College Sports Essays

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Marketing Strategy a College Athletic Department I Essay

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61135602

marketing strategy a college athletic department. I a couple pages discussing background research a typical college athletic program, a school marketing increasing communities involvement ticket sales.

Most universities have intermural athletic programs. However, there is a wide variation in terms of the funding, success, popularity and approaches between these programs, spanning from Division I powerhouses to relatively noncompetitive Division III schools. Regardless of the nature of the program or the school, athletic programs can be powerful marketing and publicity tools for academic institutions. Alumni donations often increase after a successful season, as do applications from more competitive students. Also, success tends to breed success in athletics: the more successful and highly-promoted the program, the more top athletes will be inclined to apply to the school -- the more top athletes are drawn to the school, the greater the likelihood of athletic success in the future.

For example, when Northern Iowa beat number one-ranked Kansas in the NCAA basketball tournament this spring, the Northern Iowa athletics website drew 1.5 million page views that month in March, three times the monthly average; the Northern Iowa Panthers' annual athletic fund drive went up 20% (about $1.1 million); and enrollment is projected to increase as much as 10% this fall -- even though Northern Iowa did not win the tournament (Logue 2010). To increase the profile of a program, in other words, there is no substitute for success on the court or the playing field. "There is a number of research studies out there that tend to show when a school's football or men's basketball team has sudden success there is some correlation to increased admissions applications," notes Chad McEvoy, associate professor at Illinois State of sports marketing (Logue 2010). Football has even more of a statistically noteworthy effect upon alumni donations and application figures. "The impact is more immediate in football because high school seniors are in the process of choosing a college in the autumn. Most have already decided by the time NCAA Tournament play begins" although success can still influence juniors and several years of prospective students in the future, who may remember watching the nail-biting upset victory of Northern Iowa over Kansas (Logue 2010).

Of course, it might…… [Read More]

Logue, Andrew. March's madness gives players, program at Northern Iowa a boost. USA Today. August 22, 2010. Available November 21, 2010 at
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Athletics and Academics in the Current Economic Essay

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77144685

Athletics and Academics

In the current economic climate of the United States, public institutions are finding themselves having to make harsher and harsher budget cuts. Teaching positions are minimized, class sizes are increased, and fees are rising to nearly unaffordable regions. The English Department at a certain university or high school may drop from twenty-five professors to a dozen or so. It is the harsh reality of living in an era of economic downturn. However, even as the college school would lose more and more financial assistance from the government, athletic programs at schools continue to expand and provide more and more incentives for prospective recruits. This is symptomatic of a flawed philosophy in college institutions: the ability to perform athletic skills has more importance than the ability to think. This perspective not only jades the graduating classes but teaches the wrong principles for when a student needs to learn to cope with the adult, working-class world.

Supporters of school athletics argue that the programs teach teamwork and cooperation as well as instill in the academically gifted an elevated sense of self-esteem (Meier 2004). Those is opposition argue that those who are not engaged in athletics perceive the importance placed on sports as having a detrimental effect. The adoration placed upon the athletic people is not bestowed upon students who are academically gifted, leading to misplaced value and improper priorities. To find out the basis for why these groups have such divergent opinions about what should be the priority in school, academics or athletics, the researchers for the article "A Lingering Question of Priorities: Athletic Budgets and Academic Performance Revisited" (2004), investigated the future goals of students and examined how expenditures on athletic budgets effected, positively or negatively, the academic abilities of the student population in question.

The research was conducted in Texas, a state known for fudging the rules of school attendance requirements in order to build up stronger high school football teams (Meier 2004). As with any organization that has divergent goals, also called goal conflict, the two top priorities of the school world, namely academic and athletic, forces the leadership of that organization into a form of limbo wherein he or she must appease factions supporting both sides of the debate. Often, as the researchers found, this battle for…… [Read More]

Larimore, David (2007). "Non-Economic Societal Impacts of Intercollegiate Athletics." The

Sport Journal. United States Sports Academy.
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Sports Race and Gender Sports Essay

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77228108

But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.… [Read More]

About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at 

Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at
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Sports & Nbsp general Fund Raising Critque Info Essay

Words: 875 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29823261

Sports & Nbsp;(general)

Fund raising Critque

Info: • the format will be according to APA style (typed double spaced) and in four

• parts. Written out as a paper.

is the identification of the article. What is important here is that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so that they will be able to locate the article.

• A Summary. List the main points that the author has tried to establish, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or first, second, third. There normally will be 3 to 5 main points. If you are summarizing a court case you should discuss: What provision of the law was at issue? Briefly state the facts of the case. What legal tests were applied? Were there any unusual elements in the case? Include all major key points of the author. If the author addressed any major concepts or methodology this should be explained.

• My critique - You are to provide your reaction (insightful, critical, and logical) to the points that the author tried to make, or an overall critique of the entire article. A simple statement of agreement or disagreement is not enough. While you may make such a statement by way of introduction to your reaction, you must clearly and logically state the reasons for the post that you have taken.


"Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection Between Gender and Giving," by Staurowsky (1996) reports the findings of a study on the demographic profiles of male and female college sports team donors, as well as donor motivation factors. The findings suggest that females donors are younger than male donors, contribute less, are more likely to donate to women's programs, and are motivated to donate by "success" and philanthrophic factors.


Staurowsky first provides reasoning for fund-raising research. She states that marketing concerns are the primary impetus for research on fund raising. Fund raising research is valuable to the marketing field because findings can be used to determine a certain demographic that is more likely to donate than another demographic. In other words, those that run fund raisers can better target those that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Staurowsky, Ellen J. (1996). Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection

Between Gender and Giving. Journal of Sport Management,10, 401-416.
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Sports and Betting Essay

Words: 2592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20627805

sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.

Sports and Betting

More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a Republican attorney. Soccer parents talk goalies and the high school jocks talk about steroids and scholarships (McDonald 1998).

Sports and betting have gone hand in hand for centuries throughout the world. People in the United States have been gambling on sports since there has been organized sports, and some claim it can be traced back in this country for roughly four hundred years.

Americans bet billions of dollars, legally and illegally, on sports every year. It has become a huge underground part of the economy. Ninety-five percent of sports gambling in the United States occurs illegally. It's untaxed and unregulated. Nevada is the only state where college sports betting is legal (

Sports history is filled with scandals. Many of them read like a novel or Hollywood script and some have actually been immortalized on films, such as the 1919 fix of the World Series, known infamously as the Black Sox Scandal (Krystal 2002). "Baseball's darling "Charlie Hustle" Pete Rose was banned from baseball after gambling on his own team. The most timely example, however, is that of the case of the alleged pressure on a French figure skating judge to award the gold medal to the Russian doubles team rather than the Canadians. The problems associated with sports, however, reach beyond the professional level in the form…… [Read More]

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Sports History Essay

Words: 1781 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14249377

Tom Brown's Schooldays," by Thomas Hughes. Specifically, it will look at how this work describes sports in 19th century England, and compare it with other historical descriptions of English sports.


Tom Brown's School Days," written in 1857, is the story of young Tom Brown, a student at the public school called Rugby School. The schoolboys at Rugby, as might be expected, play Rugby football, which is quite different from American football. The winner is the one who gets the "best of three goals; whichever side kicks two goals wins: and it won't do, you see, just to kick the ball through these posts -- it must go over the cross-bar; any height'll do, so long as it's between the posts" (Hughes), Tom's new friend tells him.

Rugby also uses far more people than our game, with 50-60 players on each side. Goals are kicked like American field goals, but that is really the only thing that is the same in this game. It is somewhat of a cross between soccer and football, with some odd rules thrown in. Baker notes that each school developed their own style of football, much of the style dependent on where the boys could play their game. Rugby had one of the largest playing fields, and so developed a running game along with kicking, and they were the only school to do so. However, the Rugby school played football that was closer to the American game than just about any other was. The Rugby players also created the first written rules for their game in 1845 (Baker 120-121).

The boys also play competitive cricket - in fact, one of the last chapters in the book is devoted to Tom's last game at Rugby, and how masterfully it is played. The boys spend a fair amount of time practicing their game,…… [Read More]

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Sports in Schools Essay

Words: 1856 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49021171

Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational Analysis

The purpose of this study is an examination of the relationship between sports and self-esteem. In particular this study will seek to determine whether or not a relationship exists between high self-esteem and sports participation, particularly among high school and collegiate students. The hypothesis being examined is as follows: Participation in sports during the high school and collegiate years contributes to improved self-esteem. The researcher will combine qualitative analysis of the research with quantitative field examination to prove or disprove this hypothesis.

The aim of this research project will include an evaluation of whether or not sports in schools have a positive or negative impact of the mental well being and sense of self-image on students. Specifically this study will investigate whether or not active participation in sports during the high school years and beyond contributes to a positive or negative body image, and whether students who participate in sports are more likely to achieve success in their personal and academic life. The preliminary results of the study indicate that active participation in sports does have some impact on student's sense of self-esteem and achievement.


The purpose of this study is an examination of the impact sports participation has on self-esteem and a student's sense of self-worth. While there have been numerous studies that have investigated this phenomena, few have come to a consensus regarding the impact sports participation has on student achievement.

The researcher will attempt to examine the following questions during the course of this research:

(1) How does sports participation impact student self-esteem and achievement,

(2) Does a lack of participation impact self-esteem and student achievement.

The researcher hypothesizes that a direct relationship does exist between student participation in sports and self-esteem. This idea will be examined and proved or disproved through the course of the study.

Significance of…… [Read More]

Billups, A. (1999- Jul 26). "Study finds sports give girls confidence to tackle science."

The Washington Times: 9.
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Sport as a Vehicle for Change Essay

Words: 4806 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14005972

Social Change Through Women's Sports

Promoting Social Change Through Women's Sports Leadership

The problems that cry out for social change solutions

No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. War, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.

Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and soldiers in Iraq; 6 Hispanic immigrants were murdered in Georgia; two African-Americans were shot to death by a Mexican store owner in Los Angeles, to name a handful of incidents.

Meanwhile, actress Jennifer Lopez is starring in a movie now being filmed about the unsolved murders of over 400 women and girls in Cuidad Juarez, Mexico. Lopez' star power, fortunately, helps shed light on the hideous 13-year legacy of blood-letting against women in that Mexican community, which has been largely ignored by an American news media seemingly obsessed with the kidnappings of attractive young, mostly white American females.

Moreover, on the subject of women as victims, Amnesty International has released a report asserting that one out of every three women in the world "has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime" (Khan, 2004) ("It's In Our Hands: Stop Violence Against Women" The report further asserts that: a) more than 60 million women "are missing" due to "sex-selective" abortions, and "infanticide" (notably carried out in China, where baby boys are allowed to live and baby girls are killed); b) "domestic violence" is the major cause of death and disability for women ages 14-44 in Europe; c) Russian government officials estimate that "1,400 women were…… [Read More]

American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from .

Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
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Sports and Alumni Donations Increasing Essay

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33678595

Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool for schools across the nation who already struggle in reaching out to alumni for charitable donations.

A strong athletic program, in many cases, needs deep pockets on the behalf of the university. Providing the funding needed for successful athletic programs is a daunting task. According to research, recent athletic budgets for big name schools have increased dramatically within recent years. The University of Michigan reported in its 2003-2004 season for spending $50 million dollars on its athletics (Frank 2004). This is a huge increase when comparing spending on athletics in past generations. Yet, many schools see this influx in spending as an investment strategy based on the research showing increasing student applications as well as increased alumni donations.

Where does all that money come from? Much of this funding comes from student fees and payments, which can range from $50 to $1,000 a year (Frank 2004). Thus, the students bear most of the burden to provide the necessary funding for successful athletic programs. However, there are opportunities to use increased alumni donations as a valuable resource for other academic activities. When a school wins a title, alumni donations tend to go up. Those increased funds can then be re-directed to both improving the athletic departments as a future investment strategy, as well as funneled into other areas of the university's academic departments. This then enriches student life at the university in general. Increasing available budgets for athletics through…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Frank, Robert H. (2004). Challenging the myth. Knight Foundation. Retrieved 23 Oct 2009 at

Medema, Samantha. (1008). Alumni donations increase. The Retriever Weekly. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at
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Develop a Sports Sales and Promotion Plan for a Community College Athletic Department Essay

Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55179182

Sales and Promotion

Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.

Relationship marketing

Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)

"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with one another that depend on successful relationship enactment. All sports marketing transactions, in fact, involve some type of relationship marketing. In some cases the efforts are explicit. In other cases they are hidden or even unrecognized. A careful examination of these relationships can improve the function of the relationship system in sports marketing (103)."

For the purposes of developing a sales and promotion plan for the sports teams and the athletic department at Blue Mountain Community College there must be a marketing relationship that involves the school, the teams, fans and the business community surrounding the community college. This means that the college must work to build relationships with the business owners that are around the community college. Without the assistance of these businesses the sales and promotions plans presented in this discussion will be impossible to accomplish. The building of such relationships is possible through outreach that emphasizes the mutually beneficial nature of the relationship between the school and the surrounding community (Fullerton & Merz, 2008).

Sales, Promotion and Market Research

Promotion is an essential component in the development of a marketing strategy. In fact in the context of academia reactions to promotional offers are deemed essential to the success of a product or serve and the concept of promotion has been studied thoroughly. According to Spears (2001) " Pro-motional offers stir the consumer to examine the information in the offer and to make a purchase…… [Read More]

Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110

Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19
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Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective Annotated Bibliography Essay

Words: 1699 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64934906

Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective

Annotated… [Read More]

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?" Mississippi

Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.
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Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics Essay

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34103176

Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).

Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter back position and all his endorsement deals over the years earned $16,004,840 in 2006.

One would think to believe that modern day prizes have become much more formalized and structured. Athletic programs such as the NBA have structured pay-scale caps for their players and coaches. He NFL also adheres to a strict pay structure. However, "In the Hellenistic period and the Roman periods, pensions for Athletes became more formalized and could actually bought or sold," ("The Real Story of the Olympic Games"). So it seems that even if the currency of the payment has changed, the style and format of compensation has remained very similar.

Along with fame and fortune, athletes of both Ancient and Modern times have also had to deal with the same amount of pressure. The must keep their spot at the top, which sometimes proves too much for professional athletes. In William Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, Shakespeare's take on Homer's Iliad, the character of Ulysses reminds Achilles of this age-old pressure, "Keep, then, the path, / for emulation hath a thousand sons / That one by one pursue," (Troilus and Cressida 35). The fact that thousands of hopefuls would take a professional athletes spot in less than a second has not changed since the time of Homer and Shakespeare. Also adding to pressure placed…… [Read More]

Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: . On Friday September 21, 2007.

Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
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Sports Pyschology Website Developed by Essay

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56927936

These are the topics covered on this site.

Introduction Education

Brief History Employment

Important Terms Learning More

Subfields Outlook

A Typical Day Summary

Pros and Cons Acknowledgments

The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology, on the other hand, is a regularly updated website for professionals in this field. It covers a number of different types of information, including an overview of what is Applied Sports Psychology and the different areas of specialization within the field, common questions and answers, and terminology.

Another area covered is learning about certified consultants and how to find one. There is also a list of suggested consultants' websites, and they are still up and running when linking to them. Since this is an organization for Sports Psychologists, the emphasis is on the conferences and services that the organization provides for members. What is missing here that was helpful on the previous website was more information about attaining a degree in the field and some of the pros and cons of getting into this field. Apparently, the assumption is made that anyone going to this website is already either in the field or knows enough about it and only needs a brief overview.

All in all, this site is better than the first from a time standpoint, being kept up-to-date for readership. However, the information is scanty and a reader only gains a cursory understanding of the topic. What would be helpful would be an regularly updated site that includes much of the information on Haney's site and this one -- a one-stop website so to speak that includes in depth information on the topic, rather than having to go from site to site for information.… [Read More]

Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007.

Careers in Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007
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Athletic Training Whether to Win Marathons or Essay

Words: 2909 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85890629

Athletic Training

Whether to win marathons or to make it to the state football championships, all athletes need some form of training. Lately, increased focus has been placed on the specific importance of weight, or strength, training for the overall conditioning of a casual or professional athlete. The terms "weight training" and "strength training" are technically different, but often the two terms are often used interchangeably. Typically, weight training implies the use of materials such as barbells, dumbbells, and specialized machines, whereas strength training also employs isometric or callisthenic exercises like push-ups and sit-ups. An athletic conditioning regime will generally incorporate aspects of both weight and strength training and therefore the terms can be easily used interchangeably. Much physiological research has focused on the efficacy of weight training on the performance and physical conditioning of athletes. Weight training programs can be tailor-made for an individual depending on his or her goals, and the sports he or she plays. Today, most coaches and athletic trainers will advise some type of strength training for their clients. Strength and weight training, when applied properly, go a long way toward improving the well-being, specific strength, endurance, power, and performance of any athlete and therefore should be an integral part of most comprehensive athletic training programs, with few exceptions.

The types of weight or strength training used will vary depending on the goals of the individual. A center guard for a football team will want a much more rigorous regime, with a goal of more muscle bulk, than a marathon runner will. Marathon runners should be more concerned with endurance than strength to begin with, but improving muscular strength in the legs and thighs can immensely improve performance. Therefore, even when muscle bulk is not desirable, strength training can be an integral part of any training…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Barwis, Mike, Director of Strength and Conditioning, West Virginia University, Personal Interview, 15, June, 2005.

Bauer, G. (1996). B.F.S. isn't (a) H.I.T. Coach and Athletic Director, 65(8), 70-73.
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College Drinking Campaign Essay

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17620286

College Drinking

There are many stereotypes regarding college life and these stereotypes inform students, rightly or wrongly about ways to behave while attending school. Regardless of whether these stereotypical behaviors are detrimental or beneficial, you see them repeated by students in all regions and most ages. Films and television programs all feature certain aspects of college which are then repeated over and over again, regardless of the frequency they actually occur in real life. Most fictional representations of college life feature outrageous parties where alcohol flows like water and where adventures and misadventures happen because of the imbibing of said alcohol. Examples like Animal House and Old School and Van Wilder just to name a very select few show that in order to be considered cool and fun, you need to be willing to drink to an irresponsible level. Beer and wine and heavier liquors are supposed to be part of the college students' daily, or at the very least their weekend, diet. The key here is in the word "supposedly." Although there are usually parties on some college campuses and in some fraternity houses, this simply does not occur with the regularity that feature films and television would have people believe.

There is a phrase which those involved in health communication use to identify this difference between real alcohol consumption and the imagined. This phrase is "the culture of college drinking." As stated, films and television make it seem that every college student drinks heavily, attends wild parties regularly, and rarely has to deal with any consequences for their virulent alcohol consumption. The idea of the hard-drinking, hard-partying college student has become so ingrained in the cultural psyche, that college students begin their freshman years fully expecting to go to parties and drink heavily. Lederman & Stewart (2005) find that the images of drinking have…… [Read More]

Lederman, L.C., & Stewart, L.P. (2005). No, everybody doesn't: changing mistaken notions of the extent of drinking on a college campus. Health Communication in Practice: a Case Study Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ. 325-334.
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Sports Tourism Belfast Northern Ireland Essay

Words: 4283 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81671802

Planning such an event when it has not been done before is very difficult and time consuming.

Mistakes can easily be made on cost, time, and other issues when people are unsure as to what they should do to create an event that is successful - which could happen because the promotion company is uncertain about putting on such a large event and has questions about many aspects of it.

Volunteers and Viability

Getting people to volunteer for a mega sporting event in Belfast is possible, but it is not safe to assume that there will be plenty of volunteers without a closer analysis. How many people in Belfast like sports? How many of them like a particular sport? These are the kinds of questions that must be answered, along with the availability of these people and what they actually have to offer when it comes to what they will be able to do before, during, and after the sports event. Hundreds if not thousands of volunteers will be needed, and all phases of the event will have to be covered. It is vital to discover whether this will be a problem before committing to the event. Sporting events will not be viable, and generally cannot even exist, if there are not many volunteers to help make sure everything runs smoothly (Gibson, 1998; Hall, 1992). So many people are needed that it would be impossible to pay them all for their time and services. Because of that, large numbers of volunteers are required.

Volunteers do things because they like to help out and because they want to contribute (Backer, 1973; Beer & Nohria, 2000). Sometimes they will volunteer for almost anything that helps people or that helps their city. Other times, they will volunteer for things if they have a passion for them or a connection to them (Blau, 1993;…… [Read More]

Adorno, T. (2000). Problems of moral philosophy (T. Schroder, Ed. & R. Livingstone, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Backer, W. (1973) - Motivating workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill: New York.
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Sports Center Is a Production of ESPN Essay

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52298242

Sports Center is a production of ESPN on cable television. It is a mixture of scores, game highlights, commentary, interviews and human interest feature stories. All of the people who are part of the ESPN broadcast team are, of course, intelligent, well-spoken, and attractive.

A lady by the name of Dana Jacobson was one of the primary anchors doing two of the three shows. She worked with one man named Mike Greenberg and another by the name of Dave Revasine. There were other females involved in the broadcasting, mostly as interviewers who also did a small amount of commentary related to what ever interview they did. There is, besides the gender mix, also an ethnic mix that is actually more diverse for women than men. There are Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic peoples represented by the women and Caucasian and African-American by the men. The gender ratio is approximately 3:1 males to females. Overall, a great deal of the programming for all three broadcasts focused around basketball with baseball and hockey about even in second spot. It is interesting that hockey didn't receive more air time. The focus on basketball is understandable as the leagues are in their play-offs for who will be in the championship game but right now, the Stanley Cup series is in progress and that series is the championship of professional hockey. For this championship series to receive a smaller proportion of the air time and share about the same place as a sport that is just starting its season seems odd. The conclusion one could draw from this is that hockey is not as popular, or perhaps, as well-understood a sport, as basketball and baseball.

Other individual sports or sport-related issues, covered on the three shows I reviewed were, auto racing and the Indy 500, horse racing and the third Triple Crown…… [Read More]

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Sports Psychology Annotated Bibliography Brunette Essay

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2563052

(2011). Anxiety characteristics of competitive windsurfers:

relationships with age, gender, and performance outcomes. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at

This article attempts to understand performance anxiety around what the authors of the article consider to be an 'extreme' sport. Windsurfing is considered a typical extreme sport because of its unconventional nature and the fact that it tends to take place outside of conventional competitive venues like gyms and enclosed sports venues. Rather than experiencing intense anxiety, windsurfers tended to show less performance anxiety, perhaps because they also rated higher in extroversion and emotional resiliency than athletes in more conventional sports. The descriptive study involved seventy-nine participants: 35 were male and 19 were female; 25 were regional-level competitors and all male. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) was used to assess athlete anxiety and self-confidence levels along with the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Findings indicated moderate stress anxiety, and the older participants had lower levels of stress anxiety. In contrast to other sports such as gymnastics, there was no difference between male and female windsurfer pre-competitive stress levels.

Sturm, Jennifer E. (2011). A comparison of athlete and student identity for Division I and Division III athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior. 04 Sep, 2011.

The literature indicates a strong tendency for college athletes to strongly tie their identity to their role as athletes. This study attempts to understand the different degrees of athlete identification between Division I and III athletes. Previous longitudinal studies on male Division I basketball players indicated that players' self-identification as an athlete was much stronger than their identification as a student. The study used employed a 2 x 2 (Divisional Status x Gender x Class Level) non-experimental factorial design with two dependent measures: athlete identity and student identity. Divisional Status variables consisted of Division I and Division III status and male (N=121) and female (N=67) status. All participants were on a varsity team at the time of data collection (Freshmen = 63, Sophomores = 49, Juniors = 49, Seniors = 27). All students came from either a one Division I or one Division III school in the Midwest. The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) was used to assess athlete self-identification. The findings of the study confounded the original hypothesis -- both groups had an equal level…… [Read More]

Brunette, Michelle K., Michel Lariviere, Robert J. Schinke, Xiaoyan Xing, Pat Pickard. (2011).

Fit to belong: activity and acculturation of Chinese students. Journal of Sport Behavior.