other hand, international organizations must work closely to establish a certain legal framework above the national legal standards which would…… [Read More]
Istanbul's native born has made little or not contribution to the population growth due to its near or below-replacement levels of reproduction (Population pp).
Child prostitution is a world wide urban social phenomenon and is considered one of the worst contemporary forms of slavery (Kantay Pp). Moreover, child prostitution is one of the most difficult and dangerous forms of child labor (Kuntay Pp).
Due to the invisibility of the children involved, they are at the greatest risk of exploitation and are subjected to harassment, violent attacks and are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV infection (Kuntay Pp). Although child prostitution is a legal violation in Turkey, it is almost epidemic in large metropolitan areas such as Istanbul (Kuntay Pp). Moreover, it is difficult to late these girls because they are very mobile, wandering from one customer and location to another (Kuntay Pp).
The need to supplement household income…… [Read More]
Child labor is condemned across the globe, but is it fair for a multinational to terminate relationships with suppliers when incidents arise regarding the use of child workers, regardless of the implications to the community as a whole?
It is fair for a multinational to cease doing business with suppliers that fail to comply with ethical labor practices. This does not mean that an isolated violation justifies doing so when the suppliers are really committed to respecting acceptable labor conditions. If a multinational allows supplies to violate ethical labor practices, it would imply that the multinational is not seriously committed to those practices and is as guilty of the violations as the suppliers. The argument that maintaining the level of employment in the community takes precedence over ethical labor practices is wrong. It would mean that any level of exploitation is preferable to having to find alternative employment or being…… [Read More]
Labor in Europe in the 19th Century: Exploitation and the Rise of Labor Unions
As Carolyn Tuttle of Lake Forest College points out, the first textile mills in England were bad enough to elicit the opprobrious condemnation of none other than Charles Dickens in the 19th century, who scorned them as "dark satanic mills" (Tuttle). By the beginning of the 19th century, the First Factory Act of 1802 was passed -- but it did little to amend the strict, severe, and inhuman conditions in which "labor shortage" issues were solved by "employing parish apprentices" (i.e., via the exploitation of child labor) (Tuttle). Dickens would become a proponent of labor and education reform in England, depicting the latter as pernicious as the former in Hard Times (a novel which portrays the headmaster of a school as stubbornly insistent on the rote memorization of "facts" and "nothing but facts" (1) -- a…… [Read More]
Child labor is condemned across the globe, but is it fair for a multinational to terminate relationships with suppliers when incidents arise regarding the use of child workers, regardless of the implications to the community as a whole?
Yes it is fair for multinational companies to end relationships with suppliers when incidents arise regarding the use of child labor. It is more the responsibility of the local governments to monitor the use of child labor than it is of the company itself. There are often rules and regulations within each country that have to be followed and these would be the responsibility of the local government to enforce.
Every company that does business around the world has to be cognizant of the rules and regulations in each place that they do business. They also have to be aware of how things get done in certain places affects them everywhere. For…… [Read More]
Child Labor and Chocolate Consumption
Labor practices in another country should be a relevant consideration in international trade if ethics matters at all. In the U.S., slavery was ended in the 19th century—but it is disconcerting to hear that in reality it hasn’t ended but has rather simply been relocated. Essentially today’s world consists of a globalized economy, which impacts all societies (Meyer, 2000). If slavery and child labor is deemed unethical in the West, it should not be allowed that Western companies can profit from these practices simply by outsourcing the work to regions of the world where slavery and child labor is routine. Fair Trade certification helps companies to be honest, but it is still a shame that so few companies care to be ethical about their products. Just because the slavery is not happening on domestic shores does not mean it is somehow okay: those people…… [Read More]
NGOs intervention on Child slavery - labor abuse
Child labor and slavery is a global problem that has raised concern among various agencies and bodies of governments in different countries. Global organizations like WTO, ILO and GATT among others have prohibited its members from any forms of child labor and encouraged them to take proactive measures towards curbing the vice. With the direct and indirect pressure from these global organizations, there are hardly any nations that do not have explicit laws that ban and condemn the various forms of child labor with serious jail sentences attached to any offence related to child labor, what remains to be done is the implementation of the laws. ILO[footnoteef:1] recommended that the member states needed to have a time-bound program of the actions they will undertake to eradicate child labor which manifests in the form of forced labor, slavery and slave like conditions, debt…… [Read More]
The world should be free of the type of child labor that is more akin to slave labor than to "doing one's bit" as Morrow (2010, p. 436) calls it. Morrow points out that in the old days (i.e., during WW1), children were called upon to do their part to help support families, as the world was in dire circumstances, the men were off fighting the war, and women and children had to do more than their fair share to keep the home going. Thus, child labor was a norm and a part of life for a great many people in that era. Yet, after the war and especially after WW2, the quality of life in the West increased and children were not required to "do their part" as much as they had been in the past. They could spend more time playing, or going to school, or…… [Read More]
So, the market forces of supply and demand continued to drive labor practices despite attempts at government reform. Some experts, however, do believe there was some reduction in the number of young working children and reduced labor hours.
What labor reforms came out of these investigations?
Following the investigations, a series of Factory Acts were passed to reform labor practices over many years. The first three were the Factory Act of 1833, the Factory Act of 1844 and the Factory Act of 1847. The Factory Act of 1833 limed hours of employment for women and children in textile work with the following provisions:
Young people (ages 13-18) must not work more than 10 hours a day.
Children (ages 9-13) must not work more than 9 hours (48 hours per week).
Children (ages 9-13) must have two hours of education per day.
Later, the Factory Act of 1844, also applicable to…… [Read More]
The Secretary of Labor shall provide by regulation or by order that the employment of employees between the ages of fourteen and sixteen years in occupations other than manufacturing and mining shall not be deemed to constitute oppressive child labor if and to the extent that the Secretary of Labor determines that such employment is confined to periods which will not interfere with their schooling and to conditions which will not interfere with their health and well-being. (29 U.S.C.S. 201 § (3)(l).
Chinese law is theoretically as strict about prohibiting child labor as American law is. Under the egulations on Prohibition of Child Labor, which was adopted by the State Council in 2002, employers are prohibited from hiring children under the age of 16. Moreover, "The regulation stipulates that employers will be fined 5,000 yuan ($720) for every child laborer they hire for one month. If they continue to do…… [Read More]
Children and Child Labor in Liberia and Sierra Leone
Two of the world's most beautiful countries are also, unfortunately, the poorest as well. The nations of Liberia and Sierra Leone are faced with a number of severe obstacles in their quest to join the international community and diversify their stagnated and monolithic economies; while much remains to be done, some progress has been made. In this regard, a brief overview of each country is followed by a discussion of these challenges as they directly affect the children of these two countries; a summary of the research is provided in the conclusion.
General Economic and Political Situation. A costly and bloody civil war and government malfeasance have adversely affected much of Liberia's economy, particularly the infrastructure in and around Monrovia, the capital; in addition, continued international sanctions on diamonds and timber exports will constrain the growth of these major industries…… [Read More]
Addams, Jane. (1994). Child Labor Legislation -- A Requisite for Industrial Efficiency. In On Education (pp. 124-135). New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Famous education reformer Jane Addams expresses her different views on a liberal and decentralized American education during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. In this particular essay, Addams criticizes the U.S. government for encouraging children at young ages to work for factories and manufacturing companies instead of studying in school. In presenting her argument, Addams places emphasis on the importance of education, not overproduction, as a prerequisite to an industrially successful society. Addams' essay offers a critical view of capitalism and American governance and legislation as focusing on economic gains rather than giving attention to human development resulting to a developed American society.
____. (1994). The Public School and the Immigrant Child. In On Education (pp. 136-142). New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
In the same book source, another…… [Read More]
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…… [Read More]
Child Labour: 1880-1920 -- Annotated Bibliography
Paterson, . (2006). Bread and roses, too. New York: Clarion Books.
This book, a secondary resource, is a children's historical novel that depicts the 1912 Lawrence Strike (also known as Bread and Roses) from the perspective of two children, Rosa Serutti and Jake Beale. Born to Italian parents, Rosa attends school, while her mother and sister work at a mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Even though they work in the mill, Rosa's family cannot afford the clothes they make. Rosa is portrayed as the protector of Beale, who also works in the mills and resides in the streets to avoid his abusive father. Written by an award-winning author, the novel chronicles one of the most infamous strikes in the history of the U.S. The strike was the first in the country to be organised by women, with immigrants from 25 different nationalities participating in it.…… [Read More]
Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.
Companies like Nike and eebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.
In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have…… [Read More]
The prevailing child labor practices in the world not only jeopardize the childhood of the children but also adversely effects their cognitive, physical, mental, behavioral and social aspects of life. The child labor practices are followed due to the rate of increased poverty and cultural beliefs which enforces the children to contribute in the house hold income. The lawsuits against the child labor exist but are not applied to the fullest due to the poverty rate and lack of educational and institutional services for the under privileged children. Therefore, the awareness among the parents and adults should be increased about the hazards of child labor on the life of children and families should be provided with adequate support to refrain their dependency on the earnings of their children.
Causes of Child Labor
Child Labor Statistics
Law Suits against Child Labor
Steps to Eradicate Child Labor…… [Read More]
"eak protections under U.S. law allow children as young as 12 to work unlimited hours outside of school on tobacco farms of any size, and there is no minimum age for children to work on small farms. Despite the known risks of nicotine poisoning, there are no special provisions in U.S. laws or regulations to protect children from the unique hazards of tobacco work."
I was aware that there were a few exceptions to child labor laws on family farms. This alone is a sensitive issue given the potential for injury with lifelong consequences, along with the conscription of children into farming labor that may detract from their ability to pursue other careers. Yet until reading this passage, I had no idea that child labor was still permitted in a larger context in the United States, especially in large farm contexts. hen it comes to exposure to pesticides, dangerous…… [Read More]
Slave labor and child trafficking are commonplace in cocoa industry in the Ivory Coast, and the makers of the documentary The Dark Side of Chocolate (2010) found them working as slaves everywhere on the cocoa plantations there. Even though the largest chocolate companies in the world, including Nestle, Archer Daniels and Cargill signed a protocol with the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 2001 that mandated the end of child labor and trafficking by 2008, this has not occurred. Nestle and these other giant multinational corporations denied any knowledge of these practices or any control over slave labor on these Ivory Coast plantations, but they did not wish t see the evidence in the film. Interpol knew about these practices because it has railed the plantations and rescued dozens of children from slavery, even though the government of the Ivory Coast and the cocoa exporters denied that child trafficking…… [Read More]
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. e are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or…… [Read More]
All of the employees on an airplane, for example, could form themselves into a vertical bargaining unit if they chose, the unit including stewards and stewardesses, as well as pilots. Similarly, in a school, teachers, janitors, and office staff could all form a vertical unit. In contrast a horizontal bargaining unit unites all those who perform similar work. The fact that the pilots at Spirit Airlines belong to a pilots union that includes pilots from other airlines means that they constitute a horizontal bargaining unit. As well, teachers in the Chico school could form a horizontal bargaining unit if they joined with other teachers at different schools, and even in different districts. Members of a bargaining unit agree to work together because they share common interests and goals. Bargaining units appear either as elements of unions or as workers uniting for a common purpose. An entire union is also frequently…… [Read More]
The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.
The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.…… [Read More]
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…… [Read More]
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…… [Read More]
While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."
Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…… [Read More]
The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal…… [Read More]
American History after 1865: Labor Unions
As technology and the Industrial Revolution advanced following the end of the Civil War, more and more factories opened and more and more workers of all ages were being hired to fill the demanding schedules that factory owners required. Various industries—such as the meat packing industry of the 1900s (memorialized by Upton Sinclair in The Jungle)—were notorious for unsafe working environments. There were no child labor laws in effect nor any wage laws. Workers were often expected to put in long workdays, which led to overwork and an increase in workplace accidents (Schultz, 2018). From 1865 to 1940, the development of labor unions was generally a positive force leading to economic stability and the implementation of necessary laws that made businesses safer and promoted job growth.
By 1871, workplace conditions in factories were already terrible. Whitaker (1871) showed as much in his treatise “The…… [Read More]
Discuss the similarities and differences between at least three labor organizations discussed in Chapter 3.
The Knights of Labor was a standard labor union comprised of individual workers across the nation. They were inclusive in terms, employing both skilled workers in crafts industries as well as unskilled laborers such as coalminers. (Rayback, 1966, p. 168). They had limited political objectives such as the eight-hour workday and the prohibition of child and convict labor. Their broader objectives were social: to improve the image and social status of the working man.
The AFL was not a labor organization, but a federation of affiliated labor unions. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 138). The AFL was exclusive, accepting skilled workers in crafts industries and skilled workers in industry. The AFL's goals were economic, they provided financial and political support for affiliated labor unions in contract negotiations with employers. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004,…… [Read More]
Children Should Be equired to ead More
Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").
It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. eading cannot…… [Read More]
The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.
The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.
The basic…… [Read More]
Labor and Union Studies in ashington and Oregon States
The United States labor movement has its roots in the complex trappings of the industrial revolution. Laborers were just starting to come to the United States from foreign countries because they had learned that there were many jobs available for even the most unskilled worker. People were also moving from rural areas in America to the cities in an attempt ti have a better life also without the uncertainties that governed farm profits. The growth in many industries was a result of new technologies that allowed people to purchase items that had previously been made by hand far cheaper because the products could now be mass produced in the factories. The problem was that the owners of these factories did not care how the workers were treated because there were many more begging to have a low-paying job in a factory…… [Read More]
In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…… [Read More]
It would be difficult as a women to try and understand exactly what these women had to live through (in the name of commerce and production), but Morgan is sensitive while making her points, which has to be admired.
Of particular interest in this book is the whole talk of "creolization" -- a term not often heard. Essentially, Morgan discusses creolization and how this event is directly associated with reproduction. The entire Creole history, she claims, required black women's giving birth to these children. This is an area of history that perhaps isn't written about or talked about enough.
Perhaps one of the most original and interesting parts of Morgan's book is that she begins with the women in Africa and she follows them through the Middle Passage and then into America and thus the reader is able to get a real sense of the journal and the cultural differences…… [Read More]
Labor and Employment Law
Situation A -- The Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 or FMLA was enacted to help employees balance family and work requirements (WHD, 2013). It aims at protecting and helping those with family or personal health problems. The rise in single-parent households and women employees often leads them to compromise work for family or vice versa. The law intends to strike a balance between. If an employer is connected to FMLA, an employee who has worked for one year or 1,250 hours in the preceding year is entitled to 12 weeks of unpaid leave within the 12-month period. The employer is qualified to offer FMLA if it has 50 or more employees. Employee A and his employer are, thus, qualified (WHD).
The qualified employer is obliged by law to grant FMLA leave when the qualified employee requests it with a qualified reason (WHD, 2013).…… [Read More]
Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.
Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…… [Read More]
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…… [Read More]
Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.
Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.
Important Components of Labor Economics
Labor Supply and Demand
Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)
Non-Wage Labor Costs
Pay & Productivity
8. Economics of Discrimination
9. Social Accountability
10. Trade Unions…… [Read More]
She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.
New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…… [Read More]
This implies that an increase in the wage of one member of the household gives rise not only to changed incentives for work on the market, but also to a shift from more to less time-intensive product on and consumption of goods produced by the household. But as noted by the Nobel-prize winning 20th century University of Chicago economist Gary Becker, as real wages increase, along with the possibilities of substituting capital for labor in housework, labor is released in the household, so that it becomes more and more uneconomical to let one member of the household specialize wholly in household production (for instance, child care). As a result, some of the family's previous social and economic functions are shifted to other institutions such as firms, schools and other public agencies. This creates more jobs, but also means that more luxury jobs may become necessities, such as maids. (Gary Becker,…… [Read More]
In 2007, it established that about two thirds of Canadians concur that immigration has a very affirmative or rather affirmative influence on Canada. Immigrants' view their choice to come to Canada as affirmative as well. While those coming into the country in 2000 were not pleased about their financial outcomes, the majority of the two thirds who stayed had a fairly affirmative feeling about their choice to come to Canada and to have stayed there (Picot, 2008).
On the whole, immigration for the country of Canada is a good thing. It helps to aid the economy in a very positive way. This can be seen in Canada's decision to increase their immigration efforts during the current recession as opposed to what a lot of other countries have done, which has been to decrease the effort. It has been shown that even those immigrants are often faced with adverse financial circumstances…… [Read More]
Thus, the key to Esperanza's successful "rising" are the presence of strong adults that surround her in her life. From these positive adult role models, Esperanza is able to learn about her own strengths and discover that she is able to make it on her own and not be dependent on adults. For example, although her father is long dead, it is his ongoing advice that helps Esperanza deal with and, more importantly, overcome current dilemmas. Take for example a point where Esperanza is working her first independent job as a babysitter. Here, when things do not go right an she finds herself facing anguish and despair and about to give up, she hears the voice of her father who reminds her to, "wait a little while and the fruit will fall into your hand." Following her father's advice, things do turn around and Esperanza begins to succeed creating her…… [Read More]
However, when child labor is burnt the entire economy may be deflected towards another equilibrium that may not be inferior to the first equilibrium (Basu, 2003). The global labor standards should therefore not ban child labor whenever it is deemed to be happening but ensure that conditions for banning child labor are compatible with adherence to the Pareto principle.
It is a fact that certain contracts, unanimously accepted by both sides, can lead to Pareto improvement. Nevertheless, if the contracts were to be allowed and used by the masses, there would be significant changes in market parameters that would leave some people worse off. Global labor standards should use the large numbers principle to justify banning of certain kinds of contracts like unjust labor practices.
In as much as the international labor organizations would want to use the above named principles to check against unjust labor laws a lot of…… [Read More]
Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.
The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…… [Read More]
American Labor Movement
The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.
The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…… [Read More]
labor movement in the United States started due to the need for protecting the common interest of workers. For those in the industrial sector, the labor unions normally fought for various things including reasonable working hours, better wages and safer working conditions. The labor movement led efforts in stopping child labor, providing aid to workers that were injured or retired and even giving health benefits to them. The origins of this labor movement lay in the formative years of the American nation when there was the emergence of a free wage labor market in the artisan trades during the late colonial period. The earliest documented strike took place in 1768 when the New York journeymen tailors expressed their dissatisfaction with the wage reduction.in 1794 the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers in Philadelphia was formed which marked the beginning of sustained trade union organization among the workers in America ( A&E…… [Read More]
During that time he was director of labour market policies, coordinated technical work in eastern Europe following the collapse of the erlin wall and was director of the ILO's Socio-Economic Security Program. In 1998-99, he served as a member of the transition team of the new Director General Juan Somavia. It would be fair to say that he knows the ILO inside out. Now Professor of Economic Security at the University of ath in the UK, he is well placed to reflect on the organization's potential and failings. (Standing)
Focus of the ILO
The roots of the ILO's current problems began in the 1970s, according to Standing, with the rise of economic philosophies that tended to view any kind of regulation as a 'market distortion'. It was not long before the ILO was seen as a symbol of an antiquated way of thinking. The U.S.A. actually pulled out from 1977…… [Read More]
International Labor Organization (ILO)
The history of the International Labor Organization is an interesting one which actually points to the history of organized conflict within the world. At a micro level, the organization was formed in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles which helped to end World War I. The establishers of this organization were convinced that in order to preserve international peace for all time that social justice needed to reign -- perhaps the key driving force behind social injustice is the regular exploitation of the laborer from his labor and the capital benefits it produces.
However, from a macro level, the creation of the ILO extends much further than the political motives associated with the first World War. Prior to the waging of that war and ever since the industrial revolution took place and the means by which laborers were displaced from the results of their…… [Read More]
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…… [Read More]
Human esources: Fair Labor Standards Act
An Examination of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and Its Implications for American Workers Today
Although most Americans take for granted the wide range of social programs that are in place for their protection, many of these initiatives are fairly recent in origin, but one that has been around for quite some time is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The legislation established a minimum standard wage and a maximum work week of 40 hours in industries that were engaged in interstate commerce. The implications of the Act were profound, and today, in what has become a classic pattern over the years, calls for increases to the federal minimum wage are followed by impassioned cries from industry leaders that such an initiative will do more to harm business than it will to help minimum-wage workers. ather than routinely bankrupt America's businesses,…… [Read More]
IKEA’s core founding value was based on the concept of making life better for people by giving them access to affordable products (Bartlett, Dessain & Sjoman, 2006). The problem that arose for IKEA in the 1990s, several decades after IKEA’s founding, was the issue of child labor and whether or not IKEA should continue to source rugs from a supplier that had been reported as using child labor in its manufacturing of rugs. From a social issues standpoint in the Western perspective, IKEA had to break ties with the supplier; however, in countries like India, unbonded child labor was not viewed as heinously as it was in the West: on the contrary, it was socially acceptable because children worked under the guidance of their parents and learned their trade in this manner. To break ties with a supplier that was simply engaging in a traditional custom of its…… [Read More]
Globalization and Labor
Globalization is a term used in a multiplicity of senses, such as the global interdependence of nations, the growth of a world system, accumulation on a world scale, and the global village (Petras Pp). All of these concepts, as well as many others, are rooted in the general notion that the "accumulation of capital, trade and investment is no longer confined to a nation-state" (Petras Pp). Globalization in the most general sense refers to the "cross-national flows of goods, investment, production and technology," and for advocates, the scope and depth of these flows have created a new world order, "with its own institutions and configurations of power that have replace the structures of nation-states" (Petras Pp). Globalization has deepened and extended the international division of labor, with everything from automobile parts to information collection and analysis now out-sourced to labor in distant nation-states (Petras Pp). Exporting labor…… [Read More]
An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).
A New Global Labor Federation
Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…… [Read More]
Babies in the Mill" By Dorsey Dixon
The historical context of "Babies in the Mill" by Dorsey Dixon is in both the words of the song and the presentation of the song (folk/blues). Composed in the 1960s by Dorsey Dixon, the song memorializes a time from 1880 to 1920 when child labor was used in the textile mills -- where Dorsey himself had worked (and seen firsthand that exploitation of children as described in the song).
From the 1880s to the 1920s, American industrialism had brought about a major change in the workforce. Mills like the textile mills and cotton mills described in Dixon's song were producing more and more product as labor was more and more divided up into simple tasks. Cheap labor allowed mill owners to drive up profit margins, as at the time there were no federal laws regulating the use of child labor. In fact, throughout…… [Read More]
Not all nursery rhymes, folktales, and fables depict 'sweet' stories. The horrific images of women held in captivity in pumpkin shells and starving dogs demonstrate examples of atrocities portrayed in the early stories. Over the years, Mary Goose stories have undergone 'sanitization'. Earlier versions of the stories portrayed a myriad of atrocities. Earlier versions of the rhymes depict gruesomeness of the violence. Domestic violence occurs as a core theme in the old Mary Goose nursery. Wives and daughters suffered the brunt of abuse that included beatings and murder. Early Victorians believed that the rhymes would encourage their daughters to grow and become dutiful and obedient wives.
Nature of domestic violence
The stories present a multifaceted and complex approach to the issue of domestic violence. For example, the story of an old woman who lived in a shoe presents depicts a bizarre meaning of the text that talks about…… [Read More]
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]
The law, in its present shape, and operating ethically in fact stalls managers and companies from becoming socially accountable. The regulations make business purpose. Enterprises consider their obligation to the common interest involving functioning in accordance with the law and operating ethically. Abiding by the law comes at a cost. Directors and Officers provide scanty attention to the reality that these practices might spoil the common interest. Business law spread moral and social matters as immaterial, or as faltering impediments to the basic authorization of the corporation. External to the corporation, the impact is increasingly damaging. It is seen that the law that guides companies to purposely ignore damage to every other interest excepting those concerning the shareholders. When noxious chemicals are leaked, forests depleted, workers roll in financial distress, or communities ravaged through closure of factories, companies take these as inconsequential passing events beyond the realm of lookout. (How…… [Read More]
Black Women in White Male Industries
evise and esubmit
You have chosen in this paper a topic that has both national and international significance. How indeed inclusive, fair, and just are so called "inclusion or set-aside" initiatives? How open and accessible are the programs to new immigrants and minorities? These are all very interesting questions that your paper raises.
But you don't fully address whether or not the rational approach considers such programs to be either fair, effective, and even legitimate. Are these programs acceptable or legitimate in the eyes of a policy analyst or maker who subscribes to the rational choice perspective? Why and why not? Your paper also seems to contain a few sentences at the end that are not properly paraphrased but yet are not under quotation marks. This needs to be paraphrased or removed or quoted to avoid plagiarism.
Please find below your Paper 1 Grade…… [Read More]
British Labour Party and Education in the UK
Since 1997, there has been a quiet revolution in the education policies of the Labour Party. Rather than merely continuing the Conservative ideas that had been set in place by the previous leadership, we in the New Labour Party have made education a central goal of our administration. e believe that education is a basic right of all British citizens. In the words of Prime Minister Tony Blair, our educational ideology is "based on a notion of equality that is not about outcomes or incomes, but about equal worth" (Blair 2001b).
The Labor Party has already taken many concrete steps towards this goal. In contrast to the Tories, who would slash 20% from the education budget, the Labour Party is committed to ensuring a "fair deal" for everyone in the education community -- from students to parents to educators. e believe that…… [Read More]