Cyber Crimes and the FBI
The investigative techniques used by the FBI in the case of Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov were completely legitimate and necessary; moreover, they demonstrated that law enforcement of the United States was prepared to use any means necessary to apprehend these flagrant security risks. "Court papers described the men as kingpins of Russian computer crime who hacked into the networks of at least 40 U.S. companies and then attempted to extort money" (Brunker, 2000). These men were formidable criminals who used the Internet and computers as their weapons of choice to destroy, manipulate and victimize American companies. There's a very strong and very legitimate argument which asserts that the only way to go after such elusive criminals is via the same type of trickery and subterfuge that they engage in themselves. It's very hard to fight fair with criminals who are engaging in the most absolute underhanded practices, particularly ones which involve the Internet, as it's exponentially easier to conceal one's actions and intentions and to be cloaked and buried within the vastness of the expansive Internet.
Part of the uproar which emerged after the actions of the FBI were uncovered asserted that they had behaved in a manner that was potentially unlawful. "According to court documents filed in the case, the FBI and Department of Justice lured two suspected Russian hackers to Seattle with job offers at a fictitious security company. After monitoring the duo's connection to two servers in Russia, the FBI used the suspects' passwords to download incriminating data from those servers" (Lemos, 2001). This was precisely the tactic that was going to be scrutinized in court; though multiple parties were concerned that it might be considered lawful and the repercussions of such an event. For example, "…if it is deemed lawful, the precedent could allow law enforcement and intelligence communities free rein to hack foreign computers. In addition, such a ruling could provide a legal loophole for other countries to break into U.S.-based computers in search of data that could aid their own investigations" (Lemos, 2001). This is a truly formidable consequence and one which many were aware could create truly dire results -- not just for American security, but for all of international security.
Other critics of the FBI accuse them of entrapment: while these hackers were indeed waging a…… [Read More]
Cyber crime is an ongoing and growing problem for businesses, for government, and for private individuals throughout the world. This paper identifies the kinds of cyber crime that are threatening computer users, notably businesses. It also proposes strategies that businesses can embrace that will (in many cases) prevent the intrusion of cyber criminals into servers and hard drives.
What particular cyber crimes do businesses / individuals need to be wary of?
An article in the peer-reviewed journal Performance Improvement (Nykodym, et al., 2010) points out -- using FBI data from 2005 -- that computer crimes cost American organizations an estimated $67.2 billion every year. Not all cyber crimes are committed against businesses in order to steal passwords and intrude into servers to re-route financial information or actually seize funds from companies. In fact an FBI update in 2012 reports that the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) has received 290,000 complaints from individuals who have been scammed through Internet fraud. A common form of cyber crime that is imposed on individuals is through the use of "scareware" (also called "ransomware"). The computer user suddenly sees a pop up that warns of a threat to the computer; it asks the user to purchase antivirus software to knock down the threat.
Cyber crimes in a business setting specifically. As to businesses -- corporations and small businesses too -- there is a great deal to worry about because cyber threats are taking their toll. Nykodym explains that many executives "…overlook computer crime as a serious threat…only 4% of polled executives indicated that cyber crime represented a serious hazard to their business property" (43). But there are serious threats and because of that managers and executives are not the right people to be on top of the threats; the company should have a security expert on board (Nykodym, 44). Investigative journalist Bert Latamore explains that cyber criminals are acquiring business information like "…unannounced quarterly results, engineering and design drawings for new products," and updated business strategies (Latamore, 2010, p. 11). They get this information by using a "bot" (short for…… [Read More]
Currently, the internet has become a significant infrastructure, which has brought new degrees of productivity, convenience, and effectiveness for the private and public firms. The many incidents of internet attacks reflect the vulnerability of the information systems, the severity of malicious programs and the offensive nature of technology. Similarly, either attackers can hide their identity, through disabling logging facilities or altering event logs, which makes them go undetected. On the other hand, some programs have the capability of disabling anti-virus or penetrate firewalls. This has made such security violations to have multi-dimensional impacts on individual internet users, businesses, time, human resources, loss of money, and psychological losses. This, on another hand, shows that the internet and the superior information infrastructure are not short of security violations (Wilson & Kiy, 2014).
Many scholars have given possible reasons the internet is vulnerable to these attacks. The reasons include failure to enforce policies, ignorance of new vulnerabilities and high expectations from technical skills. In addition, the scholars have suggested that these risks result to insecurity challenges for the information society. Although governments have made efforts to enhance security on their own computer, networks to prevent attackers from gaining access to computer systems (Li, 2006). In fact, most of the governments across the world have shown their concerns to the private sector, mainly due to them becoming targets of these attacks. Overall, cyber attacks have consequential influential impacts, mainly economic effects, because companies end up becoming targets of blackmail and loss of both financial information and money.
Cyber security is a proportional concept. On one hand, it includes a comparison between security and attack methods. On the other hand, it entails a comparison between varying security methods. In the computer world, it is common knowledge that the attack methods develop faster when compared to the security techniques, regardless of the…… [Read More]
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest and also make it hard for the offenders to flee the scene of crime.
There are quite a few expressive crimes which occur at place but these are usually the result of bottled-up anger and frustration in the staff or clients. If customers do not get proper service and customer care, they will end up being violent and this may result in violence, arson or even vandalism for that matter. If there is any kind of discrimination in the staff, promotions get offered on personal preference rather than professional capability, this will provoke the staff to the highest degree possible and crime will definitely be a repercussion of that.
There should be no discrimination of any kind in the workplace. Promotions and perks should be awarded on merit and everyone should get equal opportunity in every sense of the word. This is the root cause of violence which is usually done by insiders and goes on to become an incident of crime. Customers should be given the highest priority and they should be given highest level of respect and consideration. Other crimes can be avoided if there is a proper check at entrance at all times. If anyone enters or leaves the workplace, it should be recorded and a proper record should be maintained. Security systems and surveillance cameras are…… [Read More]
The available and accessible features of 21st century make it hard for any individual to think about a life without technology. In real, the world has crossed several stages and eras devoid of the cyber world. Despite this truth, imagining life without technology is a difficult task today. This is because communication between countries of the two opposite poles has now become easy; it's merely like being in touch with the next door neighbor. The cyber world and the age of technology revolve around the idea of connecting with the world, inventions and scientific advancement. Although, a life without technology would be a nightmare because of the benefits it has brought to the world, the negative consequences attached with it actually make life more difficult.
The cyber world is an example of the technological progress. It is all about the virtual world where at many places, computer have replaced human labor. It has made the world computerized as it is being used from places like hospital to monitor patients to universities for their entry tests and grading policies. Similarly, it is not a way to gain access to the worldwide happenings and interact with people on the other end of the globe, but it has given mankind freedom to raise their voice, establish business relationships and regulate systems.
The cyber world is a distinctive feature of the modern world where it marks the progress and development of human race. Computers have brought a revolution. This is because of the transformations it has brought in the lives of every individual as it is seen to dictate and benefit the several different aspects of human life. The cyber world is seen to govern the corporate, government, military, scientific and every other sector of the society. Hence, it has become the need of time. This need is merely attributed to the achievements of technology; the quick pace, ease and ability to make things happen with a single click.
As a matter of fact, mentioning the advantages that technology and computers have brought for the world, would require closer analysis of each and every corner of the globe and consequently become a tedious job. This is because of the impact that the cyber world has made on the lives of every individuals ranging from scientists to…… [Read More]
Cybercrime, Cybercriminals, And Cybercops
Cybercrime has long been perceived to represent new crimes arising from the emergence of technological advancement, but an examination of the history of cybercrime reveal that its roots are as ancient as the crimes of fraud, harassment, and malicious property damage. The history of cybercrime is reviewed briefly here, as are the challenges faced by law enforcement efforts to curb cybercrime. Some gains have been realized, such as stemming the losses incurred from identity theft, but the virtual landscape changes so rapidly that new threats and criminal tactics are constantly emerging.
Cybercrime, Cybercriminals, and Cybercops
Cybercrime is formally defined by the Canadian Police College as illegal activity which depends materially on the use of computers to commit crimes or when computers are the object of the crime (Kowalski, 2008, p. 5-6). A contemporary example of the use of computers in criminal activity would be hacking into bank records over the internet to steal passwords and account numbers. This essay will briefly examine the history of cybercrime, how computer technology has changed the manner of criminal activity, and what law enforcement has been doing in response.
Over Forty Years of Violence
As soon as computers began to be put into use they became the targets of human frustration by disgruntled operators, employees, or business customers. Beginning in the 1960s, computer systems all over the world began to be shot with guns, bombed, held hostage, kidnapped for ransom, burned, stabbed, and sabotaged (Kabay, 2008, p. 5-6). Since this early period in computing history little has changed, as shown by a 2001 survey that revealed 25% of all computers have probably been physically assaulted. Although many of these assaults were committed by the computer's owner and therefore not a crime, there's no reason to believe workplace computers would be immune from this type of violence.
The current epidemic of identity theft has its roots…… [Read More]
Cyber Threats: Executive Summary
It is important to note, from the onset, that even before the personal computer became as popular and as widely used as it is today, vandals still compromised computerized phone systems either for fun or for economic benefit. During the very early decades of IT, computer attacks were mostly committed by insiders, i.e. disgruntled employees of an entity (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007). The said attacks in this case were largely limited to physical damage to computing devices. At the time, "the systems were not networked with other systems…" (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007, p. 706). This was, however, until vandals discovered new ways of making use of computer systems to turn a profit or register protests. During these early days of technology, criminals would commonly modify data after subverting security systems via mostly authorized access. With the spread of telecommunications technology during the 1960s, computer criminals started learning how penetrate networks and systems. Vandals would often subvert phone systems with their intention being theft of services or just for amusement purposes.
The appearance of ARPANET, defined by de Leeuw and Bergstra (2007, p. 706) as "the world's first packet switching network," is seen by many as having set the stage for cyber attacks. In linking computers in numerous universities and other companies, ARPANET effectively "linked hackers all over the country…" leading to the emergence of more sophisticated cyber attacks (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007, p. 706). It was, however, not until the 1980s that vandals with varying levels of programming expertise begun to write malicious software designed to self-replicate and interfere with the normal functioning of personal computers.
The early 1990s, as Casey (2011) notes, saw the introduction of the World Wide Web and hence greater connectivity across the world. With the increased utilization of the internet, computer criminals developed ways of gaining unauthorized access to systems that were poorly protected. The motivation for this was in most cases financial or political. As the decade progressed, penetration as well as subversion of computing devices became a common avenue for the perpetration of crimes of a financial nature. With operating systems being strengthened further in the mid 90s so as to limit the occurrence of computer crimes, vandals shifted to new attack vectors and retired earlier versions of malware (de Leeuw and Bergstra 2007). It was also…… [Read More]
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.
At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.
Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke where it professionals leave off, through ongoing development of crisis management, as illustrated in Table 1.
Comprehensive national plan for continued security in cyber-systems;
Crisis management in response to attacks on critical information systems;
Technical assistance to private sector and other government entities in regard to urgent recovery plans following emergencies;
Coordination with other agencies in the federal government in design and education on protective countermeasures and warnings at the state, local and NGO organization levels;
Performing and funding research with new scientific developments in security technologies as a goal; and Serving the general public as a federal center for cyber-security.
Table 1. Crisis Management Goals (DHS, 2003).
In 2003, pursuant to section 994(p) of title 28, United States Code, the United States Sentencing Commission published Congressional guidelines to the conviction of parties in violation of Section 225 of the Cyber Security Enhancement Act of the Homeland Security Act, 2002. The amendment stipulates,
"modifies §2B2.3, to which 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(3) (misdemeanor trespass on a government computer) offenses are referenced, and §2B3.2, to which 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(7) (extortionate demand to damage protected computer) offenses are referenced to provide enhancements relating to computer systems used to maintain or operate a critical…… [Read More]
The effectual activities that have resulted in such kinds of organized crime activities involve compromising of the technological approaches and systems. Such technological approaches are used to transmit money from one section of the country to another.
Reports indicate that many organized crime activities and perpetrators assume the roles of paying for elections through their corrupt deals. These deals ensure continuity of their businesses when they get to government. The effectual happening is a translational organized crime activity that will live to be remembered in many parts of the world (Mallory, 2012).
Globally, many people lose their lives daily in accordance to attacks from organized crime personalities. Most of them have succumbed to drug use and abuse together with death through weapons and other forms of weaponry in the society. It is relevant to note the difference between the many sectors of the economy that relay significance or influence of activities involving organized crime in the society. Because of these crime activities, people have been involved in crime without their knowledge. For instance, as happen in Italy and the United States of America, it is highly possible to find relevant authorities seeking help from the public after which they engage in crime with them and later take their lives. Similar activities have been reported to be rampant in several streets of the United States of America and the United Kingdom (Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, 2011).
The effects of organized crime have traversed the entire world since it has resulted in several happenings globally. The different manifestations of organized crime activities have replicated similar results in bringing out the innate desires and results from the society. The largest forms of loses are those concerned with lose of lives and monetary values from the people. The main aim of these people has been to engage in crime activities that will benefit them financially and in many other forms. Some of the perpetrators have tried to establish power and dominion in some parts of the societies from where they will be able to rule and benefit from the innocent members of the society. Other sections of the organized crime departments have resulted in regular lose of monetary accessibilities and transitions through the…… [Read More]
white-collar crime. Specifically, it will focus on white-collar crime in America, including reasons why it occurs so frequently in the United States, and what business, industry, and the courts can do to combat it. White-collar crime is not a new idea in America, but it seems to have become even more prevalent in recent years. White-collar crime may not seem as harmful as other forms of violent crimes, but it seem to be more pervasive in a society that has become increasingly centered on money, possessions, and appearing affluent and successful. It is possible to control white-collar crime, but that control must begin in the colleges and courtrooms of America.
In the scheme of social history, the term "white-collar crime" is relatively new. Sociologist Edwin Sutherland actually coined the phrase in 1939 at an American Sociological Society conference (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001, p. 1). He used the phrase to help differentiate between the accepted model of the criminal at the time, who was stereotypically a member of the poor class living in decaying and underprivileged neighborhoods, usually in the inner city. Sutherland's term acknowledged there were other types of criminals who had other agendas. According to authors Weisburd, Waring, and Chayet, Sutherland's criminals were far different, and showed far different motives. In his conference speech, he notes, "The white-collar criminals he identified were often middle-aged men of respectability and high social status. They lived in affluent neighborhoods, and they were well respected in the community" (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001, p. 2). Sutherland's model became the norm for identifying white-collar criminals, but little study was done by the criminal justice community, because most experts believed white-collar criminals were usually one-time offenders who had few, if any, recurring appearances in the criminal justice system. As crime has matured, so has the understanding of the white-collar criminal, and so has the awareness that many of these white-collar offenders are habitual offenders. Understanding why they commit their crimes can lead to a greater understanding of white-collar crime in…… [Read More]
Cynthia Simmons began receiving unwanted communication from an unknown assailant. She did what the experts recommend: she changed her email address, instant messenger identity and other online identifiers, nothing stopped the computer harassment. She believes the offender to be her ex-boyfriend, Jacob Myers, but even searching her computer and comparing the offending emails to that of Jacob Myers, the evidence has not been sufficient to obtain a search warrant to search Jacob Myers' computer.
It appears that Ms. Simmons is the victim of cyberstalking. According the NCSL, "cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email or other electronic communications to stalk, and generally refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors." She, Ms. Simmons, has been receiving calls to her home propositioning her for services and she found out that someone had placed her contact information on an escort service website. Stalking is a serious crime, whether done with a computer or not and almost every state has a law on the books against stalking and several states now have laws against cyberstalking.
In the past few days Ms. Simmons has been contacted via e-mail on how to stop the harassment. She was told to send $9.99 through PayPal for four different payments. However, when the identify of the account holder was discovered, it was traced to…… [Read More]
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007
2007 Estonian Cyber-war
This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the Russian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).
More than 340,000 ethnic Russians reside in Estonia which means that the Russians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and Russia share an extensive history of conflict and contention in their two-sided relationship. Evidently, the tribulations between these ethnic populations are very old. After the annexation of the Baltic States by Soviet Union in 1940, the Soviet government relocated innumerable ethnic Russians to Estonia. It has been said that this relocation had two purposes. Firstly, the Russian authorities wanted to increase solidity in the Eastern Bloc. Secondly, it had an unyielding desire to "Russify" the culture of Estonia. However, after the conclusion of Cold War and the dissolution of the U.S.S.R., the Estonian government put such policies into operation that aimed to minimize the influences of Russians on Estonian culture (Herzog, 2011).
Cyber Attacks 2007
The Estonian government websites and banks were thwarted with a colossal cyber-attack in late April 2007. This cyber attack is also called a denial of service attack. The Estonian government announced that "the attack originated from the Kremlin and coincided with Estonia's decision to remove the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, a Soviet-era shrine to Red Army veterans" (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Consequently, the Russian hackers got the revenge from Estonia with constant requests for information. The first response in Estonia was to suppose that the Russian state was responsible for the attacks. However according to Dr. Marsh, "it was very…… [Read More]
The operating system faced these issues due to the lackluster approach from Apple to patch their software in time. As a result, it led to risking the data of personal users. It shows that irregularities in the patching of computers affected users adversely without any fault of their own (Daily Tech, 2012).
In addition to that, the operating system of Apple is now considered as one of the most favored platform for hackers due to loopholes in the framework. Similarly, social networks such as Facebook have also been guilty of retaining an obsolete database, which led to one of the biggest security breaches in the recent era of internet (Chabrow, 2013). Thus, it can be said that personal computers are affected due to the negligence of the software vendors but its impact cannot be ignored.
Addressing the impact:
a) Software Vulnerability:
In order to address the impacts that unpatched systems have on cyber security, Lin (2006) has stressed that it is essential for organizations to develop efficient access controls as well as install regular updates for their quarantine antivirus software and firewalls. When an organization attains effective security against external access, coupled with creating increased awareness among the employees to take precautionary measures while using the internet, the impact of unpatched systems can be greatly decreased. In addition to that, the operating system providers should provide timely updates as soon as a new threat emerges (Lin, 2006).
In this regard, software developers are required to provide the enterprise consumers with timely updates and patches for the security software. As soon as a new threat is identified, developers or the hired staff should be able to provide security against the threats in the form of patches (Lin, 2006). In addition to that, the employees should be directed to use the internet in a responsible and defensive manner. They should not be allowed to visit infected websites from their workplace. In the end, it is advised that the threat of unprotected or unpatched systems should not be taken lightly by organizations and they should be given due importance.
b) Hardware Vulnerability:
The impact of system updates with regards to hardware should also not be underestimated. Older chipsets, which are near the end of their cycle, are exposed to…… [Read More]
crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).
White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.
Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that "the internet is the crime scene of the 21st century" (White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond). The online environment provides criminals with a series of tools that they can use with the purpose of achieving their goals. Although the authorities have opened a series of cybercrimes divisions, it is difficult and almost impossible for these groups to be able to detect and catch all cybercriminals.
Similar to how individuals struggle to get into universities like MIT, many go through great efforts in order to become the members of particular online communities. Numerous individuals perceive online communities as being little more than internet locations where strangers talk without knowing a great deal of information about each-other. While this might apply in the case of particular communities that have a poor structure…… [Read More]
Wide Web, an addition of online users resulted in both good and bad individuals. With increasing data online, the chances of it being misused increased as people got more technologically aware. Since the internet provides people with anonymity and complex ways of broaching personal privacy and data bounds, the legal ramifications had to be considered by regulators. Delineating the boundaries of cyber law became increasingly important in order to protect users online.
What is Cyberspace Law?
The Cyberspace law, also known as the cyber law, is a piece of legislation that regulates transactions and communications over the Internet or over other interconnected devices and technologies. This legislation protects members of the public, particularly internet users from illegal activities by hackers and other persons or entities with ill-intentions (LaMance, 2015). The law regulates several parts of the communications world including:
Freedom of expression
Electronic and mobile commerce
Problems in Prosecuting Cyber-crimes
Many laws and sections within laws dealing with unauthorized access, spamming, unauthorized utilization of wireless networks, cyber-stalking and cyber-bullying did not exist over 3 decades ago. Federal and state governments had to come up with the legislations so as to tackle the issues that were bedeviling the communications industry, particularly the promising internet subsector (Shinder, 2011). Now that the legislations are in place, enforcing them has become quite difficult. In fact the difficulty or special nature of investigating cyber crimes or prosecuting has become so difficult such that many police departments have set up and dedicated special units to enforce cyber regulations. However, it is said that other police departments don't have such divisions and because of the fact that enforcing legislation in the internet world is essentially more difficult than enforcing other conventional legislations (Shinder, 2011).
Issues with Jurisdiction
Branches of Law. In the United States, there are 3 branches of law in use: the civil law, the criminal law and regulatory law. The criminal law deals with crimes/offenses that are prosecutable by federal, state and local governments. The civil law deals with disagreements between entities. Regulatory laws are enforced by regulatory institutions over particular activities or industries.
Type of Case: in each system of law there are different courts…… [Read More]
Cyber Bullying and Its Impact
Over the past decade, attention has been drawn to cyber-bullying by the media and researchers. Research on cyber-bullying has covered the various behavior aspects; focusing mainly on demographic and personal factors of the involved individuals. Particularly, the research has been targeted at factors among adolescents; who account for a majority of cyber-bullying cases. Nonetheless, it is important that other populations are studied too -- even adults where cyber-bullying may not be as common -- so that evaluations are made on the previous findings. Several personal factors linked to adolescent cyber-bullying, e.g. level of self-esteem, have been noted to change as one gets older (Obins et al., 2002). It is necessary therefore that studies be done whether or not such factors remain linked to cyber-bullying in various groups of different ages. Moreover, while research on cyber-bullying on adults is taking shape, they are limited to identifying individuals as either cyber victims or the cyber-bully (Zachilli & Valerio, 2011). Contrastingly, most of the research on adolescents makes distinctions on the various identities of cyber-bullies, which allows for the behavior to be better understood. This paper discusses 4 cyber-identities (cyber-bully, non-involved and cyber-victim/bully) among young adults, and the way self-esteem is connected to the four identities (Brack & Caltabiano, 2014).
Smit et al. (2008) broadly describes cyber-bullying as an intentional aggressive act that an individual or group carries using electronic contact means, repeatedly over a given time period against a victim that can't defend him/herself easily (p. 366). The description is the same as that given to the traditional bullying that takes place offline. It consists of three parts that differentiate bullying from such acts like assault and harassment (Sevcikova & Smahel, 2009). Specifically, a bullying act has to include aggression as well as identifiable power imbalance between the victim and the bully and the bullying act has to be done repeatedly over a given period of time (Newey & Magson, 2010). Nonetheless, using this definition to describe cyber-bullying raises questions on whether cyber-bullying is an extension of the traditional offline bullying and that they feature the same components (Beran & Li, 2005), whether it is distinctly different with very different characteristics (Ybara et al., 2007). In spite of these differences, there is agreement on the range of methods and activities used in cyber-bullying (Brack & Caltabiano, 2014).
Cyber-bullying can…… [Read More]
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This worm spread to several computers that were mostly in the United States and it exploited the weaknesses found in the UNIX system which allowed it to quickly replicate itself. This worm slowed computers down to the point where they could no longer be effectively used. Robert Tapan Morris created the worm and he claimed he was only attempting to discover how vast the internet was. As a result, he was the first person in history to be convicted under the United States Computer Abuse and Fraud Act. Georgian computer networks were also hacked by unidentified foreign intruders during a period in which the country experienced hostilities with Russia. Graffiti was posted on the websites of the Georgian government. Little or no services were actually disrupted, however, the Georgian government believed these attacks were coordinated by the Russian military officials. Comment by dkamari: It Comment by dkamari: Not a place==that Comment by dkamari: Serious run-on
The FBI stated that these cybercriminals have devised new means of gaining access to the login details of banking employees by using phishing and spam emails, remote access Trojans and keystroke loggers. Attacks like these were witnessed in September 2012 when Wells Fargo and Bank of America were both…… [Read More]
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline
Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security
Methods of the Government Interventions
Impacts of Government Regulation on National Security
Failure to comply to related cyber regulations
Meeting the minimum requirements.
Exceeding the Minimum Requirements
The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. Recently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of interconnectivity among businesses and public organizations, the present network systems have brought increased risks of fraud, theft, threat, cyber terrorism, and abuse.
The objective of this project is to investigate the human aspect of cyber security providing revealing the strategy the government should employ in setting up cyber-security against internal and external threats. The paper discusses a government justification to enact law and regulations mandating business organizations to install minimum cyber defenses. Moreover, the paper discusses the impact of the minimum cyber defenses on the business community.
Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security
The rates of the cyber threats in the United States are becoming alarming and the issues require the government immediate intervention to improve cyber security. With an increase of internal threats, organizations are required to use both an interactive and consistency approach to assessing, identify, and manage cyber security. However, the contemporary sophistication of cyber threats is becoming alarming and requiring an intervention of government assistance. The major reason for justification of government intervention for cybersecurity is that the cyber threats have become a cyber war among nation-states, and private organizations alone are not possessing essential security protocol to protect themselves against the current global threats. For example, North Korea and Iran are investing in cyber warfare as part of their military warfare capabilities. Typically, Iran has become a key player in cyber warfare aiming a large-scale attack on the websites of large financial…… [Read More]
Cyber crime is pernicious and can only be stopped through a widespread and diverse campaign involving primarily prevention. Moreover, cyber crime can only be prevented and stopped by better understanding the types of cyber crimes, and differentiating between them. For individuals and businesses, preventing cyber crimes entails a variety of common sense activities and tools including overall education and awareness that includes ongoing updates about how to secure sensitive data and prevent problems. Some cyber crimes are actually traditional crimes carried out in the digital landscape, ranging from child pornography to human, drug, and weapons trafficking. Other cyber crimes present clear threats to national security, such as hacking of banking or utilities management systems. Each type of cyber crime needs to be dealt with individually, with a broad overall approach that empowers individuals and businesses against would-be criminals.
The nature of cyber crime is de-centralized and geographically independent. Therefore, task forces to combat cyber crime need also take into account their jurisdictional barriers and work with international law enforcement agencies when necessary. A cyber criminal working in Russia has the same chance of hacking a system in the United States as a hacker in the United States. However, the most common types of cyber criminals are actually insiders: employees of an organization performing crimes like embezzlement (Nykodym, Taylor & Wilela, 2005). Moreover, employees who use social media, shop online, or perform other non-work related activities on company devices are potentially placing their organization's systems at risk. Therefore, all non-work related activities should be heavily policed in the interests of company security.
Firewalls, anti-virus software, and robust password management are three of the top methods of preventing cyber crime from occurring in any venue. Similarly, securing mobile devices, ensuring all software is kept up-to-date, and data encryption are ways of preventing cyber crime from occurring. These simple methods are not foolproof and cyber criminals often develop the means…… [Read More]
One definition of Cyber bullying is that it is the employment of technology by a person to intimidate, upset, harass, demean and humiliate another person. Targets chosen by cyber bullies are no different from those picked by face-to-face bullies. These targets share characteristics such as being lonely or loners, vulnerable, socially uncomfortable, and hence mostly isolated. Some bullies choose to remain anonymous so as to escape accountability for their actions but still inflict the harm they intended. The devastating effects of cyber bullying are far reaching because the audience is larger than just the person targeted. This bullying can happen in many ways. Blogs and websites designed specifically for bullying a child are some of these ways. These avenues are used to expose embarrassing pictures, threatening messages and even private Instant Messages (IM). Bullies also use these forums to embolden others like them to "gang up" against the target. In this way, some students who are targets of bullying, being socially inexperienced, may mistakenly think that the attention given to them is friendship when, in fact, it is bullying. The aim of this case study is to discuss how cyber bullying can be prevented and stopped in society especially against young people.
Bullying is a deeply rooted practice that has existed in America since its inception. A capitalistic economy and a social hierarchy that was competitive has worked its way through the years to modern day society fueled this mind-set. Cyber bullying, which is bullying through technology is the more sophisticated modern form that has expanded the vice and made it more elusive and difficult to assess and thereby define. An examination of a number of cases, empirical studies, judicial situations and written news content was done with the aim of comprehending virtual victimization as well as identify deterring actions. This study establishes the contextual circumstances, existing judicial efforts, scientific inferences, and possible deterrent actions relating to virtual bullying.
Youngsters frequently attain important abilities and values passed on through their tutors, also via association with their colleagues. Many benefits are secured through education in America. However, many undesirable incidents that may have far-reaching consequences are also experienced. Some kids release their aggravation through bullying. Unlike before, where physical victimization was easily restrained, today things are different. Cyber bullying has grown at the same rate as technological advancement has. The…… [Read More]