Descriptive Essays (Examples)

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A descriptive essay is an essay that describes something like a person, location, thing, event, or process.  Descriptive essays can be non-fiction, but they can also be fiction.  The goal is to allow the reader to visualize whatever is being described.  Good descriptive essays evoke all of the senses, so that the reader knows how what is being described looks, sounds, smells, tastes, and feels.

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Science if Conducting an Experiment

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36325672

It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).

True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…… [Read More]


Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website:

Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website:

Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University

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Healing With Statistics There Are Numerous Ways

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13252148

Healing with Statistics

There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.

The most basic level of analysis…… [Read More]


Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012.

Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012.

Trochim, W. (2006). Levels of measurement. Accessed 19 February 2012.
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Score Stats a Statistical Analysis

Words: 840 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84794871

Descriptive Statistics

Test subjects were 53.3% male and 46.7% female, as shown in the bar graph on the accompanying Excel spreadsheet. The test population has a mean age of 15.9 years (standard deviation=0.80). These descriptive statistics validate the randomized population of the research study, as the population is almost evenly split between males and females and the mean age is also very close to the median age (16) of the study's population (Healy, 2009). As ACT and SAT scores vary in their nominal values (a top score on the ACT test is 36, a top score on the SAT is 2400), scores were recorded as percentages of the total score to enable meaningful analysis of varying means (i.e. A score of 29 on the ACT and of 1920 on the SAT would both be recorded as 0.80) (Kaplan, 2004). Mean scores on the ACT were 0.47 (standard deviation=0.27), while mean…… [Read More]


Healy, J. (2009). Statistics. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Kaplan. (2004). SAT and ACT Score Comparison. Accessed 23 March 2009.

Kohn, A. (2000). The Case Against Standardized Testing. New York: Heinemann.
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Defense of Abortion the Author of This

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98219373

Defense of Abortion

The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. ade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.

Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?

In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception."…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
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Mcdonald's Case Analysis Report Case

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57498605

Since the "Made for you" production process has been tested and assured to be a workable process for McDonald's this should be implemented on a storewide basis despite the huge upfront expenses to be incurred by the company. These upfront expenses will be compensated by the huge returns and improvements in quality of customer service that come from the company's use of this new production system Hall, osenthal, & Wade, 1993.

This will enable McDonald's to accommodate customized orders as a source of sustained competitive advantage as well as to reduce the service wait time to bring McDonald's to be a chief organization in terms of speed of service to consumers. This "Made for you" production system will also enable McDonald's to serve their consumers with greater flexibility by creating a standardized production system which ensures efficiency and consistency across all McDonald's branches.

Consumer targeting strategies

McDonald's target clients have…… [Read More]


Hall, G., Rosenthal, J., & Wade, J. (1993). How to make reengineering really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 119-131.

Hammer, M., & Stanton, S. (1999). How process enterprises really work. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 108-120.

Prahalad, C.K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 79-91.

Stalk, G., Evans, P., & Shulman, L.E. (1992). Competing on capabilities: The new rules of corporate strategy. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 57-69.
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Prediction'so We Have to Assume That

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389

prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…… [Read More]

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Social Work the Research in This Study

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29144424

Social Work

The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:

…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2)…… [Read More]


Abe-Kim, PhD, J., Takeuchi, PhD, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, PhD, N., Sue, PhD, S., Spencer, PhD, M.S., Appel, PhD, H., Nicdao, PhD, E., & Alegria, PhD, M. (2007) Use of Mental Health-Related Service Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 91 -- 97.
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Consumption of Alternative as Opposed

Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99707765

These dynamics suggest sample means may indicate questionable results without further testing to verify if skew distorts generalizability. There are plausible cases where such an extreme value would be kept, say if we were testing for risk of a rare event, in which case that would be the data point of interest compared to the rest.

Table 4. Partial Data Sample

from Q6, hours exercising


















n =


















To investigate potential variables of interest, the data was sorted into male and female, and health-care related questions of interest displayed for both groups. This convenient procedure shows that while both groups scored similarly on many questions, the difference between means for questions 20-23 may yield interesting results with…… [Read More]

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Financial Literacy and Social Change What Is

Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56827619

Financial Literacy and Social Change

What is the relationship between financial literacy and social change?

Comparing change in financial literacy in post-college and non-college students


Hypothesis- There is a significant difference in financial literacy between college and non-college students.

Introduction- Financial literacy implies a number of things: understanding the basics of not only personal finance, but the broader approach to global finance. There is a distinction, however, between the intellectual world of college students and non-college students. College students, for instance, might be exposed to introductory economics, political science, business or other courses that would grant them access to a larger, more global perspective of finance. However, because they are often living in dorms, may be partially supported by loans or grants or funds from parents, their view of finances will be understandably skewed to the more intellectual approach. However, non-college bound students often must enter the workforce, fend…… [Read More]


Bell, E. And Lerman, R. (2005). Can Financial Literacy Enhance Asset Building. The Urban

Institute Opportunity and Ownership Project. 6. Retrieved from:

Creswell, J.W., Hanson, W.E., Clark, V.L., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35, 236-264. Retrieved from Sage Journals Online database.

Howe, K. (1988). Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis: Dogmas Die Hard. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from:
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Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90647310

Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]


Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
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Nursing I Include Notes &

Words: 4151 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4578711

The stengths of this design ae elated to the ease of application and usage. The design of the suvey was easy to administe and self explanatoy. While the weakness was elated to the willingness of the paticipant to Chapte Thee 5

paticipate complete the suvey and povide tuthful esponses. An additional weakness is elative to the age goup that was pesent fo the suvey and thei elationship to the use of computes.


Afte appoval of the study fom the Institutional Review Boad at Indiana

Wesleyan Univesity and Methodist Hospitals, Inc. Nusing staff wee ecuited to paticipate in fo the study. Paticipants wee eligible fo the study if they wee cuently an employee of the employed by Methodist Hospitals, Inc., It was also necessay that they hold a cuent nusing license, paticipated in online leaning, and wee able to ead and wite English. A egisteed nuse who has paticipated in…… [Read More]


Student characteristics for online learning success

The Internet and Higher Education, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2nd Quarter 2006, Pages 91-

105 Marcel S. Kerr, Kimberly Rynearson, Marcus C. Kerr

Chapter Three 13
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Health Sciences

Words: 4995 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35996922

meticulous construction of the data analysis, statistical tabulation, and interpretation is provided in the following pages.

SPSS was used to manage and calculate the researcher-designed data.

Researcher-Designed Questions

Questions numbered 1-11 were administered as a part of the SF-36 mental inventory. As stated earlier, these questions provide a standard assessment means to assess clinical outcome and mental health. However, they are inadequate to assist in assessing quality of life in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump by-pass surgery.

Questions 12-30 were research developed and designed to give a more accurate assessment of patient satisfaction with the two procedures. These questions were divided into categories which are representative of factors commonly associated with quality of life. The categories are Mental health, Cognitive ability, Social support, General health, and Bodily pain. Demographic data is contained in questions 21-26 and will be used to identify confounding factors. For purposes of data analysis, the questions…… [Read More]

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Nursing That Individuals Employed Within

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93931054





Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products





There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.

Descriptive Statistics


Std. Deviation












Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products








Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products






**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent…… [Read More]

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Prescriptive Grammar Are the Rules Governing How

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68197167

Prescriptive grammar are the rules governing how one speaks and writes, based on an English standard "norm," or how society in general believes the language of English should be spoken and written (ussel, 2003). Prescriptive rules by nature judge whether the language being used is correct or not. Descriptive Grammar is very different, in that rather than assigning rules regarding the manner in which one should speak and write, it examines how people actually do speak and right and attempts to account for variant grammar usage (ussel, 2003). Descriptive grammar allows for more variation of the spoken and written word than prescriptive grammar, and takes into consideration a native speakers intuitive ability to comprehend grammatical structure without actually studying the mechanisms behind it.

Prescriptive grammar assumes that everyone should or will be following an assigned standard for speaking and writing English. Linguists tend to more closely associate with descriptive language,…… [Read More]


Russel. (2003). "Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar." Retrieved March 23, 2003 at
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Statistical Analysis Reported in Two Journal Articles

Words: 3282 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90897815

Statistical Analysis eported in Two Journal Articles

esearch endeavors, albeit it clinical, empirical, descriptive, historical, or case study oriented, must at all times adhere to the rigors of effective or best-fit research practice. Without stringent controls placed on the area of investigation no research endeavor will advance any body of knowledge. To this end all research must be finely tuned and described as to intent or purpose, phenomenon to be assessed and reported upon, and relevance and efficacy of conclusions drawn. The remainder of this report will focus one a particular component in a research endeavor that is crucial for the acceptance of findings and conclusions drawn, namely the statistical technique employed to analyze the measured data obtained. However, prior to the actual evaluative critique pertaining to the two articles chosen I first want to present to the reader a brief scenario as to the importance of selecting the most…… [Read More]


Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Ohlson, E.L. (1997). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago:

ACTS Testing Labs.
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Organizational Studies While There Is Focus Upon

Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72365187

organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community.

Organizational Studies: Article eviews

The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,

Jisu Huh, Leonard N. eid & Soontae An

The authors' suggestions for further research are rather climatic in this article. The authors pose nine questions to the readers and those questions serve as possible directions future research could go. Out of these nine questions, the two areas that speak the…… [Read More]

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Psychological Research It Is Difficult

Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91807125

We have also talked about the "blue print" of a study, or the logical model of proof which guides the researcher throughout the entire study -- i.e. The research design. It is by which the investigator determines the relationships between variables being tested. We have discussed true experiments, its nature and validity issues as well as quasi-experimental designs. We also provided a discussion of the difference between these two designs.

What is worth nothing, I believe, is the importance of a good research design. A good research design theoretically leads to good data. Hence, during the conceptualization of research design, careful thought needs to be employed.

Lastly, our research considerations, on which kind of statistical tool to use, whether to use sample or population, and/or which research design to employ, should always be anchored in our research objectives, on the things that we aim to know through the study.

eferences…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association (2003). How To Be A Wise Consumer of Psychological

Research. Retrieved from on May 15, 2009.

Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E.J. (2006). Statistics for Psychology, 4th Edition.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Actuarial Science Modeling the Objective of This

Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70350331

Actuarial Science: Modeling

The objective of this report is to investigate dependence structure between the home line of business and domestic motor line of business to determine the global amount of capital to hold for both lines of business. The paper uses the regression analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze the raw data collected for the losses on both lines of business. The results from the analysis reveal that there is little or no positive dependence structure between the two lines of business because the . Square value from the regression analysis output is 0.29, which is closer to 0. Moreover, there are higher losses in the domestic motor line of business than the home line of business. There is also higher volatility in the domestic motor line of business than home line of business. Thus, the report recommends that home line of business should attract more global capital than…… [Read More]


Benfield (2009).Insurance Risk Study Modeling the Global Market. (Fourth Edition). Taon Benfield Publication.

North Carolina State University (2004). Linear Regression in Excel. NC State University Publication.
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Expressive Analysis Characterized by Meanings and Processes

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56012029

expressive analysis characterized by meanings and processes that are not experimentally measured or examined in terms of mathematical measurements (Leedy, 2012). Quantitative research on the other hand, builds and relies on mathematical methods and procedures, for instance quality, frequency amount and statistical process. This paper will develop three hypothetical research approaches for the Statement of the Problem and the Purpose differences and similarities between the two methods.

Correlational esearch

For quantitative study, the correlational research would work well with the Statement of the problem and the purpose of this paper. The purpose of correlational research is to define the associations among two or more variables (Xu, 2011). For instance, for Topic "Alternative Banking" Data would gathered from multiple variables such as the specific banks, customers, employees and managers. The purpose is to use Islamic Banking because other banks have failed and these types of banks have survived financial crisis. The…… [Read More]

Regina, D.L. (2003). Reconceptualizing quantitative and qualitative methods: A case study dealing with place as an exemplar. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(3), 229-44.

Shain, E.B. (2009). A new method for robust quantitative and qualitative analysis of real-time PCR. Nucleic Acids Research, 36(14), 115-123.

Xu, W.T. (2011). Establishment and evaluation of event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean DP-356043-5. European Food Research and Technology = Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und -Forschung., 233(4), 685-695.
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Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48342686

Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…… [Read More]


Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
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Function of This Study Is

Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84974468

In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…… [Read More]

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Statistics the Intent of This

Words: 4324 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44895562

There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.

Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect…… [Read More]


IIT (2007). Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The Delphi Method. Definition and Historical Background. Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007:

Joppe (2007) - Research Process Tutorial on Dr. Marion Joppes' website regarding exploratory research fundamentals:

Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007 from location:
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Conducting Analysis in Research Studies

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14545088

statistics statistics and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).

Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…… [Read More]


Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from

Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from
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Organizational Research and Theory in

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50342396

The authors have gathered preliminary information by reviewing the literature and gathering information from organizations that have already implemented strategies to broaden fair and ethical trade marketing.

The authors seek to avoid "clean washing" the message of fair and ethical trade by using the affinity marketing strategy that they describe. However, it is possible that consumers at mission driven organizations will fail to recognize the value of the fair and ethical trade products they purchase if having a fun time out is their goal rather than supporting a cause. The way in which these items are marketed so as not to lose the social mission must be addressed. Another exploratory study surveying the consumers at such mission driven organizations would be useful.

Exploratory research generally precedes descriptive research. Descriptive data is not generated in studies that are exploratory such as this. The authors conducted a pilot study about how zoos…… [Read More]


Low, W., Davenport, E. (2009). Organizational leadership, ethics and the challenges of marketing fair and ethical trade. Journal of Business Ethics, 86: 97-108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9763-7

Kotler, P., Adam, S., Brown, L., Armstrong, G. (2006). Principles of Marketing, 3rd Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall
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Environment on Memory Recall Light

Words: 2139 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66626640

The specific categories include the following:

1) color;

2) smell;

3) texture;

4) temperature; and 5) feelings.


The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:

Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)

Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)

Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2





It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…… [Read More]


Takao, Ito, Hiroshi, Yamadera, Ritsuko, Ito, and Shunkichi, Endo (1999) Effects of Bright Light on Cognitive Disturbances in Alzheimer-type Dementia. Journal of Nippon Medical School. Vol. 66, No. 4.

Moore, R.: Visual Pathways and the Central Neural Control of Diurnal Rhythms. The Neurosciences 3rd Study Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1974.

Shealy, Norman: Effects of the Lumatron upon Neurochemicals. Lecture given for Dr. Shealy by Dr. Klinghardt at the 6th Int. Rehab. Med. ass. Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1990

Wurtman, Richard u.a.: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 453, 1985
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Activities Whether They Are Experimental

Words: 2978 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93074109

With respect to the McGuckin studies neither randomization nor sample selection is ever discussed. In fact sampling per se is not presented except for cursory mention in the results section. Again, without proper identification as to the sampling method implemented, the reader is ever cautious as to how legitimate the results will be. Not wanting to pre-empt the discussion on statistical methodology, mention must be made at this time with respect to the Poisson egression statistical tool selected for use in these two studies in terms of sampling. This particular regression technique, if utilized properly, requires the sample size to be determined on the basis of the square root transformation of the Poisson random variables. More specifically, the formula for calculating the sample size of the Poisson variables is as follows:

2) 2

The data received from this calculation will give the research investigator the number of sampling units per…… [Read More]


Armitage P. And Berry, G. (1994) Statistical Methods in Medical Research (3 rd edition).

London: Blackwell Publishing.

Connor, E.F., Hosfield, E., Meeter, D. And X. Nui. (1997). Tests for aggregation and size-based sample-unit selection when sample units vary in size. Ecology 78: 1238 -1249.

Corning, S.P. (2002). Profiling and developing nursing leaders. Journal of Nursing
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Statistics in Workplace

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79640955

Statistics in the Hospital Setting

During the course of performing my professional duties at College Hospital, which is a psychiatric facility located in Cerritos, California, I encounter patients who are struggling to maintain some semblance of a normal life despite struggling with one or more mental illnesses or psychological impairments. College Hospital is a 187-bed, free-standing psychiatric care unit which is accredited by The Joint Commission and licensed by the California Department of Health Services, and part of my job is assist in providing a wide range of psychiatric services for a wide range of patient demographics. As the leader in Partial Hospitalization Programs throughout the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas, College Hospital relies on the accurate and efficient use of statistics to ensure positive patient outcomes.

An Example of Descriptive Statistics Used in My Workplace:

While working at College Hospital the use of descriptive statistics has…… [Read More]


Costea, G., Gheorghiu, V., Buda, O., Popescu, I., & Trandafir, M.S. (2011). Statistical

Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry -- A criminological evaluation of casuistry. Journal of medicine and life, 4(1), 21.

Nielsen, J., Graff, C., Kanters, J.K., Toft, E., Taylor, D., & Meyer, J.M. (2011). Assessing QT

interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics. CNS drugs, 25(6), 473-
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Effect of IQ on GPA Regression and Correlation

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66246136

egression, Correlation: Effect of IQ on GPA

Effective teaching begins with understanding the thinking and reasoning abilities of one's students and devising ways to ensure that the classroom setting is accommodative of the inherent differences in cognitive capabilities and that all students get to benefit from the learning process. One way of measuring a child's intellectual ability is by administering the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Forth Edition (WISC-IV), which measures IQ on the basis of a child's processing speed, working memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension skills. Children below the average range in IQ are thought to have lower understanding, thinking, and reasoning abilities compared to their peers. It is the instructor's duty to follow up such children's class activities with therapeutic interventions to ensure that they remain at par with the rest of the class. This text presents the hypotheses, regression results, and descriptive statistics of a…… [Read More]


Duckworth, A.L. & Seligman, M.E. (2005). Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.

Jackson, S. (2011). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Rubin, A. & Babbie, E. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T. (2010). Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Inc.
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Burnout and Technical College Counselors

Words: 7250 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98439444

The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).

Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…… [Read More]

cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).

Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.

There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).

Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout

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Bmx Racers Research Whether it Is Qualitative

Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46987083

BMX Racers

Research, whether it is qualitative or quantitative in design, must be succinct, thorough, and best fit in order to achieve the intended results. Without proper controls, definition, and well-defined objectives the research endeavor is simply an ad hoc attempt to gather data and explain a particular phenomenon. Research must also command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment to that which is being investigated. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the differences that possibly exist in and amongst BMX (Bicycle Motocross Racing) racers with respect to the effect this extreme sport has on those who participate.

In order to accomplish the goals of the intended research project data will be collected by way of a short survey questionnaire wherein participants will be asked four (4) questions relative to the following:

The number of body scars received while participating in the sport.

The individual participants relative ranking in…… [Read More]

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Marketing and Sales Business Functions

Words: 446 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79663680

If the person feels cold because they have pneumonia, this symptom must be treated in a different fashion, by treating the ailment. If the patient suffers from chronic Type I diabetes and feels cold because their pancreas is manufacturing inadequate levels of insulin, the patient must be treated long-term with insulin therapy. The symptom may be the same, but the cause of the problem of all of these same problems is different, thus a symptom is something that manifests itself as an effect or external phenomenon, but is caused by something underlying in the form of a cause or problem.

DQ4. How would you ethically research the solution to a strategic problem facing your organization using various research methodologies?

Surveys where the participants agree to volunteer their information, or observations where the participants know they are being observed by a sales or marketing team are ethical ways to determine why…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ryerson, C. (2005) "Descriptive Research." Research Processes. Retrieved 23 Aug at 2005 at
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Human Papilloma Virus and the Description of

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82241998

human papilloma virus and the description of epidemiology as it relates to the virus. Steps and methods of epidemiology have been discussed in detail alongside statistical data for demographics taken from surveillance records. Moreover, research data have been taken as vital assistance to compliment the study of this research paper and to prove results with evidences from researches (Duncan, 1988).

Statistics have been taken from World Health Organization for the rate of occurrence and risk factors involved with the diseases caused by the virus. Epidemiology cannot be defined unless its steps and methods are explained (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005). The epidemiology for papillomavirus diseases includes descriptive methods of epidemiology and in this paper; the focus has been made on describing the process steps with respect to papillomavirus. There are five steps, which define how the epidemiology process is carried out; keeping in mind one of the two approaches of the…… [Read More]


Duncan, D. (1988). Epidemiology: basis for disease prevention and health promotion. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.

Fletcher, R.H., & Fletcher, S.W. (2005). Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gordis, L. (2009). Epidemiology E-Book. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Krickeberg, K., Pham, V.T., & Pham, T.M. (2012). Epidemiology: Key to Prevention . New York, NY: Springer.
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Job Outing This Research Was Done to

Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068714

Job Outing

This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.

u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction

u1 > u0

Null: H0: u1 / u0

Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.

Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.

Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.

The first…… [Read More]


Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.

National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from
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Standardization Expectation and Judgment in Response to Language Use

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8267543


American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.

Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as edneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law,…… [Read More]


Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online: 

Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online: 

Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online:

Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online:
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Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research

Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383503


ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?

Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees…… [Read More]


Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Superior TEACHERS& 8230 Review of Do

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82779629

Ultimately then, as questions did not focus on past instructional planning methodology but on real time instructional planning practices the practice of systematic "objectives-first" planning could have been very influential in teacher development but was ultimately abandoned in practical application, probably largely owing to time constraints, which are a consistently cited concern for teachers. The teachers studied simply offered the thesis that formal "objective-first" instructional planning is not practical and they prefer to plan in more timesaving and practical ways. If one were to include questions regarding past use or even possible future use of such methods the true efficacy of the model may have been tested.

Potential Effects of Fixes

The development of a case for systematic planning might have been made if a broader sample was utilized. The results might have concluded that some "superior" teachers do use an objective-first model or that they have done so in…… [Read More]


Young, a., Reiser, R., & Dick, W (1998). "Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning procedures? A descriptive study," Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46:2, 65
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Zangle or Parent Connect Is

Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32315808

Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…… [Read More]

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).


Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
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Epidemiological Data and Then Exploring Possibility of

Words: 410 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84386973

epidemiological data, and then exploring possibility of a causal connection between lack of government funding for community-based treatments and increase in HIV incidence in queer male communities.

Both statistical descriptive and inferential tests will be employed.

The descriptive tests summarize and describe the data. These would include frequency analysis e.g. Of the amount of men diagnosed as queer, and frequency that the participants experienced homophobia. Univariate analysis would focus on one variable, e.g. frequency of homophobia, by analyzing the mean, the distribution, the central tendency, and the dispersion of the occurrence.

The distribution would provide some assumption of the pattern of the range: whether normal or skewed.

The central tendency would, in this case, measure the mean of the data, i.e. average number of males that experienced discriminatory treatment. Dispersion would be another descriptive tool that measures the spread of values around the central tendency, i.e. range and standard deviation.…… [Read More]


AllPsych Online:
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Healthcare Environment Palese Et Al 2011 Argue

Words: 1817 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46538101

healthcare environment, Palese et al. (2011) argue there is no effective data to support that patients' satisfaction is correlated with a nursing care. Moreover, there is evidence revealing uncertainty in the nursing care environment since there is lack of identification of caring consequences. While the patient's satisfaction has been linked with nurses' caring behaviors, however, there is no empirical evidence to support "the effect of caring on patient's satisfaction." (Palese, Tomietto, Suhonen et al. 2011 p 342). Moreover, there is ongoing scientific debate to ascertain the meaning of caring with reference to a caring context, and working environment to support nurse is caring. Palese et al. (2011) also reveal that there is scanty of studies that focus on the "international cross-cultural nursing studies" (p 342) despite that the European Union has opened its border for free movement of nursing professional to enhance common base and safeguard equal opportunity that will…… [Read More]


Palese, A. Tomietto, M. Suhonen, R. et al.(2011). Surgical Patient Satisfaction as an Outcome of Nurses' Caring Behaviors: A Descriptive and Correlational Study in Six European Countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 43 (4): 341 -- 350.

Burston, P.L., & Stichler, J.F. (2010). Nursing work environment and nurse caring: Relationship among motivational factor. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(8), 1819-1831.
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Teaching Measures of Central Tendency

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27359200


The third measure of central tendency is the mode. Despite it being the last option of consideration by many analysts, it is a mostly utilized measure. The mode represents the most frequent observation in a data set. For example, if total scores of a football tournament in every match were tabulated as 2, 4, 6, 5, 2, 4, and 2, then the mode of these observations is 2 scores because this observation occurs thrice in the distribution.

The median contributes to the fourth measure of central tendency and it represents the value in the distribution that lies in the middle of the observations of interest. To obtain the median, arranging the observations in ascending order establishes the observation that lies in the middle of the arranged data. For example, in the above given observations of football scores, they can arranged in ascending order as 2, 2, 2, 4, 4,…… [Read More]


Distributions. (2003, May 11). Wading through the data swamp: Distributions. Pathway courses.

Retrieved from

Donnelly, R.A. (2004). The complete idiot's guide to statistics. Indianapolis, in: Alpha books.

Salkind, N.J. (2009). Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics, (2nd ed.). London, UK:
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Superior Teachers Employ Systematic Instructional

Words: 1784 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9209684

Holding this paper waiting for more research on systematic instructional planning would have been a better step, this would have probably eliminated the contradictory nature of the research which brought the element of unprofessionalism. It is important for one to include research not supporting their hypothesis but it is more important not to undermine his or her argument.

Potential effects of the fixes

Including more participants in the study would bring a possibility of applying the findings to a larger group in society since increasing the number of participants widens the answers to the questions asked. Including a Likert scale in the survey can also enhance the responses given by the teachers and would reveal some information that was not previously obtained. Standardizing the coding system and making the process thorough would prevent wrong categorization of answers and also give the authors' arguments more strength.

In order to help the…… [Read More]


Young, a., Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1998). Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning process procedures? A descriptive study, Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46:2, 65.
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Statistical Analysis Is Recession Raises

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98976336

The author did not apprise the reader of the measure of poverty, so it is assumed that the way poverty is measured is the same over the decades. This may not be true so in this instance the comparison can be misleading.

The use of the median as a measure of income level is a consistent use of a statistical measure. The median is a more robust measure of national income than the mean since it is not as susceptible to the influence of outliers in the data (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2008). The use of the median provides a more precise measure of the middle class challenge. The conclusion that the middle class is stagnating is a legitimate conclusion based on the lack of income growth within that group. In this instance, the statistics were used appropriately.

The use of data to show increases while legitimate can provide an inaccurate…… [Read More]


Eckholm, E. (2010). Recession raises poverty rate to a 15-year high. New York Times. Retrieved from

Gravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.B. (2008). Statistics for the behavioral sciences 8th ed. California:

Wadsworth Publishing.
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Nhs Corporate Social Responsibility Practice in a

Words: 2377 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46226002

NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice

In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.

The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…… [Read More]


Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.

Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.

Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.

D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.
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Mental View of New York

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92656392

Though filled with opportunity, it is also filled with people who missed the golden ring and slipped through the cracks, winding up living on the streets and begging for handouts to survive. This is the landscape that tourists are warned about and natives attempt to ignore by walking by them oblivious to their plight. This is not the celebrity singing cowboy street person who entertains, this is the homeless man in a wheelchair who represents man frailty and how close we all are to the streets. He is the New York that is hard to look at because if we look to closely we might find ourselves.

Then there is the New York of the elite. The debutantes, stockbrokers, old money, new money, famous; these are the royalty of America. They dine in fine restaurants, shop in the best stores, and spend an inordinate amount of money on the finer…… [Read More]

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Employed by a Researcher Can

Words: 6548 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9970618

Thee ae those that believe that qualitative eseach is the best fom of eseach, wheeas othes insist that only quantitative methods ae appopiate in a eseach envionment (CSU, 2004). Still othes ague that both appoaches ae useful and appopiate though one is often moe indicated than the othe depending on the exact phenomena being examined and the natue o intent of the eseach being conducted (Potte, 1996; Lee & Poynton, 2000).

Fed Kelinge once exclaimed that "thee is no such thing as qualitative data, eveything is eithe one o zeo," howeve his claim is counteed by anothe eseache, Campbell, who asseted that "all eseach ultimately has a qualitative gounding" (CSU, 2004).

Given the geat debate that exists, eseaches often find it difficult to detemine which stategy is best and which is most likely to be accepted by pees when pesenting a eseach pogam. Most eseaches would aggess howeve that qualitative…… [Read More]


Douglas, J. (1976). Investigative social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.

Firestone, W. (1987). "Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research." Educational Researcher, 16: 16-21

Gall, Meredith, Gall, Joyce P., & Borg, Walter R. (2003). Educational

Research, 7th edition. New York, New York: A and B. Publishing.
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International Business Expansion Process International Recruitment and

Words: 11013 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67287537

international business expansion process.

International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.

The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…… [Read More]


Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.

Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.

Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]

Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
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Female Leadership in Combat Units Military Author's

Words: 1936 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53811128

Female Leadership in Combat Units


Author's institutional

The research proposal is outlines a study into whether women should lead during combat situations. The hypothesis is that reasons to keep women out of leadership positions in combat are socially constructed, and not attributed to anything biological or psychological. The methods will mimic some of the methods presented in military studies into the same area, with individual modifications for this particular study. The plan of analysis includes ANOVA, and descriptives. The results of the study could lead to a greater understanding of how institutions manage and process change.

Female Leadership in Combat Units

The equality and guaranteed rights of women in the United States have been issues a part of American history and American culture for most of the country's history. What women fight for changes with time. Over the past several decades, women have sought more social freedoms, freedoms where…… [Read More]


Dao, J. (2012). Servicewomen File Suit Over Direct Combat Ban. NY Times, Web, Available from: 2012 November 30.

Harding, Lt. Col. T.A. (2012). Women in Combat Roles: Case Study of Female Engagement Teams. United States Army War College, Philadelphia.

Lamothe, D. (2011). Marines split on women joining combat units. The Marine Times, Web, Available from: 2012 November 30.

O'Keefe, E., & Cohen, J. (2011). Most Americans back women in combat roles, poll says. The Washington Post, Web, Available from: 2012 November 30.
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HIV AIDS Epidemic Among the Homeless

Words: 2896 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20134468

HIV / AIDS epidemic among the homeless

HIV, the epidemic that seems to have no end, rears it head year after year causing catastrophic damage. Now more than ever, all individuals regardless of race or demographics must be weary of the devastation this virus can cause. One social economic class that is particularly prone to this epidemic is that of the homeless community. According the center for disease control and prevention, the African-American community accounts for nearly 46% of people living with a HIV diagnosis (1). Of those, 23% are homeless. What is even more mindboggling is the fact that the African-American community only accounts for 13% of the current U.S. population.

Estimated ates of New HIV Infections,

by ace/Ethnicity and Gender, 2006

(Source: CDC. Subpopulation Estimates from the HIV Incidence Surveillance System -- United States, 2006. MMW. 2008; 57(36):985 -- 989)

Obviously, the best way to mitigate the risk…… [Read More]


1) "HIV / AIDS and African-Americans | Topics | CDC HIV / AIDS." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 03 May 2011. .

2) "HIV and AIDS among African-Americans." AIDS & HIV Information from the AIDS Charity AVERT. Web. 03 May 2011. .

3) "Sexual Activity Fact Sheet." Sexual Activity Fact Sheet. Summer 2008. Web. May 2010.>.

4) "Child Trend Databank." Child Trend Data Bank. Web. May 2010. .
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Succession Planning for Multi-Faceted Enterprises and Organizations

Words: 9765 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32194686

Succession Planning for Multi-Faceted Enterprises and Organizations

La Russa Enterprises

Thunder ay, Ontario

Nadia La Russa

The journey to this point in my academic career has been a long one, and challenging, however I am successful. A number of people have effortlessly contributed to my success, and I take this opportunity to thank them. First, it is with great honor that I thank my academic adviser he/she took on the obligation of advising me in my post coursework and exam completion, while I was in the university. his/her xxxxxxxxx unrelenting encouragement, mentorship and support were the ultimate motivators. Without her firm, yet caring guidance, I would not have completed this research study.

To my friends xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, I owe my gratitude. The incalculable lunches, coffee breaks and emails of support helped me work through the writer's block, despair at lack of improvement and eventually gave me the strength to know that…… [Read More]


Academy of Management Journal, 36, 763-793. And Participation, Fall 2005, 4-6.

Anderson, M.J. (2010). Making the future possible: Succession as a component of strategy. OfCounsel, 29:5, May 2010, p. 13-17.

Appelbaum, S., Benyo, C., Gunkel, H., Ramadan, S., Sakkal, F. And Wolff, D. 2012. Transferring corporate knowledge via succession planning: analysis and solutions - Part 1. Industrial and Commercial Training, 44(5), pp. 281-289.

Appelbaum, S., Benyo, C., Gunkel, H., Ramadan, S., Sakkal, F. And Wolff, D. 2012b. Transferring corporate knowledge via succession planning: analysis and solutions - Part 2. Industrial and Commercial Training, 44(7), pp. 379-388.
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Narrative Writing This Type of Writing Makes

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27453597

Narrative writing

This type of writing makes the readers actually feel, see and hear what has been felt, seen and heard by the writer. This writing could describe anything such as a person, place or any other entity. The main purpose of the writer is to reveal its subject by careful selection of details. It is often seen that description involves a single personality or entity and how it changed its surroundings through its own actions or by other's actions on itself. The main aim is often to put the reader on the place of subject entity so that the reader could see the world from its perspective.

It is commonly seen that biographies and autobiographies involve the usage of descriptive/narrative writing by the authors. Many tend to give the world their own point-of-view on how they see the world so that the masses might agree with them in their…… [Read More]

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Quasi-Experiments Observational and Archival Studies and Secondary Analysis

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8702595

Illegal Corporate Activities

Clinard's publication concerns corporate violations of stipulated laws by 582 public corporations in the United States of America. In addition, the extent and nature as well as the economic settings the violations occurred are also looked at. The study used data from the firms' sales to calculate their levels of diversification and levels of concentration among other variables. In this paper, the publication in scrutiny used sources of data though they never gave in-depth information on all violations; this makes this analysis lean on one side and may not give the actual results.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics is used here to summarize the study sample as well as the observations that have been made. The main summary used is quantitative form of the data. From the data outlined in the first codebook, the five-year mean for corporate sales is 99. This is the logged value for the…… [Read More]


Boies, J.L. (1989). Money, Business, and the State: Material Interest, Fortune 500 Corporations, and the Size of Political Action Committees . American Sociological Review, 821-833.

Clinard, M.B., & Yeager, P.C. (1987). Illegal Corporate Behavior, 1975-1976. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.
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International Business Management

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83674346

Personal Income Probabilities

Based on this sample, and clearly showing workings, appropriate graphics and your response to blank values in the data, calculate the following:

(a) the probability of randomly picking two men over 35 from the sample

The sample consists of both men and women, however the question does not delineate segmentation by gender in regard to men vs. women, but solely requests "from the sample" the possibility of selecting men over 35 years of age each draw. Therefore the equation is:

Men over 35 years of age total in the sample.

121 participants total in the sample

239 = P of men in sample

Percentage of men over 35 in the sample 23.9%

Each draw is discreet with a 23.9% chance that a man over 35 years of age will be selected on random selection each time.

For example of work in excel: Appendix

(b) given that we…… [Read More]

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Affecting of Internet to Our Brains

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62021574

Internet Psychology

Introduction and Theory

Cognitive psychology is an area of scientific research that explores the human mental processes and their impact on human behavior. Using cognitive psychology, researchers can study a variety of subjects including how people perceive the world, how those perceptions impact behavior, and how both emotions and thoughts influence behavior. The article "Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury" uses a cognitive psychology perspective to study behavioral responses and changes in persons who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.

Traumatic brain injury is associated with social isolation and withdrawal, which in turn leads to depression and other serious mental health issues. For this reason, it is important to study ways to mitigate the tendency toward social withdrawal. Because Facebook can be used to connect with people in a non-threatening way, from the safety of one's own home, the…… [Read More]


Tsaousides, T., Matsuzawa, Y. & Lebowitz, M. (2011). Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 25(12): 1155-1162.
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Caring Nurses

Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55082621

Palese et al. (2011). According to Wood & Haber (2014) " the critique is process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice." Using the text's understanding of this examination this essay will explore the article and examine it for practical use and valid argument.

The problem that this research is premised upon is the idea that nurse's caring has gone mostly under examined in relation to patient's view of quality of care. The role of caring within the nursing profession is described as the factor which inspired this research. The variables within this examination are the patients' satisfaction measured against the practice of caring executed by nurses in their professional duties.

This problem is clearly identified and can be empirically tested as the article revealed in its conclusions. To help lessen the distortion of the ideas and values…… [Read More]


LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Palese, A., et al. (2011). Surgical patient satisfaction as an outcome of nurses' caring behaviors: A descriptive and correlational study in six European countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 341-350.
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Nurse Manager Stress and Work

Words: 1613 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52702371

Essentially, the book covers all the details of CTA methods, from examples and guidance to directions on how to study cognition in real-world settings and face the difficulties associated with rapidly evolving technology.

Institute of Medicine. (2004.) Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment of Nurses. Washington, DC.: The National Academies Press. Studies have shown that thousands of hospitalized Americans die each year, not because of disease or illness, but because of errors that occur while they are being cared for. This alarmingly statistic has been supported by a 2002 national survey where 42% of the American public reported having experienced an error related to their own care or of a family member. As a result, this issue has gained the attention of a variety of organizations as well as federal and state policy makers, and have encouraged more research on this issue, the dissemination of patient safety information and…… [Read More]


Buerhas, P., Staiger, D., & Auerbach, D. (2009.) The Future of the Nursing Workforce in the United States: Data, Trends and Implications. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. This book provides an extensive, integrated body of data on the forces shaping the United States' nursing workforce. The book also identifies and illustrates the major changes in the existing nursing workforce as well as provides forecasts and insights for the future.

Crandall B., Klein G., & Hoffman R. (2006.) Working Minds: A Practitioners Guide to Cognitive Task Analysis. London, UK; MIT Press. Somewhat of a handbook, this book provides a set of tools for performing Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA.) CTA helps provide researchers with an understanding of the cognitive skills and strategies people use to act effectively and accomplish tasks. Essentially, the book covers all the details of CTA methods, from examples and guidance to directions on how to study cognition in real-world settings and face the difficulties associated with rapidly evolving technology.

Institute of Medicine. (2004.) Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment of Nurses. Washington, DC.: The National Academies Press. Studies have shown that thousands of hospitalized Americans die each year, not because of disease or illness, but because of errors that occur while they are being cared for. This alarmingly statistic has been supported by a 2002 national survey where 42% of the American public reported having experienced an error related to their own care or of a family member. As a result, this issue has gained the attention of a variety of organizations as well as federal and state policy makers, and have encouraged more research on this issue, the dissemination of patient safety information and the support of new information technology to assist with health care delivery.

Shirey M., Ebright P., McDaniel A. (2008.) Sleepless in America: Nurse Managers Cope with Stress and Complexity. J Nurs Adm., 38(3), 125-131. It appears that the performance expectations for nurse managers who practice in acute care hospitals may be unrealistic. In this article, the authors discuss interview data that show that as these expectations become more intense, so does the level of stress felt by the nurse managers. As a result, coping becomes more difficult and the entire well-being of nurse managers and the overall work environment are affected.
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Hershey or Tootsie Roll in

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94452818

Nature of the Data Set

The data set will be derived from a random sampling of people as they pass by on a busy street corner. The researcher will observe whether they are male of female. No other demographic data will be gathered. All of the respondents are potential customers, regardless of demographic data.

Analysis and Methodology

The researcher will stand on a busy street corner and approach passers by. The question, "Which do you prefer Hershey or Tootsie oll?" will be asked. This will be followed by the question "Could you tell me why?" Their responses will be recorded on a data sheet by the researcher. esponses will be entirely voluntary.

This is a quantitative study. Data will be analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The hypothesis will be considered to hold true at a p value of .05. This technique will be used for the primary research question of…… [Read More]


Hershey Corporation. (2009). About the Hershey Company. Retrieved October 14, 2010 from 

Tootsie Roll Industries (2010). Company Information: Tootsie Roll Industries. Retrieved October 14, 2010 from .
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EMV in Iranian Banks EMV

Words: 3023 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37609481

This is largely due to time and logistical issues involved in conducting the face-to-face interviews. However, this still represents 50% of the entire sample population. Therefore, it is expected that the opinions expressed in the interviews will be a good representation of Iranian banks.

3.5 Data Collection

The primary aim of the study is to identify the challenges that Iranian banks face in the implementation of EMV. This research is divided into two portions. The first part will be the survey questionnaire. The second will be face-to-face interviews. Where possible, the researcher will visit the bank and administer the questionnaire in person. However, is some cases, this will not be possible, either because of the distances that need to be traveled or the schedule of the bank official. In these cases, the questionnaire will be emailed to the participant and they can return it at their convenience. As the sample…… [Read More]


Hall, C. 2009. New study pinpoints risk issues for Hispanic business owners. Houston Business Journal. Friday, May 8, 2009.

"List of Banks in Iran." 2010. Available at: . [accessed August 29, 2010].

Sumner, M. 2000. Risk factors in enterprise-wide/ERP projects Journal of Information Technology 15, 317 -- 327
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Educational Research Technology and Development

Words: 1576 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23259247

The plan serves as evidence that the teacher implemented instruction. As we clearly saw in this study, systematic instructional planning was not the format used the teachers in the sample. As a matter a fact most of the teachers surveyed used alternative method of instruction planning. The results of this study makes light of two important factors based on the sample, some teachers are not documenting their learning plan which could present a problem later on if a parent was to challenge. If a student moves to the next level and performs poorly and if the conclusion is that the student was not prepared. The instructional plan serve as proof that instruction did occur because the instructional plan documents teaching. The results also denotes that although pre-service teacher training emphasize importance, provides prophyte teachers with adequate training and the necessity to use this format in knowledge delivery their no guarantee…… [Read More]


Salkind, N (1998). Exploring Research. Sixth edition. Prentice Hall

Young, a., Reiser, & Dick, W (1998). "Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning procedures? A descriptive study," Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46 2, 65
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Matthew 1 1-17 the Book of

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24254789

" The phrase appears to assume that everyone refers to Jesus in this way, without reservation and without doubt. Although the many conflicts involving the Pharisees and adducees later in the book prove this not to be in fact the case, Matthew's certainty indicates the faith of Jesus' followers, and the faith required to enter the Kingdom of Christ.

The word "Messiah" is also linked to the Kingdom of God, which is a further recurring theme in the discourses displayed by Matthew. Christ frequently refers to this spiritual Kingdom as the ultimate destination of the faithful, and highly desirable as a reward for living a life of faith. This spiritual Kingdom is frequently juxtaposed with earthly riches throughout the book of Matthew. Jesus uses colorful language to demonstrate the necessity for the faithful to gather treasures in heaven rather than on earth. Earthly treasure, according to Matthew and Christ, serves…… [Read More]


Christian Inconnect. An Overview of the Gospel of Matthew. 2001.

The New American Standard Bible. Retrieved from