Descriptive Essays Examples

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descriptive essays

  

A descriptive essay is an essay that describes something like a person, location, thing, event, or process.  Descriptive essays can be non-fiction, but they can also be fiction.  The goal is to allow the reader to visualize whatever is being described.  Good descriptive essays evoke all of the senses, so that the reader knows how what is being described looks, sounds, smells, tastes, and feels.

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Science if Conducting an Experiment

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36325672

It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).

True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design, like a true experiment, attempts to determine cause and effect relationships. They include randomization, the use of a control group, and manipulation of the independent variable. Therefore, true experiments could properly be classified as a subgroup of experimental designs. However, not all experimental designs are true experiments; the hallmark of…… [Read More]

Sources:
Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website: http://www.psychmet.com/id15.html

Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
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Healing With Statistics There Are Numerous Ways

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13252148

Healing with Statistics

There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.

The most basic level of analysis using statistics is in the development of descriptive statistics, which provide information about a particular data set but do not allow for conclusions to be drawn about elements outside of this particular set of observed data (Lund, 2010; Hill, 2012). Elements such as the average real cost of a procedure,…… [Read More]

References:
Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://mste.illinois.edu/hill/dstat/dstat.html

Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
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Marketing Research Process and Research Methods the

Words: 1336 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22612357

Marketing Research Process and Research Methods

The four steps in the marketing research process are designed to capture the information and insights needed to make better strategic and tactical decisions, gain greater intelligence on customer needs, and ultimately create greater value for a company. The four stages of the market research process are defined in this analysis with their applicability for given strategic decisions and trade-offs also discussed. The three dominant research methods including causal, exploratory and descriptive research are also analyzed from the standpoint of their applicability to specific types of decisions. Both of these concepts of the marketing research process and research methods fit into the broader definition of marketing research as defined in the text. The authors state that marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization. This paper will also illustrate how these concepts fit into the author's definition of marketing research.

Analysis of the Marketing Research Process

In totality, the four steps of the marketing research process are designed to accurately and completely capture the information needs of a business and define a methodology that will lead to reliable analysis which can…… [Read More]

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Score Stats a Statistical Analysis

Words: 840 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84794871



Descriptive Statistics

Test subjects were 53.3% male and 46.7% female, as shown in the bar graph on the accompanying Excel spreadsheet. The test population has a mean age of 15.9 years (standard deviation=0.80). These descriptive statistics validate the randomized population of the research study, as the population is almost evenly split between males and females and the mean age is also very close to the median age (16) of the study's population (Healy, 2009). As ACT and SAT scores vary in their nominal values (a top score on the ACT test is 36, a top score on the SAT is 2400), scores were recorded as percentages of the total score to enable meaningful analysis of varying means (i.e. A score of 29 on the ACT and of 1920 on the SAT would both be recorded as 0.80) (Kaplan, 2004). Mean scores on the ACT were 0.47 (standard deviation=0.27), while mean scores on the SAT were 0.41 (standard deviation=0.31).

T-Test

A significance level of 0.05 was used for this test, which is in keeping with the data population size and the level of data collected (Healy, 2009). A t-test is commonly used to determine if two means differ significantly, and is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Healy, J. (2009). Statistics. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Kaplan. (2004). SAT and ACT Score Comparison. Accessed 23 March 2009. http://phs.prs.k12.nj.us/guidance/sat_act_comparison.pdf
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Defense of Abortion the Author of This

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98219373

Defense of Abortion

The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. Wade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.

Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?

In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception." But the premise that life begins when the egg is fertilized is "false," Thompson argues, and she uses the analogy of an acorn. Because an acorn will eventually transition into a tree, does it follow that an acorn is a tree? The logic in her position is Socratic and powerful,…… [Read More]

Sources:
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
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Mcdonald's Case Analysis Report Case

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57498605

Since the "Made for you" production process has been tested and assured to be a workable process for McDonald's this should be implemented on a storewide basis despite the huge upfront expenses to be incurred by the company. These upfront expenses will be compensated by the huge returns and improvements in quality of customer service that come from the company's use of this new production system Hall, Rosenthal, & Wade, 1993.

This will enable McDonald's to accommodate customized orders as a source of sustained competitive advantage as well as to reduce the service wait time to bring McDonald's to be a chief organization in terms of speed of service to consumers. This "Made for you" production system will also enable McDonald's to serve their consumers with greater flexibility by creating a standardized production system which ensures efficiency and consistency across all McDonald's branches.

Consumer targeting strategies

McDonald's target clients have been adults and the youth who the company has made significant to their product range. However, over the years, it has emerged that other younger consumers are beginning to appreciate McDonald's products from the early ages of 9 to 10 years. Thus it is recommended that McDonald's introduces play pens…… [Read More]

References:
Hall, G., Rosenthal, J., & Wade, J. (1993). How to make reengineering really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 119-131.

Hammer, M., & Stanton, S. (1999). How process enterprises really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 108-120.
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Prediction'so We Have to Assume That

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389

prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was a difference in the proportion of people who had the nasal spray getting the flu compared to the proportion of people who have the vaccination shot and got the flu. In other words based on the researchers' criteria for deciding what difference would actually be statistically significant difference found in…… [Read More]

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Social Work the Research in This Study

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29144424

Social Work

The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:

…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2) identify patterns of help seeking as they varied by need and immigration-related characteristics, (3) explore perceptions of satisfaction with care and helpfulness, and (4) compare differences in patterns of mental health-related service use among individuals who had a probable need for services…and those who had no probable need for services…(Abe-Kim…… [Read More]

References:
Abe-Kim, PhD, J., Takeuchi, PhD, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, PhD, N., Sue, PhD, S., Spencer, PhD, M.S., Appel, PhD, H., Nicdao, PhD, E., & Alegria, PhD, M. (2007) Use of Mental Health-Related Service Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 91 -- 97.
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Consumption of Alternative as Opposed

Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99707765

These dynamics suggest sample means may indicate questionable results without further testing to verify if skew distorts generalizability. There are plausible cases where such an extreme value would be kept, say if we were testing for risk of a rare event, in which case that would be the data point of interest compared to the rest.

Table 4. Partial Data Sample

from Q6, hours exercising

25

25

25

25

25

25

30

30

30

30

30

30

40

40

40

40

80

n =

SUM

mean

5.04

4.78

4.54

median

3.00

3.00

3.00

mode

0

0

0

range

80

40

30

To investigate potential variables of interest, the data was sorted into male and female, and health-care related questions of interest displayed for both groups. This convenient procedure shows that while both groups scored similarly on many questions, the difference between means for questions 20-23 may yield interesting results with further study.

Comparing means between groups this way often delivers interesting results. Considering means for exercise rates by hour for different education levels (Figure 4), does not reveal any particular trend.

Displaying mean hours worked by education does however suggest further research may reveal correlation between education level and hours…… [Read More]

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Financial Literacy and Social Change What Is

Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56827619

Financial Literacy and Social Change

What is the relationship between financial literacy and social change?

Comparing change in financial literacy in post-college and non-college students

Quantitative

Hypothesis- There is a significant difference in financial literacy between college and non-college students.

Introduction- Financial literacy implies a number of things: understanding the basics of not only personal finance, but the broader approach to global finance. There is a distinction, however, between the intellectual world of college students and non-college students. College students, for instance, might be exposed to introductory economics, political science, business or other courses that would grant them access to a larger, more global perspective of finance. However, because they are often living in dorms, may be partially supported by loans or grants or funds from parents, their view of finances will be understandably skewed to the more intellectual approach. However, non-college bound students often must enter the workforce, fend for themselves, and take on numerous financial burdens and responsibilities at the micro level. Thus, there are two approaches to valid financial literacy within this topic: the micro version (home loans, banking, interest rates, taxation, etc.) and the macro version (global trade, housing, social issues, etc.).

Certainly, the research shows…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Creswell, J.W., Hanson, W.E., Clark, V.L., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35, 236-264. Retrieved from Sage Journals Online database.

Howe, K. (1988). Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis: Dogmas Die Hard. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from:  http://nepc.colorado.edu/files/Howe_Against_the_Quant_Qual_Incompatibility_Thesis.pdf 

Neill, J. (February 28, 2007). Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research: Key Points in a Classic Debate. Wilderdom.com. Retrieved from: http://wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html
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Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90647310

Descrptive Design

Research Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods are flexible and unstructured; hence captures verbatim reports or observable attributes producing information, which is not in numerical form. Words, films, postcards, art, and other sensory data are qualitative data, unless one changes them into numerical form. This method applies in a wide range of topics, across numerous fields because…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
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Nursing I Include Notes &

Words: 4151 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4578711



The strengths of this design are related to the ease of application and usage. The design of the survey was easy to administer and self explanatory. While the weakness was related to the willingness of the participant to Chapter Three 5

participate complete the survey and provide truthful responses. An additional weakness is relative to the age group that was present for the survey and their relationship to the use of computers.

Subjects

After approval of the study from the Institutional Review Board at Indiana

Wesleyan University and Methodist Hospitals, Inc. Nursing staff were recruited to participate in for the study. Participants were eligible for the study if they were currently an employee of the employed by Methodist Hospitals, Inc., It was also necessary that they hold a current nursing license, participated in online learning, and were able to read and write English. A registered nurse who has participated in any online learning events, and are able to read and write English. Risk to participants was minimal, however, all participants were given information regarding the nature of the study and properly debriefed. They were provided with the name and contact information of counseling services should they require consultation following completion…… [Read More]

References:
September/October 2007

Volume 25 Number 5 Pages 294 -- 300
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Health Sciences

Words: 4995 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35996922

meticulous construction of the data analysis, statistical tabulation, and interpretation is provided in the following pages.

SPSS was used to manage and calculate the researcher-designed data.

Researcher-Designed Questions

Questions numbered 1-11 were administered as a part of the SF-36 mental inventory. As stated earlier, these questions provide a standard assessment means to assess clinical outcome and mental health. However, they are inadequate to assist in assessing quality of life in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump by-pass surgery.

Questions 12-30 were research developed and designed to give a more accurate assessment of patient satisfaction with the two procedures. These questions were divided into categories which are representative of factors commonly associated with quality of life. The categories are Mental health, Cognitive ability, Social support, General health, and Bodily pain. Demographic data is contained in questions 21-26 and will be used to identify confounding factors. For purposes of data analysis, the questions will be analyzed according to category and results compared for the two process controls (type of surgery) using descriptive analysis. Confounding factors will be identified and reliability tests conducted using Cronbach's alpha reliability.

Mental Health

Mental health is perhaps the most defining concept of this study. The following tables and…… [Read More]

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Prescriptive Grammar Are the Rules Governing How

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68197167

Prescriptive grammar are the rules governing how one speaks and writes, based on an English standard "norm," or how society in general believes the language of English should be spoken and written (Russel, 2003). Prescriptive rules by nature judge whether the language being used is correct or not. Descriptive Grammar is very different, in that rather than assigning rules regarding the manner in which one should speak and write, it examines how people actually do speak and right and attempts to account for variant grammar usage (Russel, 2003). Descriptive grammar allows for more variation of the spoken and written word than prescriptive grammar, and takes into consideration a native speakers intuitive ability to comprehend grammatical structure without actually studying the mechanisms behind it.

Prescriptive grammar assumes that everyone should or will be following an assigned standard for speaking and writing English. Linguists tend to more closely associate with descriptive language, which does not assume that because people are native English speakers, that they necessarily understand the mechanics of the language. Instead, using a model of descriptive grammar linguists assume that a speaker has obtained "linguistic competence" (Russel). This means that even though a native speaker has the ability to properly…… [Read More]

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Statistical Analysis Reported in Two Journal Articles

Words: 3282 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90897815

Statistical Analysis Reported in Two Journal Articles

Research endeavors, albeit it clinical, empirical, descriptive, historical, or case study oriented, must at all times adhere to the rigors of effective or best-fit research practice. Without stringent controls placed on the area of investigation no research endeavor will advance any body of knowledge. To this end all research must be finely tuned and described as to intent or purpose, phenomenon to be assessed and reported upon, and relevance and efficacy of conclusions drawn. The remainder of this report will focus one a particular component in a research endeavor that is crucial for the acceptance of findings and conclusions drawn, namely the statistical technique employed to analyze the measured data obtained. However, prior to the actual evaluative critique pertaining to the two articles chosen I first want to present to the reader a brief scenario as to the importance of selecting the most appropriate statistical tool when analyzing measured data.

The primary purpose of the statistical process is to make order out of chaos (Ohlson, 1997). By properly applying selected statistical processes to assessment or measurement data the researcher can determine whether or not the research variables (i.e., independent and dependent) under investigation…… [Read More]

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Nursing That Individuals Employed Within

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93931054

594

1.409

N

Knowledge

Pearson Correlation

.117

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.128

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

42054.186

Covariance

1.409

N

There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Gender

1.92

.274

Experience

3.87

1.463

Correlations

Gender

Experience

Gender

Pearson Correlation

1

-.246**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

12.860

-16.872

Covariance

.075

-.099

N

Experience

Pearson Correlation

-.246**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

-16.872

Covariance

-.099

2.140

N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent male / female computer experience within the nursing profession.

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Gender

1.92

.274

Usage

62.41

15.492

Correlations

Gender

Usage

Gender

Pearson Correlation

1

-.038

Sig. (2-tailed)

.625

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

12.860

-27.302

Covariance

.075

-.160

N

Usage

Pearson Correlation

-.038

1

Sig. (2-tailed)…… [Read More]

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Organizational Studies While There Is Focus Upon

Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72365187

organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community.

Organizational Studies: Article Reviews

The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,

Jisu Huh, Leonard N. Reid & Soontae An

The authors' suggestions for further research are rather climatic in this article. The authors pose nine questions to the readers and those questions serve as possible directions future research could go. Out of these nine questions, the two areas that speak the most to me are

"Q4. What role does advertising play in patient/physician interactions and patient/pharmacist interactions regarding OTC medicines?" (DeLorme et al., 2010,-Page 223) and "Q2. What is the nature and character of the content in advertising for OTC medicines to which the average consumer is exposed?" (DeLorme et al.,…… [Read More]

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Psychological Research It Is Difficult

Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91807125



We have also talked about the "blue print" of a study, or the logical model of proof which guides the researcher throughout the entire study -- i.e. The research design. It is by which the investigator determines the relationships between variables being tested. We have discussed true experiments, its nature and validity issues as well as quasi-experimental designs. We also provided a discussion of the difference between these two designs.

What is worth nothing, I believe, is the importance of a good research design. A good research design theoretically leads to good data. Hence, during the conceptualization of research design, careful thought needs to be employed.

Lastly, our research considerations, on which kind of statistical tool to use, whether to use sample or population, and/or which research design to employ, should always be anchored in our research objectives, on the things that we aim to know through the study.

References

American Psychological Association (2003). How To Be A Wise Consumer of Psychological

Research. Retrieved from http://www.psychologymatters.org/wiseconsumer.html on May 15, 2009.

Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E.J. (2006). Statistics for Psychology, 4th Edition.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Austin Peay State University (n.d.). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Design. Retrieved from…… [Read More]

References:
American Psychological Association (2003). How To Be A Wise Consumer of Psychological

Research. Retrieved from http://www.psychologymatters.org/wiseconsumer.html on May 15, 2009.
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Inferential Statistics What Are the

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96327225

In this way, true experimental research attempts to control for all confounding variables, or at least consider their impact, while attempting to determine if the treatment is what truly caused the change. Note that individual background variables such as sex and ethnicity do not satisfy the requirements of true experimental design since they cannot be purposively manipulated in this way (Practical assessment research and evaluation).

True experiments are different from experimental design in that they are the only experiments that allow researchers to make causal conclusions based on study results and, therefore, provide greater internal validity (True experiments). It is only through random assignment that researchers can be assured that groups are truly comparable and that observed differences in outcomes are not the result of extraneous factors or pre-existing differences (Practical assessment research and evaluation). This means that the researcher needs so have control of the situation to have a reasonable chance of saying factors X and Y really affect outcome Z (True experiments). Internal validity is controlled in true experiments by assigning subjects to conditions randomly (i.e., only by chance can other variables be confounded with the independent variable) as well as controlling what, when, where, and how by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Comparative qualitative research methods. http://209.85.173.132/search?q=cache:3PulGqiG_ccJ:www.msu.edu/~lebas/Qual-Methods-2.ppt+single-case+and+small-N+research+designs&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us

Cooper JO, Heron TE, Heward WL (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed. ed.). Prentice Hall.
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Actuarial Science Modeling the Objective of This

Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70350331

Actuarial Science: Modeling

The objective of this report is to investigate dependence structure between the home line of business and domestic motor line of business to determine the global amount of capital to hold for both lines of business. The paper uses the regression analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze the raw data collected for the losses on both lines of business. The results from the analysis reveal that there is little or no positive dependence structure between the two lines of business because the R. Square value from the regression analysis output is 0.29, which is closer to 0. Moreover, there are higher losses in the domestic motor line of business than the home line of business. There is also higher volatility in the domestic motor line of business than home line of business. Thus, the report recommends that home line of business should attract more global capital than the domestic motor line of business.

Introduction

The objective of research is to use actuarial modeling and fit loss data into a gamma distribution to determine whether the dependence structure between the home line of business and domestic motor line of business is to be taking into account when determining…… [Read More]

References:
Benfield (2009).Insurance Risk Study Modeling the Global Market. (Fourth Edition). Taon Benfield Publication.

North Carolina State University (2004). Linear Regression in Excel. NC State University Publication.
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Expressive Analysis Characterized by Meanings and Processes

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56012029

expressive analysis characterized by meanings and processes that are not experimentally measured or examined in terms of mathematical measurements (Leedy, 2012). Quantitative research on the other hand, builds and relies on mathematical methods and procedures, for instance quality, frequency amount and statistical process. This paper will develop three hypothetical research approaches for the Statement of the Problem and the Purpose differences and similarities between the two methods.

Correlational Research

For quantitative study, the correlational research would work well with the Statement of the problem and the purpose of this paper. The purpose of correlational research is to define the associations among two or more variables (Xu, 2011). For instance, for Topic "Alternative Banking" Data would gathered from multiple variables such as the specific banks, customers, employees and managers. The purpose is to use Islamic Banking because other banks have failed and these types of banks have survived financial crisis. The problem is the fact that Islamic Banking is not for everyone so how can it be marketed so that it can appeal to the masses? Once these important variables have been identified, the relations among those variables will then be investigated. Correlational research will investigate a range of factors, including…… [Read More]

Sources:
Fjodorova, N.V. (2012). Quantitative and qualitative models for carcinogenicity prediction for non-congeneric chemicals using CP ANN method for regulatory uses. 14(3), 581-94.

Leedy, & . O. (2012). P.D.Leedy's.J.E.Ormrod'sPractical Research: Planning and Design (9th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall;; 9 edition (.
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Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48342686

Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years and the authors were able to establish relationship of trusts with the selected families especially the families in the subset case study. The researchers visited the selected families at home for "12 additional occasions for the interviews to explore the parents schooling cultural models and their generally views about educational…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Reference

Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents\' aspirations and expectations of their children\'s school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
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Vacation it Wasn't the Skinned Lamb Carcasses

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32913578

Vacation

It wasn't the skinned lamb carcasses that greeted me as I walked through the door. Nor was it the short, dark-tanned man with the cigarette hanging out of his mouth proudly showing me the assorted viscera stacked high on his stall. It wasn't even in the next hall where the seafood was so fresh I thought for a brief moment that I was snorkeling. What struck me the most about the whole experience was the narrow coffee shop tucked into a wall in between tripe soup vendors. I joined the old men at their Formica-clad tables, their glares a mix of disdain for my intrusion and curiosity at my boldness. I motioned the grey-haired bowling ball of a lady behind the counter like a pro, and before long I had my coffee in front of me. I'm not a big coffee drinker, to tell you the truth. But I was fighting off some fierce jetlag, and I needed it bad that morning.

I'd come in red eye the day before. The trains were on strike, of course, and our cab driver had duly ripped us off I have no doubt. I'd sworn that vacation would be my last with…… [Read More]

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Function of This Study Is

Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84974468

In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. Such a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling frame encompassing a complete listing of sampling units. Preferably, the sampling frame should consist of all the sampling units in the given population. However, in practice, such information is rarely available. For this reason, researchers usually use substitute lists that contains the same information but may not be comprehensive. In…… [Read More]

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Statistics the Intent of This

Words: 4324 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44895562

There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.

Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect implications of counseling and student achievement. The case study serves to codify in many respects the insights gained from a series of experience surveys completed in a company. Another approach to qualitative research, the pilot study is meant as a trail run on a much broader, and more in-depth qualitative…… [Read More]

Sources:
IIT (2007). Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The Delphi Method. Definition and Historical Background. Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007:

http://www.iit.edu/~it/delphi.html
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Organizational Research and Theory in

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50342396

The authors have gathered preliminary information by reviewing the literature and gathering information from organizations that have already implemented strategies to broaden fair and ethical trade marketing.

The authors seek to avoid "clean washing" the message of fair and ethical trade by using the affinity marketing strategy that they describe. However, it is possible that consumers at mission driven organizations will fail to recognize the value of the fair and ethical trade products they purchase if having a fun time out is their goal rather than supporting a cause. The way in which these items are marketed so as not to lose the social mission must be addressed. Another exploratory study surveying the consumers at such mission driven organizations would be useful.

Exploratory research generally precedes descriptive research. Descriptive data is not generated in studies that are exploratory such as this. The authors conducted a pilot study about how zoos and aquaria link their mission to the items that they are marketing specifically in cafes and gift shops. The information that Low and Davenport have generated could now be used to answer the questions, "how much," or "how many," in a future descriptive study.

Conclusions should be drawn from this…… [Read More]

References:
Low, W., Davenport, E. (2009). Organizational leadership, ethics and the challenges of marketing fair and ethical trade. Journal of Business Ethics, 86: 97-108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9763-7

Kotler, P., Adam, S., Brown, L., Armstrong, G. (2006). Principles of Marketing, 3rd Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall
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Activities Whether They Are Experimental

Words: 2978 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93074109

With respect to the McGuckin studies neither randomization nor sample selection is ever discussed. In fact sampling per se is not presented except for cursory mention in the results section. Again, without proper identification as to the sampling method implemented, the reader is ever cautious as to how legitimate the results will be. Not wanting to pre-empt the discussion on statistical methodology, mention must be made at this time with respect to the Poisson Regression statistical tool selected for use in these two studies in terms of sampling. This particular regression technique, if utilized properly, requires the sample size to be determined on the basis of the square root transformation of the Poisson random variables. More specifically, the formula for calculating the sample size of the Poisson variables is as follows:

2) 2

The data received from this calculation will give the research investigator the number of sampling units per group that are needed. Unfortunately however the reader is not presented information with respect to the Poisson random variables selected not the unit sample number per group.

Statistical Tool and Selected Variables. Both studies made use of the Poisson regression technique to ascertain their results. When a statistical tool is…… [Read More]

Resources:
Armitage P. And Berry, G. (1994) Statistical Methods in Medical Research (3 rd edition).

London: Blackwell Publishing.
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Statistics in Workplace

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79640955

Statistics in the Hospital Setting

During the course of performing my professional duties at College Hospital, which is a psychiatric facility located in Cerritos, California, I encounter patients who are struggling to maintain some semblance of a normal life despite struggling with one or more mental illnesses or psychological impairments. College Hospital is a 187-bed, free-standing psychiatric care unit which is accredited by The Joint Commission and licensed by the California Department of Health Services, and part of my job is assist in providing a wide range of psychiatric services for a wide range of patient demographics. As the leader in Partial Hospitalization Programs throughout the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas, College Hospital relies on the accurate and efficient use of statistics to ensure positive patient outcomes.

An Example of Descriptive Statistics Used in My Workplace:

While working at College Hospital the use of descriptive statistics has become an increasingly important part of my professional life, simply because I continually need to read a wide range of scholarly journals on a variety of psychiatry-related subjects in order to remain effective. These journal articles typically review the findings of studies which employed questionnaire surveys or case notes, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Costea, G., Gheorghiu, V., Buda, O., Popescu, I., & Trandafir, M.S. (2011). Statistical

Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry -- A criminological evaluation of casuistry. Journal of medicine and life, 4(1), 21.
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Effect of IQ on GPA Regression and Correlation

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66246136

Regression, Correlation: Effect of IQ on GPA

Effective teaching begins with understanding the thinking and reasoning abilities of one's students and devising ways to ensure that the classroom setting is accommodative of the inherent differences in cognitive capabilities and that all students get to benefit from the learning process. One way of measuring a child's intellectual ability is by administering the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Forth Edition (WISC-IV), which measures IQ on the basis of a child's processing speed, working memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension skills. Children below the average range in IQ are thought to have lower understanding, thinking, and reasoning abilities compared to their peers. It is the instructor's duty to follow up such children's class activities with therapeutic interventions to ensure that they remain at par with the rest of the class. This text presents the hypotheses, regression results, and descriptive statistics of a study that sought to determine the relationship between IQ and GPA by administering the WISC-IV to forty, 14-year-old ninth-graders.

Hypothesis

Numerous studies have shown that ceteris paribus, children with higher cognitive abilities are likely to be better academic achievers than their peers with lower cognitive abilities. Towards this end:

H1:…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Duckworth, A.L. & Seligman, M.E. (2005). Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.

Jackson, S. (2011). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
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Burnout and Technical College Counselors

Words: 7250 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98439444

The assumption here is that counselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post secondary educational institutions, and the variety of services the 2-year postsecondary counselors must provide to these students. This assumption is congruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional school counselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties match the descriptions set forth by national standards for school counseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).

Consequently, school counselors are required to formulate decisions on a daily basis concerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many school counselors are overwhelmed by these constantly changing working conditions and requirements, and a number of counselors experience high levels of stress as a result. Because the connection between high levels of stress in the workplace and burnout are well documented, these findings represent issues of special concern because of the potential adverse impact on counselors' mental and physical well-being. Moreover, stress has also been associated with burnout (Wilkerson & Bellini). Consequently, heightened levels of stress and burnout can result in ineffective…… [Read More]

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Correlational and Experimental Research Methods

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55487747

Some descriptive observation can even be unethical, if the subjects are unaware of the fact they are being observed.

Historical research is similar to descriptive research in that it cannot, by virtue of its retrospective nature, affect the variables in question under tightly controlled conditions. A historian may examine historical or past trends in a descriptive or comparative way, and test a hypothesis by examining different types of data, like marital trends in 20th century America, for example, to see if people were marrying older or younger than in previous eras (Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods, 2004, AllPsych).

A correlational method of research attempts determine if a relationship exists between two variables. Unlike experimental research, which attempts to make assumptions about cause and effect, correlational research assesses the strength of a relationship (Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods, 2004, AllPsych). It can be useful for describing behavior and for suggesting causal hypotheses that could be tested in experiments. Correlations can be positive or negative, such as the fact that there may be a positive correlation between a low fat-diet and low rates of heart disease (Mitchell, 2007). But correlation does not mean causation, as it…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Davis, John. (9 Jul 1997). "Experimental research methods." Department of Psychology.

Metropolitan State College of Denver. Retrieved 13 Dec 2007 at http://clem.mscd.edu/~davisj/prm2/exper1.html
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Bmx Racers Research Whether it Is Qualitative

Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46987083

BMX Racers

Research, whether it is qualitative or quantitative in design, must be succinct, thorough, and best fit in order to achieve the intended results. Without proper controls, definition, and well-defined objectives the research endeavor is simply an ad hoc attempt to gather data and explain a particular phenomenon. Research must also command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment to that which is being investigated. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the differences that possibly exist in and amongst BMX (Bicycle Motocross Racing) racers with respect to the effect this extreme sport has on those who participate.

In order to accomplish the goals of the intended research project data will be collected by way of a short survey questionnaire wherein participants will be asked four (4) questions relative to the following:

The number of body scars received while participating in the sport.

The individual participants relative ranking in the sport.

3. Geographical demographics of the participants.

4. The age ranges for participants.

These four survey questions will permit the research investigator to garner ordinal (Question #1), nominal (Question #2), ratio (Question #3), and interval (Question #4) types of measurement data with which to examine the goals set forth…… [Read More]

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Marketing and Sales Business Functions

Words: 446 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79663680

If the person feels cold because they have pneumonia, this symptom must be treated in a different fashion, by treating the ailment. If the patient suffers from chronic Type I diabetes and feels cold because their pancreas is manufacturing inadequate levels of insulin, the patient must be treated long-term with insulin therapy. The symptom may be the same, but the cause of the problem of all of these same problems is different, thus a symptom is something that manifests itself as an effect or external phenomenon, but is caused by something underlying in the form of a cause or problem.

DQ4. How would you ethically research the solution to a strategic problem facing your organization using various research methodologies?

Surveys where the participants agree to volunteer their information, or observations where the participants know they are being observed by a sales or marketing team are ethical ways to determine why consumers find a product unattractive that may not be selling well. This is in contrast to observing consumers covertly in a store, or demanding they volunteer their time on a website to answer a survey to access their data on the company site, or for a dubious 'prize.

Works Cited…… [Read More]

Sources:
Ryerson, C. (2005) "Descriptive Research." Research Processes. Retrieved 23 Aug at 2005 at http://www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/ResearchProcess/DescriptiveResearch.htm
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Human Papilloma Virus and the Description of

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82241998

human papilloma virus and the description of epidemiology as it relates to the virus. Steps and methods of epidemiology have been discussed in detail alongside statistical data for demographics taken from surveillance records. Moreover, research data have been taken as vital assistance to compliment the study of this research paper and to prove results with evidences from researches (Duncan, 1988).

Statistics have been taken from World Health Organization for the rate of occurrence and risk factors involved with the diseases caused by the virus. Epidemiology cannot be defined unless its steps and methods are explained (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005). The epidemiology for papillomavirus diseases includes descriptive methods of epidemiology and in this paper; the focus has been made on describing the process steps with respect to papillomavirus. There are five steps, which define how the epidemiology process is carried out; keeping in mind one of the two approaches of the research method for epidemiology. The epidemiological triangle best describes the way in which the diseases generated through papillomavirus are connected with its other two influencing factors and how the triangle model can be used to prevent the infections from spreading (Gordis, 2009). At the end of the paper, prevention levels…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Duncan, D. (1988). Epidemiology: basis for disease prevention and health promotion. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.

Fletcher, R.H., & Fletcher, S.W. (2005). Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Job Outing This Research Was Done to

Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068714

Job Outing

This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.

u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction

u1 > u0

Null: H0: u1 / u0

Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.

Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.

Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.

The first figure to investigate is the average or mean job satisfaction score for the entire group which was 34.15 out of 50. The standard deviation from the score is 7.516 which is rather high signifying a potential weakness in this analysis. The median score is 34 which helps strengthen the mean's…… [Read More]

Resources:
Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.

National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html
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Standardization Expectation and Judgment in Response to Language Use

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8267543

Language

American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.

Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as Redneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law, medicine, and publishing," (Finegan, n.d.). The elite need their dialects too; and specific professions need their jargon. But it is not right to impose the grammatical rules of the white power elite on everyone else. As Deresiewicz (2005) puts it, "our language should be a playground; instead we make it…… [Read More]

References:
Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/ 

Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/
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Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research

Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383503

RICK HOUSER'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Rick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational Research"

Rick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational Research"

Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?

Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees from those who are not so trained" (p.9)

Clinical counselors interact with customers and use interview methods to collect data used to diagnose mental disorders and illness. They also counsel customers, participate in interactive treatments, and produce detailed notes or reports after every session. Thus, the clinical therapist must comprehend…… [Read More]

Sources:
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Superior TEACHERS& 8230 Review of Do

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82779629



Ultimately then, as questions did not focus on past instructional planning methodology but on real time instructional planning practices the practice of systematic "objectives-first" planning could have been very influential in teacher development but was ultimately abandoned in practical application, probably largely owing to time constraints, which are a consistently cited concern for teachers. The teachers studied simply offered the thesis that formal "objective-first" instructional planning is not practical and they prefer to plan in more timesaving and practical ways. If one were to include questions regarding past use or even possible future use of such methods the true efficacy of the model may have been tested.

Potential Effects of Fixes

The development of a case for systematic planning might have been made if a broader sample was utilized. The results might have concluded that some "superior" teachers do use an objective-first model or that they have done so in the past and developed instruction that works and no longer needs to be tested with every application. The researchers might have also utilized a different strategy to determine the efficacy of this type of system, by actually offering an application tool to one study group and not to another and…… [Read More]

References:
The publication audience of this work, i.e. teachers, administrators, board members, and even teacher educators might benefit from a revised edition of this published work, i.e. one that included some of the main points of this assessment. Currently, the work challenges rather than support the thesis, indicating that "objective first" systematic instruction planning is not necessary over time and that other methods are superior or more time sensitive and better suited to real classrooms.

Resources

Young, a., Reiser, R., & Dick, W (1998). "Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning procedures? A descriptive study," Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46:2, 65