5 results found for "Cyber Crimes Essays"

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Crime Workplace Is Not Safe From Numerous Essay

Words: 3278 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2555299


Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest and also make it hard for the offenders to flee the scene of crime.

There are quite a few expressive crimes which occur at place but these are usually the result of bottled-up anger and frustration in the staff or clients. If customers do not get proper service and customer care, they will end up being violent and this may result in violence, arson or even vandalism for that matter. If there is any kind of discrimination in the staff, promotions get offered on personal preference rather than professional capability, this will provoke the staff to the highest degree possible and crime will definitely be a repercussion of that.

There should be no discrimination of any kind in the workplace. Promotions and perks should be awarded on merit and everyone should get equal opportunity in every sense of the word. This is the root cause of violence which is usually done by insiders and goes on to become an incident of crime. Customers should be given the highest priority and they should be given highest…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Rost J. Robert L. Glass R.L. (2011). The Dark Side of Software Engineering: Evil on Computing Projects. John Wiley and Sons.USA.

Fleet D.D.V. & Fleet E.W.V. (2009). The Violence Volcano Reducing the Threat of workplace violence. Age Publishing Inc. USA

Sennewald C.A.(2004). Effective security management.4th Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann.USA
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Crime Scene Investigation CSI Meaning Essay

Words: 1870 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39378363

The may differ considerably. In fact smaller agencies may not require a degree, while a degree will usually be required with larger metropolitan agencies. (How to become a CSI)


In conclusion, a central aspect that research into this field reveals is that Crime Scene investigation differs considerably from the popular media presentations. CSI is a complex sector of criminal law enforcement and is characterized by the input form various specializations and disciplines. It is also usually a very time-consuming process. The CSI officer or team have to be extremely competent in terms of communication, liaison and organization in order to successfully coordinate these various specializations and provide insight and knowledge into the actual events surrounding the crime scene.… [Read More]

Forensic Odontologist. Retrieved September 3, 2008, at http://www.kilvington.vic.edu.au/cyber/forensic/Odontologist.htm www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108726206

Horswell, J. (2004). The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108726208
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Cyber Threats Executive Summary it Is Important Essay

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83225814

Cyber Threats: Executive Summary

It is important to note, from the onset, that even before the personal computer became as popular and as widely used as it is today, vandals still compromised computerized phone systems either for fun or for economic benefit. During the very early decades of IT, computer attacks were mostly committed by insiders, i.e. disgruntled employees of an entity (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007). The said attacks in this case were largely limited to physical damage to computing devices. At the time, "the systems were not networked with other systems…" (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007, p. 706). This was, however, until vandals discovered new ways of making use of computer systems to turn a profit or register protests. During these early days of technology, criminals would commonly modify data after subverting security systems via mostly authorized access. With the spread of telecommunications technology during the 1960s, computer criminals started learning how penetrate networks and systems. Vandals would often subvert phone systems with their intention being theft of services or just for amusement purposes.

The appearance of ARPANET, defined by de Leeuw and Bergstra (2007, p. 706) as "the world's first packet switching network," is seen by many as having set the stage for cyber attacks. In linking computers in numerous universities and other companies, ARPANET effectively "linked hackers all over the country…" leading to the emergence of more sophisticated cyber attacks (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007, p. 706). It was, however, not until the 1980s that vandals with varying levels of programming expertise begun to write malicious software designed to self-replicate and interfere with the normal functioning of personal computers.

The early 1990s, as Casey (2011) notes, saw the introduction of the World Wide Web and hence greater connectivity across the world. With the increased utilization of the internet, computer criminals developed ways of gaining unauthorized access to systems that were poorly protected. The motivation for this was in most cases financial or political. As the decade progressed, penetration as well as subversion of computing devices became a common avenue for the perpetration of crimes of a financial nature. With operating systems being strengthened further in…… [Read More]

De Leeuw, K. & Bergstra, J. (Eds.). (2007). The History of Information Security: A Comprehensive Handbook. New York: Elsevier.

Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime: Forensic Science, Computers and the Internet (3rd ed.). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
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Cyber-Citizen USA Cyber-Citizen USA the Essay

Words: 5130 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35659370

The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.

At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.

Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke where it professionals leave off, through ongoing development of crisis management, as illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1

Comprehensive national plan for continued security in cyber-systems;

Crisis management in response to attacks on critical information systems;

Technical assistance to private sector and other government entities in regard to urgent recovery plans following emergencies;

Coordination with other agencies in the federal government in design and education on protective countermeasures and warnings at the state, local and NGO organization levels;

Performing and funding research with new scientific developments in security technologies as a goal; and Serving the general public as a federal center for cyber-security.

Table 1. Crisis Management Goals (DHS, 2003).

In 2003, pursuant to section 994(p) of title 28, United States Code, the United States Sentencing Commission published Congressional guidelines to the conviction of parties in violation of Section 225 of the Cyber Security Enhancement Act of the Homeland Security…… [Read More]

Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.

Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
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Cyber-Bullying Bullying May Be a Practice That Essay

Words: 2037 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39063088


Bullying may be a practice that has been around since the beginnings of human history, but with the increasing access that people have to technology a new medium is now used by aggressors. Cyber bullying is an act that involves using computers, cell phones and other sorts of media to consistently harass others. The object of the bullying, to cause physical or psychological damage to another, is the same, but the perpetrators have changed. Girls are both more likely to use cyber means to bully and they are also more likely to be the targets. Because the practice is so new, there are no prevention programs which specifically target cyber bullying. Also, because this type of aggression occurs in a private setting, it more often goes unnoticed by parents and other concerned adults. Researchers need to further understand the nuances of cyber bullying and determine the best methods to combat the practice.



The act of bullying is as old as humanity. It has gone by many different names and has seen various levels of acceptance, but whatever people call it the act remains the same. It has been justified as hazing, entry into a club or organization, since there has to be some way to include new members. Leaders, from nation heads to teachers, have bullied the members of their groups through misuse of given authority. Sometimes the practice has been sanctioned because it is either seen as a rite of passage or because the bullied is seen as weak.

It has been stated that "It is a fundamental democratic right for a child to feel safe in school and to be spared the oppression and repeated, intentional humiliation implied in bullying" (Smith & Brain, 2000). While right may be too strong a word to use in this instance, it is at the very least the expectation of every child that they will be safe at school. The statistics say that a majority (75%) of school age children have experienced an…… [Read More]

Agatson, P.W., Kowalski, R., & Limber, S. (2007). Students' perspectives in cyber bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41. 59-60.

Belsey, B. (2004). Cyberbullying: An emerging threat to the "always on" generation. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.cyberbullying.ca/pdf/Cyberbullying_Article_by_Bill_Belsey.pdf
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Computer Crimes Cyberspace Has Now Essay

Words: 1811 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39396591

Cyber crime exerts threats to individuals, organizations & countries across the world. From the above provided descriptions it is comprehended that the computer crime is a serious crime that necessitates immediate attention of the law and of the law enforcement agencies. 0. There prevails no solution except to take strict measures to deal with cyber crimes against the speedy expansion of the communications & information technology and telecommunications networks.… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Areheart, Bradley a. (2007) "Regulating Cyberbullies through Notice-Based Liability" 117 Yale

L.J. Pocket Part 41, pp: 26-31.
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Computer Crimes Cynthia Simmons Began Receiving Unwanted Essay

Words: 441 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54270384

Computer Crimes

Cynthia Simmons began receiving unwanted communication from an unknown assailant. She did what the experts recommend: she changed her email address, instant messenger identity and other online identifiers, nothing stopped the computer harassment. She believes the offender to be her ex-boyfriend, Jacob Myers, but even searching her computer and comparing the offending emails to that of Jacob Myers, the evidence has not been sufficient to obtain a search warrant to search Jacob Myers' computer.

It appears that Ms. Simmons is the victim of cyberstalking. According the NCSL, "cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email or other electronic communications to stalk, and generally refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors." She, Ms. Simmons, has been receiving calls to her home propositioning her for services and she found out that someone had placed her contact information on an escort service website. Stalking is a serious crime, whether done with a computer or not and almost every state has a law on the books against stalking and several states now have laws against cyberstalking.

In the past few days Ms. Simmons has been contacted via e-mail on how to stop the harassment. She was told to send $9.99 through PayPal for four different payments. However, when the identify of the account holder was discovered, it was traced to…… [Read More]

Epley, C. (June 23, 2010). Cyber-Crimes: An Analysis of Cyber-extortion. Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/content/cyber-crimes-part-one-cyber-extortion

Greenberg, P. (January 26, 2011). State Cyberstalking, Cyberharrasment and Cyberbullying Laws.
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2007 Estonia Cyber Attacks Essay

Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61795293

Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007

2007 Estonian Cyber-war

This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the Russian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).

More than 340,000 ethnic Russians reside in Estonia which means that the Russians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and Russia share an extensive history of conflict and contention in their two-sided relationship. Evidently, the tribulations between these ethnic populations are very old. After the annexation of the Baltic States by Soviet Union in 1940, the Soviet government relocated innumerable ethnic Russians to Estonia. It has been said that this relocation had two purposes. Firstly, the Russian authorities wanted to increase solidity in the Eastern Bloc. Secondly, it had an unyielding desire to "Russify" the culture of Estonia. However, after the conclusion of Cold War and the dissolution of the U.S.S.R., the Estonian government put such policies into operation that aimed to minimize the influences of Russians on Estonian culture (Herzog, 2011).

Cyber Attacks 2007

The Estonian government websites and banks were thwarted with a colossal cyber-attack in late April 2007. This cyber attack is also called a denial of service attack. The Estonian government announced that "the attack originated from the Kremlin and coincided with Estonia's decision to remove the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, a Soviet-era shrine to Red Army veterans" (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Consequently, the Russian hackers got the revenge from Estonia with constant requests for information. The first response in Estonia was to suppose that the Russian state was responsible for the attacks. However according to Dr. Marsh, "it was very hard to say whether these were state-sponsored or state-condoned or really people who thought that they would act patriotically for whatever cause they were supporting at the…… [Read More]

Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf

Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf
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It Risk Management -- Cyber Essay

Words: 4384 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38954961

The organizations are usually run by a core group, which divides the different responsibilities of an operation (e.g. spamming, web design, data collection) among the members. The members run their own outer networks to fulfill those responsibilities -- rarely even having contact with each other online. The decentralized structure of the internet, as well as the high levels of anonymity it provides makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to locate cybercriminal groups. A group could have networks in a myriad of different countries, whilst using servers based in numerous different countries and jurisdictions. Furthermore, many national jurisdictions lack the legislative framework required to properly prosecute online crime." (Collins, 2012)

These insights are illustrating how the lack of self-control is creating a situation where more criminals or organizations are turning to cyber crime. What makes the situation worse; is they can work anonymously and be able to conduct these activities with little to no negative effects. It is at this point, when these individuals and groups are participating in order to reap the lucrative rewards from them. This is illustrating how the self-control theory is highlighting why this becoming so common and the effects it is having criminals and other related organizations. (Collins, 2012)

The Routine Theory

The routine theory believes that crimes will occur when there is an intersection between the time, space, motivated offenders, attractive targets and a lack of effective law enforcement. This creates the perfect environment for someone to conduct illegal activities and it increases the odds that they will be able to get away with it. When this occurs, they will continue to commit these crimes over and over based upon the rewards they are receiving from them. According to Walsh (2010), this will encourage these activities to become more frequent, until there is some kind of effective deterrent in place to stop them. (Walsh, 2010)

Evidence of this can be seen with Walsh (2010) saying, "It does not so much matter why individuals are motivated to commit crimes, what matters is that an individual with the inclination to commit a crime is in the right place to move against his or her target at the right time when there…… [Read More]

Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. London: Academic.

Collins, a. (2012). Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Banking Crimes From Hackers Essay

Words: 1659 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13858163

Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions

Carmalia Davis

The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).

In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This worm spread to several computers that were mostly in the United States and it exploited the weaknesses found in the UNIX system which allowed it to quickly replicate itself. This worm slowed computers down to the point where they could no longer be effectively used. Robert Tapan Morris created the worm and he claimed he was only attempting to discover how vast the internet was. As a result, he was the first person in history to be convicted under the United States Computer Abuse and Fraud Act. Georgian computer networks were also hacked by unidentified foreign intruders during a period in which the country experienced hostilities with Russia. Graffiti was posted on the websites of the Georgian government. Little or no services were actually disrupted, however, the Georgian government believed these attacks were coordinated by the Russian military officials. Comment by dkamari: It Comment by dkamari: Not a place==that Comment by dkamari: Serious run-on

The…… [Read More]

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Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security Essay

Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25492392

Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline

Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security

Methods of the Government Interventions

Impacts of Government Regulation on National Security

Failure to comply to related cyber regulations

Meeting the minimum requirements.

Exceeding the Minimum Requirements

The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. Recently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of interconnectivity among businesses and public organizations, the present network systems have brought increased risks of fraud, theft, threat, cyber terrorism, and abuse.

The objective of this project is to investigate the human aspect of cyber security providing revealing the strategy the government should employ in setting up cyber-security against internal and external threats. The paper discusses a government justification to enact law and regulations mandating business organizations to install minimum cyber defenses. Moreover, the paper discusses the impact of the minimum cyber defenses on the business community.

Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security

The rates of the cyber threats in the United States are becoming alarming and the issues require the government immediate intervention to improve cyber security. With an increase of internal threats, organizations are required to use both an interactive and consistency approach to assessing, identify, and manage cyber security. However, the contemporary sophistication of cyber threats is becoming alarming and requiring an intervention of government assistance. The major reason for justification of government intervention for cybersecurity is that the cyber threats have become a cyber war among nation-states, and private organizations alone are not possessing essential security protocol to…… [Read More]

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Cyber Security Most Important Cyber Essay

Words: 2328 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93533978

The operating system faced these issues due to the lackluster approach from Apple to patch their software in time. As a result, it led to risking the data of personal users. It shows that irregularities in the patching of computers affected users adversely without any fault of their own (Daily Tech, 2012).

In addition to that, the operating system of Apple is now considered as one of the most favored platform for hackers due to loopholes in the framework. Similarly, social networks such as Facebook have also been guilty of retaining an obsolete database, which led to one of the biggest security breaches in the recent era of internet (Chabrow, 2013). Thus, it can be said that personal computers are affected due to the negligence of the software vendors but its impact cannot be ignored.

Addressing the impact:

a) Software Vulnerability:

In order to address the impacts that unpatched systems have on cyber security, Lin (2006) has stressed that it is essential for organizations to develop efficient access controls as well as install regular updates for their quarantine antivirus software and firewalls. When an organization attains effective security against external access, coupled with creating increased awareness among the employees to take precautionary measures while using the internet, the impact of unpatched systems can be greatly decreased. In addition to that, the operating system providers should provide timely updates as soon as a new threat emerges (Lin, 2006).

In this regard, software developers are required to provide the enterprise consumers with timely updates and patches for the security software. As soon as a new threat is identified, developers or the hired staff should be able to provide security against the threats in the form of patches (Lin, 2006). In addition to that, the employees should be directed to use the internet in a responsible and defensive manner. They should not be allowed to visit infected websites from their workplace. In the end, it…… [Read More]

BITS. (2011). Malware Risks and Mitigation Reports. Retrieved March 11, 2013 from http://www.nist.gov/itl/upload/BITS-Malware-Report-Jun2011.pdf

Daily Tech. (2012). Apple Admits its Macs Have a Malware Problem. Retrieved March 11, 2013 from http://www.dailytech.com/Apple+Admits+Its+Macs+Have+a+Malware+Problem/article24451.htm
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Crime 21st Century White Collar If True Essay

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29446192

crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).

White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.

Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that "the internet is the crime scene of the 21st century" (White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond). The online environment provides criminals with a series of tools that they can use with the purpose of achieving their goals. Although the authorities have opened a series of cybercrimes divisions, it is difficult and almost impossible for these groups to be able to detect and catch all cybercriminals.

Question 2.

Similar to how individuals struggle to get into universities like MIT, many go through great efforts in order to become the members of particular online communities. Numerous individuals perceive online communities as being little more than internet locations where strangers talk without knowing a great deal of information about each-other. While this might apply in the case of particular communities that have a poor structure…… [Read More]

Burns, Jan, "Build Your Online Community: Blogging, Message Boards, Newsgroups, and More," (Enslow Publishers, Inc., 01.02.2011)

Edmunson, Mark, "The Trouble With Online Education," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/opinion/the-trouble-with-online-education.html?_r=0
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Organized Crime Groups Operating in Essay

Words: 979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62163337

The Italian mafia as it still works in Italy is extremely powerful (Summerfield,2005). As late as in the 1990's they were very active in the killing of law enforcement officers with terroristic bombing techniques. The Italian mafia is noted to have found its way into the United States in the early 1900's when the banned IOC figures came to the country illegally (Porter & Lyman, 2006). Most of these were members of the Sicilian Mafiosi. It is most of these who in the 1920s aided in the establishment of the La Cosa Nostra (American Mafia). The other organized crime groups that are recognized by the FBI thereafter came into being.

The traditional organized criminal groups in the U.S. preyed on the ignorance as well as vulnerability of the people in the U.S. The immigrants are noted to have been the common victims of these organized criminal organizations. Their vulnerability was attributed to the fact that they neither spoke English nor comprehended the American law. These immigrants were fleeing from their native countries where they were mainly terrorized by their own governments while living in fear of the government officials like the police. They were therefore very unlikely to seek any help from the U.S. law enforcement officers. Summerfield (2005) for instance provided an example of Chicago where traditional organized crime operated.

The traditional organize crime syndicates within the U.S. are noted to operate using direct threats, muscle, ignorance, fear as well as acts of violence in order for them to realize their goals.

Impact of organized crime in the society

Organized crime is noted to have very negative effects on the society. They may for instance engage in activities that interferes with a country's strategic resources such as energy, they may provide logistical support as well as other forms of support to terrorists, they may smuggle people as well as contraband into the U.S. As well as engage in cyber criminal activities. The fact that the activities of organized criminals are assuming a transnational appeal is also disturbing.


Organized…… [Read More]

Bjelopera, J and Finklea, KM (2012).Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement . Congressional research Service.

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Dark Figure of Crime Is a Term Essay

Words: 2252 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68643143

Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.

The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.

There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain the dark figure of crime. The first source is the National Crime Victimization Survey, where victims are asked about the crimes they have suffered. It was started by the U.S. Census Bureau in 1974 and is compiled in an annual NCVS Survey. The NCVS distributes surveys to a national representative sample of households.

The NCVS suffers from a number of methodological limitations. First, it excludes many types of crimes, particularly victimless crimes. Second, it is based on the victims' memory of the past six months, which is subject to reliability issues. Third, it does not adequately detect the multiple offenses which constitute serial victimization. (Lynch & Addington, 2007, p. 156). Fourth, it tends to underreport crimes where the offender is known to the victim, because such crimes are not perceived to be so by the victim.

The second source of dark figure crime data comes in the form of self-report studies, where offenders are asked about crimes they have committed. These self-report studies are created by individual agencies such as the National Institute of Drug Abuse, which created the Monitoring the Future survey in 1975 to track…… [Read More]

Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR

Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.