Gestalt Therapy Essays Examples

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Gestalt and Behavioral Therapies the

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43622402

The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.

In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief, they might find a gestalt therapist better equipped to help them identify their personal feelings about life and their purpose in life.

References:

Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.

Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
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Gestalt Psychology Theory in

Words: 1804 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64580467

"The song was there before me, before I came along" Dylan answered. "I just sorta came down and just sorta took it down with a pencil, but it was all there before I came around…" (www.edlis.org)].

Meanwhile Ginger explains the practical application of Gestalt theory from the perspective of Fritz Perls: a) "we all know that each of us perceives the world from our own personal perspective…" and yet people look in vain for the objectivity that comes from science; b) we also know that the "how" is more important than the "why" and that the "spirit in which something is done is important… but we are still mostly interested in the 'bottom line'" (Ginger).

Conclusion

As alluded to earlier in this paper Gestalt has indeed been controversial and clearly it is misunderstood after years of its myriad applications. However, this paper supports the value that is Gestalt, in its many forms and applications. Thoughtful counselors and therapists -- and of course psychologists -- can come up with creative ways to embrace Gestalt, whether it be a gorilla, a whale, or even a roving robot in Mars. The power truly is in the ability of the therapist or teacher or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Edlis. (1997). Ballad of Donald White. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from  http://www.edlis.org/twice/threads/donald_white.html .

Feldman, Robert. (2009). Psychology and Your Life. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
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Evaluating Client Profile 3 Using a Gestalt or Existential Approach

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36806627

Gestalt Approach

There are more similarities than differences between Gestalt and Existential theories and both are based on the self. The client knows himself better than anybody else in the world. Therefore, one should start to understand the client's needs and personality along with the careful definitions of these two approaches. Gestalt Therapy takes a holistic approach to human experience by stressing individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/232116/Gestalt-therapy). The term of holistic approach should be the center of the therapy. In this approach the client needs to be evaluated analyzing his physical image, his mind, his emotions, and his environment. Although, existential approach is also concentrated on clients' needs, it can be summarized in the components of the life; death, freedom, and meaningless (http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm). Death would be explained by human's limits against the nature or life whereas freedom refers the responsibilities and boundaries. Meaningless is how the client reflects the world and which labels he assigns to his environment and himself. Since, these two approaches based on the theories, one very important limitation applied to the therapist can be staying in the limits of theory or trying to fit the client in the theoretical boundaries…… [Read More]

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Postmodern Therapy Strengths and Weaknesses

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39232831

Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).

Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal of the therapy is to find a solution that is client-specific.

Postmodern therapists do not believe in a subjective, unchanging 'self' that must be healed or rehabilitated. The self is forever being reconstructed in the present -- postmodern therapy is a therapy 'of the moment.' The therapeutic process is designed…… [Read More]

References:
Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf

Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at  http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
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Gestalt Theory According to Koffka

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625368

Gestalt theory according to Koffka (Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from "Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theories" 1922), an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?

The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: "When one sees a color, the color itself is not mental. It is the seeing, the act that is mental....every act always refers to (or intends) something outside of itself (intentionality); thus, acts are inseparable from the objects to which they intend" (Act psychology, 2012, Psychology History Timeline). However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study. "I would call the desk at which I am now writing a perception, likewise the flavor of the tobacco" writes Koffka (Koffka 1922: Introduction). Consciousness cannot be reduced to the object outside itself in Gestalt theory; rather it is based in the mental state of the learner. Because Gestalt stresses the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Act psychology. (2012). Psychology History Timeline. Retrieved:

http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Glossary/demo_glossary.cgi?mode=history&term_id=922&color_id=3
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History of Art Therapy Art

Words: 1913 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82790342

Hope the readers found pleasure in reading the history i.e. The experiences of the former innovators.

References

Betensky, M.G. (1973). Self-discovery through self-expression. IL Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

Case, C., & Dalley, T. (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Detre, K.C., Frank, T., Kniazzeh, C.R., Robinson, M., Rubin, J.A., & Ulman, E. (1983). Roots of art therapy: Margerat Naumberg (1890-1983) and Florence Cane (1882-1952): A family portrait. American Journal of Art Therapy, 22, 111-123.

E.Scholt, C. (2008, August 21). Family therapy approaches. Retrieved from MyShrink.com: http://www.myshrink.com/family-therapy-approaches.php

Handbook of Art therapy. (2003). New York: The Guilford Press.

Hogan, S. (2001). Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Junge, M.B., & Asawa, P. (1994). A history of art therapy in the United States. Mundelein IL: American Art Therapy Asscociation.

Kwiatkowska, H.Y. (1978). Family therapy and evaluation through art. IL Springfield: Charles C.

Lachman-Chapin, 2., Jones, D., Sweig., T.L., Cohen., B.M., Semekoski., S.S., & Fleming, M. (1999). Connecting with the art world: Expanding beyond the mental health world. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 15, 233 -- 244.

Landgarten, H.B. (1981). Clinical art therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Levick, M.F. (1983). They could not…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Betensky, M.G. (1973). Self-discovery through self-expression. IL Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

Case, C., & Dalley, T. (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. New York: Routledge.
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Approaching Bowenian Family System Therapy

Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81484788

Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory Bateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors Becvar & Bevcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).

The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (Becvar & Becvar, 2006). However, the focus of the therapists concerning the unique self provides the idea that different models exist; the focus on unique responses and experiences gives an impression that many differences exist. Experiential psychotherapy or psychology arose as a reaction to behaviorism -- which sometimes overlooks the inner experience of a person and…… [Read More]

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Counseling Theories

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525156

Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. Recent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with specific therapeutic techniques," (p. 216). Instead, there are several existential therapies that can be loosely grouped together due to their common concerns with existential themes. These themes eschew behaviorism and emphasize personal freedom of choice (Corey, 2008). The four ultimate focal points of existential therapy are death, freedom, existential isolation,…… [Read More]

References:
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
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Theoretical Orientation My Personal Orientation Lies in

Words: 2905 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84104702

Theoretical Orientation

My personal orientation lies in Gestalt (Fritz Perls), Person Centered (Carl Rogers) and Reality Therapy (William Glasser) psychotherapy.

What do you see as the time frame of counseling? Are you more oriented to the past, present, or future?

I am oriented to present; however, I believe that many problems can come from the past. Therefore, the past must be discussed at some point.

To take this a step further, do you believe counseling is intended to work on current issues and feelings or to help people with issues and feelings from the past? Or, do you believe that people need to focus on their future feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

I believe people should focus on their current issues first. However, every individual are different. Therefore, therapy should be aim at individuals' need.

B.

What is your view of people? Do you believe people are essentially good, bad, or neutral? I believe people can be essentially good

Do you believe clients are good people with issues to work out? Generally yes.

Conversely, are your clients bad people with an inherent defect that requires counseling? Are people somewhere in between, such as good people that do bad things?

Clients are…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cortright, B. (2006, January 1). Psychosynthesis: A psychology of the spirit. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 38(1), 128-132.

Flagg, A. (2004, April). Dreams, nightmares, and nonviolence. ETC: A Review of General
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Personal Theory as a Therapist

Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18302286

From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.

In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing this and come to an agreement on a new approach to use. Such an approach will then form the focus of future therapy sessions.

In order to maintain focus on the problems at hand and therapeutic techniques to handle these, it is important to continuously monitor the client's view of…… [Read More]

References:
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Person-centered Therapy. http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html

Hoffman, Louis. 2004. Existential Psychotherapy. http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm
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Cross-Cultural Competencies

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21093143

Krentzman and Townsend (2008) indicates that multicultural competence means "having the beliefs, knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively with individuals different from one's self; that cultural competence includes all forms of difference; and that issues of social justice cannot be overlooked" (p. 7). Although improved cultural competency is widely regarded as being an important element of high quality health care services, it is not a "magic bullet" for mitigating existing inequities in the provision of such care (Larson & Ott, 2010). Nevertheless, developing cross-cultural competencies is viewed by many health care providers as an essential first step in improving access and the quality of health care services in Australia today (Sharma & Phillion, 2011). Therefore, in this context, the term "multicultural competence" is used to describe the relationship between a counselor and a patient in cross-cultural settings (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). The focus of cultural competence is the ability of health care providers to provide health care services that result in positive clinical outcomes through the integration of culture into the clinical context (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). These issues represent more than merely being aware of cultural differences. In this regard, the Royal Australasian College…… [Read More]

Resources:
An introduction to cultural competency. (2012). Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

Retrieved July 21, 2014 from https://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=FCBB0411-
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Social Psychology

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98892568

Pics

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy focuses on experiences in the present moment and relationships between individuals as a means of determining and healing psychological issues. This picture shows both an engaged experience and also implies a specific familial arrangement between the people in the foreground -- it is assumed that they are mother, father and child. The assessment of the individuals in the picture and the "story" that the picture tells would change significantly is we learned that the red-shirted figure is a complete stranger to the woman in the foreground, and this change is one of the fundamental features of Gestalt theory/therapy.

Thought Suppression

Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney is clearly having difficulty with his operating process here, as he appears to be focusing on the extreme financial turmoil the world is experiencing for the second time in three years rather than consciously trying to distract himself. In all seriousness, though, this picture also demonstrates the ability to consciously over-ride the thought suppression impulse and processes, which is necessary in order for individuals and mankind as a whole to face some of the more difficult decisions and tasks we are confronted with. Because Mr. Carney does not want…… [Read More]

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Existential Therapists State That All

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143



Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural environment may not be subject to a consistent reinforcement schedule. Additionally, behaviors, as always, must be interpreted in light of the client's cultural and personal experiential background -- what seems like excessive paranoia might be, from the client's perspective, a rational response to historical injustices.

Q6. One technique used by…… [Read More]

Sources:
Automatic thought record. Template available November 20, 2010 at http://students.georgiasouthern.edu/counseling/relax/ATR.pdf

Piotrowski, Nancy a. (2003, January). Gestalt therapy. Magill's encyclopedia of social science:
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Human Behavior Psychopathology Human Behavior

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98895727



Case Study

Modified Gestalt theory would support the idea that Chris has a strong genetic predisposition for developing schizophrenia, given his brother's illness. He was raised in an unstable home environment, because of his father's alcoholism that may have exacerbated the young Chris' sense of constant stress and his difficulty to perceive the world in a hostile, non-threatening fashion. Chris is rational at times, other times he is paranoid, and goes through various degrees of awareness about his state of rationality (hence the usefulness of the Gestalt stress on the 'present point in time' to describe sanity). A resumption of medication may be necessary, although this may not be necessary for throughout the duration of Chris' life.

Chris has been disturbed by a shift in the relationship of his marriage. His wife wishes to have another child and he has just unexpectedly re-encountered a threatening individual from his past. Psychotic episodes can be trigged by negative life events, and Christ perceives his wife's request as a negative stress. He has also suffered a mild physical trauma to his ankle which disturbs his state of physical homeostasis. The fact that his authoritarian role models at home who did not present him…… [Read More]

References:
Latner, Joel. (1992). "The Theory of Gestalt Therapy." From Gestalt Therapy

Perspectives and Applications. Cleveland: Gestalt Institute of Cleveland (GIC) Press. Nevis, Edwin C. Ed. Retrieved 14 May 2007 at http://www.aagt.org/html/character__psychopathology__an.html
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Multi-Modal Treatment of the Client's

Words: 4593 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 602220

Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).

The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."

Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.

Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or that society has no negative aspects. Problems and setbacks arise as goals are pursued, but watching for them and learning how to overcome them helps one avoid them, or at least to cope better. Positive thinking must be realistic in order to continue to exist.

Lazarus then brings up the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Christian Counselors. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Counselors.

Cox, R.H., Cox, B.E. And Hoffman L. (Eds) (2004) Spirituality and Psychological Health, Colorado Springs, Colorado School of Professional Psychology Press
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Relationship and Development of Child's Personality --

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on Roger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy that asserts the intrinsic value of each individual. This therapy reacts suitably and efficiently to the person at the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological levels of working, and tackles the spiritual dimension of life too. The procedure of taking renounced, ignorant, or unsettled facets of the self and making them…… [Read More]

References:
Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
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Defining or Redefining Normal

Words: 1450 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65822118

Human behavior can be a very fickle and complex thing. Just as human behavior is a rather complex and variable thing, solution-focused therapy variations are much the same way. Indeed, there different viewpoints and methods like postmodernism, general systems, biopsychological, spiritual/ecological and the very important contributions of people like Bronfenbrenner. Regardless of the influence or the method, the overall focus of any solution-focused therapy is to find solutions and better outcomes. The major thing that varies is the precise pathway and method that is used to get to that end. Indeed, the patterns and facets of a given method will vary based on the ideology and logic that underpins it. While there are multiple ways and methods that can all accomplish good things for a therapy patient, it is important to know the desired endgame and find a way to move towards the same.

Analysis

When it comes to postmodernism, the important thing to remember about the subject and the method is that knowing and understanding is subjective and interpretive. As one might expect, therapy that is based on postmodernism draws upon this approach and paradigm. One manifestation of this understanding and pathway is the use of narrative therapy. There…… [Read More]

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Psychology in the Year 2005 United States

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94081965

Psychology

In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.

How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?

Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses to stimulants provided by therapists that are limited by psychodynamic theories that interfere with results that could provide answers to the real meaning of healthy growth and behavior. Behavioral responses of victims of Hurricane Katrina include antisocial behaviors, reluctance to abandon property, non-communication, withdrawal, erratic movements, and startled responses, changes…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.

Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.

Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings

An Abstract of a Dissertation

This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any other even faintly scientific endeavor. Its original purpose was not even to cure mental affliction.

Working hard behind this scene is the psychiatrist, dispensing everything from his pernicious "insanity defense" in the courts -- thereby helping dangerous criminals escape justice -- to his mind-numbing drugs within the prisons. Of course, with high rates of inmate illiteracy and drug abuse, it is reasonable to assume that…… [Read More]

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Adolescent Suicide Integration of CBT

Words: 15095 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81004581

All too often, these adolescents end up taking their own lives when their depression gets too painful for them and they have not received the help that they need. Even the medications that are designed to help them get through the depression can sometimes make things worse, as various medications for depression and anxiety carry a risk of suicide when people are just starting or just getting off of the medication.

Reviewing the literature about how to deal with depression in adolescents is very important, as treatment is needed in many cases. The first important concern for treatment is the psychodynamic approaches that are used. Psychodynamic approaches, or psychosocial approaches, generally translate in lay terms to counseling or therapy of some kind. This can be in a group or individually, depending on which way the therapist feels will be more effective, and the recent evidence into this issue shows that adolescents that are dealing with depression may find that this kind of intervention is often very effective in alleviating their depression (Lewinsohn & Clarke, 1999; Clarke, Rohde, Lewinsohn, Hops, & Seeley, 1999). One of the main reasons that a treatment approach is so important for these people is that around…… [Read More]

References:
Ansfield ME, Wegner DM, Bowser R. 1996. Ironic effects of sleep urgency. Behav. Res. Ther. 34:523-31

Ascher LM, Turner RM. 1979. Paradoxical intention and insomnia: an experimental investigation. Behav. Res. Ther. 17:408-11
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Amalgamation of Counseling Theories

Words: 4501 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18822730

Integrative Approach to Counseling

The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary distinction between them is that gestalt theory acknowledges a direct correlation between the past and lingering emotions or events that affected an individual's past and the present. Choice theory and reality therapy, on the other hand, makes a point to deliberately forsake critical aspects of the past (Bradley, 2014, p.…… [Read More]

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Kurt Lewin Is Widely Acknowledged as a

Words: 2522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50588420

Kurt Lewin is widely acknowledged as a seminal theorist (Smith, 2001) who made an indelible impact on the field of psychology through his work on the cognitive and motivational processes of individuals, the dynamics of intra- and intergroup relationships, and the relevance of psychology for social programs (Lewin, 1998, p. 105). Lewin is also credited for his pioneering work in the area of experiential learning and action research (Smith, 2001). It is the objective of this paper to trace Lewin's contribution to the field of psychology from both a historical as well as present day perspective.

The influence of Kurt Lewin's life on his work

It would be useful to begin a historical perspective of Kurt Lewin's work with an analysis of his biography in order to examine the influences, if any, of his personal life on the theories that he later went on to develop. As it happens, in Lewin's case, his personal experiences did play a major role in the formulation of some of his concepts such as field theory, styles of leadership and the interdependence of fate and task in group dynamics (Smith, 2001). Therefore, the description of Lewin's life that follows is structured to draw correlations…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bavelas, A., & Lewin, K. (1946). Training in Democratic Leadership. Twentieth Century

Psychology: Recent Developments in Psychology. Editors: Freeman, L., Harriman, P.L., Hartmann, G.W., & Lewin, K. New York: The Philosophical Library.
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State of Learning Disabilities

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9838806

memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.

THEORIES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY

Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions inside us. This is because there is a certain experience that has made us learn the association of one stimulus. For instance, the ringing of the doorbell means that someone's at the door. However, the ringing of the school bell means something entirely different. Such behavior is due to the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.

Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf
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Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations

Words: 3548 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18922496

Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations)

In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.

The chosen model

The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.

Basic Concepts in Object Relations

The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not denote inanimate things but rather, it refers to significant individuals with whom one relates closely, often one's father, mother, or a primary caregiver. This term is also sometimes employed in referring to some part of an individual (e.g., the mental depictions of the important people in our life, the mother's…… [Read More]

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Analyzing the Summary Chapters

Words: 1210 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17665140

Stress is delineated as demand that is made on a being for adaptation, coping, or adjusting. There is stress that is healthy and is referred to as eustress. Prolonged stress impacts moods, ruins capacity to have pleasure and is also harmful to the body. Some of the aspects that generate a great deal of stress include everyday hassles, changes in life and also health problems. According to a survey undertaken by the American Psychological Association, the two biggest sources of stress are money and work and this causes people to become irritable, angry and fatigued. There are four kinds of conflict. Approach-approach conflict is the least stressful, having two objectives that can be attained whereas avoidance-avoidance conflict has more stress as one is enthused to evade two adverse objectives. Approach-avoidance encompasses objectives that generate mixed intentions and lastly multiple approach-avoidance conflict include numerous alternative actions that have upsides and downsides. In addition, there are two sorts of behavior. Type A encompasses aggressive, competitive and highly motivated individuals while Type B encompasses less driven, and less impatient people who relax more. There are three phases of reacting to stress. To begin with, the alarm reaction is activated by the influence of…… [Read More]

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Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young

Words: 2102 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98392642

Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young People than Adults?

Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).

Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly than the same addiction in adults. Consequently, it is very important that addictions be caught early and drug treatment started before the problem develops into something deeper. Addictions can be recognized by way of a pattern of problems in a young person's life and they are a direct consequence of…… [Read More]

References:
Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm

Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm
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Proposal to Philanthropists

Words: 1947 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15180946

edit of Smithers proposal

Public description of your project?

The Aboriginal Healing Foundation was thus established in 1998, originally with an eleven-year mandate scheduled to expire on March 31, 2009. This time frame reflected the original establishment of the foundation as part of a governmental policy of restitution for past abuse and its intergenerational effects: it was supposed that the conditions and the psychological welfare of the affected portion of the population could be substantially ameliorated within that specific time frame, but also reflected a sense that the original population for whom the funds represented a form of reparation were already dying. Unfortunately, problems like alcoholism tend to linger on well beyond the initial policies of abuse and neglect -- for this was official government policy, for which the Aboriginal community would receive official federal redress -- and it is for this reason we turn to the Smithers Foundation: the original charter for the Aboriginal Healing Foundation expected that we would cease operations entirely by this point. Instead, the vital and urgent need for our continued presence in Canada's native communities has caused us to seek outside support from charitable organizations who can recognize us for an established presence within…… [Read More]

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Justification for the Research Page

Words: 12922 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39447745

S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.

To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38 in "problem solving." The 2006 assessment is just as grim, for those hoping that American schools are catching up to the rest of the world in academics.

Indeed, in the 2006 assessment, of 57 countries world wide, U.S. students 35th in math and 29th in science (OECD). As to the…… [Read More]

References:
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231.

Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
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Why Humanism and Social Cognitive Perspectives Are Key Psychological Theories

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52044826

Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives

This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.

The Humanistic Perspective

The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).

Why should humanism be viewed as a moral imperative? The authors believe that the "beauty of the humanistic approach is its emphasis on individuals as decision makers"; in addition, humanistic interventions help give patients the skill to "control their own growth and development" (Scholl). But the authors do not claim…… [Read More]

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Hypothetical Case Illustration

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93440703

counselors practice and learn how to properly handle each client's situation. Clients have a variety of issues that they are dealing with at any given time and sometimes need help. Clients may seek help from a counselor, allowing the counselor to help that person manage their particular areas of concern. Case studies are valuable to any counselor and require much thought and careful consideration.

In the case of Tony Cepin, who is a 45-year-old Hispanic male, we are able to evaluate a unique case study, in which Tony, a nontraditional student, has various issues going on in his life in which he needs help. His presenting problems are that he feels as if he is too old, he has little of a support system, has difficulties finishing tasks, suspects ADD diagnosis, has conflicts with his spouse and immediate family, and often overspends money. We can look at Tony's case in different aspects when analyzing Tony's case and how Tony can be helped. In this paper Tony's case can be analyzed by using three different methods, they are: Gestalt theory and therapy, Behavioral theory and therapy, and Cognitive-Behavior theory and therapy.

First of all, we will analyze Tony's case using Gestalt…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Corey, G. (1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. International:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16183152



Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-Brown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for increased cultural acknowledgement, understanding and 'sensitivity' in the field of psychology. However, many practitioners and scholars argue that the language in the Code of Ethics, in particular, is still slanted toward Western European emphasis and toward "singularly defined bounded relationships" Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004).

The Code does facilitate multicultural…… [Read More]

Resources:
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
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Borderline Personality Disorder Definitions and

Words: 12483 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99227756

32)

The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that BPD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers to "...unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, with marked shifts in attitudes toward others (from idealization to devaluation or from clinging dependency to isolation and avoidance), and prominent patterns of manipulation of others.."(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Perception also plays an important role in the identification and understanding of the BDP patient. This refers particularly to social perception. Benjamin and Wonderlich (1994) recognized that BDP patients showed differences in social perception when compared to bipolar and unipolar subjects. In relation to this they found that "...BPDs view relationships with their mothers, hospital staff, and other patients with more hostility than mood disordered patients. BPDs see themselves as attacked by other patients and as part of hostile and noncohesive families. "(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Another aspect that identifies the BDP sufferer is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1992). Broken Structures: Severe Personality Disorders and Their Treatment. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1995). Quest For Answers A Primer of Understanding and Treating Severe Personality Disorders. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.
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Rehabilitation Program

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22519938

Rehabilitation Program

To help Tony overcome his drug and alcohol abuse problem, the techniques as well as methods to be made use of should not only be effective but also situation-sensitive. The therapeutic process to be adopted in this case should in my view begin with detoxification. Treatment and the prevention of a relapse should follow detoxification in that order. The other critical elements of the said therapeutic process are behavioral therapy and medication. While medications could in this case come in handy in the suppression of withdrawal symptoms, behavioral therapy will enable Tony to modify his behaviors and attitudes in relation to drug abuse. Behavioral approaches could in this case include but they are not limited to cognitive behavioral therapy. Given the special aspects of Tony's situation, the relevance of a customized treatment regimen cannot be overstated. The said treatment regimen should in my view address all the aspects of Tony's life, including but not limited to his age and family situation.

In my opinion, Tony's family should be part of the treatment. It is instructive to note that in Tony's view, smoking of marijuana and alcohol abuse is not a serious issue as his parents are regular users…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bradshaw, M. & Lowenstein, A. (2010). Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Kaminer, Y. & Winters, K.C. (Eds.). (2010). Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Personality Theorist Sigmund Freud's Period

Words: 3767 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74750464

"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).

When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).

One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his wife in order for their relationship to be healthy. Furthermore, he attributed the high rate of divorce in the U.S. To the fact that American men were inexperienced in performing intercourse. European men were much more experienced from his point-of-view, as they apparently imposed their power in the family and…… [Read More]

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Psychological Perspectives - Evolutionary Psychology

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38420394



Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as walking. From ages seven to 11, a child will begin to think logically at this concrete operational stage. Finally, from the age of 11 onwards, children should learn to develop abstract reasoning in the formal operational stage (Tavris and Wade 2000).

Cognitive psychologists believe that it is important for children…… [Read More]

Resources:
Baum, W. 2005. Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. New York: Blackwell.

Tavris, C. And Wade, C. 2000. Psychology in Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.
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Cardsmax Humanistic Theory Humanistic Learning Theory as

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80110921

Cardsmax

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic learning theory as explained by Lipscomb, & Ishmael (2009 p. 174) emphasizes feeling, experience, self-awareness, personal growth, and individual / psychic optimization. Learning, from this perspective, is positioned as both social process and psychological/intellectual endeavor. Humanism aspires to place lecturers alongside students in mutually constituted, cooperative enquiry, variously described, this form of 'peer learning community 'situates the lecturer as an authority rather than in authority. It is a form of education that, by traditional or historical standards, places novel demands upon students who are now expected to act intentionally in pursuit of learning and understanding. Humanist principles require students to join with lecturers in this endeavor, and they are implicitly expected to develop and share values concerning the importance of scholarship.

Humanistic and experiential psychotherapies coalesced around the humanistic movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of psychologists, including Maslow, Rogers, Moustakas, and May, dis-satis-ed with the dominant paradigm, began to analyze the values, assumptions, and methods of psychological practices and thought. These writers were at odds with the nomothetic and reductionistic stance of the natural sciences being applied to the study of human experience. They called…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Farber, E.W. (2010). Humanistic -- existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 28-34. doi:10.1037/a0018847

Friedman, H. (2008). Humanistic and Positive Psychology: The Methodological and Epistemological Divide. Humanistic Psychologist, 36(2), 113-126. doi:10.1080/08873260802111036
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Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

Cognitive Theory of Learning

Introduction

The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning well in their current environment. There was too much of an emphasis, it was believed, on learning through experience, and not enough emphasis on actual memory and prior knowledge (Bates, 1979; Buisson, et al., 1995; Davidson & Bucher, 1978). The two areas are closely related, however, so some individuals failed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bates, J.A. (1979). Extrinsic reward and intrinsic motivation: A review with implications for the classroom. Review of Educational Research, 49, 557-576.

Buisson, G.J., Murdock, J.Y., Reynolds, K.E., & Cronin, M.E. (1995). Effect of tokens on response latency of students with hearing impairments in a resource room. Education and Treatment of Children, 18, 408-421.
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History of Psychology Although the

Words: 857 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53888937

An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.

Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist is nonjudgmental and empathic, and uses open-ended responses, reflective listening and understanding interpretations to promote client self-understanding, acceptance and actualization.

One of the main schools of psychology that most people have heard of is psychoanalysis, which was developed by Sigmund Freud in the late 1800s. It was based on the…… [Read More]

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Clinical Supervision the Subject Supervisor

Words: 2443 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64456789

In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).

The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He lacks respect towards individual differences. He is non-collegial, seldom compliments and encourages. He is sexist, and is weak in deficient in evaluating (Kilminster).

Both supervisors and supervisees point to certain supervision events as helpful in making a supervisor effective (Kilminster, 2000). These include direct guidance on clinical work, shared problem-solving,…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Smith, M. (2005). The functions of supervision. Infed: the Encyclopedia of Informal

Education. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/functions_of_supervision.html

Smith, K. (1998). Models of supervision. A Power Point Presentation. Department of Clinical Psychology: University of Hull. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from  http://www2.hull.ac.uk/pgmi/docs/ModelsofSupervision.ppt
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Evolution of Psychology Rationality the

Words: 2796 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12933369

Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.

Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.

While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher Rene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the subconscious. This can be related to the ancient Greek ideas of the body, mind, soul, and spirit, and how these interrelate to create different levels of consciousness. As the rest of the Consciousness chapter shows, the mind cannot be studied without also considering philosophy. The ancient philosophers were also psychologists.…… [Read More]

References:
Consciousness: Section PS13D

Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology
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Humans Have Been Intrigued by the Workings

Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99071998

humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.

Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. Biological processes are the central concerns in physiological psychology; the bulk of topics revolve around the functioning of the neurological system. Clinical psychology attempts to assess and remedy abnormal and maladaptive behaviors. The psychological phenomena of business and industry, such as productivity, personnel practices, and market research illustrate themes in organizational psychology.

The emergence of psychology as an…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cardwell, Mike (1996). Schaum's A-Z Psychology. United Kingdom: The McGraw-

Hill Companies.
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Humanism Summary One Can Define Humanism as

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90393455

Humanism: Summary

One can define humanism as a school of thought or belief system which connects to both the fields of philosophy and ethics and which places a focus on the power of the individualism. There are a range of different types of humanism, and modes of thought connected to humanism, along with different intellectual and religious movements connected to humanism. All of these elements are partly responsible for making the definition of the term unclear.

In certain respects, the development of humanism was a reaction to the dissatisfaction of many experts with behaviorism. The school of thought surrounding humanism was in many ways the consequences which developed as so many psychologists just couldn't agree with many of the pillars of behaviorism. "Many psychologists did not accept the behaviorists' view that humans were governed by stimuli and responses, with no will of their own to change their behavior" (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2013). Thus, the overall goal of humanistic behavioral therapy revolved around assisting to people and helping them to make better choices while harnessing their inner resources so that they can lead better lives (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2013). Within this mentality, there was the focus on the importance of free…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hurst, M. (2013). Humanistic Therapy. Crchealth.com. Retreived from:  http://www.crchealth.com/types-of-therapy/what-is-humanistic-therapy/ 

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. (2nd ed., p. 11). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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Counselor Supervision Counseling Supervision Represents

Words: 4878 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78712743

Supervisee should have a clear view on what to expect during the supervision process.

Supervisor: Are there any courses or resources that would develop your standards in relation to services delivery?

Supervisee: Learning provides room for improvement, and that would be no different to my scenario. I would attend to relevant courses to boost my confidence and expertise level in dealing with clients on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Structural coaching on relevant issues would enhance my development to tackling therapeutic problems in the clinical field of study. The structural coaching would supplement the pertinent information from this and the previous supervision programs. Much exposure such as working in large organizations would improve the level of standards in dealing with cultural problems among different clients.

Supervisor: What are the six dimensions of multicultural competencies supervision?

Supervisee: The first dimension is the Supervisor-Focused Personal Development that reflects examination of the supervisor in relation to the personal values, biases, and limitations. The second dimension is Supervisee-Focused Personal Development that focuses on the personal development of the supervisor. In this dimension, supervisor takes the opportunity to enhance the identity development relative to the supervisee. The third approach or dimension revolves around conceptualization.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Ancis, J.R., & Marshall, D.S. (2010). Using a multicultural framework to assess supervisees'

perceptions of culturally competent supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development,
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Personal Model of Helping Therapists Do Whatever

Words: 2318 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78225831

Personal Model of Helping

Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.

The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top. Second, is the cognitive theory, which attempts to change the underlying thought disturbance to correct or reduce cognitive dissonance? Thirdly, the behavioural therapy, which positively reinforces desired behaviours, while, negativelyreinforcing the undesired. The Adlerian theory focuses on overcoming feelings of inferiority, providing the client with a sense of belonging. The…… [Read More]

References:
Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf.

Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a

Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
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Humanistic Behavioral and Psychodynamic Approaches to Mental

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81993329

humanistic, behavioral, and psychodynamic approaches to mental illness, and associated therapeutic modalities. Mental illness is one of the most important health issues in North America today. It can have an enormous impact on personal and professional lives of millions of individuals. As such, an understanding of the three most common models of mental illness is important to understanding the concept of mental illness as a whole.

The humanistic model of mental illness derives from existential philosophy, and first emerged in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. This model is centered on the idea that a person's reality comes from their unique perception of the world around them. Freedom of choice means that individuals are able to make choices and be responsible for their personal decisions and actions. The humanistic model focuses on the actualizing tendencies of humans to grow and explore personal potential.

In the humanistic model abnormal behavior and mental illness come from several different factors. Mental illness can come when society begins to see certain people or groups of people as more valuable or powerful than others. Further, in the humanistic model, mental illness can come from the individual's unhealthy need to derive self-regard from other…… [Read More]

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Jones Stanton L And Richard

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48558492

" (1) Fearing its potential competition with Biblical modalities of understanding, some Christian patients may initially fear, even consciously avoid the modern practice of psychotherapy, seeing it as a mere scientific reductionism of the uniqueness of the human animal. Or, conversely, some may uncritically embrace counseling it as a better way of understanding the mind than the biology of the natural sciences, especially approaches as person-centered theory and transactional analysis.

However, the authors advocate a more critical, theologically informed appropriation of psychotherapy in relation to faith, suggesting therapy's compatibility with orthodox Christianity through the conscious and flexible integration of psychology and theology, and present the author's justification of what they call responsible eclecticism, endeavoring as they do to understand psychology on its original terms, and then to examine how such precepts relate to Biblical narratives and moral behavior.

One of the most important challenges or concepts offered by this book's approach for effective Christian counselors is that a counselor must not view his or her faith and psychology as an either/or dichotomy. He or she can and must provide moral as well as psychic guidance to his or her patients. The Bible provides a moral and personal narrative to help…… [Read More]