Cyber Crimes Essays Examples

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Crime Workplace Is Not Safe From Numerous

Words: 3278 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2555299


Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest and also make it hard for the offenders to flee the scene of crime.

There are quite a few expressive crimes which occur at place but these are usually the result of bottled-up anger and frustration in the staff or clients. If customers do not get proper service and customer…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Rost J. Robert L. Glass R.L. (2011). The Dark Side of Software Engineering: Evil on Computing Projects. John Wiley and Sons.USA.

Fleet D.D.V. & Fleet E.W.V. (2009). The Violence Volcano Reducing the Threat of workplace violence. Age Publishing Inc. USA

Sennewald C.A.(2004). Effective security management.4th Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann.USA
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Crime Scene Investigation CSI Meaning

Words: 1870 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39378363

The may differ considerably. In fact smaller agencies may not require a degree, while a degree will usually be required with larger metropolitan agencies. (How to become a CSI)


In conclusion, a central aspect that research into this field reveals is that Crime Scene investigation differs considerably from the popular media presentations. CSI is a complex sector of criminal law enforcement and is characterized by the input form various specializations and disciplines. It is also usually a very time-consuming process. The CSI officer or team have to be extremely competent in terms of communication, liaison and organization in order to successfully coordinate these various specializations and provide insight and knowledge into the actual events surrounding the crime scene.


Forensic Odontologist. Retrieved September 3, 2008, at

Horswell, J. (2004). The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database:

Horswell, J., & Fowler, C. (2004). Associative Evidence - the Locard Exchange Principle. In the Practice of Crime Scene Investigation (pp. 45-55). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database:

How to become a CSI. The International Crime Scene Investigators Association. Retrieved September 3,…… [Read More]

Forensic Odontologist. Retrieved September 3, 2008, at

Horswell, J. (2004). The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database:
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Cyber Threats Executive Summary it Is Important

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83225814

Cyber Threats: Executive Summary

It is important to note, from the onset, that even before the personal computer became as popular and as widely used as it is today, vandals still compromised computerized phone systems either for fun or for economic benefit. During the very early decades of IT, computer attacks were mostly committed by insiders, i.e. disgruntled employees of an entity (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007). The said attacks in this case were largely limited to physical damage to computing devices. At the time, "the systems were not networked with other systems…" (de Leeuw and Bergstra, 2007, p. 706). This was, however, until vandals discovered new ways of making use of computer systems to turn a profit or register protests. During these early days of technology, criminals would commonly modify data after subverting security systems via mostly authorized access. With the spread of telecommunications technology during the 1960s, computer criminals started learning how penetrate networks and systems. Vandals would often subvert phone systems with their intention being theft of services or just for amusement purposes.

The appearance of ARPANET, defined by de Leeuw and Bergstra (2007, p. 706) as "the world's first packet switching network," is seen by many…… [Read More]

De Leeuw, K. & Bergstra, J. (Eds.). (2007). The History of Information Security: A Comprehensive Handbook. New York: Elsevier.

Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime: Forensic Science, Computers and the Internet (3rd ed.). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
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Cyber-Citizen USA Cyber-Citizen USA the

Words: 5130 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35659370

The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.

At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.

Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke where it professionals leave off, through ongoing development of crisis management, as illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1

Comprehensive national plan for continued security in cyber-systems;

Crisis management in response to attacks on critical information systems;

Technical assistance to private sector and other government entities in regard to urgent recovery…… [Read More]

Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.

Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
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Cyber-Bullying Bullying May Be a Practice That

Words: 2037 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39063088


Bullying may be a practice that has been around since the beginnings of human history, but with the increasing access that people have to technology a new medium is now used by aggressors. Cyber bullying is an act that involves using computers, cell phones and other sorts of media to consistently harass others. The object of the bullying, to cause physical or psychological damage to another, is the same, but the perpetrators have changed. Girls are both more likely to use cyber means to bully and they are also more likely to be the targets. Because the practice is so new, there are no prevention programs which specifically target cyber bullying. Also, because this type of aggression occurs in a private setting, it more often goes unnoticed by parents and other concerned adults. Researchers need to further understand the nuances of cyber bullying and determine the best methods to combat the practice.



The act of bullying is as old as humanity. It has gone by many different names and has seen various levels of acceptance, but whatever people call it the act remains the same. It has been justified as hazing, entry into a club or organization,…… [Read More]

Agatson, P.W., Kowalski, R., & Limber, S. (2007). Students' perspectives in cyber bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41. 59-60.

Belsey, B. (2004). Cyberbullying: An emerging threat to the "always on" generation. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from 
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Computer Crimes Cyberspace Has Now

Words: 1811 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39396591

Cyber crime exerts threats to individuals, organizations & countries across the world. From the above provided descriptions it is comprehended that the computer crime is a serious crime that necessitates immediate attention of the law and of the law enforcement agencies. 0. There prevails no solution except to take strict measures to deal with cyber crimes against the speedy expansion of the communications & information technology and telecommunications networks.


Areheart, Bradley a. (2007) "Regulating Cyberbullies through Notice-Based Liability" 117 Yale

L.J. Pocket Part 41, pp: 26-31.

Baggili, Ibrahim;

Effects of Anonymity and Pre- Employment Integrity." International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp: 536 -- 549.

Farsole, Ajinkya a; Kashikar, Amruta G; Zunzunwala, Apurva. (2010) "Ethical

Hacking." International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 1, no. 10, pp: 11 -- 17.

Hinduja, Sameer. (2007) "Computer Crime Investigations in the United States: Leveraging

Knowledge from the Past to Address the Future." International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp: 1-26.

Holbrook, Emily. (2010) "A weekend of hacker attacks"

Risk Monitor, pp: 4-6.

Jaishankar, K. (2007) "Cyber Criminology: Evolving a novel discipline with a new journal."

International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol 1; no. 1, pp: 17-20.

May,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Areheart, Bradley a. (2007) "Regulating Cyberbullies through Notice-Based Liability" 117 Yale

L.J. Pocket Part 41, pp: 26-31.
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2007 Estonia Cyber Attacks

Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61795293

Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007

2007 Estonian Cyber-war

This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the Russian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).

More than 340,000 ethnic Russians reside in Estonia which means that the Russians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and Russia share an extensive history of conflict and contention in their two-sided relationship. Evidently, the tribulations between these ethnic populations are very old. After the annexation of the Baltic States by Soviet Union in 1940, the Soviet government relocated innumerable ethnic Russians to Estonia. It has been said that this relocation had two purposes. Firstly, the…… [Read More]

Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf

Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: 
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It Risk Management -- Cyber

Words: 4384 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38954961

The organizations are usually run by a core group, which divides the different responsibilities of an operation (e.g. spamming, web design, data collection) among the members. The members run their own outer networks to fulfill those responsibilities -- rarely even having contact with each other online. The decentralized structure of the internet, as well as the high levels of anonymity it provides makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to locate cybercriminal groups. A group could have networks in a myriad of different countries, whilst using servers based in numerous different countries and jurisdictions. Furthermore, many national jurisdictions lack the legislative framework required to properly prosecute online crime." (Collins, 2012)

These insights are illustrating how the lack of self-control is creating a situation where more criminals or organizations are turning to cyber crime. What makes the situation worse; is they can work anonymously and be able to conduct these activities with little to no negative effects. It is at this point, when these individuals and groups are participating in order to reap the lucrative rewards from them. This is illustrating how the self-control theory is highlighting why this becoming so common and the effects it is having criminals and other…… [Read More]

Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. London: Academic.

Collins, a. (2012). Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Banking Crimes From Hackers

Words: 1659 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13858163

Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions

Carmalia Davis

The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).

In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This worm spread to several computers that were mostly in the United States and it exploited the weaknesses found in the UNIX system which allowed it to quickly replicate itself. This worm slowed computers down to the point where they could no longer be effectively used. Robert Tapan Morris created the…… [Read More]

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Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security

Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25492392

Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline

Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security

Methods of the Government Interventions

Impacts of Government Regulation on National Security

Failure to comply to related cyber regulations

Meeting the minimum requirements.

Exceeding the Minimum Requirements

The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. Recently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of interconnectivity among businesses and public organizations, the present network systems have brought increased risks of fraud, theft, threat, cyber terrorism, and abuse.

The objective of this project is to investigate the human aspect of cyber security providing revealing the strategy the government should employ in setting up cyber-security against internal…… [Read More]

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Crime 21st Century White Collar If True

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29446192

crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).

White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.

Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that "the internet is the crime scene of the 21st century" (White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond). The online environment provides criminals with a series of tools that they can use with the purpose of achieving their goals. Although the authorities have opened a series of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Burns, Jan, "Build Your Online Community: Blogging, Message Boards, Newsgroups, and More," (Enslow Publishers, Inc., 01.02.2011)

Edmunson, Mark, "The Trouble With Online Education," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the NY Times Website:
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Organized Crime Groups Operating in

Words: 979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62163337

The Italian mafia as it still works in Italy is extremely powerful (Summerfield,2005). As late as in the 1990's they were very active in the killing of law enforcement officers with terroristic bombing techniques. The Italian mafia is noted to have found its way into the United States in the early 1900's when the banned IOC figures came to the country illegally (Porter & Lyman, 2006). Most of these were members of the Sicilian Mafiosi. It is most of these who in the 1920s aided in the establishment of the La Cosa Nostra (American Mafia). The other organized crime groups that are recognized by the FBI thereafter came into being.

The traditional organized criminal groups in the U.S. preyed on the ignorance as well as vulnerability of the people in the U.S. The immigrants are noted to have been the common victims of these organized criminal organizations. Their vulnerability was attributed to the fact that they neither spoke English nor comprehended the American law. These immigrants were fleeing from their native countries where they were mainly terrorized by their own governments while living in fear of the government officials like the police. They were therefore very unlikely to seek any…… [Read More]

Bjelopera, J and Finklea, KM (2012).Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement . Congressional research Service. 
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Dark Figure of Crime Is a Term

Words: 2252 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68643143

Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.

The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.

There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain the dark figure of crime. The first source is the National Crime Victimization Survey, where victims are asked about the crimes they have suffered. It was started by the U.S. Census Bureau in 1974 and is compiled in an annual NCVS Survey. The NCVS distributes surveys to a national representative…… [Read More]

Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR

Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Staffing a New Crime Laboratory

Words: 1688 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86906306

The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.

Overall System Design

Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified by the design teams. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012)


Certification is mandatory for practice which can be obtained only by following the best practices of the industry and fulfilling the fundamental requirements of the system like modern equipments and also the best personnel and the proper standards which can be ensured…… [Read More]

ASCLD/LAB-International (2010) "Program Overview" Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from

CSTL. (2000) "Quality assurance standards for Forensicnda DNA Testing Laboratories"
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Case Study of Cyber Crime

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45664686

Cyber Crimes

There are many different types of cybercrime committed. The general class of cybercrime reflects any crime that occurs over the Internet. These can range from hacking crimes to identity theft, and anybody or any entity that is online can be vulnerable to cybercrime. The list of ten major cybercrimes covers a wide range of crime types and victim types, highlighting the diverse range of criminal activity that falls under the category of cybercrime.

One of the cases identified in the video was that of Max Vision, a hacker who stole credit card information. Max Vision stole over two million credit card numbers, and was sentenced to a record 13-year sentence for this crime in 2010 (Poulsen, 2010). He had sold the stolen numbers to other criminals, and they racked up $86.4 million in fraudulent charges.

Vision was a cyber security consultant in the late 1990s, and was one of the leaders in the field. He was hacking on the side, however, and eventually this led to the credit card hack. He had already been to prison in 2001 for one hacking incident, where he had closed security holes in the Pentagon security systems, but left other holes of…… [Read More]

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Global Crime and Issues in Law Enforcement

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94860386

M8D1: Global Crime and Regional Police

How can the police and law enforcement address transnational and globalization of crime given the current organizational mission and mandates of the police and law enforcement?

Include a discussion of the potential of "regionalizing" small police and law enforcement agencies.

It has been said that "transnational criminals have been one of the biggest beneficiaries of globalization…Globalization facilitates international trade but also increases the difficulty of regulating global trade…traffickers and smugglers have exploited this" as well as terrorists (Patrick 2012). Globalization has also facilitated the creation of terrorist networks connected by ideology rather than nationality. "Illicit networks are challenging to states because states are militarily and diplomatically organized to deal with other states. Governments around the world "have found it very hard to adapt to non-state or sovereignty-free actors" and perceive them s threats (Patrick 2012).

The problem with dealing with global, transnational threats it that traditionally law enforcement agencies have thought of themselves as solely protecting nations, rather than combating threats posed by many nations. Even between intelligence agencies such as the FBI and the CIA there have often been arguments about jurisdiction and which agency has the right to intervene in specific areas.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Patrick, S. (2012). How globalization affects transnational crime. Council on Foreign Relations.

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Internet to Solve Crimes the

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9918143

The technology is extremely effective. In brief, crime mapping technology enables the police and other crime fighting agencies "... To analyze and correlate data sources to create a detailed snapshot of crime incidents and related factors within a community or other geographical area." (the Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by Law Enforcement)

Studies show that this technology is creating a positive response among law enforcement agencies and has many advantages over older methods of fighting crime. Among the many aspects of this method is the real-time analysis of crime data as well as the mapping of various critical crime areas using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. (Newsom G.)

One of the central advantages of this system is that it provides the ability to identify certain trends in crime and links between crimes. This is an important aspect as it provides crucial correlations between events and crimes which may occur in different areas. Furthermore, an important aspect from the total crime fighting perspective is that this technology helps in the economic and selective allocation of resources where they are most needed. (Newsom G.)

More specifically, the system of computerized crime mapping allows law enforcement agencies " plot crime-related data against a…… [Read More]

Crime Mapping and Problem Analysis Laboratory. 16 September, 2006.

Godwin M. Government: Cops on the I-Way. 1995. 16 September, 2006.
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National Security Implications of Transnational Organized Crime

Words: 3380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14823082

National Security Implications of Transnational Organized Crime

The paper deals with three important aspects, one the National Security, second the crime -- organized in many ways, and the third rogue nations that pose a threat. National security is to be understood in multiple contexts. Firstly the physical security of the nation from alien threats, and intrusions, secondly damages to vital infrastructure and thirdly anti-national activities by organizations that may lead to an emergency in the country or at an international level causing diplomatic problems. It must be remembered that the Al-Qaeda was also an organized crime syndicate that was funded by the drug trade from Afghanistan. Secondly organized crimes committed by the companies or organizations that commit crime like ENRON also have its own implications on the financial security. Thirdly rogue nations like Iran, China and Korea pose threats both on the security of the nation and it's infrastructure -- especially the communications that is used for spying and stealing data. Other than these communities based on religious ideologies that have a hate of the U.S. often form societies to run terrorist errands in the country. Some of the local organized mafias also have foreign links either to harbor funds…… [Read More]

Ambinder, Marc. "Did America's Cyber Attack on Iran Make Us More Vulnerable? The Atlantic" Accessed April 30, 2013. 

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Negotiating with the Taliban: Six Critical Conditions that Must Be Met to Avoid Another "Peace to End All Peace" Accessed April 30, 2013.
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Different Types of White Collar Crime

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16706505

Pension fraud is a type of white-collar crime, but it can assume many different forms. In "Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension," the underlying crime was bribery, which happened to be related to a pension fraud scheme. The State of New York runs and manages a pension for its residents. It invests money workers pay into the pension. In this case, state officials accepted about $1 million in gifts in exchange for investing $250 million in pension money into the briber's company. "Looking Out for Number One" describes a slightly different type of pension fraud. In this case, the manager of the pension was defrauded by the investment company, AA Capital Partners. AA Capital Partners seem to have diverted millions of dollars from the pension money to its own dealings, amounting to a type of embezzlement. Thus, pension fraud is not actually a specific type of fraud in so much as it is multiple types of fraud that happen to involve a pension fund. Law enforcement can fight pension fraud in similar ways to other types of white collar crime: by staying aware, by gathering as much intelligence as possible, and generally making it difficult for…… [Read More]

"Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension." International New York Times. 4 Dec, 2009. Retrieved online:

"Identity Theft, Debt Collection, and Payday Loans Top List of Consumer Fraud Complaints," (2014). The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved online: 
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Technology Terrorism and Crime Apa Technology Terrorism

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28094078

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime

One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." ( This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." ( There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.

The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, Richard Girnt Butler founded the Aryan Nations as part of Swift's church, renamed the Church of Jesus Christ-Christian. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has determined that the Aryan Nations is a terrorist threat, and others have called it the "first truly nationwide terrorist network in the U.S." ("Extremism in America")

Along…… [Read More]

"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from

Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from 
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Internet and Crime

Words: 1223 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92738069

Cyber Crime

Critical infrastructure

There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.

It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop more recognition to sate light in terms of critical infrastructure. Sate lights make available a considerable function in terms of climate as well as monitoring in relation to natural disaster, communication, prior caution systems, worldwide broadcasting, meteorology, direction-finding, exactitude strikes, reconnaissance, remote sensing, observation, as well as the encroachment of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from

Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from

UCS Satellite Database. (2012). Database, official names only. Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from
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Chief Security Officer As the Chief Security

Words: 2148 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99079372

Chief Security Officer:

As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics technology that can be used by the University.

Recent Computer Hacker Attacks or Other Crimes:

The United States is generally a society of openness and freedom, which are central values of higher education institutions. As a result of these values, competitors and foreign adversaries have been taking advantage of these…… [Read More]

"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.

Retrieved December 16, 2013, from 
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Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal

Words: 3624 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19427336

Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities

Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism

Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World

What is Identity Theft?

How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?

Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?

How Release of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?

Future Implications

Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane life (Brenner, 2010).

The criminal activities is not confined to any one country, rather, the entire globe and its people are confronting this grave issue on a universal basis, which even includes the developing nations as well-developed countries. Cyber-crime has become one of the insidious, subtle, dangerous and artful activities…… [Read More]

Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.

Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.
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Securing the Electronic Transfer Securing

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38772049

Essentially, securing the electronic frontier is very critical because of the potential harms that cyber crime and fraud cause to individual, businesses and nations as a whole.

One of the effective strategies that could be employed to secure the electronic frontier is the collaboration of the government with the private and public organizations. Increasing number of governments has implemented method to secure the electronic frontier without success. Since corporate organizations are more equipped to counter IT threats than the government, a collaboration of the government with organizations will be more effective.

Moreover, the international organizations such as the United Nations should also play effective roles in securing electronic frontier. The United Nation should make a law to ensure that all member nations are obliged to secure electronic transfer in their respective nations since lack of cross-border treaties for data sharing is creating havoc to corporate organizations. Essentially, some countries such as Russia and China are assisting some organizations to engage in cyber crimes, which are causing harming to corporate organizations. Thus, there is a need to adopt international treaty to govern the cyber conflict.

Some countries are beginning to implement restrictions on cyber traffic and specific IP address. Some countries…… [Read More]

Berkowitz, B. & Hahn, R.W. (2003).Cyber-security: Who's Watching Store? Issue of Science and Technology.

Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM. 54 (8): 132-140.

Rosenzweig, P. (2012). The International Governance Framework for Cybersecurity. Canada-United States Law Journal.37 (1).
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Computer Misuse Legislation Unfit for

Words: 2485 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10475857

Knowledge of e-crime from the perspective of crime science is insufficient in devolution of the problem, which cuts across various sections of social interaction through computers. There is a limitation in the forensic and social / legal exploration of information technology aspects and that is the possible cause of the limitations of the jurisdictions of the computer crime legislation, creating the insufficiency in the fulfillment of its purpose (Tonry 2009 p. 20-350).

The legislation approaches the infringement of the social precepts of technology without any consideration of social remedies. The use of police in regulation of operations is limiting because they may not have the capacity for gauging the extent of computer damage. It is logical considering the sensitivity of pro-social individuals, and their possibility of taking up their responsibilities. Social norms revolve around consideration of others and create a sense of mindfulness and consideration of activities (Humphreys 2007 p. 257).

Requirements for the success of the Computer Misuse legislation

That is an aspect, which the current Computer Misuse legislation fails to provide. The government must understand that the achievement of fairness in computer usage must accompany freedom of its access. Any approach designed for curbing cyber crime must put…… [Read More]

'a Comparative Study of Cyberattacks' 2012, Communications of the ACM, 55, 3, pp. 66-73, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.

Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground tales of hacking, madness and obsession on the electronic frontier. Edinburgh, Canongate. 56. Print.
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Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31745295

Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

There are several central governments, state and local authority's correctional facilities in the United States. Over the past few decades, the rate of crime occurrence has significantly increased. Also, the correctional facilities have experienced growth in population. There are a huge number of inmates in the various correctional facilities as compared to those in 1990's. For instance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics found the number of prisoners at 665,000 across the country; this is a 159% increase from the jail population of 1985. The correctional facilities have, suffered several setbacks due to the increase in the population.

The capacities of the correctional facilities in the United States are not sufficient to hold the large population of inmates; research from the report released in 2002 indicate that the facilities operate at 108% capacity from the 85% capacity held in 1983. This has made the facilities have a negative reputation and other associated problems. The questions of whether, these facilities are helping the society and the inmates or making the situation worse than it is already, have not been overlooked (T. Franklin; C. Franklin, Cortney & Pratt, 2006). The United States has the world's third…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Davis, R.K., Applegate, B.K., Otto, C.W., Surette, R. & McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and Responsibilities: Analyzing Local Leaders'Views on Jail Crowding From a Systems

Perspective, Crime and Deliquency, (50) 1, 458-480
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Agency Organization in Which You Worked Include Information

Words: 5237 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72302251

agency/organization in which you worked. Include information on the size of the organization (number of personnel, of what kinds) and the division of labor into units or departments. Obtain an organizational chart, or prepare one yourself, showing the formal structure of the organization.

The organization where I worked from April 24, 2012 to June 29, 2012 was U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Created in 2003, it is the main investigative body of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Investigation. It is a federal law enforcement agency whose main responsibility includes executing the immigration and custom laws of the United States to protect the country and to ensure the public security.

The detailed chart of the structure of the organization is attached in the Appendix A. ICE has a divisional organizational structure. It is headed by the Director who is appointed by the President of U.S. And approved by the Senate. The Director directly reports to the Secretary of Homeland Security. There are six leadership offices that are located within the office of the Director. These offices are headed by Assistant Directors and include Office of Public Affairs, Office of Congressional Relations, Office of the Principal Legal Advisor, Office of…… [Read More]

Cyber Crimes Center. 2012 June 16 .

Herald, Glenna. U.S. Immigration and Enforcement arrests 44. Chicago Tribune. N.p., 14 June 2012. Web. 19 June 2012. .
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Forensic Unit Justification

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95676396

Justification of a Forensic Unit

Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.

Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit

The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We will accomplish our mission using the highly skilled, innovative and unbiased professionals having high vision and integrity. We will also tailor our services to achieve the following mission:

To maximize the return on investment and forensic services.

To promote and enhance a healthy working environment.

To operate in a prepared,…… [Read More]


Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.

Victoria Police (2013). Forensic Service Department. USA.
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Police Communication Technology the Need

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27318766


The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.


Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media

Age." Routledge: New York.

Davis, Paul K; et al. (2007) "Enhancing strategic planning with massive scenario generation

Office of the Secretary of Defense" Rand Corporation.

Gottschalk, Petter. (2007) "Knowledge management systems in law enforcement: technologies and techniques" Idea Group Inc. (IGI).

O'Dowd, Liam; Wilson, Thomas M. (2003) "New…… [Read More]

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
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Policing Challenges to Policing in the 21st

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231395

Policing Challenges

Challenges to policing in the 21st century

Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims but their actions deeply felt (Patricia Linn, 1999).

Policing in the 21st century is therefore faced with several complex issues to tackle and the role of the police needs to change with the shifting trends in criminal activities across the world.

For purposes of this paper three major challenges have…… [Read More]

Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from .

Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from
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Occupations in the Field of

Words: 1505 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59189882

Overall, the code of ethics serves as a reminder to private investigators as to what their responsibilities are and how they should be carried out. Although each state has a separate code of ethics for private investigators, most follow similar guidelines.


The purpose of this discussion was to focus on the field of private detectives/investigators. The discussion found that the occupation involves a range of duties including surveillance and evidence gathering. We also found that the code of ethics for this profession varies from state to state. The ethical dilemmas facing private investigators has to do with conducting services in a manner that is illegal, being upfront with clients concerning fees and providing factual reports. The code of ethics discussed in this report attempts to discourage private investigators form engaging in the aforementioned unethical behaviors.


Code of Ethics. Private Investigators Association of Virginia. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from;

Private Detectives and Investigators. U.S. Department of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from;… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Code of Ethics. Private Investigators Association of Virginia. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from;

Private Detectives and Investigators. U.S. Department of Labor
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America Isn't Ready for Real Digital Protection of Its Infrastructure

Words: 1401 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62833907

Combating Digital Crime & Digital Terrorism

"Describe the overall impact (e.g. economic, social, etc.) of utilizing technologies in combating digital crime and digital terrorism"

It has become very obvious over the past few years that the United States' technologies that are supposed to combat cyber attacks on corporate, personal, and government computers are enormously ineffective. Some would say that is an understatement. This paper discusses ways to combat cyber crime and cyber terrorism. There is good reason why this subject needs addressing not just in college research papers but by the agencies that are supposed to protect Americans and the U.S. government and its employees (including the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, among others).

Why better digital crime prevention is imperative

In fact one of the most devastating digital attacks on U.S. government computers occurred earlier in June, as hackers linked to China gained access "... To the sensitive background information submitted by intelligence and military personnel for security clearances" in the Office of Personnel Management (Reynolds, 2015). It was a cyber crime of enormous proportions, and in addition to the regular personnel records of federal employees -- which may lead…… [Read More]

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Jennings M M 2002 Ethics in Cybercafe

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36137023

The author identifies different type of ethical issues, which include:

Privacy & confidentiality,







Students can break the law by going against the laws on ethical issues. Thus, it is the responsibility of teachers to inform students about the importance of computer ethics. Teachers should be aware of their ethical responsibilities and play role models to assist students to learn by examples.

Part 2 - Reflective Diary - the Internet and Ethical Values

Ethical values in the internet and information technology have become important issues within a business environment, and the rapid development cyber crimes have necessitated the needs to spread the ethical values within the it environment. More importantly, the cyberspace has become very importance in the cotemporary it environment because cyberspace assists people and organizations globally to communicate and transact business without limit. Thus, internet has become a necessary tool of doing business, and despite the importance of cyberspace within a business environment, hacking, spamming, and infringement of intellectual property have become the order of the day. Thus, ethical values are very critical in enhancing sanity in the use of internet since younger generations are the group of people who mostly use cyberspace…… [Read More]

Akcay, B. (2008). The Relationship Between technology and Ethics from Society to Schools.

Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE. 9(4), 120-127.
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Persistent Threat Historical Background of

Words: 5786 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46613349

According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."

Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel and information technology.

The PLA has developed a strategy called "Integrated Network Electronic Warfare," which is said to be guiding employment of CNO, as well as related warfare information tools. The strategy consists of the implementation of network warfare tools and electronic warfare weapons against enemy information systems. One of…… [Read More]

20. Article: online

People's Daily (1999). China Establishes New Military Schools People's Daily, (Undefined), 1
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Cyber Terrorism and Communication in Terrorism

Words: 3698 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22736255

Cyber Terrorism

Terrorism has become the most heatedly discussed and debated subject in social and political circles. In fact these days, this one issue has been dominating all other national and international problems. This is because on the one hand, we have just been witness to world's worst and probably the most sophisticated terrorist acts when airplanes were used as missiles to hit the two most powerful buildings in the United States and on the other hand, terrorism is spreading so fast that there appears to be no suitable and permanent solution to this problem.

Terrorism has turned into a national issue because on the one hand it is becoming more effective and lethal and on the other terrorists are now adopting newer and better tactics to meet their goals and objectives. After September 11, "President Bush, Vice President Cheney, and senior administration officials have alerted the public not only to the dangers of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons but also to the further menace of cyber terrorism. "Terrorists can sit at one computer connected to one network and can create worldwide havoc," warned Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge in a representative observation last April. "[They] don't necessarily need a…… [Read More]

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Cyber Terrorism

Words: 3249 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50292017

internet and the increased availability of personal computers around the world have increased the vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. In recent years computers have been used by terrorist to distribute information about terrorist attacks. Now many experts fear that terrorist will use computers to carry out an attack on electricity grid or other systems that are crucial to the operation of a nation's infrastructure. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ways in which cybercrimes occur and the how it applies to the criminal justice system approach to dealing with terrorism. Before we began the literature review let us provide an overview of the methodology used to identify and locate sources of information found in the literature review.


The sources used in the following literature review are from Academic Journals, books, newspapers, government agencies and articles found on the internet. Many of the Journals used are published by well respected institutions of higher learning. These sources were chosen because they are creditable and provide solid insight into the world of cybercrime as it relates to the development and implementation of legislation.


According to an article entitled "Computer Crimes," the Department of Justice defines Cybercrime as "any…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Arquilla J., Ronfeldt D. 2001. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand. Santa Monica, CA.

Boulard G. May 2003. Cyber Terrorism: No Longer Fiction; the Threat of Cyber Terrorism Became Much More Real after Sept. 11. Here's How States Are Trying to Reduce the Risks. State Legislatures. Volume: 29. Issue: 5. Page Number: 22+.
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Carla Murray Timothy Broyles the Number of

Words: 2420 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42587586

Carla Murray

Timothy Broyles

The number of online security breaches is increasing day by day. For instance, with the Sony Playstation data breaches to millions of small breaches; something must be done to protect the online security of citizens as well as our own government (Sony Playstation System Hacking). The question then becomes who is going to do it? Can the American citizens trust the United States government to ensure their security and thereby their very safety? In light of the fact that the Michigan police force has recently been found to use a forensic cell phone reader or Cellebrite upon routine traffic stops, the ACLU has called into question the ethics of seizing such information without probable cause. Are cell phones merely a tracking device as far as the police force is concerned? Does this not violate the Constitutional right we are guaranteed by our government? Most recently a back door was found in the iPhone that allows anyone who knows about to track the person who owns the phone or whoever is carrying that phone (Reynolds). "Powerful, new technologies are creating new challenges to security online" (Marshal). Through my research I hope to explain how serious of a…… [Read More]

Clemmitt, Marcia. "Privacy in Peril." CQ Researcher 17 Nov. 2006: 961-84. Web. 22

May 2011.
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Technology Has Corrupted Society as

Words: 1054 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98649038

Civil penalties, if pursued by an organization such as the RIAA, can range from a minimum of $750 per song to thousands of dollars per song. Due to the civil lawsuits filed by the RIAA, piracy awareness rose from 35% to 72%. The RIAA has since stopped its broad-based end user litigation program [RIAA 2010].

The Internet has also facilitated the disturbing trend of cyber-bullying and cyber-harassment. Attempts to curb cyber-harassment may prove difficult as "cyber-bullies" may be anonymous and therefore, difficult to identify. In "Cyber-Bullying in Schools: A Research for Gender Differences," Qing Li states that school violence is a serious social problem that is persistent and acute during middle school [LI 2006]. Cyber-bullying, as defined by Tanya Beran and Qing Li in "Cyber Harassment: A New Method for an Old Behavior," is defined as "the repeated and intentional use of various forms of technology such as cell-phones, pagers, emails, instant messaging, and Web sites by individuals or groups to harm others" [BERAN 2005]. Cyber-bullying includes flaming, harassment, stalking, denigration, masquerade, outing, trickery, and exclusion [LI 2006]. In many cases, cyber-bullying victims can experience depression, helplessness, social incompetence, anxiety, low self-esteem, and loneliness and may exhibit impulsive behaviors and…… [Read More]

RIAA 2010 Piracy: Online and on the Street Accessed 3 December 2010

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Terrorist Groups Use of Cloud Technology

Words: 4606 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34264283

Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology

After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.

The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of technology is also a provision of a means of violence, and computing and information technology could well be the next weapon. Under such a condition, with the world depending more and more on the IT infrastructure, is cloud computing a possible victim of the terrorist? Secondly can a terrorist outfit…… [Read More]

Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.

Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.
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Cyber Terrorism

Words: 4455 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88428814

Cyber Terrorism

The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:

- easily approachable

- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information

- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe

- the power for the user to remain anonymous

- quick access to information

- little installation and usage costs

the ability to combine multimedia (such as graphics, texts, video and audio) and gain access to multiple types of data (such as applications, books, movies and posters, etc.)

- affected the way we communicate and transfer information over…… [Read More]

Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02

Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:
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CEO Memo on Internet Use

Words: 2628 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81032796

consultation done for a CEO of a Fortune 500 company regarding use of internet by its employees. The consultation will look into internet usage by employees and possible ways to reduce illegal use of internet at the workplace.

Torts that the employees might be committing using the Workplace Internet

There are quite a number of torts that could be committed by employees at the workplace. Quite a number of legal cases have demonstrated these torts, for instance, the case Smyth vs. The Pillsbury Company, in the Federal Eastern District of Pennsylvania. In the case, the plaintiff, Mr. Michael Smyth filed a lawsuit against his the company he formerly worked for, The Pillsbury Company, claiming that he was wrongfully discharged, after the company fired him for sending electronic mails, that the company considered unprofessional and inappropriate, through the company's internet system (Muhl, 2003). Since Michael was an at-will staff, his lawsuit was really about whether his discharge had contravened the state's "public policy" and thus was an exception of the general rule that allowed for the firing of at-will employees for any reason at any time. The Federal Eastern District Court granted the defendant's (the Pillsbury Company) motion to dismiss the…… [Read More]

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Ommerce E-Commerce E- Commerce E- Commerce E-Commerce

Words: 4770 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31711606



E- Commerce

E- Commerce

E-commerce revolution has immensely affected all the industries, including the real estate industry. By using websites the real estate agents can transmit the information about the properties to a wide range of people. In addition to that, it can also enable the real estate agents to set up information communication channels directly between the real estate agencies, investors and developers. By mass media advertisements, the retailers can target a huge audience, including a number of potential buyers. In this technique the agencies usually use a simplex, one way communication channel, to communicate with the audience. A single advertisement is generated for the entire market, therefore, it is cost efficient. (Jianliang et al., 2013)

E-commerce enables the real estate agents to have personal contact with their clients. By having an interaction with the clients, the agents can better understand their requirements and can provide them with properties that best match their requirements. This, in return, leads toward high customer satisfaction and enhanced customer loyalty. (Jianliang et al., 2013)

2. E-Commerce Marketing

Marketing roots back to the inception of human history. From the times of barter and initial trade, people used to convince each other by…… [Read More]

Basu, A. And Muylle, S. (2007). How to Plan E-Business Initiatives in Established Companies. MIT Sloan Management Review.49 pp.27-36 Retrieved from: [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].

Beal, V. (2010). 4 E-commerce Regulations Need to Know. E-Commerce Guide. Retrieved from [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
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Technology on Personal Relationships the

Words: 13203 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85885493

In many ways, students live both in the land-based or physical world as well as in the virtual world; leading what some considers parallel lives.

Helliwell & Putman (2004) posit that social networking sites may offer an avenue for the development of greater social capital which may serve to further reinforce students' likelihood of integrating Facebook and other social media sites into their regular routines. A suggestion made as to the possible reason for the purported decline in mature interpersonal relationships is social media and advances in technology Helliwell & Putnam, 2004.

The following study will build a base of knowledge regarding several popular social media sites including Facebook, and examine the role social media plays in a college students' development and interpersonal relationships.

Technology has revolutionized and transformed the way in which people relate in one another and in this way it has greatly impacted the communication between people. Some of the technological devices which have been thought to cause these effects include televisions, radios, mobile phones, personal computers, laptops and other handheld devices. These devices have brought different technologies to our lives and have come to change how we establish ourselves in our day-to-day lives and how we…… [Read More]

Anstey, S. (1999). Online Personal Relationships. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the Twenties. American Psychologist, 55(1), 469-480.
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Defence Strategy Defense Strategy Reading

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34315604

Furthermore, the strategy still relies on the fact that the country is set to get a transition beyond the war on terror activities. This comes so early that the nation will not be ready to abandon some of the activities being done to counter terrorist attacks. Nonetheless, the U.S. is still experiencing numerous serious threats from its enemies like the al-Qaeda and other terrorist actors in the world. The strategy will serve as a good idea but a serious threat to the general existence of peace and stability in the country. The basic mechanisms of counterterrorism will be eradicated when the nation is facing serious certainties of attacks from the wounded enemies.

Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia

After the Second World War, the United States has been at a forefront in ensuring the security of its allies and commodities found in China. The interests bestowed by the state have seen the state establishing a number of strategic options. These strategic options are geared at maintaining peace and stability within China. For instance, the state has been assuring military alliance, stable ground and air forces, nuclear participations and establishment, and carrier-strike groups within the region. Nonetheless,…… [Read More]

Berman, I. (1/05/2012). Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy. Forbes.

Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from
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Cyberwarfare Like Terrorism Cyber-Warfare Changes

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53322808

Herein lies one of the political implications of cyber-warfare. Because cyber-warfare is trans-national, global efforts to prevent cyber crimes must be global in scope and cooperative in nature. Nations do have information warfare capabilities that can be harnessed preemptively as well as defensively (Knapp & Bolton 2006). However, to harness the capabilities of state-sponsored cyber warfare tools, the norms of neutrality need to be rewritten (Kelsey 2008).

Finally, the social impacts of cyber-warfare are in many ways similar to the impacts of terrorism. The nebulous fear from unidentifiable non-state actors has a tremendous impact on social life and how individuals use information technology. Consumers are concerned about the protection of private data, such as banking information. Cyber-warfare can potentially dismantle entire organizations, and disrupt essential services. Given the push to digitalize medical records, the health of human beings is also at stake.

Cyber-warfare offers potential for new and innovative strategies on the part of law enforcement, the military, and the private sector. Law enforcement responses to cyber-warfare will be among the most critical within localized jurisdictions, whereas trans-state responses to cyber-warfare will require the cooperation of multiple organizations. This makes responses to cyber-warfare politically tricky and potentially problematic. Combatting trans-state…… [Read More]

Kelsey, J.T.G. (2008). Note: Hacking into international humanitarian law: The principles of distinction and neutrality in the age of cyber warfare. Michigan Law Review.

Knapp, K.J. & Boulton, W.R. (2006). Cyber-warfare threatens corporations: expansion into commercial environments. ISM Journal.