College Sports Essays (Examples)

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Marketing Strategy a College Athletic Department I

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61135602

marketing strategy a college athletic department. I a couple pages discussing background research a typical college athletic program, a school marketing increasing communities involvement ticket sales.

Most universities have intermural athletic programs. However, there is a wide variation in terms of the funding, success, popularity and approaches between these programs, spanning from Division I powerhouses to relatively noncompetitive Division III schools. Regardless of the nature of the program or the school, athletic programs can be powerful marketing and publicity tools for academic institutions. Alumni donations often increase after a successful season, as do applications from more competitive students. Also, success tends to breed success in athletics: the more successful and highly-promoted the program, the more top athletes will be inclined to apply to the school -- the more top athletes are drawn to the school, the greater the likelihood of athletic success in the future.

For example, when Northern Iowa beat number one-ranked Kansas in the NCAA basketball tournament this spring, the Northern Iowa athletics website drew 1.5 million page views that month in March, three times the monthly average; the Northern Iowa Panthers' annual athletic fund drive went up 20% (about $1.1 million); and enrollment is projected to increase…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Logue, Andrew. March's madness gives players, program at Northern Iowa a boost. USA Today. August 22, 2010. Available November 21, 2010 at
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Athletics and Academics in the Current Economic

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77144685

Athletics and Academics

In the current economic climate of the United States, public institutions are finding themselves having to make harsher and harsher budget cuts. Teaching positions are minimized, class sizes are increased, and fees are rising to nearly unaffordable regions. The English Department at a certain university or high school may drop from twenty-five professors to a dozen or so. It is the harsh reality of living in an era of economic downturn. However, even as the college school would lose more and more financial assistance from the government, athletic programs at schools continue to expand and provide more and more incentives for prospective recruits. This is symptomatic of a flawed philosophy in college institutions: the ability to perform athletic skills has more importance than the ability to think. This perspective not only jades the graduating classes but teaches the wrong principles for when a student needs to learn to cope with the adult, working-class world.

Supporters of school athletics argue that the programs teach teamwork and cooperation as well as instill in the academically gifted an elevated sense of self-esteem (Meier 2004). Those is opposition argue that those who are not engaged in athletics perceive the importance placed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Larimore, David (2007). "Non-Economic Societal Impacts of Intercollegiate Athletics." The

Sport Journal. United States Sports Academy.

Meier, K.J., Eller, W.S., Marchbanks III, M.P., Robinson, S., Polinard, J.L., Wrinkle, R.D.

(2004). "A Lingering Question of Priorities: Athletic Budgets and Academic Performance Revisited. Review of Policy Research," 21(6), 799 -- 807. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
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Sports Race and Gender Sports

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77228108

But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.… [Read More]


About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at 

Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.

Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at
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Sports & Nbsp general Fund Raising Critque Info

Words: 875 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29823261

Sports & Nbsp;(general)

Fund raising Critque

Info: • the format will be according to APA style (typed double spaced) and in four

• parts. Written out as a paper.

is the identification of the article. What is important here is that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so that they will be able to locate the article.

• A Summary. List the main points that the author has tried to establish, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or first, second, third. There normally will be 3 to 5 main points. If you are summarizing a court case you should discuss: What provision of the law was at issue? Briefly state the facts of the case. What legal tests were applied? Were there any unusual elements in the case? Include all major key points of the author. If the author addressed any major concepts or methodology this should be explained.

• My critique - You are to provide your reaction (insightful, critical, and logical) to the points that the author tried to make, or an overall critique of the entire article. A simple statement of agreement or disagreement is not enough. While you may make such a statement by…… [Read More]


Staurowsky, Ellen J. (1996). Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection

Between Gender and Giving. Journal of Sport Management,10, 401-416.
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Sports and Betting

Words: 2592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20627805

sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.

Sports and Betting

More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a Republican attorney. Soccer parents talk goalies and the high school jocks talk about steroids and scholarships (McDonald 1998).

Sports and betting have gone hand in hand for centuries throughout the world. People in the United States have been gambling on sports since there has been organized sports, and some claim…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davies, Dick. Spotlight Pofile.

A accessed 05-12-2002).

Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."

University Wire. March 25, 2002.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
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Sports History

Words: 1781 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14249377

Tom Brown's Schooldays," by Thomas Hughes. Specifically, it will look at how this work describes sports in 19th century England, and compare it with other historical descriptions of English sports.


Tom Brown's School Days," written in 1857, is the story of young Tom Brown, a student at the public school called Rugby School. The schoolboys at Rugby, as might be expected, play Rugby football, which is quite different from American football. The winner is the one who gets the "best of three goals; whichever side kicks two goals wins: and it won't do, you see, just to kick the ball through these posts -- it must go over the cross-bar; any height'll do, so long as it's between the posts" (Hughes), Tom's new friend tells him.

Rugby also uses far more people than our game, with 50-60 players on each side. Goals are kicked like American field goals, but that is really the only thing that is the same in this game. It is somewhat of a cross between soccer and football, with some odd rules thrown in. Baker notes that each school developed their own style of football, much of the style dependent on where the…… [Read More]


Baker, William J. Sports in the Western World. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1982.

Guttmann, Allen. Women's Sports: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

Holt, Richard. Sport and the British: A Modern History. Oxford: Oxford University, 1993.

Hughes, Thomas. "Tom Brown's School Days." Project Gutenberg. October 1998. 23 Oct. 2002.
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Sports in Schools

Words: 1856 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49021171

Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational Analysis

The purpose of this study is an examination of the relationship between sports and self-esteem. In particular this study will seek to determine whether or not a relationship exists between high self-esteem and sports participation, particularly among high school and collegiate students. The hypothesis being examined is as follows: Participation in sports during the high school and collegiate years contributes to improved self-esteem. The researcher will combine qualitative analysis of the research with quantitative field examination to prove or disprove this hypothesis.

The aim of this research project will include an evaluation of whether or not sports in schools have a positive or negative impact of the mental well being and sense of self-image on students. Specifically this study will investigate whether or not active participation in sports during the high school years and beyond contributes to a positive or negative body image, and whether students who participate in sports are more likely to achieve success in their personal and academic life. The preliminary results of the study indicate that active participation in sports does have some impact on student's sense of self-esteem and achievement.


The purpose of this study is an examination…… [Read More]


Billups, A. (1999- Jul 26). "Study finds sports give girls confidence to tackle science."

The Washington Times: 9.

Bowker, A., Cornock, B. & Gadbois, S. (2003). "Sports participation and self-esteem:

variations as a function of gender and gender role orientation." Sex Roles: A
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Sport as a Vehicle for Change

Words: 4806 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14005972

Social Change Through Women's Sports

Promoting Social Change Through Women's Sports Leadership

The problems that cry out for social change solutions

No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. War, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.

Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and soldiers in Iraq; 6 Hispanic immigrants were murdered in Georgia; two African-Americans were shot to death by a Mexican store owner in Los Angeles, to name a handful of incidents.

Meanwhile, actress Jennifer Lopez is starring in a movie now being filmed about the unsolved murders of over 400 women…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from .

Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,

Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World

Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
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Sports and Alumni Donations Increasing

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33678595

Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool for schools across the nation who already struggle in reaching out to alumni for charitable donations.

A strong athletic program, in many cases, needs deep pockets on the behalf of the university. Providing the funding needed for successful athletic programs is a daunting task. According to research, recent athletic budgets…… [Read More]


Frank, Robert H. (2004). Challenging the myth. Knight Foundation. Retrieved 23 Oct 2009 at

Medema, Samantha. (1008). Alumni donations increase. The Retriever Weekly. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at

Larimore, David. (2007). Non-economic societal impacts of intercollegiate athletics. The Sports Journal. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at

Porto, Brian L. (2003). A New Season: Using Title IX to Reform College Sports. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Develop a Sports Sales and Promotion Plan for a Community College Athletic Department

Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55179182

Sales and Promotion

Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.

Relationship marketing

Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)

"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with one another that depend on successful relationship enactment. All sports marketing transactions, in fact, involve some type of relationship marketing. In some cases the efforts are explicit. In other cases they are hidden or even unrecognized. A careful examination of these relationships can improve the function of the relationship system…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110

Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19

Fullerton S., Merz, G.R. (2008) The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly,, 17, 90-108

Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy, L.M. (2008) Sport promotion and sales management. Human Kinetics
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Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1699 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64934906

Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective

Annotated Bibliography

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?"

Mississippi Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June

This article focuses on college athletes in relation to their contribution in bringing billions. According to the article, college athletes are crucial to the generation of billions within sporting fields through their talents and efforts. This research paper aims to outline benefits of participation in sporting activities by college athletes. It is clear from the article that student athletes enjoy free scholarships, accommodation, meals, and other associated benefits for their participation or skills in different games or leagues. The article is relevant to the research because it offers clear reason why student athletes do not obtain salaries for their talents or participation in the sporting activities. The article is reliable and valid since it constructs its arguments from extensive research. The article is instrumental to researchers doing further studies on the topic (college athletes).

Sack, Allen. "Should college athletes be paid?" Christian Science Monitor 07 Mar. 2008: 9.

MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.

This article offers clear debate on whether college athletes should get salaries for their efforts and skills in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?" Mississippi

Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.

Tracee, Hamilton. "In college football, everyone cashes in but the players." Washington Post,

The n.d.: Regional Business News. Web. 20 June 2012.
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Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34103176

Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).

Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter back position and all his endorsement deals over the years earned $16,004,840 in 2006.

One would think to believe that modern day prizes have become much more formalized and structured. Athletic programs such as the NBA have structured pay-scale caps for their players and coaches. He NFL also adheres to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: . On Friday September 21, 2007.

Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.

Oxford University Press. 1935.

Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
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Sports Pyschology Website Developed by

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56927936

These are the topics covered on this site.

Introduction Education

Brief History Employment

Important Terms Learning More

Subfields Outlook

A Typical Day Summary

Pros and Cons Acknowledgments

The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology, on the other hand, is a regularly updated website for professionals in this field. It covers a number of different types of information, including an overview of what is Applied Sports Psychology and the different areas of specialization within the field, common questions and answers, and terminology.

Another area covered is learning about certified consultants and how to find one. There is also a list of suggested consultants' websites, and they are still up and running when linking to them. Since this is an organization for Sports Psychologists, the emphasis is on the conferences and services that the organization provides for members. What is missing here that was helpful on the previous website was more information about attaining a degree in the field and some of the pros and cons of getting into this field. Apparently, the assumption is made that anyone going to this website is already either in the field or knows enough about it and only needs a brief overview.

All…… [Read More]


Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007.

Careers in Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007
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Athletic Training Whether to Win Marathons or

Words: 2909 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85890629

Athletic Training

Whether to win marathons or to make it to the state football championships, all athletes need some form of training. Lately, increased focus has been placed on the specific importance of weight, or strength, training for the overall conditioning of a casual or professional athlete. The terms "weight training" and "strength training" are technically different, but often the two terms are often used interchangeably. Typically, weight training implies the use of materials such as barbells, dumbbells, and specialized machines, whereas strength training also employs isometric or callisthenic exercises like push-ups and sit-ups. An athletic conditioning regime will generally incorporate aspects of both weight and strength training and therefore the terms can be easily used interchangeably. Much physiological research has focused on the efficacy of weight training on the performance and physical conditioning of athletes. Weight training programs can be tailor-made for an individual depending on his or her goals, and the sports he or she plays. Today, most coaches and athletic trainers will advise some type of strength training for their clients. Strength and weight training, when applied properly, go a long way toward improving the well-being, specific strength, endurance, power, and performance of any athlete and therefore…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barwis, Mike, Director of Strength and Conditioning, West Virginia University, Personal Interview, 15, June, 2005.

Bauer, G. (1996). B.F.S. isn't (a) H.I.T. Coach and Athletic Director, 65(8), 70-73.

Bouche, J. (1996). Making a H.I.T. In your weight room. Coach and Athletic Director,

66(3), 28-31.
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College Drinking Campaign

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17620286

College Drinking

There are many stereotypes regarding college life and these stereotypes inform students, rightly or wrongly about ways to behave while attending school. Regardless of whether these stereotypical behaviors are detrimental or beneficial, you see them repeated by students in all regions and most ages. Films and television programs all feature certain aspects of college which are then repeated over and over again, regardless of the frequency they actually occur in real life. Most fictional representations of college life feature outrageous parties where alcohol flows like water and where adventures and misadventures happen because of the imbibing of said alcohol. Examples like Animal House and Old School and Van Wilder just to name a very select few show that in order to be considered cool and fun, you need to be willing to drink to an irresponsible level. Beer and wine and heavier liquors are supposed to be part of the college students' daily, or at the very least their weekend, diet. The key here is in the word "supposedly." Although there are usually parties on some college campuses and in some fraternity houses, this simply does not occur with the regularity that feature films and television would have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lederman, L.C., & Stewart, L.P. (2005). No, everybody doesn't: changing mistaken notions of the extent of drinking on a college campus. Health Communication in Practice: a Case Study Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ. 325-334.
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Sports Tourism Belfast Northern Ireland

Words: 4283 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81671802

Planning such an event when it has not been done before is very difficult and time consuming.

Mistakes can easily be made on cost, time, and other issues when people are unsure as to what they should do to create an event that is successful - which could happen because the promotion company is uncertain about putting on such a large event and has questions about many aspects of it.

Volunteers and Viability

Getting people to volunteer for a mega sporting event in Belfast is possible, but it is not safe to assume that there will be plenty of volunteers without a closer analysis. How many people in Belfast like sports? How many of them like a particular sport? These are the kinds of questions that must be answered, along with the availability of these people and what they actually have to offer when it comes to what they will be able to do before, during, and after the sports event. Hundreds if not thousands of volunteers will be needed, and all phases of the event will have to be covered. It is vital to discover whether this will be a problem before committing to the event. Sporting events will…… [Read More]


Adorno, T. (2000). Problems of moral philosophy (T. Schroder, Ed. & R. Livingstone, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Backer, W. (1973) - Motivating workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill: New York.

Beer, M., & Nohria, N. (2000) - Breaking the Code of Change. Harvard Business Review, May-June, 2000, pp. 133.

Bedeian, a.G. (1993). Management (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press.
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Sports Center Is a Production of ESPN

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52298242

Sports Center is a production of ESPN on cable television. It is a mixture of scores, game highlights, commentary, interviews and human interest feature stories. All of the people who are part of the ESPN broadcast team are, of course, intelligent, well-spoken, and attractive.

A lady by the name of Dana Jacobson was one of the primary anchors doing two of the three shows. She worked with one man named Mike Greenberg and another by the name of Dave Revasine. There were other females involved in the broadcasting, mostly as interviewers who also did a small amount of commentary related to what ever interview they did. There is, besides the gender mix, also an ethnic mix that is actually more diverse for women than men. There are Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic peoples represented by the women and Caucasian and African-American by the men. The gender ratio is approximately 3:1 males to females. Overall, a great deal of the programming for all three broadcasts focused around basketball with baseball and hockey about even in second spot. It is interesting that hockey didn't receive more air time. The focus on basketball is understandable as the leagues are in their play-offs for who…… [Read More]

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Sports Psychology Annotated Bibliography Brunette

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2563052

(2011). Anxiety characteristics of competitive windsurfers:

relationships with age, gender, and performance outcomes. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at… [Read More]

This article attempts to understand performance anxiety around what the authors of the article consider to be an 'extreme' sport. Windsurfing is considered a typical extreme sport because of its unconventional nature and the fact that it tends to take place outside of conventional competitive venues like gyms and enclosed sports venues. Rather than experiencing intense anxiety, windsurfers tended to show less performance anxiety, perhaps because they also rated higher in extroversion and emotional resiliency than athletes in more conventional sports. The descriptive study involved seventy-nine participants: 35 were male and 19 were female; 25 were regional-level competitors and all male. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) was used to assess athlete anxiety and self-confidence levels along with the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Findings indicated moderate stress anxiety, and the older participants had lower levels of stress anxiety. In contrast to other sports such as gymnastics, there was no difference between male and female windsurfer pre-competitive stress levels.

Sturm, Jennifer E. (2011). A comparison of athlete and student identity for Division I and Division III athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior. 04 Sep, 2011.

The literature indicates a strong tendency for college athletes to strongly tie their identity to their role as athletes. This study attempts to understand the different degrees of athlete identification between Division I and III athletes. Previous longitudinal studies on male Division I basketball players indicated that players' self-identification as an athlete was much stronger than their identification as a student. The study used employed a 2 x 2 (Divisional Status x Gender x Class Level) non-experimental factorial design with two dependent measures: athlete identity and student identity. Divisional Status variables consisted of Division I and Division III status and male (N=121) and female (N=67) status. All participants were on a varsity team at the time of data collection (Freshmen = 63, Sophomores = 49, Juniors = 49, Seniors = 27). All students came from either a one Division I or one Division III school in the Midwest. The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) was used to assess athlete self-identification. The findings of the study confounded the original hypothesis -- both groups had an equal level of student and athlete self-identification, although females as a whole had weaker self-identification as athletes and stronger self-identification as students.
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Sports Illustrated -- Lance Is

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45247384

One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst to bring about reform and change in the nation's and world sporting arenas. While he travels for cancer, he could promote more awareness and enforcement of anti-doping in all sports, and he could attempt to make real change, if he desired.

In the end, Armstrong's comeback could come back to…… [Read More]


Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.

Murphy, Austin. "Armstrong Returns With a New Team and a Winning Cause." Sports Sept. 2008, 26 Sept. 2008.
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Sport Stadium Risk Assessment Sport Venue Management

Words: 1421 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80649408

Sport Stadium Risk Assessment

Sport venue management face challenges in determining the level of a potential threat (Hall). Risk must be identified, measured, and evaluated to be effectively managed. It should include assessments for threats, vulnerabilities, and criticalities for information that helps to protect critical assets, physical and human, against terrorist attacks and other threats, such as fan behavior that can cause harm to others or physical assets. Protection measures can include access control, use of CCTV security cameras, adding lighting, performance of background checks, credentialing, checking backpacks, enhancing communication networks, as well as developing and updating emergency response and evacuation plans.

There are three types of risks that need to be assessed. Mission risk prevents the organization from accomplishing goals and missions. Asset risk can harm physical assets. And, security risks can potentially cripple actual data and people. These risks are identified by surveys, inspections, employee interviews, and the involvement of experts. The primary factors, including staff, are identified in standard operating procedures. Unsupervised or untrained staff becomes a risk where trained, well educated, staff can deter risks. The secondary factors include weather, type of event, patron demographics, and facility location.

A risk is the possibility of loss that…… [Read More]


Hall, S., Marciani, L. Cooper, W.E., & Rolen, R. "Introducing a Risk Assessment Model for Sport Venues." The Sport Journal, 10(2), ISSN: 1543-9518 (2007). Retrieved from

Hall, S., Marciani, L., & Cooper, W. "Sport Venue Security: Planning and Preparedness for Terrorists-related incidents." The Smart Journal, 4(2) (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved from .
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Sports Psychology -- Setting Measurable

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76765022

Specific Strategy

1. Lose weight through improved diet.

Specific strategy -- Identify the foods that are responsible for my unwanted body weight; eliminate those foods entirely on a permanent basis to establish a lifelong diet capable of allowing me to maintain my ideal weight for decades.

2. Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.

Specific strategy -- Establish a consistency to my fitness workouts that will enable me to meet my goal; permanently eliminate those barriers to consistency that have sabotaged those efforts previously.

3. Stop smoking.

End the repetitive cycle of smoking cessation followed by relapse and subsequent attempts focusing on the number of cigarettes smoked per day or per month. Stop making excuses for "comfort" and habitual smoking by never allowing smoking to be enjoyable ever again. Allow only the (smoking) equivalent of a maintenance dose of nicotine when absolutely necessary and only under circumstances that eliminate any possible enjoyment. Gradually reduce the number of those maintenance doses to zero.

Measurement of Success

1. Lose weight through improved diet.

Short-term Success -- No cheating at all in 4 weeks.

Long-term Success -- 10 lb weight loss in 4 weeks and steady subsequent weight loss.

2. Establish optimal physical fitness…… [Read More]

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Athletic Facility Management Facility Liability

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23197403

259). These authors assert that crowd management and crowd control constitute two additional vital issues that athletic facility management needs to address when hosting events at any stadium or venue.

Event managers also need to understand the type of event(s) they host and understand that variuos events draw different types of crowds, as no two crowds are alike and each crowd typically behaves in different manners. Abbott and Geddie (2001) warn: "Crowds can behave violently, resulting in destruction of property, personal injury, and, in extreme cases, death. Crowd management plans should be adjusted to meet the needs of the event and the potential crowd" (p. 260). Event managers need to prepare for the unexpected that might occur. They need to also realize that football game may require more security officers than a golf game.

Event managers also need to be aware of the surrounding location of the stadium or venue. Stadiums located in high crime areas, for example, may require additional security and require that management take appropriate steps to protect the crowd from outside dangers. Abbott and Geddie (2001) report regarding Roth v. Costa (1995) that this case reveals a number of crowd management problems "as they pertain to…… [Read More]


Abbott, J. & Geddie, M.W. (2001). Event and venue management: Minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques. Event Management. Cognizant Comm. Corp.

Vol. 6, pp. 259 -- 270. Retrieved July 10, 2009 from 

Borkowski, R.P. (2006). When good facility go bad. Athletic Management. Retrieved July 12,

2009 from
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Sports Law

Words: 1534 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46304657

Sports Law

Over the last several decades, there has been a transformation in Australia's sports laws. This was in response to the issues of racism and prejudice based on a number of factors (most notably: race or gender). As a result, these changes have made it easier for everyone to compete and have access to various sports. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining these changes. This will be accomplished by focusing on: natural justice, the differences between the cases of Waverly Municipal Council v Swain with Neagle v Rottnest Island Authority and how discrimination law is applied. Together, these elements will highlight the shifts that have occurred in this area of sports law.

Discuss the natural justice process in sport tribunals. Should athletes at domestic or professional level be able to have legal representation?

The process of natural justice is when a tribunal will render a decision and the various parties will abide by these provisions. If someone believes that they are being treated unfairly, there is a process of appealing this ruling to a higher authority. However, given the emotionalism of sports, many parties will never feel completely satisfied by any decisions. When this happens,…… [Read More]


Topic 5, 2012.

Topic 6, 2012.

Topic 9, 2012

Waverly Municipal Council v Swain, 2003.
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Sports Bar a Partnership Firm Would Be

Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82655879

Sports Bar

A partnership firm would be the best choice for Lou and Jose sports bar and restaurant business. To form a partnership, four criteria must be fulfilled: partnership must have two or more persons; the same persons must be caring the business, business must be for profit, and all persons must be co-owners. Lou, Jose, and Miriam will be co-owners for-profit business and Lou and Jose will be caring daily duties of a sports bar and restaurant. However, in a partnership control is shared by all the partners. Every decision is made on the understanding and agreement between all the partners. Lou and Jose will have general partnership while Miriam as an investor partner will not control business activities.

The reason a partnership firm would be the best choice is because neither of them have much money and Miriam is willing to be the investor who will not participate in the business but will expect in return a percentage in return. Lou and Jose as partner will earn a percentage of the sports bar and restaurant profits. Lou, Jose, and Miriam must consider the laws and regulations in starting the business, and all the risks the involved because they…… [Read More]


Limited liability partnership. (n.d.). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Web site: 

Partnership. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Small Business. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Web site:

Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The Legal Environment of Business and online Commerce: Business

Ethics, E-Commerce, Regulatory, and International Issues. 6th ed. Prentice Hall
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Sports Medicine Specializes in Preventing

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84561159


Originally, the main objective of sports medicine was the welfare of competitive professional athletes, but it now encompasses treatment of anyone engaged in sport and exercise.

It is becoming an increasingly important branch of the overall medicine field. More general practitioners are being trained in sports medicine than ever before. The training gives them a better understanding of the physical, physiological, and psychological demands of exercise. This helps them to diagnose sports injuries more effectively, and to prescribe the most suitable forms of prevention, exercise, and treatment to improve the health of all athletes and sports enthusiasts everywhere.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Comprehensive Study of Sports Injuries in the U.S." June 2003. American Sports Data. 11 Apr 2009 .

Haggerty, Maureen. "Sports injury." n.d. 11 Apr 2009 < >.

Medicine, the American College of Sports. "Careers in Sports Medicine and." n.d. The American College of Sports Medicine. 11 Apr 2009 .

"sports medicine." 2008. 10 Apr 2009 .
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Sports Surfing and Other Underrated

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79210256

In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.

Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike the higher-profile team sports, surfing requires little equipment besides a surfboard and no facilities other than access to an appropriate beach; nor is an individual dependent on the participation of others to enjoy the sport.


In terms of the talents and abilities it requires, surfing is just as legitimate…… [Read More]

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Sport-Related Films Significance of Brian's

Words: 970 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15112679

In both the conflicts, the strong will of the athletes help them to overcome the obstacles or conflicts that they faced.

Aesthetic Appeal

The aesthetic appeal was the main characters Lidell played by Ian Charleson and Abrahams played by Ben Cross. Both the actors had execute their role well and make a big impact on the viewers. The screenplay is also realistic and the story line is strong and powerful. This makes it an all-time great classic for viewers.


1. In this review, the critics felt that the movie was much slower than it should have been. But, they still liked the strong concepts and its underlying themes.

2. The critics in this review rate it as one of the best movies that is ideal for children aged ten and up. They critic it as a good family movie that can lay the foundation for kids to understand priorities and how religion can make them stronger individuals.

3. This review by New York Times rates this movie as an old-fashioned one that has an overdose of sentimentality. At the same time, the critics felt that winning can build self-confidence to a considerable extent and this can help…… [Read More]


Koster, Olinka. (26 October 2007). Modern Day Hero runs away with Chariots of Fire Chellnge. Daily Mail. Retrieved from:

Mosher, Stephen David. (February 1982). Sport Movies Grow Up. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Pp35-36.
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Sports Betting Industry Proponents of

Words: 1785 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54401483

With respect to the second criteria, it has also been found that betting exchanges deliver more accurate odds than bookmakers. This is to be expected, since betting exchanges are based on open market principles while bookmakers control their markets. The bookmaker's spread will negate any advantage the bookmaker will have in setting odds vis-a-vis the market. Indeed, the market's ability to set better odds than bookmakers has to do with removing the traditional information asymmetry that exists in the bookmaking industry.

The only point on which bookmakers may offer superior consumer welfare is with respect to liquidity. The concept applies to bookmakers as well, though, in that spreads are greater for events that receive fewer bets. In addition, the market is likely to remedy the liquidity problem and Metcalf's Law in the long-run, meaning that over the long-run betting exchanges are expected to deliver superior consumer welfare outcomes compared with bookmakers.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Koning, R. & Van Velzen, B. (2008). Betting exchanges: The future of sports betting? Retrieved May 1, 2011 from 

Smith, M. (no date). Consumer welfare and policy relating to online gambling. Economics & International Business Subject Group. In possession of the author.

Smith, M.; Paton, D. & Williams, L. (2006). Market efficiency in person-to-person betting. Economica. (2006). In possession of the author.

Smith, M.; Paton, D. & Williams, L. (2008). Do bookmakers possess superior skills to bettors in predicting outcomes? Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation. In possession of the author.
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Sport Promotion Mix Kotler's Promotion Mix Consists

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65721565

Sport Promotion Mix

Kotler's promotion mix consists of advertising, publicity, personal contact, incentives, and atmospherics as well as licensing, sponsorship, and community relations to represent the contemporary sport promotion mix (Irwin, 2008). The New York Yankees the contemporary promotion mix. They have advertising of ticket sales, news articles and videos as publicity, blogs for personal contact with fans, discounts on tickets as incentives, and atmospherics with a showcase of bleachers, licensing with team logo items, sponsorships with corporations, and community relations with donations and fund drives.

Advertising is done for ticket sales (Home Page) and team logo items (New York Yankees), such as t-shirts, hats, etc. The advertised items serve two fold in the promotion mix. Ticket sales contain incentives in 12-game and group packages that offer discounts to consumers. The team logo items are advertised for sale, but also contain the licensing of the team logo. The team logo also falls under copyright law that protects them from being used by others. Advertising the team store to purchase logo items also falls under sponsorship because it is advertised on Fox Sports website.

The team gains publicity in the way of news articles concerning games and players, videos of games…… [Read More]


New York Yankees. (2013). Retrieved from ESPN MLB: 

Yankee Publications. (2013). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.:

Bryant, A. (1993, Apr 5). The Media Business: Advertising; For a Major League Baseball Team, the Season's First Pitch Comes Well Before Opening Up. Retrieved from New York Times:

Home Page. (n.d.). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.:, jsp-c_id=nyy
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Sports Memorabilia Issues Bill Would

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33666313

If the owner agrees, it discharges the debt under accord and satisfaction, as long as he takes the funds (cashes the check) knowing or with reason to know that it's consideration for discharging the debt. Even though it seems there's no new consideration here, there actually is; because it's a new promise to pay, given the fact that the owner would probably not be able to collect any funds otherwise.

As for the interest, if Mrs. Green disagrees with the calculation, she can recover under contract theory if she is proven correct. Unilateral mistake can be corrected in this fashion. If however, she knew of the error, then she would not be able to collect after the fact. Of course, she has to prove in a court that the calculation was incorrect.

Mary had contracted away her right to sue. A contract must have offer, acceptance and consideration (i.e., some forebearance) and this contract had all three. Paul offered a severance package, which Mary accepted by cashing the check and agreeing, and the consideration was her giving up her right to sue.

Harry reasonably relied to his detriment on Paul's comment that he would sell him the trains, or at…… [Read More]

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Sports Sponsorship Sport Sponsorship Analysis of Event

Words: 2344 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49187652

Sports Sponsorship

Sport Sponsorship

Analysis of Event, Sponsor, Consumer Relationship

Private organizations may be enticed to provide a share of the funding necessary to design and construct a sport facility or support the planning and operational phase of an event until the first revenues arrive. Companies may become involved in financing for three chief reasons. First, the company may seek to provide a facility within which to deliver its own products or services or its own major event. This is essentially a method of vertical integration.


A sport organization may wish to construct a facility that can be used to house its own events: The Rugby Sevens. The relationship can also work the other way around: for example, a facility might independently organize events to help contribute towards better- capacity utilization. Many larger multi-purpose arenas not only solicit the interests of event promoters but also operate their own event departments, which develop and run new events (Quinn, 1982).

Key Sponsor: HSBC

Sponsor Attributes

Clearly, their margins in these events are excellent because of the fixed venue costs. Most facilities, however, do not seek managing events as their core business. Alternatively, a television network may supply money for a stadium…… [Read More]


Armstrong, K.L. (2002). An examination of the social psychology of Blacks' consumption of sport. Journal of Sport Management, 16, 267-288.

Abratt, R., B.C. Clayton, and L.F. Pitt (2007), Corporate Objectives in Sports Sponsorships, International Journal of Advertising, 6, 299-311.

Baldwin, R. (2006), Taxing Aspects of Sports Sponsorship, Management Accounting, 10, 36-37.

Bagozzi, R. (2009), Marketing as Exchange, Journal of Marketing, 39, 32-39. 4.
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Sports Marketing

Words: 4268 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16731856

Sports Marketing

NFL or the 'National Football league' as it is referred to, is America's pride and cause for the inculcation of the inherent patriotic spirit in the heart of the American. The NFL conducts football games as a part of the tradition every year, and every year Americans gather at the stadium where patriotism is at its height and nationalistic fervor is at its peak. In the game that was conducted on September 24, 2001, soon after the attack on the World Towers by an Islamic militant group that left more than thousands dead and severely injured, the national spirit was at its ultimate peak, and the Americans gathered there underwent heightened emotions and feelings, and this was the time when pamphlets were distributed among the audience with the words of the 'Star Spangled Banner', and the 'God Bless America', and 'America the Beautiful'. Small American flags, almost a million of them in number, were also brought to the stadium to be distributed among the audience. There were a lot of tears and memories of the injured and the dead in the attacks were brought up and shared among the large number of people gathered there. (Patriotism abounds as…… [Read More]


"CBS, Fox clash over the marketing of NFL packages" (30 October, 2003) Retrieved From Accessed on 24 December, 2004

Collinsworth, Cris. "Celebrations about Marketing, not Team" Retrieved From Accessed on 24 December, 2004

'13 Lessons in Marketing, Super Bowl Style" Retrieved From
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Sports in Epic of America

Words: 1929 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39673625

Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.

Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of the people, by the people, and for the people because lawmakers are not endowed with powers but rather, receive their powers from the voting public. Iowa State proved that populism remains an integral part of the American spirit. Those who dream the American Dream rely on the kind of support…… [Read More]


The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at 

Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at

United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
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College Students and Alcohol Use

Words: 5292 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74738903

Psychosocial factors, such as depression, anxiety and social support, also induce drinking. This study confirmed that social cognitive factors drove college students to report on their own drinking. Psychosocial motives drove them to do so only at 1%. Social support was the only significant psychosocial predictor. The awareness of both the positive and negative consequences of drinking was quite likely behind the willingness of college students to report on their own drinking. This implied that drinking was a deliberate and conscious decision on their part. Heavy drinkers viewed their drinking as something negative in that they perceived themselves as having reduced control over it. Peer norms were also found to be an important predictor of drinking as a perceived norm and behavior, which supports drinking. Parental drinking norms also surfaced, although not as strong as the preceding predictors (Kuther & Temoshin).

Environmental Policies

Many new studies attempted to determine if the preponderance of alcohol establishments enticed more drinking among college students but produced mixed results (Trommey et al., 2007). Three subsequent studies on college campuses provided the evidence that alcohol consumption and drinking-related problems increased where alcohol establishments teemed. These recent studies also showed that licensed establishments and community festivals…… [Read More]


Barnett, N. et al. (2008). Profiles of college students mandated to alcohol intervention.

Journal of Studies on Alcohol: Alcohol Research Documentation, Inc. Retrieved on May 20, 2009 from;col1

Black, J.M.; Ausherman, J.A.; Kandaka, T.L.; Lam, E.T. C; and Jurjevic, S. C (2004).

Urban university students' knowledge of alcohol and drinking. American Journal of Health Studies: University of Alabama Department of Health Services. Retrieved on May 20, 2009 from;col1
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Sport Management Identify and Discuss

Words: 785 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51976981

This mechanism will ultimately save the firm money as it is more efficient with its resources. More important however, feedback insures that the strategic planning process remains focused on the metrics of success rather than diverging from its intended purpose. Sporting organizations need focus in order to maintain their funding constituency. This comes in the form of ticket, merchandise, and television ad sales.

Furthermore, performance measures are important in regards to the overall benchmarking process. Performance measures provide a means of evaluation of both personnel and the strategic plan itself. With these measures of success management can better identify performance relative to strategic planning benchmarks. Also, through the use of performance measures, coupled with appropriate feedback mechanisms management can better ascertain initiatives. If performance is a substantial departure from management standards, organizational leaders can better determine what areas need improvement and coach to those specific areas. Through performance measures, management can identify opportunities or weaknesses with the overall strategic plan (Martin, 1998).

Communication is vital to the overall strategic process. It is important for management to streamline communication channels between senior and lower level management. This strategic plan would incorporate a seamless distribution of information to employees and leaders within…… [Read More]


1) Martin, D.C. & Bartol, K.M. (1998). Performance appraisal: Maintaining system effectiveness. Public Personnel Management, 27(2), 223-230.

2) Schweitzer, ME., Ordonez, L., & Douma, B. (2004) Goal setting as a motivator of unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 422-432
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College Girls Peril Lynn College

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52773707

Even today, the image of the over-sexualized college girl persists, in images of girls on 'spring break' who have 'gone wild,' to cheerleaders. Also, although they have dimmed so much, the question as to how to balance work and family life remains for women in a way that it does not for men, harkening back to the idea that women, unlike men, must choose between being either bodies or brains.

The anxieties about female education in recent decades have also become exacerbated by the increasing percentages of women in relation to men on campuses all across the nation. As women make up a disproportionate amount of college graduates, women and men have voiced the concern that men will begin to feel inadequate, and that boys cannot cope with the feminized atmosphere of the classroom. While before it was feared that women could not cope with 'male' subjects like mathematics and history, now the classroom is sexed as female and challenges like sitting in or turning in one's homework are attributed to the poor young male's inability to cope with a female authority figure. Conversely, any failure on the part of females, like the lack of female representation in the sciences,…… [Read More]

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Sports Psychology -- Achieving Specific

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7276500

Monthly Interventions

Complete 4 workouts during Weeks 3 and 4, each. Establish a routine that lends itself to long-term maintenance of the 4-week plan over a much longer term (i.e. For life).

Begin to live a fitness lifestyle that does not require constant short-term effort to maintain.

Goal #3 -- Stop smoking permanently

Daily Interventions

Create a list of specific situations in which smoking will no longer be permitted at all (i.e. wakeup cigarette, smoking with other people under any circumstances, smoking after meals, and smoking in any situation that is either enjoyable or comfortable). Decide what specific method will be used to make smoking purely "maintenance dose"-related (i.e. standing on one leg, smoking in the cold, smoking only with one palm on the floor, etc.) Inform friends of methodology to avoid any misinterpretation of intentions.

Weekly Interventions

Identify any lapses in the rules established in Week 1 and take definitive steps to remove those barriers. Among other things, commit to avoiding accompanying friends when they smoke, admit instances where smoking resulted from psychological desire rather than physiological craving. Make the necessary adjustments to avoid similar lapses in Week 2. Remind friends of goals and request their assistance in avoiding…… [Read More]

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Sports and Conditioning Coach Becoming

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51867606

Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.

A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he or she is training before the client leaves for work, and then drive to various clients' homes for the rest of the morning and work until late at night. He or she might also see clients at his or her own home, provided there is a facility for training and…… [Read More]


Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at

Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at

Waehner, Paige. (2011). How to become a personal trainer. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at
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Sports Race Class Gender the

Words: 2881 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17962225

He got nowhere. "Talking to Barnett was like talking to a wall." Neither Tharp nor Barnett recalls Dave Hnida saying anything about sexual harassment. "If I'd have heard that, I'd have jumped down somebody's throat," Barnett says. "Not one time did I ever see or hear about anybody treating her wrong. I don't believe she was sexually harassed. I don't believe our players would do that. They'd be in too much trouble with me." Barnett says he gave one player a "tongue-lashing" for making a vulgar comment to Katie.

Katie, as a sophomore dropped out of school, despite her historical commitment to her education and her desire to play football. After doing so it is reported by her and her father that she endured several years of deep depression which affected her in every way, and yet she eventually found the courage to move forward, went back to a junior college and finally had the courage to return to football as a walk on at New Mexico. "Last August she became the first woman to score in Division I football history when she kicked two PATs in the Lobos' 72-8 rout of Texas State-San Marcos."

Many attest that her case…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Primary Sources

Get This Guy out of Here." The Washington Times, 20 February 2004, C01.

King, Larry, "Interview with Denise Brown; Interview with Katie Hnida." November 28, 2006 CNN Larry King Live: Transcript [online]

Mcrorie, Jessica. "High Schools Face Scrutiny, Lawsuits over Gender Equality in Sports Teams." Curriculum Review.
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Sports Law Memo Re Firing

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26156865

Title IX, as you must know, requires that universities provide as much funding and other forms of support to women's sports as to men's. President Allen announced in the same press conference that your firing was in all likelihood a precedent to the teams' being dissolved. Given this fact, it will certainly be arguable in court (as well as in the preliminary documents that we will file, which may well lead to a settlement from the university rather than having to proceed to court) that your firing was simply a pretext that would allow the university to cut funding to women's sports. Such a clear violation of federal law is definite grounds for a lawsuit.

We have additional support for such a lawsuit in that President Allen has make a number of statement supporting the importance of male teams and has consistently attended the games played by the male teams and has yet to attend a single game played by the women. This is prima facie evidence of bias on his part.

So, in answer to your preliminary questions:

1. Yes, the university can fire you because you are an at-will employee who has arguably performed poorly.

2. You can,…… [Read More]

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Universities and Colleges It Has

Words: 440 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25203937

Part 2

Universities and colleges have been described as 'loosely coupled systems...'

"What does this mean to you based on the readings?" loosely coupled system is one that only occasionally works, and sometimes produces unpredictable results. Given the disparate goals and social elements of the modern university, a university is clearly such a loosely coupled system. Students come wanting a degree to get a good job and may have to take liberal arts courses they dislike, professors who want to research must teach students with little interest in deeper, critical thinking about life, the university community is diverse and brings together teachers, students, and administrators with different backgrounds and views of the purpose of life and education -- and sometimes students, faculty, and administrators use their position for social change, other times college is simply a place to 'fill time.'

Student organizations, social and extracurricular, may have different interests than administrators and academic departments. Consider the conflict many Greek organizations pose to both academics and university loyalty. Yet all of these social elements are fused together -- students, professors, and administrators -- and none could function without one another. Thus they form a system, but how their disparate personalities will…… [Read More]

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Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56749717

Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?

Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the revenues from these respective programs being an important source of income for many colleges (Enoch and Glenn 656). Colleges that compete at the Division 1A level appear to enjoy a competitive advantage in terms of the revenues that are possible. In fact, Losco and Fife (2000) emphasize that, "Division IAA…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Enoch, Jessica and Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense, 3rd ed. Bedford/St. Martin's.

Fizel, J. And Fort, Rodney. Economics of College Sports. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jones, A. (2009). "Athletics, Applications & Yields." College and University 85(2): 10-12.

Losco, Joseph and Fife, Brian L. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New
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Violence in American Sports Today

Words: 3564 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28418040

Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.

Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.

In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president of the National Alliance for Youth Sports reported that the incidence of parental misconduct at youth athletic events rose from 5% in 1995 to 15% in 2000; further Staffo (2001) (reviewed below) has reported numerous incidents of criminal violence by athletes in recent years. The authors provide some insightful observations…… [Read More]

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Boost for Women's Athletics but

Words: 3098 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40019638

Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.

The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and ear scholarships" at the level of Division I in NCAA schools, and hence, "it's time to erase all institutional gender discrimination, and that includes bias against boys" (

The College Sports Council (August, 2008) launched a petition drive which was aided by a few Olympic champions; John Naber (four Gold…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved

June 28, 2009, from . (2004).

Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-

Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
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Bingeing Became the New College

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8402836

I would be interested to see information on the number of these incidents when the drinking age was 18.

In his article, Seaman explains the practice of pregaming. According to Seaman, college students who are too young to purchase alcohol drink large quantities of liquor prior to going to a party. This practice results in many students either being hospitalized or actually dying from alcohol poisoning. In relating the history of the legislation regarding the drinking age, Seaman explains that the drinking age was lowered to 18 in the 1960s as a result of student protests. During the 1980s, pressures from Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) forced legislation that increased the drinking age to 21 in all 50 states. According to Seaman, prohibiting the use of alcohol for 18 to 20-year-olds resulted in making the use of alcohol more attractive for these young adults. He argues that while lowering the drinking age might initially result in a surge of drinking, eventually this would settle down and students would learn to drink responsible. As evidence, he cites the example of McGill University in Montreal where the legal drinking age is 18. Seaman states, "Many, when they first arrive, go overboard, exploiting…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Seaman, Barrett. "How Bingeing Became the New College Sport." Web 23 June 2011.,8816,1096516,00.html.

Urban Dictionary. Web. 23 June 2011.
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Gender in Sports in the

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9741790

Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. What will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable future.

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Works Cited

Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard

Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.

"HR and Employment Law News." HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
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M Ed in Intercollegiate Athletics Administration

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26603304

A strong athletic program keeps former students loyal and draws new, more qualified students into the applicant pool.

At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.

I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute…… [Read More]

At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.

I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute to the development of underrepresented college sports, to enable as many students to participate in competitive intercollegiate athletics as possible.

I seek this degree to give me the necessary technical skills to put my enthusiasm and innate abilities into action, as well as to gain further knowledge of the field of intercollegiate athletics administration. I am confident that this program at the University of Oklahoma, a university with such a proud and patriotic athletic tradition is the ideal place, with the ideal atmosphere, to learn what I need to know in order to be successful in my chosen, future career.
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Title IX Impact on Collegiate Athletics

Words: 1147 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57373046

Title IX and its Impact on Collegiate Athletics

Among the more influential pieces of federal legislation to spring forth from the heady days of America's civil rights movements is Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments. This critical provision, officially found under Section 20 of the United States Code, states unequivocally that "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance" (Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688) and in essence paves the way for the inclusion of women into collegiate athletic programs. Originally enacted as an amendment to Title IX the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which delegitimized systemic discrimination on the basis of race, religion and national origin, the 1972 version sought to address the issue of rampant gender inequality afflicting academia and the professional realm.

An interesting historical footnote is that, although Title IX has been predominately applied to intercollegiate athletics, the original language of the statute never explicitly mentions sports. Nonetheless, the amendment to the Civil Rights Act has been successfully applied to the athletic programs of public universities based on…… [Read More]


Lukas, C. (2011, October 9). High schools don't need athletic quotas. Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved from 

Parker-Pope, T. (2010, February 15). As girls become women, sports pay dividends. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Roberson, D. (2011, October 10). Georgia state moves fueled by title ix. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved from

Shook, S.M. The Title IX Tug-of-War and Intercollegiate Athletics in the 1990's: Nonrevenue Men's Teams