Cyber Crimes Essays (Examples)

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Crime Workplace Is Not Safe From Numerous

Words: 3278 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2555299

Crime

Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…… [Read More]

Reference List

McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.

Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.

Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA

Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
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Cyber-Citizen USA Cyber-Citizen USA the

Words: 5130 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35659370

The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.

At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.

Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…… [Read More]

References

Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.

Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.

Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10

Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
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2007 Estonia Cyber Attacks

Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61795293

Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007

2007 Estonian Cyber-war

This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).

More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…… [Read More]

References

Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf

Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website:  http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf 

Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF

Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss
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It Risk Management -- Cyber

Words: 4384 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38954961

The organizations are usually run by a core group, which divides the different responsibilities of an operation (e.g. spamming, web design, data collection) among the members. The members run their own outer networks to fulfill those responsibilities -- rarely even having contact with each other online. The decentralized structure of the internet, as well as the high levels of anonymity it provides makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to locate cybercriminal groups. A group could have networks in a myriad of different countries, whilst using servers based in numerous different countries and jurisdictions. Furthermore, many national jurisdictions lack the legislative framework required to properly prosecute online crime." (Collins, 2012)

These insights are illustrating how the lack of self-control is creating a situation where more criminals or organizations are turning to cyber crime. What makes the situation worse; is they can work anonymously and be able to conduct these activities…… [Read More]

References

Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. London: Academic.

Collins, a. (2012). Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gregg, M. (2010). Hacker Techniques, Tools and Incident Handling. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Gryzbowski, K. (2012). An Examination of Cyber Crime and Cyber Crime Research. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Scottsdale.
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Banking Crimes From Hackers

Words: 1659 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13858163

Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions

Carmalia Davis

The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).

In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…… [Read More]

References

Cordle, I. P. (2014, August 7). TotalBank responds to computer security breach, Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/article1978822.html Comment by dkamari: are all of these cited in your paper? If not, do not list them.

Mossburg, E. (2015). A Deeper Look at the Financial Impact of Cyber Attacks. Financial Executive, 31(3), 77-80. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/

Crossman, P. (2015, March 5). Is Apple Pay a Fraud Magnet? Only If Banks Drop the Ball. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/news/bank-technology/is-apple-pay-a-fraud-magnet-only-if-banks-drop-the-ball-107312

Dean, B. (2015, March 4). Why companies have little incentive to invest in cybersecurity. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/why-companies-have-little-incentive-to-invest-in-cybersecurity-37570
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Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security

Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25492392

Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline

Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security

Methods of the Government Interventions

Impacts of Government egulation on National Security

Failure to comply to related cyber regulations

Meeting the minimum requirements.

Exceeding the Minimum equirements

The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. ecently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of…… [Read More]

Reference

Coyne, C.J. (2012). Who's to Protect Cyberspace? Department of Economics Hampden-Sydney College

Liu, E.C. Stevens, G. Ruane, K. A. et al. (2013). Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues. Congress Research Service

Rosenzweig, P. (2012). An emerging threats: Cybersecurity and Public Goods. The Public/Private "Partnership." Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Stalling, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice. (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall
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Crime 21st Century White Collar If True

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29446192

crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).

White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.

Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Burns, Jan, "Build Your Online Community: Blogging, Message Boards, Newsgroups, and More," (Enslow Publishers, Inc., 01.02.2011)

Edmunson, Mark, "The Trouble With Online Education," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/opinion/the-trouble-with-online-education.html?_r=0

"White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the New York County District Attorney's Office Website:  http://manhattanda.org/white-collar-crime-2011-martin-act-cybercrime-and-beyond
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Organized Crime Groups Operating in

Words: 979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62163337

The Italian mafia as it still works in Italy is extremely powerful (Summerfield,2005). As late as in the 1990's they were very active in the killing of law enforcement officers with terroristic bombing techniques. The Italian mafia is noted to have found its way into the United States in the early 1900's when the banned IOC figures came to the country illegally (Porter & Lyman, 2006). Most of these were members of the Sicilian Mafiosi. It is most of these who in the 1920s aided in the establishment of the La Cosa Nostra (American Mafia). The other organized crime groups that are recognized by the FBI thereafter came into being.

The traditional organized criminal groups in the U.S. preyed on the ignorance as well as vulnerability of the people in the U.S. The immigrants are noted to have been the common victims of these organized criminal organizations. Their vulnerability was…… [Read More]

References

Bjelopera, J and Finklea, KM (2012).Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement . Congressional research Service.

 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf 

Finklea, KM (2010).Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress.Congressional research Service

 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40525.pdf
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Dark Figure of Crime Is a Term

Words: 2252 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68643143

Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.

The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal ureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.

There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR

Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, D.A., & Salem, G. (1986). Fear of crime: Incivility and the production of a social problem. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.

Lilly, R.J., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2007). Criminological theory: context and consequences
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Staffing a New Crime Laboratory

Words: 1688 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86906306

The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.

Overall System Design

Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…… [Read More]

References

ASCLD/LAB-International (2010) "Program Overview" Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.ascld-lab.org/documents/AL-PD-3041.pdf

CSTL. (2000) "Quality assurance standards for Forensicnda DNA Testing Laboratories"

Forensic Science Communications, vol. 2, no. 3, Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from  http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/QAS/Final-FBI-Director-Forensic-Standards.pdf .

Forensic Access. (2011) "Quality management and quality standards support to the police:
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Case Study of Cyber Crime

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45664686

Cyber Crimes

There are many different types of cybercrime committed. The general class of cybercrime reflects any crime that occurs over the Internet. These can range from hacking crimes to identity theft, and anybody or any entity that is online can be vulnerable to cybercrime. The list of ten major cybercrimes covers a wide range of crime types and victim types, highlighting the diverse range of criminal activity that falls under the category of cybercrime.

One of the cases identified in the video was that of Max Vision, a hacker who stole credit card information. Max Vision stole over two million credit card numbers, and was sentenced to a record 13-year sentence for this crime in 2010 (Poulsen, 2010). He had sold the stolen numbers to other criminals, and they racked up $86.4 million in fraudulent charges.

Vision was a cyber security consultant in the late 1990s, and was one…… [Read More]

References

"10 Notorious cyber crimes" (2014). Alltime 10s./YouTube. Retrieved March 17, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0iaRn2WwPw

Poulsen, K. (2010). Record 13-year sentence for Max Vision. Wired. Retrieved March 17, 2016 from http://www.wired.com/2010/02/max-vision-sentencing/
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Global Crime and Issues in Law Enforcement

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94860386

M8D1: Global Crime and Regional Police

How can the police and law enforcement address transnational and globalization of crime given the current organizational mission and mandates of the police and law enforcement?

Include a discussion of the potential of "regionalizing" small police and law enforcement agencies.

It has been said that "transnational criminals have been one of the biggest beneficiaries of globalization…Globalization facilitates international trade but also increases the difficulty of regulating global trade…traffickers and smugglers have exploited this" as well as terrorists (Patrick 2012). Globalization has also facilitated the creation of terrorist networks connected by ideology rather than nationality. "Illicit networks are challenging to states because states are militarily and diplomatically organized to deal with other states. Governments around the world "have found it very hard to adapt to non-state or sovereignty-free actors" and perceive them s threats (Patrick 2012).

he problem with dealing with global, transnational threats it…… [Read More]

The phenomenon of 'citizen journalism' is a new one, spawned of new technology. Many people are keeping 'watch' on the police via photographs and videos that they take themselves. Others are even more radical and may try to engage in their own 'set ups,' such as proving how easy it is to breach security. "For individuals and groups who believe that mainstream news outlets do not accurately or fairly report the news, citizen journalism offers opportunities to present stories unmediated by professional journalists. However, citizen journalism presents real dangers both to individual organizations and people and perhaps to democracy itself. Among the skills that traditional journalistic practices require are unbiased news gathering, a separation of fact and opinion, and research skills" (Braunstein 2007). The proliferation of media channels in general makes it more difficult for law enforcement agencies to convey a coherent message to the public. Officers must maintain public trust through communicating directly with the public in an effective manner, given that trust is a cornerstone of policing.

Other, new methods of ensuring police accountability may be more crudely technical in nature. "In the past few years, more state legislatures and state supreme courts have created statutes and evidentiary rules that either mandate or strongly encourage audio or video recording of interrogations. More than half the states now have some rule on this topic. In 2010, that number is expected to grow" as will the use of in-car video systems "capable of recording an officer's activity for an entire ten-hour shift. Constant electronic recording of police activity may become the new core of police accountability" (Wallentine 2009). On one hand, many officers will find this frustrating; on the other hand it can be a way for officers to protect themselves against baseless charges of harassment. It may make evidence-gathering more difficult but also will reduce the chances of officers crossing the line and potentially getting evidence thrown out of court.

Technology has thus changed law enforcement and the perceptions of law enforcement. A final technology-related concern pertains not to perceptions of officers and the threats they pose but the threat of new types of crimes, specifically cyber-related crimes. Technology not only gives criminals enhanced ways to communicate: it also creates new forms of crime that solely take place online such as identity theft. Moreover, given that credit-reporting agencies require victims to issue an 'identity theft affidavit' and report the crime to the police to obtain restitution, the police are more involved than ever before in fighting 'virtual' threats to public safety (Newman 2004). Cyber harassment, using online venues to sell illegal goods,
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Internet to Solve Crimes the

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9918143

The technology is extremely effective. In brief, crime mapping technology enables the police and other crime fighting agencies "... To analyze and correlate data sources to create a detailed snapshot of crime incidents and related factors within a community or other geographical area." (the Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by Law Enforcement)

Studies show that this technology is creating a positive response among law enforcement agencies and has many advantages over older methods of fighting crime. Among the many aspects of this method is the real-time analysis of crime data as well as the mapping of various critical crime areas using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. (Newsom G.)

One of the central advantages of this system is that it provides the ability to identify certain trends in crime and links between crimes. This is an important aspect as it provides crucial correlations between events and crimes which may occur in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crime Mapping and Problem Analysis Laboratory. 16 September, 2006. http://www.policefoundation.org/docs/crime_mapping.html

Godwin M. Government: Cops on the I-Way. 1995. 16 September, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/cases/lamacchia/godwin-cops-iway.html

How can police agencies keep up with new technology? 2005. 15 September, 2006. http://www.gazette.rcmp.gc.ca/article-en.html?&article_id=91

Newsom G. Crime Mapping Technology. 16 September, 2006. http://www.gavinnewsom.com/index.php?id=28
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Different Types of White Collar Crime

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16706505

Pension fraud is a type of white-collar crime, but it can assume many different forms. In "Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension," the underlying crime was bribery, which happened to be related to a pension fraud scheme. The State of New York runs and manages a pension for its residents. It invests money workers pay into the pension. In this case, state officials accepted about $1 million in gifts in exchange for investing $250 million in pension money into the briber's company. "Looking Out for Number One" describes a slightly different type of pension fraud. In this case, the manager of the pension was defrauded by the investment company, AA Capital Partners. AA Capital Partners seem to have diverted millions of dollars from the pension money to its own dealings, amounting to a type of embezzlement. Thus, pension fraud is not actually a specific type of…… [Read More]

References

"Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension." International New York Times. 4 Dec, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/04/nyregion/04pension.html?_r=2&

"Identity Theft, Debt Collection, and Payday Loans Top List of Consumer Fraud Complaints," (2014). The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved online:   http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0304/Identity-theft-debt-collection-and-payday-loans-top-list-of-consumer-fraud-complaints  

"Looking Out for Number One." Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved online: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-10-29/looking-out-for-number-one
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The Evolution of Organized Crime

Words: 2207 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78718392

History Of Organized Crime

More than a century of motion pictures and more than a half-century of television productions have created a somewhat romanticized version of organized crime as typified in "The Godfather" series. Indeed, there is even a National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, commonly known as "The Mob Museum" in Las Vegas which is a popular tourist destination (Green, 2013). The reality of organized crime, however, contrasts sharply with any romanticized depiction and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) emphasizes that organized crime is not only prevalent in the United States, it has become far more complex and broader in scope compared to the past. To determine the facts about the history of organized crime, this paper provides a background and overview followed by an analysis of some of the main sources of revenues for these criminal organizations. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of…… [Read More]

References

Calderon, F. (2015, Summer). Drug trafficking and organized crime: Connected but different. Harvard International Review, 36(4), 52-55.

Drug trafficking. (2016). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https:// www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/.

Green, M. (2013, October 1). How the Mob (Museum) was won: Building a history of organized crime in the U.S. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 17(2), 101-104.

Kelly, R. J. & Chin, K. L. (1999). Handbook of organized crime in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Technology Terrorism and Crime Apa Technology Terrorism

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28094078

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime

One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.

The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…… [Read More]

References

"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an

Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from  http://www.aryan-nation.org/ 

"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/

Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106
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Internet and Crime

Words: 1223 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92738069

Cyber Crime

Critical infrastructure

There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.

It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…… [Read More]

Reference

2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from  http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/annual_report_full_11.pdf 

GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from  http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/235485.pdf .

Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1131&context=cm

Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://swfound.org/media/93632/SSI_FullReport_2012.pdf
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Chief Security Officer As the Chief Security

Words: 2148 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99079372

Chief Security Officer:

As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics…… [Read More]

References:

"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.

Retrieved December 16, 2013, from  http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2013/08/16/data-security-breach-at-ferris-state-university/ 

Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed.). Stamford,

CT: Cengage Learning.
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Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal

Words: 3624 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19427336

Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities

Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism

Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World

What is Identity Theft?

How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?

Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?

How elease of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?

Future Implications

Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane…… [Read More]

References

Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.

Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.

Burgess, A., Regehr C., & Roberts, A. (2011). Victimology: Theories and Applications: Theories and Applications. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Clough, J. (2010). Principles of Cybercrime. 1st Edition. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
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Securing the Electronic Transfer Securing

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38772049

Essentially, securing the electronic frontier is very critical because of the potential harms that cyber crime and fraud cause to individual, businesses and nations as a whole.

One of the effective strategies that could be employed to secure the electronic frontier is the collaboration of the government with the private and public organizations. Increasing number of governments has implemented method to secure the electronic frontier without success. Since corporate organizations are more equipped to counter IT threats than the government, a collaboration of the government with organizations will be more effective.

Moreover, the international organizations such as the United Nations should also play effective roles in securing electronic frontier. The United Nation should make a law to ensure that all member nations are obliged to secure electronic transfer in their respective nations since lack of cross-border treaties for data sharing is creating havoc to corporate organizations. Essentially, some countries such…… [Read More]

Reference

Berkowitz, B. & Hahn, R.W. (2003).Cyber-security: Who's Watching Store? Issue of Science and Technology.

Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM. 54 (8): 132-140.

Rosenzweig, P. (2012). The International Governance Framework for Cybersecurity. Canada-United States Law Journal.37 (1).
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Computer Misuse Legislation Unfit for

Words: 2485 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10475857

Knowledge of e-crime from the perspective of crime science is insufficient in devolution of the problem, which cuts across various sections of social interaction through computers. There is a limitation in the forensic and social / legal exploration of information technology aspects and that is the possible cause of the limitations of the jurisdictions of the computer crime legislation, creating the insufficiency in the fulfillment of its purpose (Tonry 2009 p. 20-350).

The legislation approaches the infringement of the social precepts of technology without any consideration of social remedies. The use of police in regulation of operations is limiting because they may not have the capacity for gauging the extent of computer damage. It is logical considering the sensitivity of pro-social individuals, and their possibility of taking up their responsibilities. Social norms revolve around consideration of others and create a sense of mindfulness and consideration of activities (Humphreys 2007 p.…… [Read More]

References

'a Comparative Study of Cyberattacks' 2012, Communications of the ACM, 55, 3, pp. 66-73, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.

Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground tales of hacking, madness and obsession on the electronic frontier. Edinburgh, Canongate. 56. Print.

Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground. North Sydney, N.S.W., Random House Australia. 23-150. Print.

Foltz, C, & Renwick, J 2011, 'Information Systems Security and Computer Crime in the IS Curriculum: A Detailed Examination', Journal of Education for Business, 86, 2, pp. 119-125, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.
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Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31745295

Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

There are several central governments, state and local authority's correctional facilities in the United States. Over the past few decades, the rate of crime occurrence has significantly increased. Also, the correctional facilities have experienced growth in population. There are a huge number of inmates in the various correctional facilities as compared to those in 1990's. For instance, the ureau of Justice Statistics found the number of prisoners at 665,000 across the country; this is a 159% increase from the jail population of 1985. The correctional facilities have, suffered several setbacks due to the increase in the population.

The capacities of the correctional facilities in the United States are not sufficient to hold the large population of inmates; research from the report released in 2002 indicate that the facilities operate at 108% capacity from the 85% capacity held in 1983. This has made the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, R.K., Applegate, B.K., Otto, C.W., Surette, R. & McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and Responsibilities: Analyzing Local Leaders'Views on Jail Crowding From a Systems

Perspective, Crime and Deliquency, (50) 1, 458-480

Steiner, B. (2009). Assessing Static and Dynamic Influences on Inmate Violence Levels, Crime & Delinquency, (55) 1, 134-158. DOI: 10.1177/0011128707307218

Martin, J.L., Lichtenstein, B., . Jenkot, R.B., & Forde, D.R. (2012). "They Can Take Us Over
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Agency Organization in Which You Worked Include Information

Words: 5237 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72302251

agency/organization in which you worked. Include information on the size of the organization (number of personnel, of what kinds) and the division of labor into units or departments. Obtain an organizational chart, or prepare one yourself, showing the formal structure of the organization.

The organization where I worked from April 24, 2012 to June 29, 2012 was U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Created in 2003, it is the main investigative body of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Investigation. It is a federal law enforcement agency whose main responsibility includes executing the immigration and custom laws of the United States to protect the country and to ensure the public security.

The detailed chart of the structure of the organization is attached in the Appendix A. ICE has a divisional organizational structure. It is headed by the Director who is appointed by the President of U.S. And approved by the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cyber Crimes Center. 2012 June 16 .

Herald, Glenna. U.S. Immigration and Enforcement arrests 44. Chicago Tribune. N.p., 14 June 2012. Web. 19 June 2012. .

Hughes, Gordon, Eugene MacLaughlin and John Muncie. Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Sage Publications, 2002.

ICE Strategic Plan Fiscal Years 2010-2014. Strategic Plan. Washington DC: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2010.
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Forensic Unit Justification

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95676396

Justification of a Forensic Unit

Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.

Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit

The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…… [Read More]

Reference

Bureau of Forensic Service (2009). California Crime Laboratory Review Task Force. California Department of Justice.

Police Executive Research,(2002). Police department budgeting: A guide for law enforcement chief executives. Washington, D.C: Police Executive Research

Forum.

Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.
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Police Communication Technology the Need

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27318766



Conclusion:

The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.

eferences

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…… [Read More]

References

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media

Age." Routledge: New York.
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Policing Challenges to Policing in the 21st

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231395

Policing Challenges

Challenges to policing in the 21st century

Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…… [Read More]

References

Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from  http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html .

Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
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Occupations in the Field of

Words: 1505 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59189882

Overall, the code of ethics serves as a reminder to private investigators as to what their responsibilities are and how they should be carried out. Although each state has a separate code of ethics for private investigators, most follow similar guidelines.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to focus on the field of private detectives/investigators. The discussion found that the occupation involves a range of duties including surveillance and evidence gathering. We also found that the code of ethics for this profession varies from state to state. The ethical dilemmas facing private investigators has to do with conducting services in a manner that is illegal, being upfront with clients concerning fees and providing factual reports. The code of ethics discussed in this report attempts to discourage private investigators form engaging in the aforementioned unethical behaviors.

eferences

Code of Ethics. Private Investigators Association of Virginia. etrieved December 1, 2007 from;…… [Read More]

References

Code of Ethics. Private Investigators Association of Virginia. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from; http://www.piava.org/code_of_ethics.shtml

Private Detectives and Investigators. U.S. Department of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from; http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos157.htm
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America Isn't Ready for Real Digital Protection of Its Infrastructure

Words: 1401 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62833907

Combating Digital Crime & Digital Terrorism

"Describe the overall impact (e.g. economic, social, etc.) of utilizing technologies in combating digital crime and digital terrorism"

It has become very obvious over the past few years that the United States' technologies that are supposed to combat cyber attacks on corporate, personal, and government computers are enormously ineffective. Some would say that is an understatement. This paper discusses ways to combat cyber crime and cyber terrorism. There is good reason why this subject needs addressing not just in college research papers but by the agencies that are supposed to protect Americans and the U.S. government and its employees (including the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, among others).

hy better digital crime prevention is imperative

In fact one of the most devastating digital attacks on U.S. government computers occurred earlier in June, as hackers linked…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennett, B., and Diersing, C. (2015). Hacked U.S. files not encrypted. Los Angeles Times.

Retrieved June 17, 2015, from http://www.latimes.com.

Bissell, K. (2013). Fighting Cybercrime with Collective Intelligence and Technology.

The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 17, 2015, from http://deloitte.wsj.com.
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Jennings M M 2002 Ethics in Cybercafe

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36137023

The author identifies different type of ethical issues, which include:

Privacy & confidentiality,

Hacking/Spamming,

Property/Copyright,

Netiquette,

Vandalism,

Access,

Accuracy.

Students can break the law by going against the laws on ethical issues. Thus, it is the responsibility of teachers to inform students about the importance of computer ethics. Teachers should be aware of their ethical responsibilities and play role models to assist students to learn by examples.

Part 2 - eflective Diary - the Internet and Ethical Values

Ethical values in the internet and information technology have become important issues within a business environment, and the rapid development cyber crimes have necessitated the needs to spread the ethical values within the it environment. More importantly, the cyberspace has become very importance in the cotemporary it environment because cyberspace assists people and organizations globally to communicate and transact business without limit. Thus, internet has become a necessary tool of doing business,…… [Read More]

References

Akcay, B. (2008). The Relationship Between technology and Ethics from Society to Schools.

Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE. 9(4), 120-127.

Baum, J.J. (2005). CyberEthics: The New Frontier. TechTrends, 49 (6), 54-55.

Frohmann, B. (2008). Subjectivity and Information Ethics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(2):267 -- 277.
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Persistent Threat Historical Background of

Words: 5786 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46613349



According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."

Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…… [Read More]

Resources

1. Article: online

Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online

Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/

2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
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Cyber Terrorism and Communication in Terrorism

Words: 3698 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22736255

Cyber Terrorism

Terrorism has become the most heatedly discussed and debated subject in social and political circles. In fact these days, this one issue has been dominating all other national and international problems. This is because on the one hand, we have just been witness to world's worst and probably the most sophisticated terrorist acts when airplanes were used as missiles to hit the two most powerful buildings in the United States and on the other hand, terrorism is spreading so fast that there appears to be no suitable and permanent solution to this problem.

Terrorism has turned into a national issue because on the one hand it is becoming more effective and lethal and on the other terrorists are now adopting newer and better tactics to meet their goals and objectives. After September 11, "President Bush, Vice President Cheney, and senior administration officials have alerted the public not only…… [Read More]

References

Joshua Green, The Myth of Cyberterrorism: There Are Many Ways Terrorists Can Kill You-Computers Aren't One of Them. Washington Monthly. Volume: 34. Issue: 11. November 2002. 8+.

John M. Deutch, Terrorism. Foreign Policy. Issue: 108. Fall 1997. 10+.

Peter Chalk, Grave New World. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy. Volume: 15. Issue: 1. 2000. Page Number: 13.

Giles Trendle, Cyber Threat! Although There Were No Major Catastrophic Cyber Attacks during the War on Iraq, as Some Had Feared an Increase in Hostile Electronic Strikes Was Registered during the Term of the Conflict. The Middle East. June 2003. 38+.
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Cyber Terrorism

Words: 3249 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50292017

internet and the increased availability of personal computers around the world have increased the vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. In recent years computers have been used by terrorist to distribute information about terrorist attacks. Now many experts fear that terrorist will use computers to carry out an attack on electricity grid or other systems that are crucial to the operation of a nation's infrastructure. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ways in which cybercrimes occur and the how it applies to the criminal justice system approach to dealing with terrorism. efore we began the literature review let us provide an overview of the methodology used to identify and locate sources of information found in the literature review.

Methodology

The sources used in the following literature review are from Academic Journals, books, newspapers, government agencies and articles found on the internet. Many of the Journals used are published…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arquilla J., Ronfeldt D. 2001. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand. Santa Monica, CA.

Boulard G. May 2003. Cyber Terrorism: No Longer Fiction; the Threat of Cyber Terrorism Became Much More Real after Sept. 11. Here's How States Are Trying to Reduce the Risks. State Legislatures. Volume: 29. Issue: 5. Page Number: 22+.

Davis J. 2003. The Global War on Terrorism: Assessing the American Response. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: White House Studies. Volume: 3. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: vii

Ditzion R., Geddes E., Rhodes, M. 2003. Computer Crimes. . American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 40. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 285+.
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Carla Murray Timothy Broyles the Number of

Words: 2420 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42587586

Carla Murray

Timothy Broyles

The number of online security breaches is increasing day by day. For instance, with the Sony Playstation data breaches to millions of small breaches; something must be done to protect the online security of citizens as well as our own government (Sony Playstation System Hacking). The question then becomes who is going to do it? Can the American citizens trust the United States government to ensure their security and thereby their very safety? In light of the fact that the Michigan police force has recently been found to use a forensic cell phone reader or Cellebrite upon routine traffic stops, the ACLU has called into question the ethics of seizing such information without probable cause. Are cell phones merely a tracking device as far as the police force is concerned? Does this not violate the Constitutional right we are guaranteed by our government? Most recently a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clemmitt, Marcia. "Privacy in Peril." CQ Researcher 17 Nov. 2006: 961-84. Web. 22

May 2011.

Hansen, Brian. "Cyber-Crime." CQ Researcher 12 Apr. 2002: 305-28. Web. 22 May 2011.

Katel, Peter. "Identity Theft." CQ Researcher 10 June 2005: 517-40. Web. 22 May 2011.
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Technology Has Corrupted Society as

Words: 1054 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98649038

Civil penalties, if pursued by an organization such as the IAA, can range from a minimum of $750 per song to thousands of dollars per song. Due to the civil lawsuits filed by the IAA, piracy awareness rose from 35% to 72%. The IAA has since stopped its broad-based end user litigation program [IAA 2010].

The Internet has also facilitated the disturbing trend of cyber-bullying and cyber-harassment. Attempts to curb cyber-harassment may prove difficult as "cyber-bullies" may be anonymous and therefore, difficult to identify. In "Cyber-Bullying in Schools: A esearch for Gender Differences," Qing Li states that school violence is a serious social problem that is persistent and acute during middle school [LI 2006]. Cyber-bullying, as defined by Tanya Beran and Qing Li in "Cyber Harassment: A New Method for an Old Behavior," is defined as "the repeated and intentional use of various forms of technology such as cell-phones, pagers,…… [Read More]

Reference List

BERAN T., LI Q. 2005 Cyber-Harassment: A Study of a New Method for an Old Behavior

JOURNAL of EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, Calgary, AB, Canada.

CYBERBULLING RESEARCH CENTER 2010 Accessed 3 December 2010

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Terrorist Groups Use of Cloud Technology

Words: 4606 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34264283

Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology

After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.

The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.

Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.

Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.

Furht, Borko; Escalante, Armando. Handbook of Cloud Computing.
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Cyber Terrorism

Words: 4455 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88428814

Cyber Terrorism

The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:

- easily approachable

- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information

- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe

- the power for the user to remain…… [Read More]

References

Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02

Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:

http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techpolicy/2005-05-26-cia-wargames_x.htm

Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article: http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=432&trv=1
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A concise Analysis of Cyber Terrorism The Greatest Risk in the U S

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65308575

Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S.

Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology (IT) systems than on other means for information. From business to government, computer networks are relied upon to store, process, retrieve, and transfer critical information. Increased dependence on computer networks has, however, posed a major threat. Cyber terrorism is now arguably the biggest threat facing the U.S. (Harress, 2014; Thomas, 2016). Attacks against computer networks via computer viruses, worms, malware, and hacking have become increasingly common. The attacks are directed to information systems and infrastructures that support critical processes such as defense, transportation, banking, and energy production. This threatens the country's social, economic, and political stability. Nonetheless, there are often assertions that the risk of cyber terrorism is not as pervasive or substantial as often portrayed. Though there could be some…… [Read More]

References

Caplan, N. (2013). Cyber War: The Challenge to National Security. Global Security Studies, 4(1), 93-115.

Chen, T., Jarvis, L., & Macdonald, S. (2014). Cyberterrorism: understanding, assessment, and response. New York: Springer.

Geers, K. (2012). Strategic Cyber Defense: Which Way Forward? Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-10.

Harress, C. (2014, February 2). Obama says cyberterrorism is country's biggest threat, U.S. government assembles "cyber warriors." International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/obama-says-cyberterrorism-countrys-biggest-threat-us- government-assembles-cyber-warriors-1556337
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CEO Memo on Internet Use

Words: 2628 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81032796

consultation done for a CEO of a Fortune 500 company regarding use of internet by its employees. The consultation will look into internet usage by employees and possible ways to reduce illegal use of internet at the workplace.

Torts that the employees might be committing using the Workplace Internet

There are quite a number of torts that could be committed by employees at the workplace. Quite a number of legal cases have demonstrated these torts, for instance, the case Smyth vs. The Pillsbury Company, in the Federal Eastern District of Pennsylvania. In the case, the plaintiff, Mr. Michael Smyth filed a lawsuit against his the company he formerly worked for, The Pillsbury Company, claiming that he was wrongfully discharged, after the company fired him for sending electronic mails, that the company considered unprofessional and inappropriate, through the company's internet system (Muhl, 2003). Since Michael was an at-will staff, his lawsuit…… [Read More]

References

Adams, C. (2004). The Right of Privacy of Employees with Respect to Employer -Owned Computers and E-mails. The Oklahoma Bar Journal, 75(28). Retrieved October 21, 2015, from http://digitalcommons.law.utulsa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1062&context=fac_pub

Frayer, C. (2002). Employee privacy and internet monitoring: balancing workers' rights and dignity with legitimate management interests. Business Lawyer, 57(2), 857-878.

Human Resources Management: Employment Tips and Samples (n.d). Sample Internet and Email Policy for Employees. Retrieved October 21, 2015, from http://humanresources.about.com/od/policiesandsamples1/a/email_policy.htm

Muhl, C. (2003). Workplace e-mail and Internet use: employees and employers beware. Monthly Labor Review, 36. Retrieved October 21, 2015, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2003/02/art3full.pdf
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Ommerce E-Commerce E- Commerce E- Commerce E-Commerce

Words: 4770 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31711606

OMMECE

E-Commerce

E- Commerce

E- Commerce

E-commerce revolution has immensely affected all the industries, including the real estate industry. By using websites the real estate agents can transmit the information about the properties to a wide range of people. In addition to that, it can also enable the real estate agents to set up information communication channels directly between the real estate agencies, investors and developers. By mass media advertisements, the retailers can target a huge audience, including a number of potential buyers. In this technique the agencies usually use a simplex, one way communication channel, to communicate with the audience. A single advertisement is generated for the entire market, therefore, it is cost efficient. (Jianliang et al., 2013)

E-commerce enables the real estate agents to have personal contact with their clients. By having an interaction with the clients, the agents can better understand their requirements and can provide them…… [Read More]

References

Basu, A. And Muylle, S. (2007). How to Plan E-Business Initiatives in Established Companies. MIT Sloan Management Review.49 pp.27-36 Retrieved from: http://www.business.ulst.ac.uk/intlbusiness/courses/bmg814m1/BasuEBusiness.pdf [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].

Beal, V. (2010). 4 E-commerce Regulations Need to Know. E-Commerce Guide. Retrieved from http://www.e-commerce-guide.com/solutions/building/article.php/3910211/4-E-commerce-Regulations-to-Need-to-Know.htm [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].

Coburn, R. (2012). The Essential Elements of Computer Network Security. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Essential-Elements-of-Computer-Network-Security&id=7039466 [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].

FBI (2011). Internet Social Networking Risks. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/counterintelligence/internet-social-networking-risks [Accessed: 5 Jun 2013].
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Technology on Personal Relationships the

Words: 13203 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85885493



In many ways, students live both in the land-based or physical world as well as in the virtual world; leading what some considers parallel lives.

Helliwell & Putman (2004) posit that social networking sites may offer an avenue for the development of greater social capital which may serve to further reinforce students' likelihood of integrating Facebook and other social media sites into their regular routines. A suggestion made as to the possible reason for the purported decline in mature interpersonal relationships is social media and advances in technology Helliwell & Putnam, 2004.

The following study will build a base of knowledge regarding several popular social media sites including Facebook, and examine the role social media plays in a college students' development and interpersonal relationships.

Technology has revolutionized and transformed the way in which people relate in one another and in this way it has greatly impacted the communication between people.…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, S. (1999). Online Personal Relationships. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the Twenties. American Psychologist, 55(1), 469-480.

Balnaves, M., & Caputi, P. (2001). Introduction to quantitative research methods: an investigative approach. London: SAGE.

Bargh, J., & McKenna, K. (2004). The Internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(1), 573-590.
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Defence Strategy Defense Strategy Reading

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34315604



Furthermore, the strategy still relies on the fact that the country is set to get a transition beyond the war on terror activities. This comes so early that the nation will not be ready to abandon some of the activities being done to counter terrorist attacks. Nonetheless, the U.S. is still experiencing numerous serious threats from its enemies like the al-Qaeda and other terrorist actors in the world. The strategy will serve as a good idea but a serious threat to the general existence of peace and stability in the country. The basic mechanisms of counterterrorism will be eradicated when the nation is facing serious certainties of attacks from the wounded enemies.

Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia

After the Second World War, the United States has been at a forefront in ensuring the security of its allies and commodities found in China. The interests bestowed…… [Read More]

References

Berman, I. (1/05/2012). Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy. Forbes.

Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ilanberman/2012/01/05/reading-the-tea-leaves-on-obamas-new-military-strategy/

Mahnken, T. G et al. (June 04, 2012). Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from http://www.aei.org/papers/foreign-and-defense-policy/regional/asia/asia-in-the-balance-transforming-us-military-strategy-in-asia/
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Cyberwarfare Like Terrorism Cyber-Warfare Changes

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53322808

Herein lies one of the political implications of cyber-warfare. Because cyber-warfare is trans-national, global efforts to prevent cyber crimes must be global in scope and cooperative in nature. Nations do have information warfare capabilities that can be harnessed preemptively as well as defensively (Knapp & Bolton 2006). However, to harness the capabilities of state-sponsored cyber warfare tools, the norms of neutrality need to be rewritten (Kelsey 2008).

Finally, the social impacts of cyber-warfare are in many ways similar to the impacts of terrorism. The nebulous fear from unidentifiable non-state actors has a tremendous impact on social life and how individuals use information technology. Consumers are concerned about the protection of private data, such as banking information. Cyber-warfare can potentially dismantle entire organizations, and disrupt essential services. Given the push to digitalize medical records, the health of human beings is also at stake.

Cyber-warfare offers potential for new and innovative strategies…… [Read More]

References

Kelsey, J.T.G. (2008). Note: Hacking into international humanitarian law: The principles of distinction and neutrality in the age of cyber warfare. Michigan Law Review.

Knapp, K.J. & Boulton, W.R. (2006). Cyber-warfare threatens corporations: expansion into commercial environments. ISM Journal.

Wik, M.W. (n.d.). Revolution in information affairs.
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Marketing Business GRADE11 Marketing Business

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46749415

Marketing / Business

Grade11 Marketing / Business Activity

Activity 1: Braun Pocket Radio

Entertainment has always been the most integral and essential part of lives of people regardless of the demographics, socio economical backgrounds, or age groups. The form of entertainment has evolved over a period of time with the evolution in technology. One of the most common and popular form of entertainment is music. Music lovers exist around the world and in every age group. hile the music listening equipment dates back to the huge gramophone and radio, with the evolution in technology and industrial revolution, smaller and more portable equipments were invented. There came a time when the bigger equipments were replaced by the small portable radios.

Talking about the 1960s, it was known as one of the first most hip fashion eras. The fashion scene was influenced by major fashion hubs around the world. Besides clothing and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abraham Maslow -- Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Ict-learning now. 11 November 2010. Web. 10 January 2011.

1960's Braun Products Holds Secret to Apple's Products. Gizmodo. 14 January 2008. Web. 10 January 2011.

Rewind the Fifties. Loti.com. Web.10 January 2011.

Apple Classics and their 1960s ancestors. Guardian. 16 January 2008. Web. 10 January 2011
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Childhood Intimacy Problems Serve as

Words: 6896 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66414076

Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:

Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.

Whether the child's experiences success at school

Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)

Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)

Sexual Abuse "Signs"

Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:

1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams. Noah.

Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.

BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.

Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
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Internet Vulnerability in Today's Fast

Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40167241

Some programs are even able to track keystrokes and take snapshots of computer screens, allowing criminals even more information, such as credit card numbers and usernames (Bahl, 219).

While the obtaining of information through fraud is a problem related to Internet activity, there are other concerns with privacy that are still considered legal. For example, a company can obtain your personal information from transactions, and legally sell that information to the highest bidder (Sinrod, 17). While information traded between companies can increase competition, when the information is purchased by unscrupulous buyers, such transactions can threaten the security, privacy, and identity of consumers.

In addition, while restrictions exist on the government's collection of private and personal information from the Internet, loopholes exist that allow the government to obtain information without the knowledge of consumers. An example is the FBI's "Carnivore" system, developed to conduct surveillance of electronic communications by intercepting and…… [Read More]

References

Bahl, Shalini. "Consumers' Protection of Online Privacy and Identity." Journal of Consumer Affairs 38.2 (2004): 217-235.

Bielski, Lauren. "Security Breaches Hitting Home: Phishing, Information Leaks Keep Security Concerns at Red Alert." ABA Banking Journal 97.6 (2005): 7-18.

Brin, David. "Privacy Under Siege." The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose between Privacy and Freedom? Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1998: 54-89.

Dunham, Griffin S. "Carnivore, the FBI's E-Mail Surveillance System: Devouring Criminals." Federal Communications Law Journal 54 (2002): 543-566.
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Real World Market

Words: 3137 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27297130

Amazon, eBay, and Craigslist

A Real orld Market

E-commerce companies promote and sell their products at the online platform. They use the most advanced systems, techniques, and strategies for doing advertisements for their products, making and receiving payments, and managing customer and stakeholder relationships. This paper presents an analysis of the strategies and policies of three top companies from e-commerce industry, eBay, Amazon, and Craigslist.

The paper starts with a brief introduction to these companies by discussing their origin, scale of operations, location, product and service portfolio, and core operational strategies. Amazon.com is an American multinational e-commerce corporation that mainly deals in new and branded products. eBay is an auction website that provides a platform to the buyers and sellers to interact and do transaction in a safe and convenient way. Craigslist is also an e-commerce website where buyers and sellers negotiate for their transactions. If a buyer has to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amazon. About Amazon, 2013. Web. June, 1st, 2013.

Baye, Michael. The economics of the Internet and e-commerce, 1st Edition. Amsterdam: JAI Press, 2005. Print.

Collier, Marsha. EBay for dummies, 7th Edition. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley, 2012. Print.

Craigslist. About Craigslist, 2013. Web. June 1st, 2013.
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Why Censorship Is Viewed as a Positive

Words: 2379 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68200033

Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est

Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.

Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.

Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."

Parliament of Canada, 2015.
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Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62195901

Crime

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).

According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…… [Read More]

References

Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from  http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm 

Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.

Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
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Trustworthiness of Different Online Mediums

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25106650

Cyber-Bullying Media

The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast three different forms of media that all pertain to the same subject, that being cyber-bullying. The three types of media that will be singled out for analysis and research are podcasts, blogs and videos. For each source, the author will assess the source's use of bias, validity and applicability of information. Beyond the compare and contrast mentioned above, the author will examine the influence of web-based information on global citizenship and multi-cultural understanding. Lastly, there will be a listing of three factors that should be considered when evaluating Internet sources for use in researching information. While there is a lot of "good" when it comes to internet research and the data that is present, there is also a lot of "bad" that muddies up the proverbial waters.

Analysis

The podcast media that was selected for this…… [Read More]

References

NCPC. (2015). Cyberbullying - National Crime Prevention Council. Ncpc.org. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.ncpc.org/topics/cyberbullying

Panuska, M. (2015). Internet predators 'emerging' criminals. TimesWV.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.timeswv.com/news/local_news/internet-predators-emerging-criminals/article_413ade31-037c-599b-8242-53f74263c429.html

StopBullying.gov. (2015). Cyberbullying | Blog | StopBullying.gov. Stopbullying.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.stopbullying.gov/blog/categories/Cyberbullying

YouTube. (2015). THE CYBER BULLYING VIRUS. YouTube. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5PZ_Bh-M6o
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Online and Phone Based Counseling

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86502333

Cyber Counseling

The emergence and advancement of computer and internet technology has revolutionized and forever changed the way that normal everyday people live their lives. Practically no corner of society and culture in the United States and other industrialized countries around the world has been spared. Among the parts of life that have evolved and changed due to this cultural and societal shift is the world of counseling and psychology. While the normal tradition has been to do in-office visits for such services, there has been a more recent shift towards the use of tele-counseling and/or cyber counseling. There are many that say that such mediums are impersonal and inferior to more traditional in-office appointments. However, this is really not the case as cyber counseling and tele-counseling can actually expand the depth and breadth of what services can be rendered, to whom they can be rendered and the efficacy seen…… [Read More]

References

Delphin, M. E., & Rollock, D. (1995). University alienation and African-American ethnic identity as predictors of attitudes toward, knowledge about, and likely use of psychological services. Journal Of College Student Development, 36337-346.

Fang, L., Bogo, M., Mishna, F., Murphy, L., Gibson, M., Griffiths, V., & Regehr, G. (2012).

Development and Initial Evaluation of the Cyber-Counseling Objective Structured Clinical

Examination (COSCE). Research On Social Work Practice, 23(1), 81-94.
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Fraud Techniques

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48046310

Fraud Techniques

In the modern society, many organizations across various industries are increasingly vulnerable to electronic fraud. The threat of electronic fraud across these industries is particularly worsened with the emergence of computer fraud. Actually, computer fraud and crime has continued to be a major concern in the recent past since computer processing can evade the conventional security and control measures. However, computer fraud doesn't necessarily involve the use of micro-computers as it just makes electronic fraud and computer crime easier. The threat of electronic fraud is also a major concern across various industries because modern technology offers fraudsters with powerful new cracking tools for electronic safe. Notably, these crimes can be severe since electronic fraud can take place for extended periods before discovery, which in turn results in considerable losses and damages.

Forms of Fraud Techniques:

Since fraud is undoubtedly not a new concept and did not emerge with…… [Read More]

References:

Cameron, S. (2011, August). Digital Evidence. Retrieved from The Federal Bureau of Investigation website: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/august-2011/digital-evidence

Easttom, C. & Taylor, D.J. (2011). Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law. Boston, MA:

Cengage Learning.

Lewis, J.A. (2002, December). Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476



Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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Curious Case of Gary Mckinnon

Words: 1383 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47613422

Curious Case of Gary McKinnon

There is much controversy with regard to information in the digital age and Gary Mckinnon's case is especially intriguing when considering this discussion. The Scottish hacker is charged of having hacked into a U.S. database containing information stored on around one hundred computers owned by the U.S. military and by NASA. Mckinnon committed these activities between 2001 and 2002 and faced over ten years of judicial battles against extradition until 2013. In addition to the problematic implications of his crime, the case was even more difficult to address because of the U.K.'s reluctance to extradite the hacker.

hen discussing this case, it is essential to consider the gravity of the situation, taking into account that McKinnon willingly acted against the U.S. military and NASA at the time when he accessed and stole files from the two institutions. Such an act is a direct affront to…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bassiouni, M.C. (2014). "International Extradition: United States Law and Practice." Oxford University Press.

Curtis, G. (2011). "The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations." CRC Press.

Slack, J., & Semark, M. "Spotlight falls on Starmer: Will Director of Public Prosecutions now order Gary McKinnon to face UK court on hacking charge?." Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218872/Gary-McKinnon-extradition-U.S.-outrage-hacker-wont-American-authorities.html

Wall, D. (2007). "Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age." Polity.
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Fighting Cyber Crime With More Technology

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19297969

Technology Crime

Technology in Crime

Cyber crime is a growing threat characterized by an increasing sophistication that makes it difficult to take a proactive stance on prevention. For instance, there are people in China whose job it is to obtain competitive information from companies based in the United States. Competitive information can be protected, proprietary data the loss of which can cost companies millions of dollars over the short-term, and even greater amounts over the long-term. The scale of cyber crime impacting businesses ranges from simple pirating of entertainment such as music and movies -- which can certainly be costly when it occurs on a large scale -- to accessing databases that contain credit or personal information protected by law and ordinarily secured by a constellation of cyber strategies and teams of internet security professionals. The cumulative cost of petty cyber crime is astonishingly high -- the cost of organized,…… [Read More]

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Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov

Words: 1399 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82975904

Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov v. The FBI

There is much controversy with regard to the FBI's involvement in capturing Russian cyber criminals Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov, taking into account the unorthodox method the bureau used. Many are likely to consider that such actions are against principles associated with law enforcement and that the authorities were wrong in taking on such attitudes. However, when considering the contemporary society being a place where the general public unites against crime, it would be safe to say that the FBI acted on behalf of the whole world at the time when it decided to go through with their plan.

Gorshkov and Ivanov were responsible for having performed a series of illegalities like stealing credit card information, deleting important information on the servers of particular U.S. companies, and attempting to persuade some of these respective companies to hire them in exchange of the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Ghosch, S., & Turrini, E. (2010). "Cybercrimes: A Multidisciplinary Analysis: A Multidisciplinary Analysis." Springer.

Lemieux, F. (2013). "International Police Cooperation: Emerging Issues, Theory and Practice." Routledge.

Purpura, F. (1997). "Criminal Justice: An Introduction." Elsevier.

Schroeder, S. (2012). "The Lure:: The True Story of How the Department of Justice Brought Down Two of the World's Most Dangerous Cyber Criminals." Cengage Learning.
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Protecting America's Internet Networks Better Plan Is Needed

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77104236

Law Enforcement -- Computer Security

Three agencies that are part of the U.S. Federal Government's effort to thwart computer crimes are the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the Secret Service. Computer crime (also known as cyber crime) is a growing and dangerous menace, not just to the government -- and to all 50 state governments -- but to corporate networks, private computers and educational institution computer networks as well.

hat challenges face the three departments mentioned above based on the independent nature of these agencies, and can they cooperate to provide steadfast collaboration against terrorists and other hackers who seek to steal important information and interrupt normal business cycles?

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a massive, multi-agency department with many responsibilities, and cybersecurity is just one of its duties. It is also responsible for border security, customs (including enforcing immigration laws) and emergency management (FEMA) (www.dhs.gov).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harlow, R. (2011). Two Missions, One Secret Service: The Value of the Investigative Mission.

Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.hsdl.org.

Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Our Mission. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.dhs.gov.

Krieger, M. (2013). How the FBI Wants to Penalize Internet Companies for Providing "Too
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National Response Framework Incident Annexes Timely Responses

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93938311

National esponse Framework Incident Annexes

Timely responses to natural and manmade disasters require the effective coordination of numerous federal, state and local resources. Indeed, effective responses can make the difference between life and death for countless citizens, and there is therefore a need for a framework to coordinate these disparate but valuable first responder resources. In this regard, the National esponse Framework provides such a framework, but given the enormous range of providers that are involved, it is not surprising that the framework is also lengthy and complex. Moreover, the NF recently superseded the National esponse Plan (NP) and provided a number of incident annexes concerning optimal contingency or hazard situation responses. To gain additional insights into the provisions of these annexes, this paper provides a summary of the annexes to the NF, followed by recapitulation of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Summary of National esponse Framework…… [Read More]

References

Biological incident annex. (2012). FEMA NRF Resource Center. Retrieved from http://

www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf_BiologicalIncidentAnnex.pdf.

Catastrophic incident annex. (2012). FEMA NRF Resource Center. Retrieved from http://www.

fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf_CatastrophicIncidentAnnex.pdf.
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Law Enforcement and Cyberstalking

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16556885

Cyberstalking

Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement

ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.

Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gyorgy, P. (2002). The Tale of Cookies (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Social Research, 239-245.

Jayakumar, A. (2014, March 13). Target looking into response to cybersecurity breach; retail sales rose in Feb. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/target-looking-into-response-to-cybersecurity-breach-retail-sales-rose-in-feb/2014/03/13/91d16ece-aae8-11e3-af5f-4c56b834c4bf_story.html

TEDGlobal. (2010, July). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html

TEDGlobal. (2012, July). Michael Anti: Behind the Great Firewall of China. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/michael_anti_behind_the_great_firewall_of_china.html
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Law Enforcement and Technology

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67285784

Technological Challenges of Today

The objective of this study is to answer as to what challenges law enforcement officials have faced in the light of technological advances throughout the global environment and to discuss a minimum of three problems that such changes have created. This study will answer as to what the recommendations are for future action that could assist law enforcement officials in becoming more effective in the investigation and prevention of such challenges.

Organized Crime and Technology

The work of Bjelopera and Finklea (2012) reports that technological advances have created new challenges for law enforcement particularly in the area or organized crime. This is because "modern organized criminals often prefer cellular or networked structural models for their flexibility and avoid the hierarchies that previously governed more traditional organized crime groups." (p.1) These type of "fluid network structures" make it more difficult for law enforcement to "infiltrate, disrupt, and…… [Read More]

References

Bjelopera, JP and Finklea, KM (2012) Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement. 6 Jan 2012. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf

Globalization and new technologies: challenges to drug law enforcement in the twenty-first century. (nd) INCB.org. Retrieved from:  http://www.incb.org/documents/Publications/AnnualReports/AR2001/AR_01_Chapter_I.pdf 

How the Web Presents New Challenges for Law Enforcement Agencies (2014) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 7, Issue 1. Retrieved from:  http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/01-2014/how_the_web_presents_new_challenges_for_law_enforcement_agencies.asp
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Justice Brief

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84801159

shame in teenage sextual relations," Nina Funnell outlines a conceptual criticism of the approach taken by the Commonwealth on matters relating to the laws governing various sex crimes. According to Funnel (2011), there are fundamental problems with the enforcement of certain sex crime laws against minors because they were obviously drafted and enacted mainly to protect minors and not to punish their sexual behaviour. In that regard, Funnell (2011) focuses especially on the issue of the prosecution of teenagers who transmit sexualised photographs of themselves to others as violators of child pornography laws even though those crimes are, essentially, victimless crimes. The author points out that in addition to the nonsensical application of those laws to the class of persons they were originally intended to protect rather than punish, the Commonwealth has exhibited a simultaneous lackadaisical approach to prosecuting sex crimes involving bona fide victims and adult perpetrators, such as…… [Read More]

References

Funnel, N. (2011) There's No Shame in Teenage Sextual Relations, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 September.

Gerrig, R. And P. Zimbardo. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.

Hinds, L. And K. Daly (2001) The War on Sex Offenders: Community Notification in Perspective, ANZ Journal of Criminology, 34(3), 256-276. DOI: 10.1177/000486580103400304

McLoughlin, C. And J. Burgess (2010) Texting, Sexting and Social Networking Among Australian Youth and the Need for Cyber Safety Education, paper available through Australian Catholic University at  http://www.aare.edu.au
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Scam Types Mapping the Terrain

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76167044



A Peer Review of the Reality of Cyberrime Paper

In the Introdution to the Reality of Cyberrime Are (2011) states that "The threat of yberrime is of growing onern in our soiety…" (p. 1). This provides an attention-getting tehnique that is highly effetive. The entire introdution follows suit and lays the foundation for the analysis. The reader has automati buy-in due to the personal nature of how Are relates the topi to the average daily onsumer of digital media. For example, s/he states that "It is our responsibility as a soiety to prepare ourselves by taking the neessary ountermeasures in order to prevent these types of attaks from ourring and unfortunately when they do our, punish those to the fullest extent the law permits" (p. 1) the only suggested improvement for the introdutory paragraph is to work on basi editing. For example, terms like 'full sale" and "law maker" need…… [Read More]

cited in Arce, 2011, paras. 2-4). Most of the methods mentioned are aimed at catching attackers. One system, the Cyberterrorism First Responder is directed towards programmers and helps prevent future cybercrime (p.3). The body of the paper is well organized and demonstrates the writer's command of the researched material. Arce does a very good job of explaining cybercrimes that the audience is probably familiar with, but also those that the audience may not readily think of such as child exploitation, spamming and cyberstalking (p.4). The body of the paper could be improved upon in transitioning from paragraph to paragraph and through some editing for grammatical and APA formatting errors and revision sentences using passive voice.

The conclusion adds to the topic by restating the writer's purpose and by arguing in favor of systems for fighting cybercrime. No suggestions for improvement of the conclusion. It is impressive and powerful as-is.
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Inferences and Conclusions

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98418536

settle the (questions)?

Inferences/Conclusions

How did the author reach the conclusion?

Is there another way to interpret the information? Concepts

What is the main idea?

What are we taking it for granted?

What assumptions have led the author to his/her conclusions?

If someone is accepting the author's position, what would be the implications?

If someone is not accepting the author's position, what would be the implications?

Points-of-View

From what point-of-view is the author looking at the issue?

Is there another point-of-view that I should consider?

This paper is review of an article in various perspectives. The review highlights the aims and objectives of the article, the information collected and presented the likely inferences from the article and implications. The purpose of paper is to apply the concepts of article review and analysis on one or few articles.

Article eview

This paper is the review of article Cyber bullying: An old…… [Read More]

References

BBC. 2013. "Understanding Cyber Bullying." Accessed January 30, 2013.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/parents/cyber_bullying/ 

National Crime Prevention Council. 2001. "Cyber bullying." Accessed January 30, 2013. http://www.ncpc.org/topics/cyberbullying

The New York Times. 2010. "As Bullies Go Digital, Parents Play Catch-Up." Accessed January 30, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/05/us/05bully.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
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Economic Impact of Online Identity

Words: 5767 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74324011

The onus of who is responsible, the consumer, the private institutions, or even the government will come into question. A brief revue of the history of the credit card is also in order since the use of "plastic" money has certainly contributed to the identity theft crisis. Past and current legislation will be analyzed regarding this new crime in both its cyber and analog presentations. Lastly, an opinion and possible suggestions for the consumer to help safeguard their identity as well as what government and corporate institutions can do to not only help the consumer avoid identify theft, but if it has occurred, to assist them in rectifying the situation before too much damage is done.

What is Identity Theft? The encyclopedic definition of identity theft is the use of another person's identity, i.e. financial, personal, geographic or other source, to commit fraud or other types of misrepresentation. By using…… [Read More]

References

Alt, B.L., & Wells, S.K. (2007). Fleecing Grandma and Grandpa: Protecting against Scams, Cons, and Frauds. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bielski, L. (2001). Identity Theft. ABA Banking Journal, 93(1), 27.

Cost of Identity Theft." (2008) United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. The Research, Development, and Evaluation Agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on October 20, 2008 from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/publications/id-theft/cost-theft.htm

Dutta, S. (2007, October). IDENTITY THEFT: A Crime of Modern Times. World and I, 18, 290.
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Criminology Which Uses Psychological Knowledge to Analyze

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19935105

criminology which uses psychological knowledge to analyze criminal behavior. This will include a consideration of historical values ant trait and choice theories. Also, the author will compare how society responds to a criminal's behavior with options of punishment and prevention. e will then contrast these historical values with trait choice theories to analyze how society responds to criminal behavior in terms of punishment and prevention.

It is important to understand both the trait and choice theories when considering the reasons that lead to criminal activity. The traits theory supplies the base from which a range of options arises. This theory considers that criminal behavior emerges from the biological and/or psychological conditions of a person. Theoretically, their control coping strategies ultimately result in criminal behavior. According to this theory, people are born with inherited traits. Some of these traits are suited to leadership or participation in criminal enterprises. Control of crime…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Unted nations cyber school bus 11. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/declaration/11.asp.

Volkert, F. (2007, May 15). Choice theory and trait theory on crime control.

Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/241356/choice_theory_and_trait_theory_on_crime.html?cat=72
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Secret Service Protection for Presidents

Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19669254



Clearly the Secret Service is expanding it's investigative arm; in 2010 the Service established it's second overseas Electronic Crimes Task Force (ECTF), this one in London (in 2009 the Service established an ECTF in Rome, Italy). The point of the ECTF is to provide an avenue through which European and American law enforcement agencies -- along with private sector and academia -- can work together to investigate, suppress and prevent computer-related criminal activity (USSS).

Again and again in the 72-page Fiscal Year 2010 Report readers are reminded of one of the main missions of the Secret Service -- to hunt down and arrest counterfeiters. In 2010 the Secret Service -- along with local authorities -- arrested four Colombian counterfeiters (in Bogota Colombia) that had been printing U.S. currency and distributing it in the United States. Columbia is one of the most prolific producers of counterfeit American money, the report explains,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ambinder, Marc. (2011). Inside the Secret Service. The Atlantic. Retrieved August 11, 2011,

from  http://www.theatlantic.com .

Department of Homeland Security. (2011). Total Budget Authority by Organization. Retrieved August 10, 2011, from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/budget_bib_fy2011.pdf.

Kessler, Ronald. (2010). In the President's Secret Service: Behind the Scenes with Agents in the Line of Fire and the Presidents They Protect. New York: Random House Digital, Inc.
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Criminal Justice Policing 210

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75537213

Police oles and Functions:

Similar to the teaching and medicine field, policing is a field that has close or intimate connections with social life, change, and progress. Police agencies are part of the complex network of law enforcement in the United States. While these agencies are distributed across the local, state, and federal governmental levels, they have varying degrees of specialty. Despite of these differing degrees of specialty across the police agencies, they work closely with each other and other elements of the criminal justice system. In the United States, police agencies have a variety of functions that range from protecting the society to intercepting the transportation of illegal drugs. However, the role and function of a specific police agency is basically dependent on its location and jurisdiction in law enforcement. Nonetheless, policing and police agencies generally originated as a means of social control, especially to respond to the need…… [Read More]

References:

Grant, H.B. & Terry, K.J. (2008). Patrol and Traffic. In Law Enforcement in the 21st Century

(2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

"Police Department Functions." (2011, March 16). Harding Township Police Department.

Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.hardingnj.org/departments/police/169-police-department-functions.html
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Technology Evolution

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10199212

Technology

Like many government agencies, research has shown that law enforcement has traditionally been slow in adopting new technologies in the past. However, today, emerging technologies are changing the landscape of police work every day, for instance; law enforcement technology has changed the way many police conduct businesses. In summary, this paper will discuss on the several technologies that have changed the face of law enforcement in recent years as well as, providing examples of the pros and cons of these new technologies.

New technology has a lasting effect on law enforcement agency such as enhancing crime prevention and crime solving strategies through information sharing. One of the technologies that have changed the face of law enforcement in recent years is the use of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and other social sites. Studies have shown that police department has adopted new technology which is used to reach out…… [Read More]

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E-Communities' Impact the Impact of

Words: 4918 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52542696

Twelve ESL learners who participated subsequently found that participating in text-based online chat rooms promoted a noticeable difference in their face-to-face conversations, particularly in noticing their own linguistic mistakes.

Psychologists stress little if any learning occurs without attention. "Text-based online chat, a particular form of synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) involving written oral-like conversation, has the great potential of increasing noticing for two reasons:

1. Compared to face-to-face conversations, CMC allows conversations to flow at slower speeds than face-to-face; consequently permitting "speakers" to have longer times to process receiving and producing the target language.

2. CMC can save texts (previous messages) in format that users may later access. (Lai and Zhao)

The following copy of "ESL Online Talk Community" illustrates concept Lai and Zhao present.

Practice makes perfect, but many ESL students do not have opportunities to practice speaking English. This Website is trying to establish an online community to enable…… [Read More]

Reference:

1.http://www.criminallawyergroup.com/criminal-defense/should-myspace-orkut-online-domestic-violence-crimes.php

2.http://www.truman.missouri.edu/uploads/Publications/Scott%20and%20Johnson%20Online%20Communities.pdf

3.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_community

4. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
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Issues in Criminal Justice System

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84445229

Criminal Justice System

Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement

Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).

Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…… [Read More]

References

Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.

Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.

Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.