Gestalt Therapy Essays (Examples)

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Gestalt and Behavioral Therapies the

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43622402

The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.

In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…… [Read More]

References:

Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.

Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.

Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
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Gestalt Psychology Theory in

Words: 1804 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64580467

"The song was there before me, before I came along" Dylan answered. "I just sorta came down and just sorta took it down with a pencil, but it was all there before I came around…" (www.edlis.org)].

Meanwhile Ginger explains the practical application of Gestalt theory from the perspective of Fritz Perls: a) "we all know that each of us perceives the world from our own personal perspective…" and yet people look in vain for the objectivity that comes from science; b) we also know that the "how" is more important than the "why" and that the "spirit in which something is done is important… but we are still mostly interested in the 'bottom line'" (Ginger).

Conclusion

As alluded to earlier in this paper Gestalt has indeed been controversial and clearly it is misunderstood after years of its myriad applications. However, this paper supports the value that is Gestalt, in its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edlis. (1997). Ballad of Donald White. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from  http://www.edlis.org/twice/threads/donald_white.html .

Feldman, Robert. (2009). Psychology and Your Life. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Ginger, Serge, (2007). Gestalt Therapy: The Art of Contact. London, UK: Karmac Books.

Melnick, Joseph, and Fall, Marijane. (2008). A Gestalt Approach to Group Supervision.
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Evaluating Client Profile 3 Using a Gestalt or Existential Approach

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36806627

Gestalt Approach

There are more similarities than differences between Gestalt and Existential theories and both are based on the self. The client knows himself better than anybody else in the world. Therefore, one should start to understand the client's needs and personality along with the careful definitions of these two approaches. Gestalt Therapy takes a holistic approach to human experience by stressing individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/232116/Gestalt-therapy). The term of holistic approach should be the center of the therapy. In this approach the client needs to be evaluated analyzing his physical image, his mind, his emotions, and his environment. Although, existential approach is also concentrated on clients' needs, it can be summarized in the components of the life; death, freedom, and meaningless (http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm). Death would be explained by human's limits against the nature or life whereas freedom refers the responsibilities and boundaries. Meaningless is…… [Read More]

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Postmodern Therapy Strengths and Weaknesses

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39232831

Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).

Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf

Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at  http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
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Gestalt Theory According to Koffka

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625368

Gestalt theory according to Koffka (Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from "Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theories" 1922), an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?

The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: "When one sees a color, the color itself is not mental. It is the seeing, the act that is mental....every act always refers to (or intends) something outside of itself (intentionality); thus, acts are inseparable from the objects to which they intend" (Act psychology, 2012, Psychology History Timeline). However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study. "I…… [Read More]

References

Act psychology. (2012). Psychology History Timeline. Retrieved:

http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Glossary/demo_glossary.cgi?mode=history&term_id=922&color_id=3

Koffka, Kurt. (1922). Perception: An introduction to the Gestalt-theorie Psychological Bulletin,

19, 531-585. Retrieved:
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History of Art Therapy Art

Words: 1913 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82790342

Hope the readers found pleasure in reading the history i.e. The experiences of the former innovators.… [Read More]

References

Betensky, M.G. (1973). Self-discovery through self-expression. IL Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

Case, C., & Dalley, T. (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Detre, K.C., Frank, T., Kniazzeh, C.R., Robinson, M., Rubin, J.A., & Ulman, E. (1983). Roots of art therapy: Margerat Naumberg (1890-1983) and Florence Cane (1882-1952): A family portrait. American Journal of Art Therapy, 22, 111-123.

E.Scholt, C. (2008, August 21). Family therapy approaches. Retrieved from MyShrink.com:  http://www.myshrink.com/family-therapy-approaches.php
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Approaching Bowenian Family System Therapy

Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81484788

Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory Bateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors Becvar & Bevcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).

The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (Becvar & Becvar, 2006). However, the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson

Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/ 

Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford

Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
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Counseling Theories

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525156

Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. Recent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]

References

Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.

Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.

Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
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Theoretical Orientation My Personal Orientation Lies in

Words: 2905 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84104702

Theoretical Orientation

My personal orientation lies in Gestalt (Fritz Perls), Person Centered (Carl Rogers) and Reality Therapy (William Glasser) psychotherapy.

What do you see as the time frame of counseling? Are you more oriented to the past, present, or future?

I am oriented to present; however, I believe that many problems can come from the past. Therefore, the past must be discussed at some point.

To take this a step further, do you believe counseling is intended to work on current issues and feelings or to help people with issues and feelings from the past? Or, do you believe that people need to focus on their future feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

I believe people should focus on their current issues first. However, every individual are different. Therefore, therapy should be aim at individuals' need.

B.

What is your view of people? Do you believe people are essentially good, bad, or…… [Read More]

References

Cortright, B. (2006, January 1). Psychosynthesis: A psychology of the spirit. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 38(1), 128-132.

Flagg, A. (2004, April). Dreams, nightmares, and nonviolence. ETC: A Review of General

Semantics, 61(1), 63-69.

Jons, J.V. & Lyddon, W.J. (2008, January 1). Cognitive therapy and empirically validated treatments. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 14(3), 337-339.
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Personal Theory as a Therapist

Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18302286

From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.

In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Person-centered Therapy. http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html

Hoffman, Louis. 2004. Existential Psychotherapy. http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm

Psychological Schools of Thought. Psychoanalytical Psychology. http://www.webrenovators.com/psych/PsychoanalyticalPsychology.htm

Yontef, Gary. Gestalt Therapy: An Introduction.  http://www.gestalt.org/yontef.htm
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Cross-Cultural Competencies

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21093143

Krentzman and Townsend (2008) indicates that multicultural competence means "having the beliefs, knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively with individuals different from one's self; that cultural competence includes all forms of difference; and that issues of social justice cannot be overlooked" (p. 7). Although improved cultural competency is widely regarded as being an important element of high quality health care services, it is not a "magic bullet" for mitigating existing inequities in the provision of such care (Larson & Ott, 2010). Nevertheless, developing cross-cultural competencies is viewed by many health care providers as an essential first step in improving access and the quality of health care services in Australia today (Sharma & Phillion, 2011). Therefore, in this context, the term "multicultural competence" is used to describe the relationship between a counselor and a patient in cross-cultural settings (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). The focus of cultural competence is…… [Read More]

References

An introduction to cultural competency. (2012). Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

Retrieved July 21, 2014 from https://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=FCBB0411-

9 DFF-0474-A0B250ACA0737BF8.

Hawley, L.D. (2006, Fall). Reflecting teams and microcounseling in beginning counselor training: Practice in collaboration. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 45(2), 198-202.
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Social Psychology

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98892568

Pics

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy focuses on experiences in the present moment and relationships between individuals as a means of determining and healing psychological issues. This picture shows both an engaged experience and also implies a specific familial arrangement between the people in the foreground -- it is assumed that they are mother, father and child. The assessment of the individuals in the picture and the "story" that the picture tells would change significantly is we learned that the red-shirted figure is a complete stranger to the woman in the foreground, and this change is one of the fundamental features of Gestalt theory/therapy.

Thought Suppression

Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney is clearly having difficulty with his operating process here, as he appears to be focusing on the extreme financial turmoil the world is experiencing for the second time in three years rather than consciously trying to distract himself. In…… [Read More]

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Existential Therapists State That All

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143



Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…… [Read More]

References

Automatic thought record. Template available November 20, 2010 at http://students.georgiasouthern.edu/counseling/relax/ATR.pdf

Piotrowski, Nancy a. (2003, January). Gestalt therapy. Magill's encyclopedia of social science:

Psychology. University of California, Berkeley. Available November 20, 2010 at http://salempress.com/store/samples/magills_encyclopedia_of_social_science_psych/magills_encyclopedia_of_social_science_psych_gestalt.htm
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Human Behavior Psychopathology Human Behavior

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98895727



Case Study

Modified Gestalt theory would support the idea that Chris has a strong genetic predisposition for developing schizophrenia, given his brother's illness. He was raised in an unstable home environment, because of his father's alcoholism that may have exacerbated the young Chris' sense of constant stress and his difficulty to perceive the world in a hostile, non-threatening fashion. Chris is rational at times, other times he is paranoid, and goes through various degrees of awareness about his state of rationality (hence the usefulness of the Gestalt stress on the 'present point in time' to describe sanity). A resumption of medication may be necessary, although this may not be necessary for throughout the duration of Chris' life.

Chris has been disturbed by a shift in the relationship of his marriage. His wife wishes to have another child and he has just unexpectedly re-encountered a threatening individual from his past. Psychotic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Latner, Joel. (1992). "The Theory of Gestalt Therapy." From Gestalt Therapy

Perspectives and Applications. Cleveland: Gestalt Institute of Cleveland (GIC) Press. Nevis, Edwin C. Ed. Retrieved 14 May 2007 at http://www.aagt.org/html/character__psychopathology__an.html
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Multi-Modal Treatment of the Client's

Words: 4593 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 602220

Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).

The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."

Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.

Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…… [Read More]

References

Christian Counselors. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Counselors.

Cox, R.H., Cox, B.E. And Hoffman L. (Eds) (2004) Spirituality and Psychological Health, Colorado Springs, Colorado School of Professional Psychology Press

Egan, K. (1998) the Skilled Helper. A problem-management approach to helping. 6e, Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.

Ellis, a. (1975). A Guide to Rational Living. Los Angeles: Wilshire Book Company
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Relationship and Development of Child's Personality --

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on Roger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…… [Read More]

References

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G. "Introjection, Psychic Presence and Parent Ego States: Considerations for Psychotherapy" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/article-introjection.html Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Trautmann, Rebecca. "Resolving Intra-psychic Conflict: Psychotherapy of Parent Ego States" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/article-resolving.html
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Defining or Redefining Normal

Words: 1450 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65822118

Human behavior can be a very fickle and complex thing. Just as human behavior is a rather complex and variable thing, solution-focused therapy variations are much the same way. Indeed, there different viewpoints and methods like postmodernism, general systems, biopsychological, spiritual/ecological and the very important contributions of people like Bronfenbrenner. Regardless of the influence or the method, the overall focus of any solution-focused therapy is to find solutions and better outcomes. The major thing that varies is the precise pathway and method that is used to get to that end. Indeed, the patterns and facets of a given method will vary based on the ideology and logic that underpins it. While there are multiple ways and methods that can all accomplish good things for a therapy patient, it is important to know the desired endgame and find a way to move towards the same.

Analysis

When it comes to postmodernism,…… [Read More]

References

Hodge, D. R. (2000). Spiritual ecomaps: a new diagrammatic tool for assessing marital and family spirituality. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26(2), 217-228.

Lau, J., & Ng, K. (2014). Conceptualizing the Counseling Training Environment Using

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. International Journal for The Advancement of Counselling, 36(4), 423-439.

Neal, J. W., & Neal, Z. P. (2013). Nested or Networked? Future Directions for Ecological
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Psychology in the Year 2005 United States

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94081965

Psychology

In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.

How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?

Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]

Reference

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.

Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.

Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings

An Abstract of a Dissertation

This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any other even faintly scientific endeavor. Its original purpose was not even to cure mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Adolescent Suicide Integration of CBT

Words: 15095 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81004581

All too often, these adolescents end up taking their own lives when their depression gets too painful for them and they have not received the help that they need. Even the medications that are designed to help them get through the depression can sometimes make things worse, as various medications for depression and anxiety carry a risk of suicide when people are just starting or just getting off of the medication.

Reviewing the literature about how to deal with depression in adolescents is very important, as treatment is needed in many cases. The first important concern for treatment is the psychodynamic approaches that are used. Psychodynamic approaches, or psychosocial approaches, generally translate in lay terms to counseling or therapy of some kind. This can be in a group or individually, depending on which way the therapist feels will be more effective, and the recent evidence into this issue shows that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansfield ME, Wegner DM, Bowser R. 1996. Ironic effects of sleep urgency. Behav. Res. Ther. 34:523-31

Ascher LM, Turner RM. 1979. Paradoxical intention and insomnia: an experimental investigation. Behav. Res. Ther. 17:408-11

Ascher LM, Turner RM. 1980. A comparison of two methods for the administration of paradoxical intention. Behav. Res. Ther. 18:121-26

Ascher LM. 1981. Employing paradoxical intention in the treatment of agoraphobia. Behav. Res. Ther. 19:533-42
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Amalgamation of Counseling Theories

Words: 4501 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18822730

Integrative Approach to Counseling

The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary…… [Read More]

References

Bornstein, R.F. (2010). Psychoanalytic theory as a unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment. Psychoanalytic psychology. 27(2), 133-152.

Bradley, E.L. (2014). Choice theory and reality theory: An overview. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Theory. 34(1), 6-13.

European Association for Gestalt Therapy. (2006). Code of ethics and professional practice. http://www.eagt.org / Retrieved from http://www.eagt.org/pdf/Ethics_Code&Complaints_Procedure_2013.pdf

Jacobs, L. (2010). Prologue: 'From the radical center': The heart of Gestalt therapy. Gestalt Review. 14 (1), 24-28.
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Kurt Lewin Is Widely Acknowledged as a

Words: 2522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50588420

Kurt Lewin is widely acknowledged as a seminal theorist (Smith, 2001) who made an indelible impact on the field of psychology through his work on the cognitive and motivational processes of individuals, the dynamics of intra- and intergroup relationships, and the relevance of psychology for social programs (Lewin, 1998, p. 105). Lewin is also credited for his pioneering work in the area of experiential learning and action research (Smith, 2001). It is the objective of this paper to trace Lewin's contribution to the field of psychology from both a historical as well as present day perspective.

The influence of Kurt Lewin's life on his work

It would be useful to begin a historical perspective of Kurt Lewin's work with an analysis of his biography in order to examine the influences, if any, of his personal life on the theories that he later went on to develop. As it happens, in…… [Read More]

References

Bavelas, A., & Lewin, K. (1946). Training in Democratic Leadership. Twentieth Century

Psychology: Recent Developments in Psychology. Editors: Freeman, L., Harriman, P.L., Hartmann, G.W., & Lewin, K. New York: The Philosophical Library.

Chaplin, J.P., & Krawiec, T.S. (1974). Systems and Theories of Psychology. New York:

Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
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State of Learning Disabilities

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9838806

memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.

THEORIES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY

Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…… [Read More]

References

Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.

Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf

Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf 

Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.
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Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations

Words: 3548 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18922496

Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations)

In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.

The chosen model

The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.

Basic Concepts in Object Relations

The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not…… [Read More]

References

Balk, D. (1996). Models for understanding adolescent coping with bereavement. Death Studies, 20: 367-387.

___. (1990). The self-concepts of bereaved adolescents: Sibling death and its aftermath. Journal of Adolescent Research, 5(1): 112-132.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Daniel, V. (2007, October). Object Relations Theory. Retrieved from Sonoma State University: https://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/objectrelations.html
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Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young

Words: 2102 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98392642

Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young People than Adults?

Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).

Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…… [Read More]

References

Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm

Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm

Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp

Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
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Analyzing the Summary Chapters

Words: 1210 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17665140

Stress is delineated as demand that is made on a being for adaptation, coping, or adjusting. There is stress that is healthy and is referred to as eustress. Prolonged stress impacts moods, ruins capacity to have pleasure and is also harmful to the body. Some of the aspects that generate a great deal of stress include everyday hassles, changes in life and also health problems. According to a survey undertaken by the American Psychological Association, the two biggest sources of stress are money and work and this causes people to become irritable, angry and fatigued. There are four kinds of conflict. Approach-approach conflict is the least stressful, having two objectives that can be attained whereas avoidance-avoidance conflict has more stress as one is enthused to evade two adverse objectives. Approach-avoidance encompasses objectives that generate mixed intentions and lastly multiple approach-avoidance conflict include numerous alternative actions that have upsides and downsides.…… [Read More]

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Proposal to Philanthropists

Words: 1947 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15180946

edit of Smithers proposal

Public description of your project?

The Aboriginal Healing Foundation was thus established in 1998, originally with an eleven-year mandate scheduled to expire on March 31, 2009. This time frame reflected the original establishment of the foundation as part of a governmental policy of restitution for past abuse and its intergenerational effects: it was supposed that the conditions and the psychological welfare of the affected portion of the population could be substantially ameliorated within that specific time frame, but also reflected a sense that the original population for whom the funds represented a form of reparation were already dying. Unfortunately, problems like alcoholism tend to linger on well beyond the initial policies of abuse and neglect -- for this was official government policy, for which the Aboriginal community would receive official federal redress -- and it is for this reason we turn to the Smithers Foundation: the…… [Read More]

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Justification for the Research Page

Words: 12922 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39447745

S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.

To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231.

Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group

Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group

Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Why Humanism and Social Cognitive Perspectives Are Key Psychological Theories

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52044826

Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives

This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.

The Humanistic Perspective

The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Heiphetz, L., and Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behavior, Vol. 151, 315-335.

Luszczynska, A., and Schwarzer, R. (2005). "Social Cognitive Theory" in Predicting Health

Behavior: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Editors Conner, M., and Norman, P. New York: McGraw-Hill.

National Institutes of Health. 2010). Consumer Health Informatics Research Resource -- Self
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Hypothetical Case Illustration

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93440703

counselors practice and learn how to properly handle each client's situation. Clients have a variety of issues that they are dealing with at any given time and sometimes need help. Clients may seek help from a counselor, allowing the counselor to help that person manage their particular areas of concern. Case studies are valuable to any counselor and require much thought and careful consideration.

In the case of Tony Cepin, who is a 45-year-old Hispanic male, we are able to evaluate a unique case study, in which Tony, a nontraditional student, has various issues going on in his life in which he needs help. His presenting problems are that he feels as if he is too old, he has little of a support system, has difficulties finishing tasks, suspects ADD diagnosis, has conflicts with his spouse and immediate family, and often overspends money. We can look at Tony's case in…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G. (1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. International:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Myers, David (2001). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.

Myers, David (1992). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16183152



Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-Brown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San

Francisco: Harper.

Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
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Borderline Personality Disorder Definitions and

Words: 12483 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99227756

32)

The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that BPD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers to "...unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, with marked shifts in attitudes toward others (from idealization to devaluation or from clinging dependency to isolation and avoidance), and prominent patterns of manipulation of others.."(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Perception also plays an important role in the identification and understanding of the BDP patient. This refers particularly to social perception. Benjamin and Wonderlich (1994) recognized that BDP patients showed differences in social perception when compared to bipolar and unipolar subjects. In relation to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1992). Broken Structures: Severe Personality Disorders and Their Treatment. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1995). Quest For Answers A Primer of Understanding and Treating Severe Personality Disorders. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

Excerpt from Personality Disorder: Borderline. Retrieved November 3, 2005. Web site: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic270.htm

Beck A.T. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
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Rehabilitation Program

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22519938

Rehabilitation Program

To help Tony overcome his drug and alcohol abuse problem, the techniques as well as methods to be made use of should not only be effective but also situation-sensitive. The therapeutic process to be adopted in this case should in my view begin with detoxification. Treatment and the prevention of a relapse should follow detoxification in that order. The other critical elements of the said therapeutic process are behavioral therapy and medication. While medications could in this case come in handy in the suppression of withdrawal symptoms, behavioral therapy will enable Tony to modify his behaviors and attitudes in relation to drug abuse. Behavioral approaches could in this case include but they are not limited to cognitive behavioral therapy. Given the special aspects of Tony's situation, the relevance of a customized treatment regimen cannot be overstated. The said treatment regimen should in my view address all the aspects…… [Read More]

References

Bradshaw, M. & Lowenstein, A. (2010). Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Kaminer, Y. & Winters, K.C. (Eds.). (2010). Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Parrish, M. (2009). Social Work Perspectives on Human Behavior. Berkshire, England: McGraw-Hill International.
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Personality Theorist Sigmund Freud's Period

Words: 3767 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74750464

"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).

When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).

One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.

Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.

Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website:  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html 

Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
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Psychological Perspectives - Evolutionary Psychology

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38420394



Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baum, W. 2005. Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. New York: Blackwell.

Tavris, C. And Wade, C. 2000. Psychology in Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.
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Cardsmax Humanistic Theory Humanistic Learning Theory as

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80110921

Cardsmax

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic learning theory as explained by Lipscomb, & Ishmael (2009 p. 174) emphasizes feeling, experience, self-awareness, personal growth, and individual / psychic optimization. Learning, from this perspective, is positioned as both social process and psychological/intellectual endeavor. Humanism aspires to place lecturers alongside students in mutually constituted, cooperative enquiry, variously described, this form of 'peer learning community 'situates the lecturer as an authority rather than in authority. It is a form of education that, by traditional or historical standards, places novel demands upon students who are now expected to act intentionally in pursuit of learning and understanding. Humanist principles require students to join with lecturers in this endeavor, and they are implicitly expected to develop and share values concerning the importance of scholarship.

Humanistic and experiential psychotherapies coalesced around the humanistic movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of…… [Read More]

References

Farber, E.W. (2010). Humanistic -- existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 28-34. doi:10.1037/a0018847

Friedman, H. (2008). Humanistic and Positive Psychology: The Methodological and Epistemological Divide. Humanistic Psychologist, 36(2), 113-126. doi:10.1080/08873260802111036

Lipscomb, M., & Ishmael, A. (2009). Humanistic educational theory and the socialization of preregistration mental health nursing students.International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 18(3), 173-178. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00603.x

Watson, J.C., Goldman, R.N., & Greenberg, L.S. (2011). Humanistic and experiential theories of psychotherapy. In J.C. Norcross, G.R. VandenBos, D.K. Freedheim, J.C. Norcross, G.R. VandenBos, D.K. Freedheim (Eds.), History of psychotherapy: Continuity and change (2nd ed.) (pp. 141-172). American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12353-005
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Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

Cognitive Theory of Learning

Introduction

The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
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History of Psychology Although the

Words: 857 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53888937

An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.

Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist…… [Read More]

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Clinical Supervision the Subject Supervisor

Words: 2443 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64456789

In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).

The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Borders, L.D. (1994). The good supervisor. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.ericdigest.org/1995-1/good.htm

Joslin, v. (2008). Ten traits of a good supervisor. Associated Content: Yahoo. Inc. Shine.

Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/969660/ten_traits_of_a_good_supervisor.html

Kilminster, S.M. (2000). Effective supervision in clinical practice settings. Vol 34
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Evolution of Psychology Rationality the

Words: 2796 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12933369

Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.

Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.

While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher Rene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…… [Read More]

References

Consciousness: Section PS13D

Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology

Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.

Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
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Humans Have Been Intrigued by the Workings

Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99071998

humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.

Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. Biological processes are the central concerns in physiological…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cardwell, Mike (1996). Schaum's A-Z Psychology. United Kingdom: The McGraw-

Hill Companies.

Schultz, Duane & Schultz, Sydney Ellen (1994). Theories of Personality. California:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
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Counselor Supervision Counseling Supervision Represents

Words: 4878 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78712743

Supervisee should have a clear view on what to expect during the supervision process.

Supervisor: Are there any courses or resources that would develop your standards in relation to services delivery?

Supervisee: Learning provides room for improvement, and that would be no different to my scenario. I would attend to relevant courses to boost my confidence and expertise level in dealing with clients on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Structural coaching on relevant issues would enhance my development to tackling therapeutic problems in the clinical field of study. The structural coaching would supplement the pertinent information from this and the previous supervision programs. Much exposure such as working in large organizations would improve the level of standards in dealing with cultural problems among different clients.

Supervisor: What are the six dimensions of multicultural competencies supervision?

Supervisee: The first dimension is the Supervisor-Focused Personal Development that reflects examination of the…… [Read More]

References

Ancis, J.R., & Marshall, D.S. (2010). Using a multicultural framework to assess supervisees'

perceptions of culturally competent supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development,

88, 277 -284.

Ancis, J.R., & Landany, N. (2010). A multicultural framework for counselor supervision. In N.
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Personal Model of Helping Therapists Do Whatever

Words: 2318 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78225831

Personal Model of Helping

Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.

The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf.

Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a

Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
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Humanism Summary One Can Define Humanism as

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90393455

Humanism: Summary

One can define humanism as a school of thought or belief system which connects to both the fields of philosophy and ethics and which places a focus on the power of the individualism. There are a range of different types of humanism, and modes of thought connected to humanism, along with different intellectual and religious movements connected to humanism. All of these elements are partly responsible for making the definition of the term unclear.

In certain respects, the development of humanism was a reaction to the dissatisfaction of many experts with behaviorism. The school of thought surrounding humanism was in many ways the consequences which developed as so many psychologists just couldn't agree with many of the pillars of behaviorism. "Many psychologists did not accept the behaviorists' view that humans were governed by stimuli and responses, with no will of their own to change their behavior" (Pastorino &…… [Read More]

References

Hurst, M. (2013). Humanistic Therapy. Crchealth.com. Retreived from:  http://www.crchealth.com/types-of-therapy/what-is-humanistic-therapy/ 

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. (2nd ed., p. 11). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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Humanistic Behavioral and Psychodynamic Approaches to Mental

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81993329

humanistic, behavioral, and psychodynamic approaches to mental illness, and associated therapeutic modalities. Mental illness is one of the most important health issues in North America today. It can have an enormous impact on personal and professional lives of millions of individuals. As such, an understanding of the three most common models of mental illness is important to understanding the concept of mental illness as a whole.

The humanistic model of mental illness derives from existential philosophy, and first emerged in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. This model is centered on the idea that a person's reality comes from their unique perception of the world around them. Freedom of choice means that individuals are able to make choices and be responsible for their personal decisions and actions. The humanistic model focuses on the actualizing tendencies of humans to grow and explore personal potential.

In the humanistic model abnormal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abnormal Psychology. Chapter 2. 08 December 2003. http://www.rpi.edu/~rydere/abnormal/Chapter%205.htm

Carson, Robert C., Butcher, James N., and Mineka, S. 2001. Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Surgeon General. Mental Illness. Introduction to Range of Treatments. 08 December 2003. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter2/sec6.html#psycho
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Jones Stanton L And Richard

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48558492

" (1) Fearing its potential competition with Biblical modalities of understanding, some Christian patients may initially fear, even consciously avoid the modern practice of psychotherapy, seeing it as a mere scientific reductionism of the uniqueness of the human animal. Or, conversely, some may uncritically embrace counseling it as a better way of understanding the mind than the biology of the natural sciences, especially approaches as person-centered theory and transactional analysis.

However, the authors advocate a more critical, theologically informed appropriation of psychotherapy in relation to faith, suggesting therapy's compatibility with orthodox Christianity through the conscious and flexible integration of psychology and theology, and present the author's justification of what they call responsible eclecticism, endeavoring as they do to understand psychology on its original terms, and then to examine how such precepts relate to Biblical narratives and moral behavior.

One of the most important challenges or concepts offered by this book's…… [Read More]

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Personality Assessment Instruments Millon Rorschach

Words: 2270 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32945520

This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing to either emotional impoverishment or thought vagueness" (Millon 2005).

Comprehensiveness

As evidenced in the above, sample assessment, the Millon devices are all-encompassing, giving a diagnosis and analysis of a multitude of different factors relating to an individual's state of mental health. A statistical recording of all responses and how they correlate to different mental health conditions is included and incorporated into the assessment. The assessment can make judgments about an adolescent's developmental state, as for example the above 9th grader's lack…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dana, Richard Henry. (2005). Multicultural assessment. New York: Routledge.

Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MACI:

Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Pearson Assessments. Retrieved 11 Nov 2008 at http://www.pearsonassessments.com/tests/maci.htm

Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MCMI-III:
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Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16938592

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. Watson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez 

Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
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Multiculturalism in Counseling Theories

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26869793

Counseling Alternatives in Modern Times

There are certainly several benefits to counseling theories that consist of contemporary, multicultural, and Biopsychosocial counseling and its integration. However, since each of these respective types of counseling theories focus on a particular aspect of psychology and counseling, there are also drawbacks to them as well. Perhaps the true strength in each of these theories lies in their integration -- both with one another and with other theories in general.

The most salient positive associated with multicultural counseling theories and integration is the emphasis they place on one's cultural identity. As such, clinicians are supposed to help cultivate a client's cultural identity -- which greatly pertains to his or her ethnicity, socio-economic status, religion, and other eminent cultural factors. Another boon associated with this approach is that it considers the client as a unique individual, one whose identity "is embedded in multiple levels of experience…… [Read More]

References

Banks, J.A., Banks, C.A., McGee, E. (1995). Sue, D.S. Toward a theory of multicultural counseling and therapy. In Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. New York: MacMillan Publishing.

Borrell-Carrio, F., Suchman, A.L., Epstein, R.M. (2004). The Biopsychosocial model 25 years later: Principles, practice and scientific inquiry. www.annfammed.org / Retrieved from http://www.annfammed.org/content/2/6/576.full
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Populations Span From the Egregiously

Words: 2801 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30553752

, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).

To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).

At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.

Of particular interest…… [Read More]

References

Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M -- . & Algeria, M. (2007). Use of Mental Health Related Services Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 91-8.

Barrett, M., Chua, W., Chistoph, P., Gibbons, M., Casiano, D. & Thompson, D. (2008). Early withdrawal from mental health treatment: Implications for psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 45(2), 247-67.

Bird, T. (2010). Approaches to patients with neuropathic disease. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 30(4), 785-93.

Brach, C., Falik, M., Law, C., Robinson, G., Trent-Adams, S., Ulmer, C. & Wirght, a. (2005). Mental Health Services: Critical Component of Integrated Primary Care and Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 6(3), 322-41.
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Supervisory Procedures for Mental Health

Words: 1850 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59097137

This is when there will be a focused approach that is seeking out the best tools for addressing a host of issues.

Conclusion

Clearly, the field of mental health is continually changing. Part of the reason for this, is because there is emphasis on identifying new techniques for effectively treating patients. This has created a transformation in what kind of tools that are being used to address these issues. At the same time, there has been a focus on implementing supervisory procedures that will have an impact on kinds of treatment options that are being provided. This is important, because these kinds of transformations mean that they are providing effective support to mental health professionals in dealing with these issues. Once this occurs, is when there will be an emphasis on how psychologists are interacting with: patients, colleagues and supervisors. As this approach, is based upon respect, understanding, compassion and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clinical Supervision. (2009). Health. Retrieved from: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/qcmhl/src/superguide_2009.pdf

Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Brown, L. (2008). The New Handbook of Counseling Supervision. Mahwah, NJ: Taylor and Francis.

Campbell, J. (2006). Essentials of clinical supervision. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Human Beings Make Sense of Things in

Words: 3786 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29364579

Human Beings Make Sense of Things

In the early-1900s, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism. Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" (Churchill and Wertz, 2001, p. 247). This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 248). Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Churchill, S. And Wertz, F. (2001) "An Introduction to Phenomenological Research in psychology: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Foundations," in K.J. Schneider, J .F .T. Bugental, & J.F. Pierson (Eds.) The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 247-62.

May, R. (1958). "The Origins and Significance of the Existential Movement in Psychology" and "Contributions of Existential Psychotherapy" in R. May, E. Angel and H. Ellenberger (Eds.), Existence. New York: Basic Books, pp. 3-36; 37-91.

Heidegger, M. (1971)." Building, Dwelling, Thinking," and "The Thing" in Poetry, Language, Thought. (A. Hofstadter, Trans.). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 145-61; 165-86.

Heidegger, M. (1955, 2003)."Memorial Address," in Stassen, M. (Ed). Martin Heidegger: Philosophical and Political Writings. Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 87-96.
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Theories of Behavior Applied

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37297642

Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory

Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…… [Read More]

References

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. By doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Developing Mindful Practice

Words: 2429 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84175663

Mindful Practice

This is a case Black male 21 years of age, conceived with HIV and offered up to child care since he was five years old. He was constantly moved from one care center to another, and vulnerable to mishandling. He is experiencing issues of uneasiness/wretchedness around a considerable number of issues. These issues particularly manifest when searching for vocation. He is discouraged and would not like to connect with individuals, only in isolation, if at all, such as behind buildings or warehouses and the like. He is especially jittery, nervous in circumstances when queries need to answered or assessments about him arise, dread of dismissal, stress over breaking down and fear about appraisal. The nervousness gets under his skin and overshadows his thinking to an extent where he is scattered, that he stops thinking justifiably and rationally and can't make it in time for interviews, job or any…… [Read More]

References:

Child Welfare Information Gateway (1994).Crisis intervention in child abuse and neglect: User manual series. Retrieved from

Epstein, R.M. (1999). Mindful practice. Journal of American Medical Association, 282(9), 833-839.

Germain, C.B. & Gitterman, A. (1996).Beginnings: Beginnings: Auspice, Modalities, Methods, and Skills- Chapter 3.Colombia University Press.

Hopps, J. And Pinderhughes, E. (1999).Conceptual Framework for Group Intervention with Overwhelmed Clients. Free Press
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Humanistic Psychology Today People See

Words: 1806 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89370868

In addition to the above noted areas, there is also green politics, deep ecology, the feminist and gay rights movements, and the psycho-spiritual wing of the peace movement. This takes into account an integrated and balanced view of human nature and maintaining harmony in the grand scheme of existence. As noted by Maureen O'Hara, past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychologists: "As the world's people demand freedom and self-determination, it is urgent that we learn how diverse communities of empowered individuals, with freedom to construct their own stories and identities, might live together in mutual peace. Perhaps it is not a vain hope that is life in such communities might lead to the advance in human consciousness beyond anything we have yet experienced. "… [Read More]

References

Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website retrieved December 20, 2006. http://www.ahpweb.org/aboutahp/whatis.html

Encyclopedia of Religion. Website retrieved December 20, 2006.  http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/Psychology.htm 

Green, E., & Green, A. (1974). Mind training, ESP, hypnosis, and voluntary control of internal states. In J. Regush and N. Regush (Eds.), Psi: The other world catalogue. NY G.P. Putnam's

Hayes, S.C, Strosahl, K.D., & Wilson, K.G. (1999) 1999 Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior
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Delayed Speech Late Talkers

Words: 1213 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4584751

Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment

One common question parents ask is if and when they should be concerned when a child manifests delayed speech. For an infant, delayed speech is of concern when the baby "isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye by 12 months; prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate by 18 months; has trouble imitating sounds by 18 months; [and] has difficulty understanding simple verbal requests" (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1). In an older child, a lack of developmentally-appropriate speech becomes worrisome when the child does not engage in spontaneous speech; repeats words or phrases without apparent understanding; cannot follow simply instructions; and has difficulty being understood by members outside of the family (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1).

Early intervention for children who exhibit language delays has a significantly higher success rate than later interventions. "First, there is…… [Read More]

References

Esch, B.E., Carr, J.E., & Grow, L.L. (2009). Evaluation of an enhanced stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to increase early vocalizations of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 225-41.

Delayed speech or language development. (2012). Kid's Health. Retrieved:

http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/not_talk.html#

Kelley, M.E., Shillingsburg, M.A., Castro, M.J., Addison, L.R., & LaRue, Robert H., Jr.