Gestalt Therapy Essays

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Gestalt and Behavioral Therapies the Essay

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43622402

The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.

In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief, they might find a gestalt therapist better equipped to help them identify their personal feelings about life and their purpose in life.… [Read More]

Sources:
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.

Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
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Gestalt Psychology Theory in Essay

Words: 1804 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64580467

"The song was there before me, before I came along" Dylan answered. "I just sorta came down and just sorta took it down with a pencil, but it was all there before I came around…" (www.edlis.org)].

Meanwhile Ginger explains the practical application of Gestalt theory from the perspective of Fritz Perls: a) "we all know that each of us perceives the world from our own personal perspective…" and yet people look in vain for the objectivity that comes from science; b) we also know that the "how" is more important than the "why" and that the "spirit in which something is done is important… but we are still mostly interested in the 'bottom line'" (Ginger).

Conclusion

As alluded to earlier in this paper Gestalt has indeed been controversial and clearly it is misunderstood after years of its myriad applications. However, this paper supports the value that is Gestalt, in its many forms and applications. Thoughtful counselors and therapists -- and of course psychologists -- can come up with creative ways to embrace Gestalt, whether it be a gorilla, a whale, or even a roving robot in Mars. The power truly is in the ability of the therapist or teacher or psychologist to employ Gestalt in the most productive and effective application to fit the specific need.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Edlis. (1997). Ballad of Donald White. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from  http://www.edlis.org/twice/threads/donald_white.html .

Feldman, Robert. (2009). Psychology and Your Life. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
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Evaluating Client Profile 3 Using a Gestalt or Existential Approach Essay

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36806627

Gestalt Approach

There are more similarities than differences between Gestalt and Existential theories and both are based on the self. The client knows himself better than anybody else in the world. Therefore, one should start to understand the client's needs and personality along with the careful definitions of these two approaches. Gestalt Therapy takes a holistic approach to human experience by stressing individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/232116/Gestalt-therapy). The term of holistic approach should be the center of the therapy. In this approach the client needs to be evaluated analyzing his physical image, his mind, his emotions, and his environment. Although, existential approach is also concentrated on clients' needs, it can be summarized in the components of the life; death, freedom, and meaningless (http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm). Death would be explained by human's limits against the nature or life whereas freedom refers the responsibilities and boundaries. Meaningless is how the client reflects the world and which labels he assigns to his environment and himself. Since, these two approaches based on the theories, one very important limitation applied to the therapist can be staying in the limits of theory or trying to fit the client in the theoretical boundaries of the approach.

Taking all together, the client is the center of the therapy and it is very important to take close look at his history and personality.

Analyzing the Client

Although Patrick maintained a successful study and education life, his family history is traumatic. The first trauma is losing the older brother, most likely a role model and a friend. Another trauma, the separating of parents, followed the first one. Although, National Center for Health Statistics declared that the divorce rate was reached at the peak in 1981, it was still a big deal with separated parents in mid 80s. The remarriages of the mother could be another adaptation for him, but never the same as he had step sisters instead of a brother. These three rapid developing and unexpected situations must have separated him aside from his peers. The early marriage of the client gives some clues that he desired to have his own family to fill the gap of his childhood. However, he stopped trying, most likely to stay away from another trauma related to a relationship or a marriage. In this aspect he needs…… [Read More]

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Postmodern Therapy Strengths and Weaknesses Essay

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39232831

Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).

Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal of the therapy is to find a solution that is client-specific.

Postmodern therapists do not believe in a subjective, unchanging 'self' that must be healed or rehabilitated. The self is forever being reconstructed in the present -- postmodern therapy is a therapy 'of the moment.' The therapeutic process is designed to set specific goals for the future, since the past does not exist as an objective reality. Since the self is always being reconstructed, change is forever possible. This concrete, step-by-step approach is the therapy's greatest strength, although some clients may be alienated by some of the relativistic and abstract ideas of postmodern philosophy that justify such a practical approach.

Works… [Read More]

References:
Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf

Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at  http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm 
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Gestalt Theory According to Koffka Essay

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625368

Gestalt theory according to Koffka (Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from "Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theories" 1922), an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?

The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: "When one sees a color, the color itself is not mental. It is the seeing, the act that is mental....every act always refers to (or intends) something outside of itself (intentionality); thus, acts are inseparable from the objects to which they intend" (Act psychology, 2012, Psychology History Timeline). However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study. "I would call the desk at which I am now writing a perception, likewise the flavor of the tobacco" writes Koffka (Koffka 1922: Introduction). Consciousness cannot be reduced to the object outside itself in Gestalt theory; rather it is based in the mental state of the learner. Because Gestalt stresses the importance of understanding the impact of 'the whole' upon the mind and argues that the mind is only capable of understanding things in terms of perceived wholes, it is perceptions as conveyed by mental structures that are important (not mental acts as in Brentano).

The foci of Gestalt theory are sensation, association, and attention. Sensation is how our receptors perceive an object. Association is based in our personal associations with the object, and attention is what details we give particular attention to, as opposed to others. Perception is thus highly individualistic, and perception of the same objects can vary, based upon the individual. The existence of optical illusions demonstrates that the mind is what is significant when studying human consciousness, not the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Act psychology. (2012). Psychology History Timeline. Retrieved:

http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Glossary/demo_glossary.cgi?mode=history&term_id=922&color_id=3
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History of Art Therapy Art Essay

Words: 1913 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82790342

Hope the readers found pleasure in reading the history i.e. The experiences of the former innovators.… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Betensky, M.G. (1973). Self-discovery through self-expression. IL Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

Case, C., & Dalley, T. (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. New York: Routledge.
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Approaching Bowenian Family System Therapy Essay

Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81484788

Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory Bateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors Becvar & Bevcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).

The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (Becvar & Becvar, 2006). However, the focus of the therapists concerning the unique self provides the idea that different models exist; the focus on unique responses and experiences gives an impression that many differences exist. Experiential psychotherapy or psychology arose as a reaction to behaviorism -- which sometimes overlooks the inner experience of a person and focuses on the behaviors that are easily quantifiable. As well, humanist therapists were reacting against the emphasis of Freud on the intellectual understanding, analysis, and past of the client. All of the humanist therapies were considered to be experiential because it was believed that accurate and honest changes not only occur in the client but also in the therapist during the session, creating an empathic and genuine relationship (Greenburg, Watson & Lietaer, 1998). Humanistic therapies focused on sharing beliefs and valuing self-realization by reaching the natural tendencies and abilities of the client (Nichols & Scwarts, 2008).

a. The first interview/joining process

Weber, KcKeever & McDaniel (1985) present a framework that guides therapists in the starting sessions of therapy; this also serves as a teaching and assessment instrument for therapists who are just beginning. The initial treatment for the therapists is critical and important. The first interview of the therapists starts with joining the family and noting their organizational structure by using the therapeutic style. This makes the members of the family feel safe…… [Read More]

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Counseling Theories Essay

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525156

Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. Recent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with specific therapeutic techniques," (p. 216). Instead, there are several existential therapies that can be loosely grouped together due to their common concerns with existential themes. These themes eschew behaviorism and emphasize personal freedom of choice (Corey, 2008). The four ultimate focal points of existential therapy are death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaninglessness (Corey, 2008). The universal themes addressed in existential therapy are therefore applicable to a modern counseling scenario in which the client population will be from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, possessing different political points-of-view, and having different life experiences (Schneider & Krug, 2010). Emphasis on diversity in therapy is a relatively new trend in existential therapy (Schneider & Krug, 2010).

Because of its emphasis on personal freedom and free will, existential therapists will emphasize personal responsibility when working with clients. An existential therapist will shun even the word "victim," and instead asks the client to choose his or her reality (Corey, 2008). The therapist will also coach…… [Read More]

References:
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
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Theoretical Orientation My Personal Orientation Lies in Essay

Words: 2905 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84104702

Theoretical Orientation

My personal orientation lies in Gestalt (Fritz Perls), Person Centered (Carl Rogers) and Reality Therapy (William Glasser) psychotherapy.

What do you see as the time frame of counseling? Are you more oriented to the past, present, or future?

I am oriented to present; however, I believe that many problems can come from the past. Therefore, the past must be discussed at some point.

To take this a step further, do you believe counseling is intended to work on current issues and feelings or to help people with issues and feelings from the past? Or, do you believe that people need to focus on their future feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

I believe people should focus on their current issues first. However, every individual are different. Therefore, therapy should be aim at individuals' need.

B.

What is your view of people? Do you believe people are essentially good, bad, or neutral? I believe people can be essentially good

Do you believe clients are good people with issues to work out? Generally yes.

Conversely, are your clients bad people with an inherent defect that requires counseling? Are people somewhere in between, such as good people that do bad things?

Clients are all sorts of people with many different problems that requires counseling

C.

Who is in charge? Is the counselor in charge of the therapy or is the role shared equally with the client? Counselor can be in charge first, then the role can be shared equally

If the role is shared, how much of it belongs to the client and how much belongs to the counselor? If the counselor is in charge, how is that established? How do you view your role as a counselor? Are you an expert, consultant, or friend? Gestalt therapists wear a number of different "hats" in a therapeutic relationship, varying from time to time and over time as the needs of the client change.

D.

What do you want the client to learn? Is the emphasis of counseling to gain insight,…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cortright, B. (2006, January 1). Psychosynthesis: A psychology of the spirit. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 38(1), 128-132.

Flagg, A. (2004, April). Dreams, nightmares, and nonviolence. ETC: A Review of General
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Personal Theory as a Therapist Essay

Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18302286

From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.

In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing this and come to an agreement on a new approach to use. Such an approach will then form the focus of future therapy sessions.

In order to maintain focus on the problems at hand and therapeutic techniques to handle these, it is important to continuously monitor the client's view of his or her therapeutic progress. As problems emerge, I will also continually steer our conversations towards accepting and finding eventual solutions to these problems. Acceptance not only of the client, but also the specific manifestations of his or her problems, is a vital part of targeted and effective therapy.

Therapeutic Goals

As mentioned above, my main focus is person centered, and therefore a large amount of therapeutic responsibility will be that of the client. As therapist, I will however not completely relinquish responsibility for the therapeutic process, and I therefore believe that goal determination should be a collaborative process between myself and the client.

At the end of each session, the goals for future sessions will be determined, while those from previous sessions will be evaluated and revised, if necessary. The client will have a large amount of control, in that he or she has to be in complete agreement with the goals in…… [Read More]

References:
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Person-centered Therapy. http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html

Hoffman, Louis. 2004. Existential Psychotherapy. http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm
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Cross-Cultural Competencies Essay

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21093143

Krentzman and Townsend (2008) indicates that multicultural competence means "having the beliefs, knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively with individuals different from one's self; that cultural competence includes all forms of difference; and that issues of social justice cannot be overlooked" (p. 7). Although improved cultural competency is widely regarded as being an important element of high quality health care services, it is not a "magic bullet" for mitigating existing inequities in the provision of such care (Larson & Ott, 2010). Nevertheless, developing cross-cultural competencies is viewed by many health care providers as an essential first step in improving access and the quality of health care services in Australia today (Sharma & Phillion, 2011). Therefore, in this context, the term "multicultural competence" is used to describe the relationship between a counselor and a patient in cross-cultural settings (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). The focus of cultural competence is the ability of health care providers to provide health care services that result in positive clinical outcomes through the integration of culture into the clinical context (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). These issues represent more than merely being aware of cultural differences. In this regard, the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (2012) reports that, "Recognition of culture is not by itself sufficient rationale for requiring cultural competence; instead the point of the exercise is to maximize gains from a health intervention where the parties are from different cultures" (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012, para. 3).

The term "cultural competence" is defined by the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (2012) as being "a set of congruent behaviours, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enables that system, agency, or those professionals to work effectively in cross -- cultural situations" (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012, para. 3). More precisely, multicultural competence…… [Read More]

Resources:
An introduction to cultural competency. (2012). Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

Retrieved July 21, 2014 from https://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=FCBB0411-
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Social Psychology Essay

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98892568

Pics

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy focuses on experiences in the present moment and relationships between individuals as a means of determining and healing psychological issues. This picture shows both an engaged experience and also implies a specific familial arrangement between the people in the foreground -- it is assumed that they are mother, father and child. The assessment of the individuals in the picture and the "story" that the picture tells would change significantly is we learned that the red-shirted figure is a complete stranger to the woman in the foreground, and this change is one of the fundamental features of Gestalt theory/therapy.

Thought Suppression

Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney is clearly having difficulty with his operating process here, as he appears to be focusing on the extreme financial turmoil the world is experiencing for the second time in three years rather than consciously trying to distract himself. In all seriousness, though, this picture also demonstrates the ability to consciously over-ride the thought suppression impulse and processes, which is necessary in order for individuals and mankind as a whole to face some of the more difficult decisions and tasks we are confronted with. Because Mr. Carney does not want to forget the information regarding the current economic upheaval, it being his job to do something about it, he is not suppressing but rather depressedly engaging in thoughts he would probably rather not entertain.

Actor/Observer

Many advertisements make some use of the Actor/Observer distinction in perceived motivation, whereby individuals are more likely to ascribe the behaviors and actions of others to issues of their personality, while tending to view their own behavior as more heavily influenced by environment or situation. We do not associate (or at least we are not meant to) Tiger Woods' watch in this advert with the fact he is…… [Read More]

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Existential Therapists State That All Essay

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143



Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural environment may not be subject to a consistent reinforcement schedule. Additionally, behaviors, as always, must be interpreted in light of the client's cultural and personal experiential background -- what seems like excessive paranoia might be, from the client's perspective, a rational response to historical injustices.

Q6. One technique used by Gestalt therapists is known as the 'empty chair' technique, whereby the clients will address an empty chair, which represents someone with whom the client has a conflict (Piotrowski 2003). By role playing, and playing both persons in an imagined dialogue, the client better understands the conflict and comprehends the degree to which he or she is projecting ideas upon another person.… [Read More]

Sources:
Automatic thought record. Template available November 20, 2010 at http://students.georgiasouthern.edu/counseling/relax/ATR.pdf

Piotrowski, Nancy a. (2003, January). Gestalt therapy. Magill's encyclopedia of social science:
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Human Behavior Psychopathology Human Behavior Essay

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98895727



Case Study

Modified Gestalt theory would support the idea that Chris has a strong genetic predisposition for developing schizophrenia, given his brother's illness. He was raised in an unstable home environment, because of his father's alcoholism that may have exacerbated the young Chris' sense of constant stress and his difficulty to perceive the world in a hostile, non-threatening fashion. Chris is rational at times, other times he is paranoid, and goes through various degrees of awareness about his state of rationality (hence the usefulness of the Gestalt stress on the 'present point in time' to describe sanity). A resumption of medication may be necessary, although this may not be necessary for throughout the duration of Chris' life.

Chris has been disturbed by a shift in the relationship of his marriage. His wife wishes to have another child and he has just unexpectedly re-encountered a threatening individual from his past. Psychotic episodes can be trigged by negative life events, and Christ perceives his wife's request as a negative stress. He has also suffered a mild physical trauma to his ankle which disturbs his state of physical homeostasis. The fact that his authoritarian role models at home who did not present him with a good example of coping with stress may explain why his paranoia manifests itself against doctors. His sense of physical vulnerability, hostility, and sexual desire all conspire to motivate him to express his vulnerability to having his physical and emotional barriers crossed through suspicion, violence, and sexual 'acting out.'

Chris may benefit with drug treatment, but given that he is able to rationally connect with the world, therapeutic counseling to help Chris interpret and distinguish harmless vs. threatening social cues would also be advised. This would give Chris a better sense of when his boundaries were truly being threatened, as opposed to when he merely perceived them to be threatened. With the addition of medication, Chris will hopefully be able to become more rational, and better able to cope with irrational impulses. The stress upon dealing with physical trauma, and using the body in positive ways would…… [Read More]

References:
Latner, Joel. (1992). "The Theory of Gestalt Therapy." From Gestalt Therapy

Perspectives and Applications. Cleveland: Gestalt Institute of Cleveland (GIC) Press. Nevis, Edwin C. Ed. Retrieved 14 May 2007 at http://www.aagt.org/html/character__psychopathology__an.html
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Multi-Modal Treatment of the Client's Essay

Words: 4593 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 602220

Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).

The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."

Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.

Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or that society has no negative aspects. Problems and setbacks arise as goals are pursued, but watching for them and learning how to overcome them helps one avoid them, or at least to cope better. Positive thinking must be realistic in order to continue to exist.

Lazarus then brings up the obvious opposite: "Negative Thinking" or negative cognition.

Negative cognition means focusing on liabilities and weaknesses, problems and what is bad in other people and the world around us. By dwelling on the negative one develops a cynical attitude that can be quite debilitating. As one searches for gloom and doom, defeat and failure, one is usually successful in finding them.

Negative thinkers have good reason to believe the world is against them because if they think they are failures, they become a failure. To believe victory is unattainable and defeat is imminent often results in stress and self-defeating behaviors.

Existential Therapy is also compatible with the development of optimism, making good choices and dealing with life. It takes seriously the human condition, being realistic to a fault, recognizes the limits of human nature, and deals dynamically and actively with the situation at hand. It uses rational thought and (depending on the client) faith-based tests to find answers to life's questions (Hoffman, 2004). While there are many theories of how to use existential theory among therapists, the focus is on trying to understand human existence. This generally brings theorists to the issues…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Christian Counselors. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Counselors.

Cox, R.H., Cox, B.E. And Hoffman L. (Eds) (2004) Spirituality and Psychological Health, Colorado Springs, Colorado School of Professional Psychology Press
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Relationship and Development of Child's Personality -- Essay

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on Roger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy that asserts the intrinsic value of each individual. This therapy reacts suitably and efficiently to the person at the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological levels of working, and tackles the spiritual dimension of life too. The procedure of taking renounced, ignorant, or unsettled facets of the self and making them component of a unified personality, dropping the use of defense mechanisms that slow down naturalness and limit agility in problem solving, health maintenance, and linking to people, and involving the world with complete contact is called integrative psychotherapy. People can encounter each instant moment explicitly and new moments with integration and without the safety of a pre-formed view, point, approach, or anticipation. Many views of human working are thought about in integrative psychotherapy. (What is Integrative Psychotherapy?)

The following are taken into account in a dynamic systems viewpoint: psychodynamic, client-centered, behaviorist, cognitive, family therapy, Gestalt therapy, body-psychotherapies, object relations theories, psychoanalytic self-psychology, and transactional analysis. Each offers a fractional elucidation of behavior and each is improved when selectively intertwined with other facets of the therapist's approach. The goal of an integrative psychotherapy is to assist completeness such that the quality…… [Read More]

References:
Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005