Mahatma Essays

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate Rate Essay

Words: 4430 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9486254

Vinoba Vhabe

Vinoba Bhave

Throughout his life, Mahatma Gandhi gave emphasis to the notion that his twin principles of truth and nonviolence must be put in practice in every aspect of life as they have the strength to solve a number of human problems. His teachings were being practiced by his faithful disciples after achieving the political independence. The most prominent person in this regard is the leader and the spiritual heir of Gandhi, Vinoba Bhave (Bary, Hay, Weiler & Yarrow, 1958).

Vinoba Bhave is, thus, one of those great devout reformers of modern India whose selfless services have inspired the hearts of innumerable countrymen. At a very early age, Vinoba was determined to undertake a lifetime celibacy & selfless service to the needy. He was in search of a life in which he could synthesize both spirituality and practicality. When he discovered Gandhi, both of them worked for the regeneration and self-sufficiency of Indian nation (Mehta). Gandhi was so moved with the dedication of Vinoba that he praised Vinoba in these words, "At a tender age, Vinoba has acquired a degree of spirituality & ascetism that took me years of patient labour" (as qtd. In Mehta).

Vinoba Bhave (real name Vinayak Narahari Bhave), was born on 11th September, 1895 at Gagode, India. He is one of the most renowned Indian religious figures. He is one of India's most renowned social reformers and is also a widely respected and acclaimed disciple of Mohandas K. Gandhi. He is also the founder of the famous Bhoodan Movement ("Vinoba Bhave," 2012).

It was while studying Sanskrit in Banaras (Varanasi) that Bhave got the chance to become a disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. Bhave was such a tough follower of Gandhi that upon his request, he spent about 5 years in prison after resisting British wartime set of laws in 1940. Bhave was recognized by the majority of Indians as Gandhi's spiritual successor after his death in 1948. He was more interested in voluntary land revolutions than participating in politics. This was the reason why he founded the Bhoodan Movement (also known as land-gift movement) in 1951. For his movement, Bhave traveled thousands of miles of Indian…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bary, T.D., Hay, S.N., Weiler, R., & Yarrow, A. (1958). Sources of Indian Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100539926

Bhave, Vinoba. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117006628
View Full Essay

Machiavelli's The Prince it Is Essay

Words: 2065 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52982027

This belief came in response to the realities of the time that saw corruption and lust for riches as the main interests in the political life. Both Gandhi and Machiavelli saw self restrain as an important quality, even though the reasons deferred.

In today's political life, there is more and more evidence of the applicability of the concepts advocated by Machiavelli centuries ago. The constant use of the notion Machiavellian is relevant in this sense. It comes to define the belief that the final outcome is the most important one in the overall process of history. In the end, according to Richelieu, who was inspired by the ideas of the Italian politician, history would eventually judge a leader not for the means he used, but for the aims, he had set beforehand. (Kissinger, 1995) the so-called raison d'etat governed international relations for centuries after the Westphalia Peace in 1648 and was the practical result of the notions presented by Machiavelli.

Today, a leader must primarily think at the safety of his state, as Machiavelli rightfully considered. A common case is represented by the U.S. No matter the color of the political leadership, the general strategy advocated by both democrats and republicans targets the integrity and supremacy of the independence of the state. Therefore, the personal interest and the political battles come second to the interest of the state.

This desire and possibility to adapt to the conditions that define the national interest is visible on the international scene as well. The U.S. For instance is exercising its role as the leader of the Western World in the big lines drew by Machiavelli. Thus, the policy makers in Washington portrayed the image of the American leadership as being able to adapt to the changing conditions of international relations. Machiavelli considers that a prince, a leader is good to be seen as merciful, faithful, humane, sincere, and religious in order to draw the love and consideration of his subjects. However, he adds, he also has to be able to change in the opposite direction. Thus, he concludes, it is important for the ruler not to deviate from what is good, but to be able to do evil if constrained.

The same precepts can be applied to the current international situation. The U.S., as the leader of the world, appears to be, and must be, a democratic, freedom loving country, one that values…… [Read More]

References:
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.

Chew, Robin. Mahatma Gandhi: Indian Spiritual/Political, Leader, and Humanitarian. 1995. 25 April 2007.  http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95oct/mkgandhi.html#resources 
View Full Essay

Indian History the Indian National Essay

Words: 3378 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30426316

It was also discovered that the Moderates did not have sufficient representation in Congress. The Moderates were aware of Tilak's loyalty to the Congress but did not appreciate it. They even thoroughly resisted his entry and that of his friends to it. Tilak then cooperated with Annie Besant in forming two home rule leagues, one in Maharashtra and the other in Madras. Their Lucknow Congress in 1916 healed the division. Both sides wanted to restore the old and honorable conditions. After agreeing on some membership conditions, the Moderates accepted the extremists. The Lucknow Congress honored and recognized Tilak as a the sole political hero of the time. The Moderates could have offered Tilak the presidency of the Congress but Tilak was known to have a pledge of self-denial. He withdrew his name from the 1907 Nagpur Congress and suggested that it be replaced by the name of Lala Laipat Rai. From 1916 to 1917, Tilak was the most prominent figure in the annual Congress and the special session in Bombay. In the evening of his departure for England, he was elected president of the Congress but would be unable to enforce the office for lack of time for the Chirol case. He resigned from the position, yet he took with him the presidency of the Tilak Home Rule League. One more record was the collection of rupees by Mahatma Gandhi for the Tilak Swaraj Fund, which was supposedly spent on activities not approved by Titak, such as non-cooperation and Ahinsa as a political weapon (National Indian Congress).

In December 1915, Tilak established his Home Rule Movement in Poona and would aim at home rule or self-government within the British Empire (Indian National Congress 2004). It would pursue this aim through all constitutional means and through the education and the fostering of public opinion towards this goal. Its proponents opposed violence and revolutionary agitation. They did not want to embarrass the British government, which then fought against Germany and Austria-Hungary. They were even willing to cooperate with the British government in order to win that war. In 1917, Titak and Annie Besant worked together for the same goal. Titak concentrated on his Bombay presidency, while Annie took charge of the rest of India. Tilak toured the country in 1916 and campaigned for the unification of the people…… [Read More]

Resources:
British Broadcasting Corporation. Mohandas Gandhi. Historic Figures. BBC.Co.Uk, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gandhi_mohandas.shtml

Edidin, Peter. 1947: the End of the Raj. New York Times Upfront: the Scholastic, Inc., January 30, 2006
View Full Essay

Warms the Heart More Than Essay

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81092023

This special treat was their way of expressing how important my visits were to them. We then discussed current events, reminisced about their lives during the Korean War, and talked about their children and grandchildren. For that summer, I became their personal bridge to the mainland. Even more important, they no longer felt ostracized. At the same time, the experience changed my life even more than theirs. I found that my volunteer efforts could further the change I want to see in the world -- an end to discrimination and injustice. [making other people's lives better in some way]

Because of my experience on Sorok Island, I now regularly visit residents at a Los Angeles nursing home. Many of these men and women have the same need as [names]. They want to talk with someone, because their children are too busy to visit or they are alone. These people also have very special stories to relate about their past. The time we spend together makes me feel appreciated. It also encourages me to visit my own grandparents more often.

Admittedly, I started volunteering since it was the right thing to do, not because I was personally motivated. Yet, it greatly changed who I am. It broadened my personal outlook on life and appreciation for my own family. Volunteering, knowing that I am fulfilling a need, also gives me a sense of purpose. This is why Gandhi's expression is so meaningful: It is a two-way mirror. By being the change you want to see in the world, you are also being a change…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

English Literature Martin Luther King Essay

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94070402

It is also more likely to create a constructive rather than a destructive outcome, it is a process of conflict resolution that may aim to arrive at the truth of a given situation rather than simple victory for one side and it is the only technique of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions (Weber and Burrowes, n.d.).

Nonviolent action is a method by which people who reject passivity and submission, and who see struggle as necessary, can have their conflict without violence. Nonviolent acts are not seen as an attempt to steer clear of or ignore conflict. They are one reaction to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, particularly how to wield powers effectively. It consists of acts of protest and persuasion, noncooperation and nonviolent intervention designed to undermine the sources of power of the opponent in order to bring about change (Weber and Burrowes, n.d.).

Martin Luther King Jr. knew that there was too much violence in the world and worked very hard to settle the race issues in this country in a non-violent way. He used his mind and his tremendous gift of language to break down the barriers that existed between the whites and the blacks. He knew that fighting back in a violent way would do nothing more than heighten the situation to a greater and more violent level. There was a great injustice being carried out across the country and the last thing that he wanted to do was add to it. He believed that with a lot of hard work and some common sense that the issue would eventually be righted.

Works… [Read More]

Sources:
Burstein, Stanley M. And Shek, Richard. 2005. "World History Ancient Civilizations." Texas:

Holt, Rinhart and Winston
View Full Essay

Philosophy of Descartes and Its Essay

Words: 4086 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74645269



5. Kant's "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the "Critique of Pure Reason"?

The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs -- and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them -- are somehow instinctually incorporated into human thought as knowledge. Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is concerned both with the process by which we have assumed such 'knowledge' and with the implications that such assumptions have on our approach to the mortal realm. In his discourse, he approaches space and time as two principles which occupy such a disposition in our shared consciousness and herein offers insight into the transcendental notion of human perception as a reflection of the self rather than of 'reality.'

Immanuel Kant may perhaps be regarded as our most important metaphysical philosopher for the assimilation of a great breadth of scientific knowledge with an unparalleled insight into questions over existence, man's relationship to the universe and the inherent nature of man to strive for answers to questions beyond his pale of understanding. Key works composed by and about Kant's explorations of all of the above disciplines indicate that the thinker viewed scientific ingenuity as a natural extension man's senses and as a manifestation of human impulse to challenge, create and comprehend. It was thus that he worked to elevate empiricism as a…… [Read More]

References:
Berkeley, G. (1994). Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. Arete Press, Claremont, CA.

Hume, D. (1738). A Treatise on the Human Nature. Escuela de Filosofia Universidad ARCIS.
View Full Essay

Nelson Mandela as an Attorney Essay

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31118572

By this time, Mandela had earned his law degree and opened a practice in Johannesburg by 1952 with partner Oliver Tambo. The practice focused on apartheid-related cases, such as those that dealt with land-use laws that blatantly discriminated against indigenous Africans. Interestingly, the authorities forced Mandela and Tambo's practice out of the city based on the very laws they were trying to change. Being forced to move their practice highlighted the need for rapid and thorough changes to the law.

After a few years in practice, Mandela also worked on cases involving labor laws, university segregation, Bantustan segregation, and Pass laws, which restricted the free movement of black Africans. His work unearthed layer upon layer of unjust civil laws that systematically oppressed the native population of the region. For example, Bantustan laws referred to the setting aside of parcels of land expressly for the use of black Africans, but the system only served the best interests of the white-controlled government. Police brutality was also common on Bantustan lands ("Biography of Nelson Mandela"). In 1960, the authorities banned the African National Congress, signaling an impending crisis.

Having used civil disobedience and his legal practice to challenge the prevailing authorities, Mandela's work was influenced by his contemporary Mohandas (Mahatma) Ghandi. Whether formally or not, Mandela's work for freedom bears strong philosophical resemblance to American and French independence movements, which were in turn based on the Enlightenment theories of Kant, Locke, Hume, and Paine. Nothing Mandela did during his struggle for freedom and justice can be heavily criticized. Nelson Mandela proves that the law can be changed from within to create a more just civil society.… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Biography of Nelson Mandela." Retrieved Mar 2, 2008 at http://www.anc.org.za/people/mandela.html

Nelson Mandela." Nobel Prize.org. Retrieved Mar 2, 2008 at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html
View Full Essay

Institutionalized Mass Murder the Roots Essay

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67405088

Two, countries or world leaders might act with selfish motives. For instance, genocide might be ignored if that country is a valuable trading partner or a member of a strategic alliance.

Non-Violent Civil Disobedience

Discussion 1: Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr. And Nelson Mandela all organized massive movements based on non-violent solutions to major social crises. In each of these cases, non-violent solutions resulted in positive social change. Ghandi secured India's independence from British colonial rule; King bolstered the Civil Rights movement and helped break down institutionalized racism in the United States; and Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid even from within his prison cell. Each of these cases demonstrates the effectiveness of non-violence as a means to secure social change. Moreover, in each of these cases the non-violent movement brought the cause into the public arena. Ghandi, King, and Mandela garnered tremendous support for their causes by refraining from the use of force.

Discussion 2: Terrorism is the opposite means to achieve what is sometimes a similar end: social change. Some terrorism is motivated by more selfish aims but in many cases such as in Gaza, terrorism is used to achieve civil liberties. The most apparent difference between terrorism and non-violent protest is the use of force. Terrorists willingly and deliberately kill to get a point across whereas non-violent protesters refuse to do so. Non-violent protest might lead to breaking the law, but only laws that are perceived of as unjust such as the Jim Crow laws. Like non-violent protests, terrorists do achieve the goal of achieving international recognition. Yet rather than garner sympathy, terrorists usually attract negative press and may impede progress toward the intended goals. The Global community would and should respond more positively to non-violent protests…… [Read More]