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Descriptive Epidemiology Case Study
The United States has a growing diabetic population, some have called it an epidemic, due to many factors that have become normalized for the country's citizens. People eat an increasingly poor diet, do not exercise as they should and have jobs that grow more sedentary with each passing year. It is difficult to name a single factor that is more damaging, but it would seem that people in the United States are doing everything that they can to encourage diabetes mellitus instead of combat it.
The incidence of diabetes is increasing across the nation with few regions seeing a decrease. Type-II diabetes is most prevalent along the East Coast but looking at a state-by-state map of the diabetes population, the problem is growing throughout the country. The state with the largest population, California, also has the most diabetes cases. Nine percent of the population in…
Case, A., & Paxson, C. (2005). Sex differences in morbidity and mortality. Demography, 42(2), 189-195.
Leung, R.W., Kamla, J., Lee, M-C., & Mak, J.Y. (2007). Preventing and treating type 2 diabetes through a physically active lifestyle: With type 2 diabetes exploding in the school population, physical educators can play an important role in countering the disease. JOPERD -- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(4), 38- 39.
Pompei, P. (2006). Diabetes mellitus in later life. Generations, 30(3), 39-51.
Schreinemachers, D.M. (2006). Mortality from ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus (Type 2) in four U.S. wheat-producing states: A hypothesis-generating study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(2), 186-193.
Promotion Marketing esearch Galaxy Mini S
Subjects And The esearch Process
To determine whether the target market would buy Galaxy Mini S, I will conduct a descriptive study by using qualitative research. This study is descriptive because I will describe how Galaxy Mini S is beneficial to users after analyzing the results from my research subjects, which I will interview and observe participants. This type of research is appropriate because I will be able to observe my subjects in a direct manner, as they interact with Galaxy Mini S. This type of observation will yield descriptive results that might be difficult to find using other research methods.
The population for this study includes youth and adults that use Smartphones on a regular basis. Purposive sampling refers to a non-probability sampling method whereby the researcher selects the units to be observed based on his/her judgment about which ones will be the…
Comstock, B., Gulati, R., & Liguori, S. (2010). Unleashing the power of marketing. Harvard Business Review, 88 (10), 90-98.
Burkitt, L. (2011). A Chinese Brand Flounders in U.S.. Wall Street Journal (December 20):B1.
Lopez, R. (2012). Sevenly hopes to change the world one t-shirt at a time. Los Angeles Times (January 25).
Jargon, J. (2012). 'Super Size Me' Generation Takes Over at McDonald's. Wall Street Journal. (March 8):A1.
David & Beth
A) Independent Variable = ental Vacancy
Mean = 10.9
Median = 11.5
Mode = 6.8 (smallest of multiple modes) Each data point was different, so technically there were 20 modes.
ange = 8.3 (6.8 to 15.1)
Describe what was found. ental vacancy rates ranged from 6.8% to 15.1%, with a mean vacancy rate of 10.9%. No two states had the same vacancy rate, therefore an accurate assessment of the mode was not possible. The Median vacancy rate across states was 11.5%.
Excel Tables & Figures
Summarize IV in Table & ange Charts
Two tables iii. Two Charts
Describe esults: The charts and tables show that Florida has the highest vacancy rate, while New York has the lowest vacancy rate.
Label Tables and Figures _ Table 1 (title) etc.
TABLE 1. Vacancy ate Table
ental Vacancy ate
Full citation for the two data sources. (No reference information for data set has been provided.)
On some perfect late summer days, I take my bike off the back carrier of my car and ride on quiet blacktop county roads, enjoying the wonderful aroma of pine trees, and taking my time so I can fully experience the natural world, and take photos to remind me why I will return the next year.
The narrative and descriptive elements of the paper
In the first paragraph, I used all narrative sentences except two: I wrote that "Wisconsin is also a wonderland of fascinating, beautiful, and memorable places to visit and experience," using descriptive language; and in the last sentence in the paragraph I explained that northern Wisconsin has "the lush green environment." In the second paragraph I described "near-perfect" temperatures without giving the exact temperatures, so the reader could estimate on his/her own. And I used descriptive language in the last sentence: "My family loves the sweet aroma…
Educational Research: Charter Schools
Descriptive vs. Experimental Research
Experimental research studies seem to be 'cleaner' on their surface than descriptive research studies. A researcher can, in experimental research studies, apparently control all extraneous external variables. He or she can simply focus on the variables that are being studied and analyzed over the course of the study. For instance, in the lengthy descriptive "Fourth-Year Report" conducted by the United States government in 2000 on Charter Schools, variables as diverse as the proportion of students on public assistance for their lunch, proficiency in English, income of families, income of the district, all had to be taken into consideration when analyzing the results of the comparison between public and private schools.
Because the multi-variable descriptive study comparing charter and public schools across the nation was quite broad in its demographic sweep it was difficult to extrapolate conclusive data from its findings. It analyzed…
"Fourth-Year Report: 2000." (January 2000) U.S. Government Website. Retrieved 15 Jan 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/charter4thyear/b3.html#4
Harvard University. (2004) "Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research: Achievement in Charter Schools and Regular Public Schools in the United States: December 2004. Charter Schools Website. Retrieved 15 Jan 2005 at http://www.wacharterschools.org/learn/index_studies.htm
Schemo, Jean. (Aug 17, 2004) "Charter Schools Trail in Results: U.S. Data Reveals." New York Times. Section A1. Retrieved 15 Jan 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/17/education/17charter.html
What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics?
The two types of statistics are applied in researches in making judgments regarding social behaviors. Both of them help in finding out the meanings of social incidents in estimating the values of recreation activities and some materials.
What are the differences?
Descriptive statistics are tools used in describing the basic data. They provide clear explanations about the samples of research as well as their performance. They also give a qualitative analysis of data in a more straightforward way. Statistics enhances the ability of people to interpret all forms of data. They are used to analyze large volumes of data thus reducing the data into smaller sizes. This helps the reader to have an easy time when reading the data. On the other hand, inferential statistics are extremely complicated. They dig further into any simple data. They are used in making…
In other words, the greater the dangers of comparative substitutes of lower price competing with the current product, the more incentive textbook authors have to change the model, to make using the older editions more difficult or impossible, underlining the value of obsolescence. Additionally, with new technology, the current version may not be useable or as functional when used in conjunction with the older versions, which makes getting the latest model even more critical. However, unlike textbook publishers, who have a virtually captive audience, because students are required to buy the latest edition of their books, Apple's customers have more options to opt out of the new purchases.
Apple's frequent innovations give it first mover advantage. However, it is also argued that while "first-mover advantage was initially touted as crucial in the Internet economy....there is a growing backlash...First-mover advantage can be instrumental in building market share, but this may or…
First mover advantage." (2008). Marketing Terms. Retrieved 13 Jan 2008 at http://www.marketingterms.com/dictionary/first_mover_advantage/
Iizuka, Toshiaki. (Jun 2004). "An Empirical Analysis of Planned Obsolescence." Retrieved 13 Jan 2008 at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2005/0107_1015_0616.pdf
Wingfield, Nick. (12 Jan 2008). "The downside to Apple's frequent product updates."
The Wall Street Journal. A2. Retrieved 13 Jan 2008 at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120008119783584359.html?mod=mm_hs_marketing_strategy
Clear visual demonstrations can compensate for these impairments. With print-based materials, ensure that: (a) pages are well laid out; (b) exercises and assessment tasks are clearly identified; and (c) font style used is easy-to-read
(7) Accessible, easy to follow print-based materials where instructions, tasks and assessments are clearly marked is crucial to the success of a program for older learners. Most ICT training materials follow a one-size-fits-all approach -- often too much too soon. This does not work well with older learners. (Taylor and Rose, 2004)
(8) Consider the amount and size of text on web pages before you use them with older learners - Many older learners have sight impairments and pages with a lot of dense text can be difficult to read. Some pages may not allow for enlargement. (Taylor and Rose, 2004)
Taylor and Rose (2004) state that the top ten identified strategies in the study reported…
Agre, P. (1998). How to help someone use a computer in: Becker, Kristen and Coleman, Jason (2005) Instruction for Older Adults, TriCon 2005.
Bean, C. (2003). Meeting the challenge: Training an aging population to use computers. The Southeastern Librarian, 51(3), 16-25.
Bean, C., & Laven, M. (2003). Adapting to seniors: Computer training for older adults. Florida Libraries, 46(2), 5-7.
Becker, Kristen and Coleman, Jason (2005) Instruction for Older Adults, TriCon 2005.
This type of measurement is best used when the data has also been captured at the ordinal or ratio level as the orthogonality of the data set is reliable (Marshall, uiz, Bredillet, 2008). Extrapolating statistics to a broader population is also dependent on the approach of randomization used. When a solid methodology, sampling frame and approach to randomization have all been defined, inferential data is often used in organizations to define company-wide strategic initiatives. These include the decision to open more retail stores for a clothing or sporting goods retailer for example based on demographic data.
Inferential statistics are often used for experimental analysis where the statistical significance of relationships within the data is analyzed is highly useful for gaining insights into customer preferences and requirements (Ainslie, Leyland, 1992). Using inferential statistics to project the cause-and-effect relationships of marketing and sales programs has proven to have a high eturn on…
Ainslie, Andrew, & Pitt, Leyland. (1992). Customer retention analyses: An application of descriptive and inferential statistics in database marketing. Journal of Direct Marketing, 6(3), 31.
Robert A. Marshall, Philippe Ruiz, & Christophe N. Bredillet. (2008). Earned value management insights using inferential statistics. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 1(2), 288-294.
Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions (2008) by Chris Spatz, Cengage Learning 9th ed. ISBN-13: 978049550218
Peter van den Besselaar. (2003). Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, rhetorical statistics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(11), 1077.
injuries that consequent from playing football.
Descriptive research design
A descriptive research design is conducted by observing the life of the group or individual without influencing it in any way.
The way I would conduct this design is a) statement of the problem, to wit: players experience injuries during training and competition. I would like to categorize and specify the specific injuries received. (b) Identification of information needed to solve the problem. -- In this case, I would need to observe one or more football teams that are training or involving themselves in competitive projects. (c) Identification of target population and decision of sampling procedure -- My target population will be a certain age of football players (as part of endeavor to ascertain that confounding variables are omitted). The age may likely be 18-22. I will select from ten or more college football teams. ample will be convenience. (d) Design…
Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2007). Research methods in psychology. Sage, USA
Predictive research design.
New Mexico and Alaska buck this trend, as they also possess relatively high mortality rates from stomach cancer (NCHS 2009). Other regional demographics, however, help to bear out the racial factor as one of the primary determinants of geographical trends in stomach cancer mortality.
The Southern region especially contains the highest rates of incidence and mortality, especially in the states stretching East from New Mexico to the Atlantic (Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina) (NCHS 2009). The New England area states -- Connecticut, Massachusetts, hode Island, and New York especially, also have increased mortality rates when compared to the rest of the nation (NCHS 2009). The Midwest as a whole, on the other hand, has very low rates of incidence and mortality, as do the northernmost New England states -- Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine (NCHS 2009). These regions tend to be more homogenously white in their…
ACS. (2009). "Detailed guide: Stomach cancer." American cancer society. Accessed 25 October 2009. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1X_What_are_the_key_statistics_for_stomach_cancer_40.asp
CDC. (2009). United States Cancer Statistics: 1999 -- 2005 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2009. Accessed 25 October 2009. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/
Horner MJ, Ries LAG, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Howlader N, Altekruse SF, Feuer EJ, Huang L, Mariotto a, Miller BA, Lewis DR, Eisner MP, Stinchcomb DG, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2006, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2006/ , based on November 2008 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2009.
NCHS. (2009). U.S. mortality files, National center for health statistics, Centers for disease control and prevention. Accessed 25 October 2009.
It should be noted that every employee with this contractor has voluntarily agreed to meet the company's requirements, including myself. But looking at the requirements from a deontological reasoning point-of-view, I don't think the requirements reflect a fair and true assessment of the working and living conditions that each employee has to deal with daily here in Iraq. This is a dangerous place, and being physically competent is vital because when a person puts in 12-hour shifts 7 days a week -- that adds up to an 84-hour work week -- it is very tough. Being apart from one's family and friends for up to six months at a time takes a toll on a person's physical and emotional condition.
The culture shock is huge, especially when a mortar or rocket attack hits the base near where you are working. Dealing with this culture shock brings a lot of stress,…
Cost curves can be depicted for both the short run and the long run. The short run is the operating period during which at least one input (typically capital) is fixed in supply. During this period, fixed costs can be incurred even if the firm produces no output. In the long run, there are no fixed costs -- all inputs and costs are variable. Short-run cost curves are sometimes called operating curves because they are used in making near-term production and pricing decisions. Fixed costs are irrelevant for these decisions. Long-run cost curves are referred to as planning curves, since they play a key role in longer-run planning decisions related to plant size and equipment acquisitions.
The minimum efficient scale is defined as that plant size at which long-run average cost is first minimized. The minimum efficient scale affects both the optimal plant size and the level of potential competition.…
Memories of randmother Alice
As a boy, we sometimes let our immediate desires overshadow the more important work that we are here to accomplish. Sometimes we lose track of the things that are most important in life. We sometimes hurt others or ourselves on the path to discovering those things, which are truly most important. The transition from childhood to adulthood always involves encountering old feelings along the road. One of the deepest feelings that we encounter is that of love and relationships.
A encountered my share of hurt along the road to manhood. I fell off the path and forgot my way more than I am willing to admit to anyone. One person was always there to offer the gentle guidance that I needed to get back on track and stay focused on the future. This person in my life was randmother Alice [...].
randmother Alice stood 55 inches…
Grandmother Alice's life was not filled with many fine things, but she left us all with something more valuable than any gold. She left us with our self-respect and a respect for others. That is something no one can ever take away.
Grandmother Alice died in November of 1995 and left a longing in my heart and the hearts of many others. She is gone and sometimes I can still hear her words or feel her loving harms around me when times are tough.
The lessons that she taught will live on forever. I hope that in my life I can pass them on to someone else and that they too can have the wisdom of Grandmother Alice.
Pablo Picasso / Bull / 1958
The sculpture's materials: Plywood, tree branch, nails, and screws
The sculpture's size: 46 1/8th x 56 3/4s x 4 1/8th
here seen: Museum of Modern Art, New York,
Gallery Label: Focus: Picasso Sculpture, July 3 -- November 3, 2008.
Before specifically identifying the components of this sculpture -- which are created mostly from plywood -- it is a worthy task to quickly discuss plywood. Not why the artist chose this medium, but what plywood is made of.
"Plywood" is of course a term used to explain the product that the artist used to create the essential parts of this sculpture. The eye tends to be drawn immediately to the plywood that has been fashioned into a sculpture because most people observing sculptures think of sculpture in connection with stone, steel, or other materials.
In truth, plywood is not really wood at all, but rather…
Museum of Modern Art / New York. (2008). Focus: Picasso Sculpture, July 3 -- November 3,
2008. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://www.moma.org .
Melvilles Spouter Inn
Some of the best descriptive essayexamples can be found among the writings of the greatest authors. Consider a chapter in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville: every chapter of that book is like a mini-descriptive essay. Look at the way Melville uses description to create atmospheric effect in the first line of Chapter 3: The Spouter Inn from Moby-Dick: Entering that gable-ended Spouter-Inn, you found yourself in a wide, low, straggling entry with old-fashioned wainscots, reminding one of the bulwarks of some condemned old craft. Melville uses words like condemned to convey a sense of foreboding and doom, and the adjectives wide, low, straggling produce a claustrophobic effect on the readerone that pulls him in with force. Melville also uses consonance, assonance and alliteration to make the words flow more enjoyably and give the description a kind of musical quality. Go to any chapter in Moby-Dick and you will…
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…
ANOVA Analysis of Student Major
The SPSS output that include ANOVA, Descriptive and the Means Plot is as follows:
Sum of Squares
The ANOVA is completed to test whether the student from different disciplines perform differently in math quiz. The study completes the analysis by comparing scores of students in majors such as pre-med, psychology, economics, sociology and biology. The study tests the group of student to ascertain if their major has a significant effect to math performances. The significant level is t p
Super Highway 8: A Simple Country Road in Virginia
The image shows a charming country road composed of grass and dirt along a homemade wooden fence that is rustic and somewhat shabby, though in an aesthetically pleasing way. The road curves invitingly and along either side of the road is a row of trees that appear to have buds on them, not fully bloomed, giving the impression that the photograph captures the springtime. The qualities of the image are so perfect and so hyper-real, they look painted. The country road at times appears too perfect and tranquil, and the colors that permeate the image look so vivid and vibrant, on first glance, they look like elements one applies with the stroke of a brush saturated in very pigmented paint. However, a closer examination and a Google reverse-image search both confirm that the image is a photograph. The image is available…
It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).
True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…
Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website: http://www.psychmet.com/id15.html
Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University
Healing with Statistics
There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.
The most basic level of analysis…
Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://mste.illinois.edu/hill/dstat/dstat.html
Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
Trochim, W. (2006). Levels of measurement. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php
Defense of Abortion
The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. ade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.
Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?
In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception."…
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
These core competencies are the focus of the recommendations given to McDonald's for the resolution of the described problems. By striving to improve their core competencies, McDonald's will be able to improve the customer service they offer to customers considerably as well as to satisfy their customers better Hammer & Stanton, 1999()
Improving production consistency
The big secret behind the success of McDonald's is that the company has long strived to embrace innovation and striving to achieve consistency in the operations of its outlets. Since the "Made for you" production process has been tested and assured to be a workable process for McDonald's this should be implemented on a storewide basis despite the huge upfront expenses to be incurred by the company. These upfront expenses will be compensated by the huge returns and improvements in quality of customer service that come from the company's use of this new production system…
Hall, G., Rosenthal, J., & Wade, J. (1993). How to make reengineering really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 119-131.
Hammer, M., & Stanton, S. (1999). How process enterprises really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 108-120.
Prahalad, C.K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 79-91.
Stalk, G., Evans, P., & Shulman, L.E. (1992). Competing on capabilities: The new rules of corporate strategy. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 57-69.
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:
H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.
H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.
The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…
The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:
…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2)…
Abe-Kim, PhD, J., Takeuchi, PhD, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, PhD, N., Sue, PhD, S., Spencer, PhD, M.S., Appel, PhD, H., Nicdao, PhD, E., & Alegria, PhD, M. (2007) Use of Mental Health-Related Service Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 91 -- 97.
These dynamics suggest sample means may indicate questionable results without further testing to verify if skew distorts generalizability. There are plausible cases where such an extreme value would be kept, say if we were testing for risk of a rare event, in which case that would be the data point of interest compared to the rest.
Table 4. Partial Data Sample
from Q6, hours exercising
To investigate potential variables of interest, the data was sorted into male and female, and health-care related questions of interest displayed for both groups. This convenient procedure shows that while both groups scored similarly on many questions, the difference between means for questions 20-23 may yield interesting results with…
Financial Literacy and Social Change
What is the relationship between financial literacy and social change?
Comparing change in financial literacy in post-college and non-college students
Hypothesis- There is a significant difference in financial literacy between college and non-college students.
Introduction- Financial literacy implies a number of things: understanding the basics of not only personal finance, but the broader approach to global finance. There is a distinction, however, between the intellectual world of college students and non-college students. College students, for instance, might be exposed to introductory economics, political science, business or other courses that would grant them access to a larger, more global perspective of finance. However, because they are often living in dorms, may be partially supported by loans or grants or funds from parents, their view of finances will be understandably skewed to the more intellectual approach. However, non-college bound students often must enter the workforce, fend…
Bell, E. And Lerman, R. (2005). Can Financial Literacy Enhance Asset Building. The Urban
Institute Opportunity and Ownership Project. 6. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311224_financial_literacy.pdf
Creswell, J.W., Hanson, W.E., Clark, V.L., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35, 236-264. Retrieved from Sage Journals Online database.
Howe, K. (1988). Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis: Dogmas Die Hard. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from: http://nepc.colorado.edu/files/Howe_Against_the_Quant_Qual_Incompatibility_Thesis.pdf
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
Husserl and Heidegger’s Phenomenology
Phenomenology refers both to philosophical framework and to epistemological orientation. As epistemology, phenomenology has had major implications for the social sciences, providing the fundamental tenets and methods for qualitative research. Originator of the phenomenological approach, Husserl proposed that human consciousness undergirds experience, but that both must be transcended, acknowledged, and set aside in order to reach the truth of any given phenomenon. Husserl therefore favored the use of descriptive methods, which aim for objectivity as much as possible. Husserl’s student Martin Heidegger rejected the notion that it was even possible at all to ascertain some objective understanding (Reiners, 2012). Instead, Heidegger celebrated what individual ascriptions of meaning had to offer when interpreting phenomena. Whereas Husserl’s epistemology is concerned with how and why people feel, think, or believe what they do, Heidegger’s ontological and hermeneutical methods are more concerned with discerning the nature of consciousness itself and…
The stengths of this design ae elated to the ease of application and usage. The design of the suvey was easy to administe and self explanatoy. While the weakness was elated to the willingness of the paticipant to Chapte Thee 5
paticipate complete the suvey and povide tuthful esponses. An additional weakness is elative to the age goup that was pesent fo the suvey and thei elationship to the use of computes.
Afte appoval of the study fom the Institutional Review Boad at Indiana
Wesleyan Univesity and Methodist Hospitals, Inc. Nusing staff wee ecuited to paticipate in fo the study. Paticipants wee eligible fo the study if they wee cuently an employee of the employed by Methodist Hospitals, Inc., It was also necessay that they hold a cuent nusing license, paticipated in online leaning, and wee able to ead and wite English. A egisteed nuse who has paticipated in…
Student characteristics for online learning success
The Internet and Higher Education, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2nd Quarter 2006, Pages 91-
105 Marcel S. Kerr, Kimberly Rynearson, Marcus C. Kerr
Chapter Three 13
Sum of Squares and Cross-products
There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.
Sum of Squares and Cross-products
Sum of Squares and Cross-products
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent…
Prescriptive grammar are the rules governing how one speaks and writes, based on an English standard "norm," or how society in general believes the language of English should be spoken and written (ussel, 2003). Prescriptive rules by nature judge whether the language being used is correct or not. Descriptive Grammar is very different, in that rather than assigning rules regarding the manner in which one should speak and write, it examines how people actually do speak and right and attempts to account for variant grammar usage (ussel, 2003). Descriptive grammar allows for more variation of the spoken and written word than prescriptive grammar, and takes into consideration a native speakers intuitive ability to comprehend grammatical structure without actually studying the mechanisms behind it.
Prescriptive grammar assumes that everyone should or will be following an assigned standard for speaking and writing English. Linguists tend to more closely associate with descriptive language,…
Russel. (2003). "Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar." Retrieved March 23, 2003 at http://grove.ufl.edu/~russell/prescriptive.html
organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community.
Organizational Studies: Article eviews
The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,
Jisu Huh, Leonard N. eid & Soontae An
The authors' suggestions for further research are rather climatic in this article. The authors pose nine questions to the readers and those questions serve as possible directions future research could go. Out of these nine questions, the two areas that speak the…
Wife," Judy Brady uses satire and sarcasm to critique gender roles in traditional marriage relationships. To achieve her goals in the essay, the author writes in first person, specifically from the perspective of someone who lists the qualities she wants or expects in a wife. Yet instead of composing in essay or narrative format, the author creates a list of reasons why she wants a wife. This literary technique is compelling because it allows the author to impart a harsh criticism of patriarchy in a lighthearted and humorous manner.
The reasons the narrator lists for wanting a wife include having someone who will work and take care of the children, take care of all of my physical needs including having a clean house and home-cooked meals, and who will not complain. The wife will also assume all responsibility for birth control, always give in to sexual demands, and be willing…
Actuarial Science: Modeling
The objective of this report is to investigate dependence structure between the home line of business and domestic motor line of business to determine the global amount of capital to hold for both lines of business. The paper uses the regression analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze the raw data collected for the losses on both lines of business. The results from the analysis reveal that there is little or no positive dependence structure between the two lines of business because the . Square value from the regression analysis output is 0.29, which is closer to 0. Moreover, there are higher losses in the domestic motor line of business than the home line of business. There is also higher volatility in the domestic motor line of business than home line of business. Thus, the report recommends that home line of business should attract more global capital than…
Benfield (2009).Insurance Risk Study Modeling the Global Market. (Fourth Edition). Taon Benfield Publication.
North Carolina State University (2004). Linear Regression in Excel. NC State University Publication.
expressive analysis characterized by meanings and processes that are not experimentally measured or examined in terms of mathematical measurements (Leedy, 2012). Quantitative research on the other hand, builds and relies on mathematical methods and procedures, for instance quality, frequency amount and statistical process. This paper will develop three hypothetical research approaches for the Statement of the Problem and the Purpose differences and similarities between the two methods.
For quantitative study, the correlational research would work well with the Statement of the problem and the purpose of this paper. The purpose of correlational research is to define the associations among two or more variables (Xu, 2011). For instance, for Topic "Alternative Banking" Data would gathered from multiple variables such as the specific banks, customers, employees and managers. The purpose is to use Islamic Banking because other banks have failed and these types of banks have survived financial crisis. The…
Regina, D.L. (2003). Reconceptualizing quantitative and qualitative methods: A case study dealing with place as an exemplar. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(3), 229-44.
Shain, E.B. (2009). A new method for robust quantitative and qualitative analysis of real-time PCR. Nucleic Acids Research, 36(14), 115-123.
Xu, W.T. (2011). Establishment and evaluation of event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean DP-356043-5. European Food Research and Technology = Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und -Forschung., 233(4), 685-695.
Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),
The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…
Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
The purpose of David Foster Wallace's "Consider the Lobster" is to draw attention to a gourmet favorite -- lobster -- while attending a Lobster Fest. His intention is not just to highlight how the world loves to eat lobster but also to raise a moral/ethical conundrum associated with modern eating habits -- that is, the agribusiness of killing animals that we might devour them. Wallace admits that his own personal opinion is to view animals as "less morally important than human beings" but that this should not prevent others from sharing their views, whether they agree or disagree (Wallace, 2004, p. 7). His main objective in penning the article is to provoke thought on something that people might otherwise prefer not to think about -- namely, the relationship between aesthetics and morality (if, that is, morality is even something that can and should be applied to the cooking…
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.
Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect…
IIT (2007). Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The Delphi Method. Definition and Historical Background. Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007:
Joppe (2007) - Research Process Tutorial on Dr. Marion Joppes' website regarding exploratory research fundamentals:
Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007 from location:
statistics statistics and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).
Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…
Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from http://www.biom.uni-freiburg.de/Dateien/PDF/dormann2012ecography_proofcorrections.pdf
Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from http://blog.reyjunco.com/pdf/Juncoelavskyheibergertwittercollaboration.pdf
The authors have gathered preliminary information by reviewing the literature and gathering information from organizations that have already implemented strategies to broaden fair and ethical trade marketing.
The authors seek to avoid "clean washing" the message of fair and ethical trade by using the affinity marketing strategy that they describe. However, it is possible that consumers at mission driven organizations will fail to recognize the value of the fair and ethical trade products they purchase if having a fun time out is their goal rather than supporting a cause. The way in which these items are marketed so as not to lose the social mission must be addressed. Another exploratory study surveying the consumers at such mission driven organizations would be useful.
Exploratory research generally precedes descriptive research. Descriptive data is not generated in studies that are exploratory such as this. The authors conducted a pilot study about how zoos…
Low, W., Davenport, E. (2009). Organizational leadership, ethics and the challenges of marketing fair and ethical trade. Journal of Business Ethics, 86: 97-108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9763-7
Kotler, P., Adam, S., Brown, L., Armstrong, G. (2006). Principles of Marketing, 3rd Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall
The specific categories include the following:
4) temperature; and 5) feelings.
FINDINGS of the STUDY
The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:
Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)
Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)
Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2
FIRST GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
SECOND GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…
Takao, Ito, Hiroshi, Yamadera, Ritsuko, Ito, and Shunkichi, Endo (1999) Effects of Bright Light on Cognitive Disturbances in Alzheimer-type Dementia. Journal of Nippon Medical School. Vol. 66, No. 4.
Moore, R.: Visual Pathways and the Central Neural Control of Diurnal Rhythms. The Neurosciences 3rd Study Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1974.
Shealy, Norman: Effects of the Lumatron upon Neurochemicals. Lecture given for Dr. Shealy by Dr. Klinghardt at the 6th Int. Rehab. Med. ass. Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1990
Wurtman, Richard u.a.: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 453, 1985
With respect to the McGuckin studies neither randomization nor sample selection is ever discussed. In fact sampling per se is not presented except for cursory mention in the results section. Again, without proper identification as to the sampling method implemented, the reader is ever cautious as to how legitimate the results will be. Not wanting to pre-empt the discussion on statistical methodology, mention must be made at this time with respect to the Poisson egression statistical tool selected for use in these two studies in terms of sampling. This particular regression technique, if utilized properly, requires the sample size to be determined on the basis of the square root transformation of the Poisson random variables. More specifically, the formula for calculating the sample size of the Poisson variables is as follows:
The data received from this calculation will give the research investigator the number of sampling units per…
Armitage P. And Berry, G. (1994) Statistical Methods in Medical Research (3 rd edition).
London: Blackwell Publishing.
Connor, E.F., Hosfield, E., Meeter, D. And X. Nui. (1997). Tests for aggregation and size-based sample-unit selection when sample units vary in size. Ecology 78: 1238 -1249.
Corning, S.P. (2002). Profiling and developing nursing leaders. Journal of Nursing
Statistics in the Hospital Setting
During the course of performing my professional duties at College Hospital, which is a psychiatric facility located in Cerritos, California, I encounter patients who are struggling to maintain some semblance of a normal life despite struggling with one or more mental illnesses or psychological impairments. College Hospital is a 187-bed, free-standing psychiatric care unit which is accredited by The Joint Commission and licensed by the California Department of Health Services, and part of my job is assist in providing a wide range of psychiatric services for a wide range of patient demographics. As the leader in Partial Hospitalization Programs throughout the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas, College Hospital relies on the accurate and efficient use of statistics to ensure positive patient outcomes.
An Example of Descriptive Statistics Used in My Workplace:
While working at College Hospital the use of descriptive statistics has…
Costea, G., Gheorghiu, V., Buda, O., Popescu, I., & Trandafir, M.S. (2011). Statistical
Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry -- A criminological evaluation of casuistry. Journal of medicine and life, 4(1), 21.
Nielsen, J., Graff, C., Kanters, J.K., Toft, E., Taylor, D., & Meyer, J.M. (2011). Assessing QT
interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics. CNS drugs, 25(6), 473-
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
Research, whether it is qualitative or quantitative in design, must be succinct, thorough, and best fit in order to achieve the intended results. Without proper controls, definition, and well-defined objectives the research endeavor is simply an ad hoc attempt to gather data and explain a particular phenomenon. Research must also command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment to that which is being investigated. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the differences that possibly exist in and amongst BMX (Bicycle Motocross Racing) racers with respect to the effect this extreme sport has on those who participate.
In order to accomplish the goals of the intended research project data will be collected by way of a short survey questionnaire wherein participants will be asked four (4) questions relative to the following:
The number of body scars received while participating in the sport.
The individual participants relative ranking in…
If the person feels cold because they have pneumonia, this symptom must be treated in a different fashion, by treating the ailment. If the patient suffers from chronic Type I diabetes and feels cold because their pancreas is manufacturing inadequate levels of insulin, the patient must be treated long-term with insulin therapy. The symptom may be the same, but the cause of the problem of all of these same problems is different, thus a symptom is something that manifests itself as an effect or external phenomenon, but is caused by something underlying in the form of a cause or problem.
DQ4. How would you ethically research the solution to a strategic problem facing your organization using various research methodologies?
Surveys where the participants agree to volunteer their information, or observations where the participants know they are being observed by a sales or marketing team are ethical ways to determine why…
Ryerson, C. (2005) "Descriptive Research." Research Processes. Retrieved 23 Aug at 2005 at http://www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/ResearchProcess/DescriptiveResearch.htm
This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.
u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction
u1 > u0
Null: H0: u1 / u0
Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.
Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.
The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.
Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.
National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html
American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.
Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as edneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law,…
Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/
Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/
Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/09/books/review/09DERESIE.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print&position=
Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/prescriptivism/
Ultimately then, as questions did not focus on past instructional planning methodology but on real time instructional planning practices the practice of systematic "objectives-first" planning could have been very influential in teacher development but was ultimately abandoned in practical application, probably largely owing to time constraints, which are a consistently cited concern for teachers. The teachers studied simply offered the thesis that formal "objective-first" instructional planning is not practical and they prefer to plan in more timesaving and practical ways. If one were to include questions regarding past use or even possible future use of such methods the true efficacy of the model may have been tested.
Potential Effects of Fixes
The development of a case for systematic planning might have been made if a broader sample was utilized. The results might have concluded that some "superior" teachers do use an objective-first model or that they have done so in…
Young, a., Reiser, R., & Dick, W (1998). "Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning procedures? A descriptive study," Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46:2, 65
Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).
Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:
lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…
Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).
Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
epidemiological data, and then exploring possibility of a causal connection between lack of government funding for community-based treatments and increase in HIV incidence in queer male communities.
Both statistical descriptive and inferential tests will be employed.
The descriptive tests summarize and describe the data. These would include frequency analysis e.g. Of the amount of men diagnosed as queer, and frequency that the participants experienced homophobia. Univariate analysis would focus on one variable, e.g. frequency of homophobia, by analyzing the mean, the distribution, the central tendency, and the dispersion of the occurrence.
The distribution would provide some assumption of the pattern of the range: whether normal or skewed.
The central tendency would, in this case, measure the mean of the data, i.e. average number of males that experienced discriminatory treatment. Dispersion would be another descriptive tool that measures the spread of values around the central tendency, i.e. range and standard deviation.…
AllPsych Online: http://allpsych.com/onlinetexts.html
The third measure of central tendency is the mode. Despite it being the last option of consideration by many analysts, it is a mostly utilized measure. The mode represents the most frequent observation in a data set. For example, if total scores of a football tournament in every match were tabulated as 2, 4, 6, 5, 2, 4, and 2, then the mode of these observations is 2 scores because this observation occurs thrice in the distribution.
The median contributes to the fourth measure of central tendency and it represents the value in the distribution that lies in the middle of the observations of interest. To obtain the median, arranging the observations in ascending order establishes the observation that lies in the middle of the arranged data. For example, in the above given observations of football scores, they can arranged in ascending order as 2, 2, 2, 4, 4,…
Distributions. (2003, May 11). Wading through the data swamp: Distributions. Pathway courses.
Retrieved from http://pathwayscourses.samhsa.gov/eval201/eval201_supps_pg16.htm#Anchor-Normal-49575
Donnelly, R.A. (2004). The complete idiot's guide to statistics. Indianapolis, in: Alpha books.
Salkind, N.J. (2009). Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics, (2nd ed.). London, UK:
Holding this paper waiting for more research on systematic instructional planning would have been a better step, this would have probably eliminated the contradictory nature of the research which brought the element of unprofessionalism. It is important for one to include research not supporting their hypothesis but it is more important not to undermine his or her argument.
Potential effects of the fixes
Including more participants in the study would bring a possibility of applying the findings to a larger group in society since increasing the number of participants widens the answers to the questions asked. Including a Likert scale in the survey can also enhance the responses given by the teachers and would reveal some information that was not previously obtained. Standardizing the coding system and making the process thorough would prevent wrong categorization of answers and also give the authors' arguments more strength.
In order to help the…
Young, a., Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1998). Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning process procedures? A descriptive study, Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46:2, 65.
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…
Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.
Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.
Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.
D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.
Though filled with opportunity, it is also filled with people who missed the golden ring and slipped through the cracks, winding up living on the streets and begging for handouts to survive. This is the landscape that tourists are warned about and natives attempt to ignore by walking by them oblivious to their plight. This is not the celebrity singing cowboy street person who entertains, this is the homeless man in a wheelchair who represents man frailty and how close we all are to the streets. He is the New York that is hard to look at because if we look to closely we might find ourselves.
Then there is the New York of the elite. The debutantes, stockbrokers, old money, new money, famous; these are the royalty of America. They dine in fine restaurants, shop in the best stores, and spend an inordinate amount of money on the finer…
Thee ae those that believe that qualitative eseach is the best fom of eseach, wheeas othes insist that only quantitative methods ae appopiate in a eseach envionment (CSU, 2004). Still othes ague that both appoaches ae useful and appopiate though one is often moe indicated than the othe depending on the exact phenomena being examined and the natue o intent of the eseach being conducted (Potte, 1996; Lee & Poynton, 2000).
Fed Kelinge once exclaimed that "thee is no such thing as qualitative data, eveything is eithe one o zeo," howeve his claim is counteed by anothe eseache, Campbell, who asseted that "all eseach ultimately has a qualitative gounding" (CSU, 2004).
Given the geat debate that exists, eseaches often find it difficult to detemine which stategy is best and which is most likely to be accepted by pees when pesenting a eseach pogam. Most eseaches would aggess howeve that qualitative…
Douglas, J. (1976). Investigative social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.
Firestone, W. (1987). "Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research." Educational Researcher, 16: 16-21
Gall, Meredith, Gall, Joyce P., & Borg, Walter R. (2003). Educational
Research, 7th edition. New York, New York: A and B. Publishing.
international business expansion process.
International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.
The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…
Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.
Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.
Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
Female Leadership in Combat Units
The research proposal is outlines a study into whether women should lead during combat situations. The hypothesis is that reasons to keep women out of leadership positions in combat are socially constructed, and not attributed to anything biological or psychological. The methods will mimic some of the methods presented in military studies into the same area, with individual modifications for this particular study. The plan of analysis includes ANOVA, and descriptives. The results of the study could lead to a greater understanding of how institutions manage and process change.
Female Leadership in Combat Units
The equality and guaranteed rights of women in the United States have been issues a part of American history and American culture for most of the country's history. What women fight for changes with time. Over the past several decades, women have sought more social freedoms, freedoms where…
Dao, J. (2012). Servicewomen File Suit Over Direct Combat Ban. NY Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/28/us/servicewomen-file-suit-over-direct-combat-ban.html?_r=0 . 2012 November 30.
Harding, Lt. Col. T.A. (2012). Women in Combat Roles: Case Study of Female Engagement Teams. United States Army War College, Philadelphia.
Lamothe, D. (2011). Marines split on women joining combat units. The Marine Times, Web, Available from: http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2011/04/marine-women-combat-marines-infantry-041911w/ . 2012 November 30.
O'Keefe, E., & Cohen, J. (2011). Most Americans back women in combat roles, poll says. The Washington Post, Web, Available from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/politics/most-americans-back-women-in-combat-roles-poll-says/2011/03/16/ABTereg_story.html . 2012 November 30.