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It's a personalization of the professional sports world, and this personalization over time has helped to legitimize the "amateur" world of college athletics.
Another major catalyst for college sports developing and evolving away from the "amateur" label is the fact that the rise of sports betting on college teams has been quite dramatic over the past two decades. There is little doubt that college athletic competitions are heavily wagered on, and all this money, influence, and attention helps to create an environment where the people doing the better are likely to have a personal and financial stake in the colleges' sports programs. This creates fertile ground for sports teams monopolies, and while they are not subject to the same anti-trust regulations that businesses are, they act in much the same way (Abbey-Pinegar, 350). This behavior can also put schools and particularly student athletes in a vulnerable position. As student athletes…
Abbey-Pinegar, Erin. "The Need for a Global Amateurism Standard: International Student-
Athlete Issues and Controversies." Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2: 2010. Pp. 341-365.
Baird, Katherine. "Dominance in College Football and the Role of Scholarship Restrictions."
Journal of Sports Management, Vol. 18, No. 1: 2004. Pp. 217-235.
If a student athlete is seriously injured, it could mean the end of their playing career, and it could also mean the end of their professional sports dreams. However, the NCAA does not supply student athletes with insurance, they have to purchase it on their own, and this is wrong. The NCAA gets money from advertisers and it also gives a great deal of money to colleges for their athletic programs. Colleges get income from advertising, as well, and this money should be used to set up insurance funds for athletes. Many athletes cannot afford their own insurance, and if something happens to them, they are out of luck. The school is not, they have more team members. The NCAA is not, they have other athletes they can give scholarships to. The athlete is the one who suffers, and who may not get the best treatment because of income and…
Women's participation in college sports has increased significantly since Title IX was passed in 1972, but research fails to show that female athletes get the status, respect and approval that athletic participation brings to males (oyce, Gebelt and Duff, 2001).
The 1972 legislation, one of 13 amendments to the Civil ights Act of 1964, launched revolution in the way that federally funded schools treat women in athletic programs.
It simply states (Funk, 2002): "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."
This single sentence has been questioned, contested in lawsuits filed by both men and women, and debated endlessly to determine how best to provide opportunities for both genders in sports.
Miller and Levy (1996) argue that, "Sports participation by…
Cahn, Susan. (1999). Reader's Companion to U.S. Women's History. Houghton Mifflin.
Funk, Lynne. (December 9, 2002). Commission debates future of Title IX. The Digital Collegian. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archive/2002/12/12-09-02tdc/12-09-02dnews-03.asp .
Miller, J. L, & Levy, G.D. (1996). Gender role conflict, gender-typed characteristics, self-concepts, and sport socialization in female athletes and non-athletes. Sex Roles, 35, 111-122.
Royce, W. Gebelt, J. Duff, R. (2001). Female Athletes: Being both Athletic and Feminine. University of Portland. Athletic Insight: Journal of Sport Psychology.
College sports and recreational activities are traditionally dominated by men. Although there have been dramatic increases in women's involvement in sports at the college level, men continue to make up the majority of the participants and spectators of events and activities. The availability of high-quality recreational facilities for athletic training as well as general fitness and maintenance is necessary and integral to sports programs in colleges. It may be assumed that these types of facilities are mostly utilized by men due to their predominant participation in sports and recreation activities.
Even though participation in campus sports and recreational activities still involves men more than women, this doesn't necessarily mean that men value the importance of sports and recreation in college more than women. Milton (1998) was interested in this concept and investigated beliefs among men and women in college as to whether the development of new, high-quality sports and recreation…
Milton, P. (1998). Female and male prioritization of the availability of campus recreational facilities. National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association Journal, 22(2), 30-1.
marketing strategy a college athletic department. I a couple pages discussing background research a typical college athletic program, a school marketing increasing communities involvement ticket sales.
Most universities have intermural athletic programs. However, there is a wide variation in terms of the funding, success, popularity and approaches between these programs, spanning from Division I powerhouses to relatively noncompetitive Division III schools. Regardless of the nature of the program or the school, athletic programs can be powerful marketing and publicity tools for academic institutions. Alumni donations often increase after a successful season, as do applications from more competitive students. Also, success tends to breed success in athletics: the more successful and highly-promoted the program, the more top athletes will be inclined to apply to the school -- the more top athletes are drawn to the school, the greater the likelihood of athletic success in the future.
For example, when Northern Iowa…
Logue, Andrew. March's madness gives players, program at Northern Iowa a boost. USA Today. August 22, 2010. Available November 21, 2010 at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/mensbasketball/mvc/2010-08-22-northern-iowa_N.htm
Athletics and Academics
In the current economic climate of the United States, public institutions are finding themselves having to make harsher and harsher budget cuts. Teaching positions are minimized, class sizes are increased, and fees are rising to nearly unaffordable regions. The English Department at a certain university or high school may drop from twenty-five professors to a dozen or so. It is the harsh reality of living in an era of economic downturn. However, even as the college school would lose more and more financial assistance from the government, athletic programs at schools continue to expand and provide more and more incentives for prospective recruits. This is symptomatic of a flawed philosophy in college institutions: the ability to perform athletic skills has more importance than the ability to think. This perspective not only jades the graduating classes but teaches the wrong principles for when a student needs to learn…
Larimore, David (2007). "Non-Economic Societal Impacts of Intercollegiate Athletics." The
Sport Journal. United States Sports Academy.
Meier, K.J., Eller, W.S., Marchbanks III, M.P., Robinson, S., Polinard, J.L., Wrinkle, R.D.
(2004). "A Lingering Question of Priorities: Athletic Budgets and Academic Performance Revisited. Review of Policy Research," 21(6), 799 -- 807. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Sports & Nbsp;(general)
Fund raising Critque
Info: • the format will be according to APA style (typed double spaced) and in four
• parts. Written out as a paper.
is the identification of the article. What is important here is that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so that they will be able to locate the article.
• A Summary. List the main points that the author has tried to establish, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or first, second, third. There normally will be 3 to 5 main points. If you are summarizing a court case you should discuss: What provision of the law was at issue? Briefly state the facts of the case. What legal tests were applied? Were there any unusual elements in the case? Include all major key points of the author. If the author addressed any major concepts or methodology this should be…
Staurowsky, Ellen J. (1996). Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection
Between Gender and Giving. Journal of Sport Management,10, 401-416.
sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.
Sports and Betting
More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…
Davies, Dick. Spotlight Pofile. http://www.unr.edu/alumni/profile.asp?ID=5 .
A accessed 05-12-2002).
Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."
University Wire. March 25, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=University_Wire&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.uwire.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
Tom Brown's Schooldays," by Thomas Hughes. Specifically, it will look at how this work describes sports in 19th century England, and compare it with other historical descriptions of English sports.
TOM BOWN'S SCHOOLDAYS
Tom Brown's School Days," written in 1857, is the story of young Tom Brown, a student at the public school called ugby School. The schoolboys at ugby, as might be expected, play ugby football, which is quite different from American football. The winner is the one who gets the "best of three goals; whichever side kicks two goals wins: and it won't do, you see, just to kick the ball through these posts -- it must go over the cross-bar; any height'll do, so long as it's between the posts" (Hughes), Tom's new friend tells him.
ugby also uses far more people than our game, with 50-60 players on each side. Goals are kicked like American field…
Baker, William J. Sports in the Western World. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1982.
Guttmann, Allen. Women's Sports: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
Holt, Richard. Sport and the British: A Modern History. Oxford: Oxford University, 1993.
Hughes, Thomas. "Tom Brown's School Days." Project Gutenberg. October 1998. 23 Oct. 2002. http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=1480
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool…
Frank, Robert H. (2004). Challenging the myth. Knight Foundation. Retrieved 23 Oct 2009 at http://www.knightfoundation.org/dotAsset/131763.pdf
Medema, Samantha. (1008). Alumni donations increase. The Retriever Weekly. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at http://www.retrieverweekly.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=3937&edition_id=106&format=html
Larimore, David. (2007). Non-economic societal impacts of intercollegiate athletics. The Sports Journal. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/non-economic-societal-impacts-intercollegiate-athletics
Porto, Brian L. (2003). A New Season: Using Title IX to Reform College Sports. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Sales and Promotion
Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.
Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)
"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with…
Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110
Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19
Fullerton S., Merz, G.R. (2008) The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly,, 17, 90-108
Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy, L.M. (2008) Sport promotion and sales management. Human Kinetics
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
Oxford University Press. 1935.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
These are the topics covered on this site.
Brief History Employment
Important Terms Learning More
A Typical Day Summary
Pros and Cons Acknowledgments
The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology, on the other hand, is a regularly updated website for professionals in this field. It covers a number of different types of information, including an overview of what is Applied Sports Psychology and the different areas of specialization within the field, common questions and answers, and terminology.
Another area covered is learning about certified consultants and how to find one. There is also a list of suggested consultants' websites, and they are still up and running when linking to them. Since this is an organization for Sports Psychologists, the emphasis is on the conferences and services that the organization provides for members. What is missing here that was helpful on the previous website was…
Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007. http://www.aaasponline.org/asp/index.php
Careers in Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007 http://www.wcupa.edu/_academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
Sports Center is a production of ESPN on cable television. It is a mixture of scores, game highlights, commentary, interviews and human interest feature stories. All of the people who are part of the ESPN broadcast team are, of course, intelligent, well-spoken, and attractive.
A lady by the name of Dana Jacobson was one of the primary anchors doing two of the three shows. She worked with one man named Mike Greenberg and another by the name of Dave Revasine. There were other females involved in the broadcasting, mostly as interviewers who also did a small amount of commentary related to what ever interview they did. There is, besides the gender mix, also an ethnic mix that is actually more diverse for women than men. There are Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic peoples represented by the women and Caucasian and African-American by the men. The gender ratio is approximately 3:1 males…
One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst…
Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." ESPN.com. 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.
Murphy, Austin. "Armstrong Returns With a New Team and a Winning Cause." Sports Illustrated.com. Sept. 2008, 26 Sept. 2008.
Sport Stadium Risk Assessment
Sport venue management face challenges in determining the level of a potential threat (Hall). Risk must be identified, measured, and evaluated to be effectively managed. It should include assessments for threats, vulnerabilities, and criticalities for information that helps to protect critical assets, physical and human, against terrorist attacks and other threats, such as fan behavior that can cause harm to others or physical assets. Protection measures can include access control, use of CCTV security cameras, adding lighting, performance of background checks, credentialing, checking backpacks, enhancing communication networks, as well as developing and updating emergency response and evacuation plans.
There are three types of risks that need to be assessed. Mission risk prevents the organization from accomplishing goals and missions. Asset risk can harm physical assets. And, security risks can potentially cripple actual data and people. These risks are identified by surveys, inspections, employee interviews, and the…
Hall, S., Marciani, L. Cooper, W.E., & Rolen, R. "Introducing a Risk Assessment Model for Sport Venues." The Sport Journal, 10(2), ISSN: 1543-9518 (2007). Retrieved from http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/introducing-risk-assessment-model-sport-venues .
Hall, S., Marciani, L., & Cooper, W. "Sport Venue Security: Planning and Preparedness for Terrorists-related incidents." The Smart Journal, 4(2) (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved from http://www.thesmartjournal.com/venues.pdf .
259). These authors assert that crowd management and crowd control constitute two additional vital issues that athletic facility management needs to address when hosting events at any stadium or venue.
Event managers also need to understand the type of event(s) they host and understand that variuos events draw different types of crowds, as no two crowds are alike and each crowd typically behaves in different manners. Abbott and Geddie (2001) warn: "Crowds can behave violently, resulting in destruction of property, personal injury, and, in extreme cases, death. Crowd management plans should be adjusted to meet the needs of the event and the potential crowd" (p. 260). Event managers need to prepare for the unexpected that might occur. They need to also realize that football game may require more security officers than a golf game.
Event managers also need to be aware of the surrounding location of the stadium or venue.…
Abbott, J. & Geddie, M.W. (2001). Event and venue management: Minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques. Event Management. Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Vol. 6, pp. 259 -- 270. Retrieved July 10, 2009 from http://www.popcenter.org/problems/spectator_violence/PDFs/Abbott.pdf
Borkowski, R.P. (2006). When good facility go bad. Athletic Management. Retrieved July 12,
2009 from http://www.athleticmanagement.com/2007/01/15/when_good_facilities_go_bad/indx.php
A partnership firm would be the best choice for Lou and Jose sports bar and restaurant business. To form a partnership, four criteria must be fulfilled: partnership must have two or more persons; the same persons must be caring the business, business must be for profit, and all persons must be co-owners. Lou, Jose, and Miriam will be co-owners for-profit business and Lou and Jose will be caring daily duties of a sports bar and restaurant. However, in a partnership control is shared by all the partners. Every decision is made on the understanding and agreement between all the partners. Lou and Jose will have general partnership while Miriam as an investor partner will not control business activities.
The reason a partnership firm would be the best choice is because neither of them have much money and Miriam is willing to be the investor who will not participate…
Limited liability partnership. (n.d.). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/limited-liability-partnership
Partnership. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Small Business. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/partnership
Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The Legal Environment of Business and online Commerce: Business
Ethics, E-Commerce, Regulatory, and International Issues. 6th ed. Prentice Hall
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
In both the conflicts, the strong will of the athletes help them to overcome the obstacles or conflicts that they faced.
The aesthetic appeal was the main characters Lidell played by Ian Charleson and Abrahams played by Ben Cross. Both the actors had execute their role well and make a big impact on the viewers. The screenplay is also realistic and the story line is strong and powerful. This makes it an all-time great classic for viewers.
1. In this review, the critics felt that the movie was much slower than it should have been. But, they still liked the strong concepts and its underlying themes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/chariots_of_fire/
2. The critics in this review rate it as one of the best movies that is ideal for children aged ten and up. They critic it as a good family movie that can lay the foundation for kids to understand…
Koster, Olinka. (26 October 2007). Modern Day Hero runs away with Chariots of Fire Chellnge. Daily Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-490027/Modern-day-hero-runs-away-Chariots-Fire-challenge.html
Mosher, Stephen David. (February 1982). Sport Movies Grow Up. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Pp35-36.
If the owner agrees, it discharges the debt under accord and satisfaction, as long as he takes the funds (cashes the check) knowing or with reason to know that it's consideration for discharging the debt. Even though it seems there's no new consideration here, there actually is; because it's a new promise to pay, given the fact that the owner would probably not be able to collect any funds otherwise.
As for the interest, if Mrs. Green disagrees with the calculation, she can recover under contract theory if she is proven correct. Unilateral mistake can be corrected in this fashion. If however, she knew of the error, then she would not be able to collect after the fact. Of course, she has to prove in a court that the calculation was incorrect.
Mary had contracted away her right to sue. A contract must have offer, acceptance and consideration (i.e., some…
Sport Promotion Mix
Kotler's promotion mix consists of advertising, publicity, personal contact, incentives, and atmospherics as well as licensing, sponsorship, and community relations to represent the contemporary sport promotion mix (Irwin, 2008). The New York Yankees the contemporary promotion mix. They have advertising of ticket sales, news articles and videos as publicity, blogs for personal contact with fans, discounts on tickets as incentives, and atmospherics with a showcase of bleachers, licensing with team logo items, sponsorships with corporations, and community relations with donations and fund drives.
Advertising is done for ticket sales (Home Page) and team logo items (New York Yankees), such as t-shirts, hats, etc. The advertised items serve two fold in the promotion mix. Ticket sales contain incentives in 12-game and group packages that offer discounts to consumers. The team logo items are advertised for sale, but also contain the licensing of the team logo. The team logo…
New York Yankees. (2013). Retrieved from ESPN MLB: http://espn.go.com/mlb/team/_/name/nyy/new-york-yankees
Yankee Publications. (2013). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.: http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/nyy/fan_forum/publications.jsp
Bryant, A. (1993, Apr 5). The Media Business: Advertising; For a Major League Baseball Team, the Season's First Pitch Comes Well Before Opening Up. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/1003/04/05/business/media-business-advertising-for-major-league-baseball-team-season-s-first-pitch.html
Home Page. (n.d.). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.: http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/inde , jsp-c_id=nyy
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…
The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/97/dream/thedream.html
United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
This mechanism will ultimately save the firm money as it is more efficient with its resources. More important however, feedback insures that the strategic planning process remains focused on the metrics of success rather than diverging from its intended purpose. Sporting organizations need focus in order to maintain their funding constituency. This comes in the form of ticket, merchandise, and television ad sales.
Furthermore, performance measures are important in regards to the overall benchmarking process. Performance measures provide a means of evaluation of both personnel and the strategic plan itself. With these measures of success management can better identify performance relative to strategic planning benchmarks. Also, through the use of performance measures, coupled with appropriate feedback mechanisms management can better ascertain initiatives. If performance is a substantial departure from management standards, organizational leaders can better determine what areas need improvement and coach to those specific areas. Through performance measures, management…
1) Martin, D.C. & Bartol, K.M. (1998). Performance appraisal: Maintaining system effectiveness. Public Personnel Management, 27(2), 223-230.
2) Schweitzer, ME., Ordonez, L., & Douma, B. (2004) Goal setting as a motivator of unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 422-432
Even today, the image of the over-sexualized college girl persists, in images of girls on 'spring break' who have 'gone wild,' to cheerleaders. Also, although they have dimmed so much, the question as to how to balance work and family life remains for women in a way that it does not for men, harkening back to the idea that women, unlike men, must choose between being either bodies or brains.
The anxieties about female education in recent decades have also become exacerbated by the increasing percentages of women in relation to men on campuses all across the nation. As women make up a disproportionate amount of college graduates, women and men have voiced the concern that men will begin to feel inadequate, and that boys cannot cope with the feminized atmosphere of the classroom. While before it was feared that women could not cope with 'male' subjects like mathematics and…
Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.
A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he…
Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://www.umich.edu/units_kines.php
Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://falk.syr.edu/SportManagement/Default.aspx
Waehner, Paige. (2011). How to become a personal trainer. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://exercise.about.com/cs/forprofessionals/a/personaltrainer_2.htm
Universities and colleges have been described as 'loosely coupled systems...'
"What does this mean to you based on the readings?" loosely coupled system is one that only occasionally works, and sometimes produces unpredictable results. Given the disparate goals and social elements of the modern university, a university is clearly such a loosely coupled system. Students come wanting a degree to get a good job and may have to take liberal arts courses they dislike, professors who want to research must teach students with little interest in deeper, critical thinking about life, the university community is diverse and brings together teachers, students, and administrators with different backgrounds and views of the purpose of life and education -- and sometimes students, faculty, and administrators use their position for social change, other times college is simply a place to 'fill time.'
Student organizations, social and extracurricular, may have different interests than…
And it is to this end that the university is so distinct in the way that it provides a community which is most hospitable to intellectual and emotional growth.
Difficulty of Harmonization:
Downey (2000) points to a modern vagary of our persistent state of global recession in making the case that it is difficult to find harmony between the stated goals of his trinity. Indeed, though this reflects a certain ideal for university functionality, it contrasts the reality in many contexts. riting on Canada's higher education system, which has been largely subsidized by government funding on an historical basis, Downey (2000) indicates that that more privately run university system in America is becoming a model to public officials. This, Downey (2000) demonstrates, is to the detriment of the university's capacity to reflect the modalities of his trinity in harmony. As he remarks, the Canadian government is finding itself increasingly hobbled…
Downey, J. (2000). Balancing Corporation, Collegium, and Community. Innovative Higher Education.
Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?
Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the…
Enoch, Jessica and Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense, 3rd ed. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Fizel, J. And Fort, Rodney. Economics of College Sports. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jones, A. (2009). "Athletics, Applications & Yields." College and University 85(2): 10-12.
Losco, Joseph and Fife, Brian L. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
I would be interested to see information on the number of these incidents when the drinking age was 18.
In his article, Seaman explains the practice of pregaming. According to Seaman, college students who are too young to purchase alcohol drink large quantities of liquor prior to going to a party. This practice results in many students either being hospitalized or actually dying from alcohol poisoning. In relating the history of the legislation regarding the drinking age, Seaman explains that the drinking age was lowered to 18 in the 1960s as a result of student protests. During the 1980s, pressures from Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) forced legislation that increased the drinking age to 21 in all 50 states. According to Seaman, prohibiting the use of alcohol for 18 to 20-year-olds resulted in making the use of alcohol more attractive for these young adults. He argues that while lowering the…
Seaman, Barrett. "How Bingeing Became the New College Sport." Time.com. Web 23 June 2011. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1096516,00.html .
Urban Dictionary. Web. 23 June 2011. http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=pregame&defid=1483677
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
strong athletic program keeps former students loyal and draws new, more qualified students into the applicant pool.
t present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In viation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GP and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GP through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial viation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can…
At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute to the development of underrepresented college sports, to enable as many students to participate in competitive intercollegiate athletics as possible.
I seek this degree to give me the necessary technical skills to put my enthusiasm and innate abilities into action, as well as to gain further knowledge of the field of intercollegiate athletics administration. I am confident that this program at the University of Oklahoma, a university with such a proud and patriotic athletic tradition is the ideal place, with the ideal atmosphere, to learn what I need to know in order to be successful in my chosen, future career.
There are a few different benefits that college players might receive from joining the union. The first is that they would see increased bargaining power with the universities. This means that they might have improved access to the revenue that is generated by college football -- with bargaining power they can use that revenue as leverage for better wages. At present, these football players really do not have any meaningful bargaining power. The second benefit that they players might well receive is worker protections. The key shift in this ruling is not the ability to organize but the recognition that the players are employees. As an organized union, these football players will have the ability to influence their conditions of employment, in particular with respect to safety. Football is a dangerous game, and joining a union might give the players better ability to bargain their working conditions to improve…
Major: Sport Management Minor: Business
Financed 100% of tuition with merit-based scholarships
Bank of America
Executive Development Program (Sales Manager)
Dec 2011- Present
Managed a $10 mortgage collections business by leading and coaching a team of 31 associates
Exceeded sales plan 9 out of 12 months as manager.
Increased same store sales by 4.2% within the Mortgage Collections business
Helped develop the community service initiative "Bag Hunger," generating $2,900 to feed low income families in the South Florida area
Personal Training Intern (30 hours per week)
Jan 2010- May 2010
Pioneered a successful corporate fitness program for over 60 employees designed to increase productivity and overall efficiency within the work environment.
Generated over $9,000 dollars of revenue through successful implementation of corporate fitness programs
Sears Holdings Co
Executive Management Intern
May 2009-Aug 2009
Learned successful operation and management…
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…
Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --
SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal
Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996
CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
The Hollywood Cheating Scandal exposed what life is like on the other side of the tracks—the side where wealth and fame are used to buy a way into top-tier schools for trust fund kids. The college admissions cheating scheme involved some big names across a range of industries: actors, actresses, fashion moguls, Wall Street guys, real estate giants, doctors and many others were all implicated in the scheme along with Ivy League teachers, coaches, and test takers. This article will discuss what happened, why, and what it means for America.
Money Can’t Buy Happiness—But It Can Buy You a Four Year Degree with the Right Connections
People have always wondered why some get into the elite schools are others are denied. Well, the answer is that money talks and always will. The people who have to do so earn their degrees the hard way—through hard work and…
sport obermeyer case study I answers attached file
Started: Jul 14 at 2:33am
ptsWhy does Sport Obermeyer place two production orders with their suppliers, each comprising 50% of their total season needs? Choose the best single answer.
Why does Sport Obermeyer place two production orders with their suppliers, each comprising 50% of their total season needs? Choose the best single answer.
They would be better off ordering just once, because then they would face a newsvendor problem for which the optimal solution is known.
This allows them to take advantage of the positive correlation between early orders from retailers and total demand.
This increases their odds of not suffering from quota restrictions.
This gives them more time to refine their product designs.
This allows them to defer production of their lowest value and easiest to forecast items until after the Las Vegas trade show.
This lowers their carbon footprint.
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
The sportsmen and the team enter competition to win prizes and they end up as winners, runner ups, or other positions, which are crucial in sports; they come in first place or second place and yet score that many goals. The performances of the sportsmen are records to be remembered for years to come and these are all quantitative variables, rather than qualitative.
Also, at the level of the increased attention offered by the business community on sports and sporting events, the measures used are again quantitative ones. Some examples in this sense include the money brought in by the investors in the sports teams, the number of people attracted by a sports event, the commercial value of a sports events and so on; for instance, the Olympic games can also be measured in terms of the investments allocated to improve the infrastructure in the region, the increase in the…
Dunning, E. Coakley. J. (2000). Handbook of sports studies. SAGE.
Jones, I. (1997). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods in sports fan research. The Qualitative Report, Vol. 3. No. 4. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-4/jones.html accessed on November 13, 2012
Toohey, K. Veal, a.J. (2007). The Olympic games: a social science perspective. CABI.
Qualitative and quantitative research: fundamental assumptions. The Bangor University. http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~pes004/resmeth/assumpmain.htm accessed on November 13, 2012
" Meanwhile the networks have critics cornered; if a reviewer says attractive women are on the sidelines to stimulate libidos in male viewers, those critics are sexist. Although it is obvious in a brutally violent game, an attractive, well-spoken female brightens up the broadcast aesthetically, it is also sexist to assume beautiful women don't understand football. As Andrew writes, "I love it when my wife talks about zone defense."
Meanwhile a research article ("College students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women") reported two experiments that examined "how tawdry media sexualizations of… women athletes influence the perceived gender-role orientation of athletes" (Harrison, et al., 2010). The findings revealed that when female basketball players were presented to 85 students (64 women, 24 men) in "tawdry sexualization" scenes, the perception was that they were "feminine" (read that heterosexual). However, female athletes that are beautiful and sexy "violate traditional expectations that athletes have…
Harrison, Lisa a, and Secarea, Ashley M. (2010). College Students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 403-427.
Levitt, Steven D., and Dubner, Stephen J. (2010). Why Are Most of Football's Sideline
Reporters Women? Freakonomics. The New York Times. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com .
Since the point of a control group is to minimize the risk of placebo effect on the internal reliability of the study, this is a major weakness. Without some form of control group, it is unclear whether or not the change in cardiovascular response and adaptation found in the study was actually caused by the increased activity, or by something else.
Furthermore, the subject pool in this study was extremely small. Without a larger subject base, it is again more difficult to prove a causal relationship. Additionally, the lack of a control group and of such a small subject pool is a threat to the external validity of the study. Without a broader range of subjects, the researchers cannot justifiably generalize the findings of the study to the everyday settings of real life.
Since the experiment was very personalized, with a regimented exercise program, it is already difficult to generalize…
UT Southwestern Medical Center. (Sept 18, 2001). Six months of exercise reverses decline in physical conditioning associated with aging, UT Southwestern researchers report. Retrieved October 25, 2004 from Science Daily. Web site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010918134712.htm
minimum academic references, text. Integrate literature essay. Remember introduction a conclusion. Avoid casual language, informal language, biased language. rite academic style.
Leadership in sports
Professional sport has experienced much progress across time, as individuals involved in the domain got actively engaged in implementing reform processes meant to improve it in general. Many people are likely to think about one thing when coming across the idea of leadership in sport: coach. Coaches have been traditionally accustomed to performing all sorts of activities related to sport, regardless of their complexity. Even with this, as the world of sport also experienced advancements, society came to observe the need for a series of other professionals that would deal with leadership in sport.
Taking into account the magnitude of the contemporary sport industry, it would be safe to say it is one of the most successful domains. In the past sports were provided with lesser…
Borland, J.F., & Burton, L.J. "Sport Leadership in the 21st Century," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 3 Apr 2014).
Pedersen, P.M., Miloch, K.S., & Laucella, P.C. "Strategic Sport Communication." (Human Kinetics, 2007).
Pietrusza, D. "Judge and Jury: The Life and Times of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis." (Taylor Trade Publications, 23 Oct 2001).
Zimbalist, A. "In the Best Interests of Baseball: The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig." (John Wiley & Sons, 22 Jun 2007).
Football players can be evaluated using a player evaluation form like the one appearing in American Football Monthly:http://www.americanfootballmonthly.com/Subaccess/Magazine/2013/May/images/04_Loney_Nichols_EvaluationForm.jpg
This form can be used in a formal evaluation process, either on intake or during considerations for lineup changes, as well as providing ongoing feedback and assessment for players on the roster. While this form is actually quite thorough, providing both psychological and physical feedback, it lacks a few skills that could be important for receivers. For example, the form could be improved on by simply adding an assessment box for how high the player can jump from a standing position. There would also be some need to specialized skills. Otherwise, the form provides for the breadth of skills a player will need to succeed, including attitude, work ethic, and leadership ability. Any additional comments can be placed in the "notes" section or in the side bars related to player's best quality…
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
start playing tennis?
When I was five. I took to it right away
When did it start getting serious for you?
When I had the chance to play for the city or county and then with middle and high school. My parents saw that I took to it really well and they enrolled me in lessons.
Do you think they pushed you too hard at all or were you entirely into it?
Oh, I love it. I had a passion for it right away. They stressed several times that I didn't have to play tennis if I didn't want to. But I always told them I loved it.
Do you think they could have spoiled it for you, in theory?
Yea…but it never came to that. They know better than to force that on me or anyone else.
Your best moment?
When I won my first tournament final…I was 12…
Sports management is defined as a coordination of technologies, resources, personnel, processes, and situational contingencies to enhance efficient exchange and production of sports services. Typically, sports management is related to other business management that involves planning, organizing, evaluating and using managerial skills to achieve the organizational objectives. Chelladurai, (1993) classifies sports management with references to the services delivered, which include participant services, consumer services, professional services, spectator services, and sponsorship services. The author also points out that the sports management has overlapped the recreation and health administrations leading to the interrelationships with other disciplines. While Chelladurai, (1993) evaluates the taxonomy of sports management in the 80s and early 90s, however, sports management has changed in the last 20 years because it has integrated the sport merchandising services, and sport facilities services.
The objective of this paper is to explore the taxonomy of sports management over the last 20 years.
business world, many strategies have been devised to gain and retain customers. Phenomena such as globalization, market saturation, and better information technology have driven strategies such as customer awareness and long-term customer relationships to be favored above relatively short-term strategies to gain new customers, such as product price and quality (Kinuthai et al., 2012, p. 223). Indeed, creating brand loyalty in order to retain customers in the long-term has played a key role in long-term business success. To accomplish this, brands such as those operating within sportswear have emphasized strategies to appeal to consumers responding to products at the individual level. As such, customer loyalty is a significant determinant in the amount of product being bought and the frequency of repeat purchases.
On the basis of this, the dissertation will aim to examine brand loyalty among the youth of a developing country (Kenya) as compared to the same phenomenon in…
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
Ayuk, A. And Nyaseda, C. (2008, Spring). CFC Model. The Appropriateness of Celebrity Endorsement in Developing African Nations: A study of Cameroon and Kenya. IBA 8010. Retrieved from: iba8010kelly.alliant.wikispaces.net
Baker, M., Sterenberg, G., and Taylor, E. (n.d.) Managing Global Brands to Meet Consumer Expectations. Retrieved from: http://www.brsgroup.com/PDFs/Managing_Global_Brands.pdf
Haig, M. (2004). Brand Royalty: How the World's Top 100 Brands Thrive and Survive. London and Sterling VA: Kogan Page Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_1/BRAND%20NAME%20PRODUCTS%20Brand%20royalty%20%20how%20the%20world%92s%20top%20100%20brands%20thrive%20and%20survive.pdf
universities, professors retire invited give a Last Lecture. Dr. andy Pausch tradition. What made story, dying pancreatic cancer, knew . His lecture featured Good Morning America television show, millions readers bought copies book form.
A Positive Man: andy Pausch and the Last Lecture
andy Pausch's "Last Lecture" is a great example of the power of communication. It is simply a college professor's speech -- albeit one with great gravitas, as the deliverer is suffering from a terminal illness -- but it has made a worldwide impact due to the frank, humorous, and inspirational story it tells. Pausch's wisdom reverberates in the mind of the viewer long after watching. In delivering this last lecture, he manages to educate his audience about a myriad of topics, not the least of which is the human condition.
One of the most revelatory ideas in Pausch's speech is the notion of the "head fake;" Pausch…
Pausch, R. (2007). The last lecture: Really achieving your childhood dreams. Lecture. Retrieved on 11 Apr 2011 from Randy Pausch's website, at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~pausch / Randy/pauschlastlecturetranscript.pdf
Peterson, C. (2008). The last lecture: A positive case study. Retrieved on 11 Apr 2011 from the Psychology Today website, at http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-good-life/200806/the-last-lecture-positive-psychology-case-study
The research I perform while at the Wharton School of Business will be in part how to start and manage such an organization, how to receive and maintain reliable funding, and also how to contend with regulations. On the other hand, I also intend to extensively study business and international law to the extent that it impacts my business model.
While at the Wharton School of Business I will not only be studying hard and working with academic advisors on how to craft an ideal path for the future. I will also be one of many other students. The social aspects of my degree program are important to cultivate, and will require a great degree of time management as I balance work, school, and social life. The University of Pennsylvania campus offers a wealth of extracurricular activities, and so too does the vibrant city of Philadelphia. I look forward to…
Tis is not to say owever, tat all classical music is sooting and terapeutic. In fact, te majority of traditional classical music are not terapeutic because tis is not te intent of te original masters. Concertos by Beetoven, Bac and Brams for example all focus on arousing strong emotion rater tan arnessing te power of strong terapy, terefore te pysical presence and rytmic are not necessarily terapeutic. Mozart's no. 23 owever, is an ideal example of terapeutic music. Tis is because te affects of entrainment is easily observed troug studies on te affect of tis music on oters. Wile listening to te music, people say tat it "relaxed and sooted," upon monitoring wit medical equipment it is observed tat te music lowered bot teir blood pressure and eart rates. Te reason is tat Mozart's concerto affects individuals in bot a psycological and pysical sense. Wile te classical music made people…
Vanasco, Jennifer. American classical music: Exploring roots, reflections. Jan.
1998. Chicago Chronicle. 3 Feb. 2007 http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/980108/musymp.shtml .
In this paper, we began with an examination of a college pub as a place where there is a culture of consumption of services and products. Like any other part of material culture, the culture of consumption is just as much a part of technology as it is any other part of material culture. The technology of alcohol goes back into human memory to a time prior to written language. In this essay, we examined alcohol as a technology of consumption in the broader context of human culture .
Charest, M. (2011, September 22). The virtual pub project. etrieved from http://proteus.brown.edu/charest/2588.
Lemonnier, P. (1986). The study of material culture today: Toward an anthropology of technical systems. Journal of Anthropological Anthropology, 5, 147-186 .
Luther, S.S. (2003). The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth. Child Development, 74(6), 1581 -- 1593.
Prentice, D.A., & Miller, D.T. (1993). Pluralistic…
Charest, M. (2011, September 22). The virtual pub project. Retrieved from http://proteus.brown.edu/charest/2588.
Lemonnier, P. (1986). The study of material culture today: Toward an anthropology of technical systems. Journal of Anthropological Anthropology, 5, 147-186 .
Luther, S.S. (2003). The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth. Child Development, 74(6), 1581 -- 1593.
Prentice, D.A., & Miller, D.T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
university is, as Fr. Lawton believes, a sacred place where you find "your imagination, develop your skills, and enrich your compassion," then it has an enormous task in the world as we know it today. In the world as we know it today, the very term sacred is on the endangered species list. And yet, sacred is perhaps the underpinning of it all.
There are any number of vaguely similar definitions of sacred in any number of dictionaries. The one that I think applies best here is this one:
regarded with the same respect and reverence accorded holy things; venerated; hallowed. (Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language)
Universities were, in the early days, almost monastic in that there was total dedication of the professors and those being professed to -- the students -- to what they were learning. And what they were learning was, first and foremost, how…
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/expdesintro.htm
Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].
Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethnography-write-it-1913940.html
"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bethelcollege.edu/users/blowers/writing%20an%20ethnography.htm
Consequently a student when graduate is already under debt thousands of dollars. Most of the time those students are awarded aid that are need-based but quite a number of students are entertained based on academic merit, sports ability or musical talent rather than financial need. Universities gave almost half of their $14.5 billion in scholarship money in 2000 to students based on merit or ability.
Students gaining admissions and financial aid could still display poor result as shown by the 1996 study of UCLA according to which there were less than 40% students who finished their degree in the first four years of joining university, a decline by 7% from 20 years ago.
As the large some of public money goes into the higher education system public definitely do take cognizance of who is taking advantage of the scheme and how much is been spent. Majorities say it's important to…
1]the state constitution of 1974
http://senate.legis.state.la.us/Documents/Constitution/Default.htm Accessed March 8, 2007
http://www.publicagenda.org/research/research_reports.cfm Accessed March 8, 2007