"Descriptive Essays"

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descriptive essays

A descriptive essay is an essay that describes something like a person, location, thing, event, or process.  Descriptive essays can be non-fiction, but they can also be fiction.  The goal is to allow the reader to visualize whatever is being described.  Good descriptive essays evoke all of the senses, so that the reader knows how what is being described looks, sounds, smells, tastes, and feels.

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Science if Conducting an Experiment Essay

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36325672

It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).

True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design, like a true experiment, attempts to determine cause and effect relationships. They include randomization, the use of a control group, and manipulation of the independent variable. Therefore, true experiments could properly be classified as a subgroup of experimental designs. However, not all experimental designs are true experiments; the hallmark of the true experiment is the manipulation of the independent characteristic of a true experiment.

4. What are quasi-experimental designs? Why are they important? How are they different from experimental designs?

Quasi-experiments are similar to true experiments, but lack the randomization characteristic that describes the true experiment. In other words, quasi-experiments "use naturally formed or pre-existing groups. For example, if we wanted to compare young and old subjects on lung capacity, it is impossible to randomly assign subjects to either the young or old group (naturally formed groups). Therefore, this cannot be a true experiment. When one has naturally formed groups, the variable under study is a subject variable (in this case - age) as opposed to an independent variable. As such, it also limits the conclusions…… [Read More]

References:
Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website: http://www.psychmet.com/id15.html

Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
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Healing With Statistics There Are Numerous Ways Essay

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13252148

Healing with Statistics

There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.

The most basic level of analysis using statistics is in the development of descriptive statistics, which provide information about a particular data set but do not allow for conclusions to be drawn about elements outside of this particular set of observed data (Lund, 2010; Hill, 2012). Elements such as the average real cost of a procedure, the variation and/or range of responses to a specific treatment plan for a specific illness, and the standard deviation of the number of nurse-hours lost due to illness are all considered by various personnel within the healthcare organization, and are all examples of descriptive statistics (Hill, 2012). Even at this basic level, these statistics can be utilized to make important decisions.

There are other ways in which descriptive statistics could be used in healthcare organizations, but often aren't for a variety of reasons. While it might be enormously beneficial in terms of cost control and efficacy improvement to develop descriptive statistics for the number of nurse-hours required for each case of a specific ailment or patient type, conducting such observational research could also be seen as very time consuming and inefficient. In this case, it would seem that the benefits -- enabling more appropriate and effective staffing levels, reducing cost and improving care -- would outweigh the complications, but many healthcare organizations do not see things this way. Descriptive statistics could also be used to collect more patient information to offer more tailored services, but even on a…… [Read More]

Resources:
Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://mste.illinois.edu/hill/dstat/dstat.html

Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
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Marketing Research Process and Research Methods the Essay

Words: 1336 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22612357

Marketing Research Process and Research Methods

The four steps in the marketing research process are designed to capture the information and insights needed to make better strategic and tactical decisions, gain greater intelligence on customer needs, and ultimately create greater value for a company. The four stages of the market research process are defined in this analysis with their applicability for given strategic decisions and trade-offs also discussed. The three dominant research methods including causal, exploratory and descriptive research are also analyzed from the standpoint of their applicability to specific types of decisions. Both of these concepts of the marketing research process and research methods fit into the broader definition of marketing research as defined in the text. The authors state that marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization. This paper will also illustrate how these concepts fit into the author's definition of marketing research.

Analysis of the Marketing Research Process

In totality, the four steps of the marketing research process are designed to accurately and completely capture the information needs of a business and define a methodology that will lead to reliable analysis which can be used for effective decision-making. The four steps of the marketing research process also are designed to be flexible enough to take into account a wide variation in information needs within a business, yet structured and organized enough to drive accuracy, statistical reliability and usability of results. The level of statistical accuracy and reliability will be dictated to a large extent by the methodology decisions made during the second step of the marketing research process. Many companies will sacrifice a level of statistical precision in terms of extrapolating their results across broad populations of users, as cost and time constraints for making a decision based on research results drive greater urgency into the process. Each of the steps in the marketing research process are briefly defined and assessed next.

The…… [Read More]

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Score Stats a Statistical Analysis Essay

Words: 840 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84794871



Descriptive Statistics

Test subjects were 53.3% male and 46.7% female, as shown in the bar graph on the accompanying Excel spreadsheet. The test population has a mean age of 15.9 years (standard deviation=0.80). These descriptive statistics validate the randomized population of the research study, as the population is almost evenly split between males and females and the mean age is also very close to the median age (16) of the study's population (Healy, 2009). As ACT and SAT scores vary in their nominal values (a top score on the ACT test is 36, a top score on the SAT is 2400), scores were recorded as percentages of the total score to enable meaningful analysis of varying means (i.e. A score of 29 on the ACT and of 1920 on the SAT would both be recorded as 0.80) (Kaplan, 2004). Mean scores on the ACT were 0.47 (standard deviation=0.27), while mean scores on the SAT were 0.41 (standard deviation=0.31).

T-Test

A significance level of 0.05 was used for this test, which is in keeping with the data population size and the level of data collected (Healy, 2009). A t-test is commonly used to determine if two means differ significantly, and is well suited for the purpose of comparing academic scores given the ratio level of measurement (Healy, 2009). The t-test was conducted using the ACT score mean as the "control" while the SAT score mean was tested against this mean to determine if a significant difference existed. A critical T. value for 0.05 significance and 29 (n-1) degrees of freedom is given by Excel's TINV function as 2.05; the standard error of the sample was calculated as 0.05. The t-value for the mean SAT score of 0.41 compared to the mean ACT score of 0.47 was calculated as 1.16, which is lower than the critical t value. This means that the null hypothesis is not rejected, and that the means do not differ significantly at a 95% confidence level (significance of 0.05) (Healy, 2009).

Interpretation

Based on this analysis, there does not appear to be any difference in ACT vs. SAT scores in low-income students. The alternative hypothesis that test construction would influence scores by mediating the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Healy, J. (2009). Statistics. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Kaplan. (2004). SAT and ACT Score Comparison. Accessed 23 March 2009. http://phs.prs.k12.nj.us/guidance/sat_act_comparison.pdf
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Defense of Abortion the Author of This Essay

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98219373

Defense of Abortion

The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. Wade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.

Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?

In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception." But the premise that life begins when the egg is fertilized is "false," Thompson argues, and she uses the analogy of an acorn. Because an acorn will eventually transition into a tree, does it follow that an acorn is a tree? The logic in her position is Socratic and powerful, albeit anti-abortionists would likely argue that it is not a fair analogy, that human life is far more precious and deserves a moral discussion whereas an acorn is just a tree, with no human, moral, or ethical implications.

"A newly fertilized ovum, a newly implanted clump of cells, is no more a person than an acorn is an oak tree," Thompson writes (p. 1). Opponents of abortion spend much of their time arguing that the "fetus is a person" which is too "simple" a position for such an august social issue, she insists. But, Thompson asks, what if that premise is correct, that a fetus is a person?

The person/fetus then…… [Read More]

References:
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
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Mcdonald's Case Analysis Report Case Essay

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57498605

Since the "Made for you" production process has been tested and assured to be a workable process for McDonald's this should be implemented on a storewide basis despite the huge upfront expenses to be incurred by the company. These upfront expenses will be compensated by the huge returns and improvements in quality of customer service that come from the company's use of this new production system Hall, Rosenthal, & Wade, 1993.

This will enable McDonald's to accommodate customized orders as a source of sustained competitive advantage as well as to reduce the service wait time to bring McDonald's to be a chief organization in terms of speed of service to consumers. This "Made for you" production system will also enable McDonald's to serve their consumers with greater flexibility by creating a standardized production system which ensures efficiency and consistency across all McDonald's branches.

Consumer targeting strategies

McDonald's target clients have been adults and the youth who the company has made significant to their product range. However, over the years, it has emerged that other younger consumers are beginning to appreciate McDonald's products from the early ages of 9 to 10 years. Thus it is recommended that McDonald's introduces play pens for children of these ages and even for the younger ones in order to create a larger target audience. McDonald's will also benefit from this by being able to accommodate families in their stores thus considerably increasing their target market.

Reevaluation of the company's strategic choices

In order for McDonald's to make good strategic choices, the company must come up with clear cut definitions of how they intend to create competitive advantage, target consumers, objectives, mission and vision. McDonald's already has most of these items figured out, however, the company needs to generate a broader expression of the organization's aspirations in order to identify the critical tasks which it needs to implement in order to achieve these choices. One of the major strategic choices is the inclusion of the younger population as a target audience for McDonald's in order to draw in a larger target audience. Secondly, as argued by Stalk, Evans, and Shulman (1992)

, McDonald's objectives, vision, mission and critical tasks will need to be reevaluated in order to create…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Hall, G., Rosenthal, J., & Wade, J. (1993). How to make reengineering really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 119-131.

Hammer, M., & Stanton, S. (1999). How process enterprises really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 108-120.
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Prediction'so We Have to Assume That Essay

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389

prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was a difference in the proportion of people who had the nasal spray getting the flu compared to the proportion of people who have the vaccination shot and got the flu. In other words based on the researchers' criteria for deciding what difference would actually be statistically significant difference found in the sample was deemed probably not due to chance factors. In this instance the researchers would reject the null hypothesis as the significance level from the obtained results is less than the stated alpha level.

However, there is another issue here regarding why the difference between the two groups may have been statistically significant. That difference has to do with the sample size and the particular type of test that was used in this particular research. Since there were only two groups (another issue) we can probably guess that the researchers used an independent t-test and with 500 subjects per group we would expect to achieve statistical significance in cases where the differences between the groups may actually not be that meaningful. Statistical significance simply means that the researcher can stay, within a certain level of confidence, that…… [Read More]