College sports and recreational activities are traditionally dominated by men. Although there have been dramatic increases in women's involvement in sports at the college level, men continue to make up the majority of the participants and spectators of events and activities. The availability of high-quality recreational facilities for athletic training as well as general fitness and maintenance is necessary and integral to sports programs in colleges. It may be assumed that these types of facilities are mostly utilized by men due to their predominant participation in sports and recreation activities.
Even though participation in campus sports and recreational activities still involves men more than women, this doesn't necessarily mean that men value the importance of sports and recreation in college more than women. Milton (1998) was interested in this concept and investigated beliefs among men and women in college as to whether the development of new, high-quality sports and recreation facilities should be a priority for the college campus. The author related the issue back to the early 1970s when the interscholastic and intercollegiate sport first addressed issues regarding gender equity in campus activities. This opened the door for examination of differences between male and female involvement in college sports down to the recreational level. Milton sought to explore this gender issue beyond actual participation and involvement to beliefs regarding the importance of facilities necessary to support sports and recreation in colleges.
The research question investigated by Milton (1998) was "do collegiate males believe the availability of recreational sports facilities and services are a priority for a college more so than female (p.30)?." Milton hypothesized that the results would demonstrated that male student were in fact more likely to place high priority on the availability of recreational facilities and activities than women. This hypothesis was based in the traditional perception that sports and recreation in college were dominated by men. Furthermore, the null hypothesis of the study was that there would be no significant difference between men and women with regard to beliefs on the importance of recreational and sports activity and facilities at the college level. The researcher looked at studying these beliefs and exploring their potential implications for the college as a whole....
However, contrary to the hypothesis proposed by Milton (1998), the results of the study indicated that men and women viewed the importance of sports and recreation facilities almost equally. These surprising results led the researcher to inquire as to why a lack of difference in beliefs between men and women was found while differences in involvement and participation in sports and recreation activities between the sexes still exists.
Milton (1998) based his research on the foundational observation that a disparity exists between the way men and women perceive the importance of facilities for sports and recreational facilities in college. In particular, the researcher described how men are still the predominant spectators and participants in sports at all levels in the campus environment. This foundation provided the basis for Milton's hypothesis that there would be significant difference between men's and women's prioritization of recreational facilities on the college campus, with men placing greater importance and priority on such facilities in comparison to women. This hypothesis was supported by Milton's description of recent decisions in the courts involving the equalization of participation in sports activities on campus between men and women. Milton also brought attention to Title IX of the 1972 Education Act, which addressed gender equality issues in intercollegiate and interscholastic sport.
Although assumptions on what men and women believe based on historical behavior seem logical, there are many other factors involved that could influence belief in the importance of recreational facilities which were not addressed by the author. Some of these other factors that were not addressed by the researcher include current trends in health and wellness that encourage women to be physically active, or levels of funding that are directed toward supporting women's sports teams at the college.
The study was conducted at Kent State University, a four-year state-assisted university. The researcher obtained a sample of 2,000 undergraduate and graduate students. The registrar's office provided the researcher with 2,000 randomly selected phone numbers for students, and the privacy and confidentiality of the students was protected by having not name, address, or any sort of identifying information attached to the phone number. The study was…
Programs and Services are listed in Appendix C: Table Seven and include: (1) Summer recreation programs; (2) after-school activities; (3) organized sports; and many others. Appendix a Clackamas Parks and Recreation District Source: Our Parks Future Master Plan Appendix B Organizational Structure of North Clackamas Parks and Recreation District Source: Our Parks Future Master Plan Appendix C Fiscal Year/Operating Budget/General Fund Budget and Percent of Total Fiscal Year Operating Budget General Fund Budget of Total 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 Source: Our Parks Future Master
Social Change Through Women's Sports Promoting Social Change Through Women's Sports Leadership The problems that cry out for social change solutions No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. War, bloodshed, racial rage,
Sports Sociology Sports played either by professionals, amateurs, or just for leisure, are a large part of all industrialized societies. Nonetheless, early on sociologists have looked at sports with distain. For instance Emile Durkheim thought of sports as simply ritualized civic ceremonies, whereas early feminists viewed them as masculine cultural displays (Giulianotti, 2005). However, Bourdieu, Elias, and Dunning were among the first sociologists to take a serious approach in viewing sports
Conclusion Originally, the main objective of sports medicine was the welfare of competitive professional athletes, but it now encompasses treatment of anyone engaged in sport and exercise. It is becoming an increasingly important branch of the overall medicine field. More general practitioners are being trained in sports medicine than ever before. The training gives them a better understanding of the physical, physiological, and psychological demands of exercise. This helps them to diagnose
This has already occurred in many sports and the newest and most "extreme" will likely mirror these effects of technology within the next few years. Technology, according to some, has taken the fun and danger out of many sports that were once considered highly dangerous or extreme. This has led to the abandonment of some sports that were once considered extreme in favor of other ones that are relatively new
Supporting Research and Results Maffulli & Almekinders (2010) conducted a comparable study on 140 patients with Achilles tendon ruptures. Treatment included a conservative protocol. Re-rupture rate using this protocol is maintained at 4%. Events of re-rupture were treated using the same conservative regime. A significant percentage of patents utilizing the conservative method were able to return to competitive athletic ability (i.e. their previous sporting level) (Woo, Renstrom, & Arnoczky, 2007) The management