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Qualities I admire
the UN has even set and international peace day to celebrate him. Some of the qualities admire in this great man includes his great belief in himself. Mahatma Gandhi did not have a peculiar physique; he was a poor orator, lived a simple life, and did everything to avoid publicity. However, populations across the world still regard him as a great personality because he always believes in himself. He had the belief that he was entitled to a great responsibility to ensure that his fellow citizens lived in absolute freedom. He believed that he had a significant role to play in attaining freedom of the Indian land. His faith has triggered my faith, as well as the faith of billions of people across the world (Punnett & Shenkar, 2004).
Another quality, which I cannot ignore, is his persistence and resistance; to begin with, he was…
Dalton, D. (2012). Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent power in action. New York: Columbia
Flin, R.H., O'Connor, P., & Crichton, M. (2008). Safety at the sharp end: A guide to non-
technical skills. Aldershot, England: Ashgate
Gandhi, M.K., & Dalton, D.G. (2006). Selected political writings. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett
Gandhi accounted the fear of losing a comfortable life not equal to the goal of universal freedom. In a world where "working-class" politicians get $400 haircuts, where "people's" advocates live in penthouses, where our President is considered down-to-earth because he only owns one outrageously expensive home, how refreshing would it be to find a leader who not only identifies with, but also lives the lives of his constituents as Gandhi did?
The people's love for Gandhi fueled another aspect of his courageous nature. Understanding he could not be killed but only martyred, he engineered situations where only winning outcomes were possible. Either the authorities would capitulate and he would have his way, or they would kill him and risk the wrath of hundreds of millions of Indians. He did not fear death. Rather, he embarked on innumerable fasts-unto-death, offering his life as the ransom of the people's faith and independence.…
1. Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand The Story of My Experiments with Truth. New York: BN Publishing, 2008. Print.
Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader who dreamt of making India an independent state, which would be free from the British rule. From 1917 to 1947, Mahatma Gandhi has been a great leader and has worked to make his dream true. His non-co-operation movements and the famous Salt March are few examples of his life which are significant enough to express his identity (Metcalf and Metcalf, 2006).
Gandhi had very aggressive nationalist facts (Metcalf and Metcalf, 2006). A number of characteristics were preserved by Gandhi during his leadership regime. One of such characteristic was Satyagraha. Apart from Satyagraha, many other actions were also taken by Gandhi to obtain independence and to join up India. Great commitment was given by Gandhi on Satyagraha, which showed that he did not want violence despite of the fact that he was a fighter who was fighting for the rights of his people. At first…
Bondurant, Joan V. Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict. Princeton UP, 1988.
Fischer, Louis. The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas. Vintage: New York, 2002.
Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. Navajivan Publishing House, 1990.
Metcalf, Barbara, and Metcalf, Thomas RA. Concise History of Modern India: Cambridge Concise Histories. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
In fact it is argued by many who fall into this caste category and their external proponents that attaching a word to the caste that implies that they are in some way weak and in need of protection is as damaging as suppressing their successes. (85)
The 'untouchable', to me, is, compared to us, really a Harijan - a man of God, and we are Durjan (men of evil). For whilst the 'untouchable' has toiled and moiled and dirtied his hands so that we may live in comfort and cleanliness, we have delighted in suppressing him. (Young India, August 6, 1931 [quoted in Gandhi 1933: 40-1])
Gandhi would likely have been hurt by the sentiment and rejection of the Harijan title, as the people he intended to elevate reject his reclassification of them as people of God. He would likely stress that the full intent of the terminology…
Charsley, Simon. "Untouchable': What Is in a Name." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2.1 (1996): 1.
Gandhi, Mahatma, "Untouchability" in Fisher, Mary & Bailey, Lee eds. An Anthology of Living Religions. New York: Prentice Hall. 2000, 84-85.
Ninian, Alex. "India's Untouchables: The Dalits." Contemporary Review Summer 2008: 186.
Ghandi and Nehru
Both Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were instrumental founding fathers of the modern India, an India independent from colonial powers and poised to become the world's largest democratic power. The two leaders worked together and it was a blend of their personal philosophies that became the underpinning of the independence movement in India. Nehru became India's first Prime Minister in August of 1947, immediately after independence. Therefore, Nehru bore a heavy political burden of showing Indian citizens, and indeed the whole world, that India was indeed capable of self-rule.
Gandhi and Nehru shared much in common in terms of their visions of India's future and the methods by which to achieve independence. Both men objected to colonial rule and were reviled by the British people in power. The British incarcerated Jawaharlal Nehru, and Gandhi engaged in self-imposed asceticism as a means to raise awareness for the cause.…
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964). BBC. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/nehru_jawaharlal.shtml
"Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)").
Tharoor, Shashi. Gandhi and Nehru. Time. Retrieved Nov 27, 2010 from http://www.time.com/time/asia/2006/heroes/nb_gandhi_nehru.html
Yergin, Daniel and Stanislaw, Joseph. Excerpt from The Commanding Heights1998 ed., pp. 79-80. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:yUb-LFaf_WQJ:www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/pdf/prof_jawaharlalnehru.pdf+ghandi+Nehru&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiexUg9dAtuz-2jGJGe1oAMKJXYOAUS8UWdkkOpKakP_Tsa1eNffZIjNzZXE1qyx792GBPrOEvhuRd2_AXZc5CjQs7jVDmBvqad25pC7kq4l6ElzU5nekcuajLEgx4eUFBeHc4c&sig=AHIEtbTAzguG1mM2WrZwmP0iNSl7Fdg3yw
Gandhi also possessed this leadership skill. People listened to Gandhi even when they were not in agreement with what he was trying to convey.
Law of respect-Gandhi respected others even when they did not respect him. In return, people respected Gandhi, even many of the people responsible for his many persecutions came to respect him.
Law of Navigation- Gandhi had an ability to organize people and delegate responsibilities and he had a vision for future and the manner in which government should behave towards people.
Law of process. This law asserts that leadership is learned over a period of time. Gandhi certainly developed and attempted to perfect his leadership style over a period of many years. The years spent in South Africa were crucial as tit pertains to his development as a leader.
Law of trust- an effective leader must have the trust of followers. Those who followed Gandhi and…
Mahatma Gandhi-His Life in Pictures. (1987) the Central Electric Press,
Kamla Nagar, Delhi. [Available Online] Retrieved August 9, 2008 from:. http://www.mkgandhi.org/bio5000/bio5index.htm
Maxwell, J. (1998) the 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People Will Follow You. Thomas Nelson, New York.
Parekh, B. (1989). Gandhi's Political Philosophy: A Critical Examination. Notre Dame, in: University of Norte Dame Press.
.. becomes unjust" (Lincoln 158). Here, King is referring to the Civil Rights movement and its non-violent protest which in the minds of the lawmakers disrupted and desegregated society by allowing blacks to interrelate with the Southern majority who keenly believed in the separation of the races. In addition, King brings his argument against unjust laws full circle by declaring "One who breaks an unjust law must do it openly, lovingly... And with a willingness to accept the penalty" (Lincoln 159), meaning that a "lawbreaker" must have the right state of mind when disobeying an unjust law and must firmly believe that he/she is doing the proper thing for the good of all. Thus, King's application of civil disobedience was a necessary thing for his people, for without it they might have never gained the freedoms that they possess today.
In conclusion, it is clear that civil disobedience as applied…
Chew, Robin. "Mahatma Gandhi-Indian Spiritual/Political Leader and Humanitarian." Lucidcafe. Internet. October 1995. Accessed March 8, 2005. http://www2.lucidcafe.com/lucidcafe/library/95oct/mkgandhi.html.
Clement, Catherine. Gandhi: Father of a Nation. UK: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1996.
Fischer, Louis. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.
Lincoln, C. Eric. Martin Luther King: A Profile. New York: Hill & Wang, 1970.
Mahatma Gandhi is still one of the most influential spiritual and political leaders ever to have made his presence known to the world. Through his fight for independence using non-violent resistance, Gandhi spread the word of gaining independence without loosing one's dignity or pride in the midst of a bloody struggle. His principles were based of the piousness of spirituality, and therefore aim to help guide individuals to truth and independence without damaging their self-respect or morality.
Gandhi's principles were incredibly spiritual, and were often intertwined with one another. Take for example the relationship between satyagraha and swaraj for Gandhi. These are essentially two very different principles for Gandhi, yet they are closely intertwined. Gandhi stated that "Satyagraha literally means insistence on truth" (Gandhi 81). It is the search for truth and the effort to live one's live within respect for absolute truth. Yet, many times, this path…
Gandhi, Mahatma. Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings. Hackett Publishing. 1996.
If the person reacts with hatred or anger, he gets no immediate relief and instead develops a negative attitude and feeling, which will lead to his own downfall. The generation of hatred and hateful thoughts produces undesirable forms of existence in future lives and also creates a distorted image of the person who harbors that hatred. Others can sense it and even experience steam of hostility coming out of him. Even animals can feel it and avoid that person. Hatred also takes over the best part of the brain, which judges right from wrong and evaluates long-term consequences against short-term ones. No one and nothing can protect a person from anger or hatred. Education, the law, weapons or money cannot protect him from it and its consequences. Only tolerance and patience can. Gandhi was well aware of the disadvantages of feeling hatred for his tormentors that was why he avoided…
Gandhi, Mahatma K. Gandhi: an Autobiography. Navajivan Publishing House: Beacon Press, 1993
Lama, the Dalai and Cutler, Howard C. The Art of Happiness at Work. Riverhead Books, 2003
Healing Hatred, a Guide to the Boddhisattva's Way of Life. Snow Lion's Publications, 1997
Thoreau, Henry David. Resistance to Civil Government. Aesthetic Papers, a Concord Lyceum lecture, May 1849
This indicates that society is not safe as the result of the death penalty, so long as life in prison is a real and fully-enforced option for prisoners who commit terrible crimes.
There is also the very real issue of innocent people who are murdered by the state. Of course, some proponents of capital punishment argue that from a utilitarian point-of-view, more guilty people are executed than innocent people. But an equally rational utilitarian point-of-view is that when it is discovered that the state has killed an innocent person, respect for the state and the judicial process as a whole is damaged. When no one respects the judicial process, crime is likely to increase. Further damage to the social perception of the justice system is incurred by the fact that more non-whites are executed than whites, which suggests that racial biases on the part of juries and lack of access…
He encouraged self-sufficiency and education, and started the homespun wool movement. He even showed foresight in foreign policy: When Hitler started World War II, Gandhi actually halted the Indian freedom movement, and asked the Indians to support the British rather than take advantage of their weakness. His theory - correct - was that Hitler was a much more evil foe. The British could be dealt with later.
I'd want to eat with Gandhi so I could learn from where he derived his passion, his non-violent bent, his perseverance and his love for India. I'd also want to learn where he learned his magnanimity: He was eventually assassinated by his own people because he gave too much away to Pakistan, India's sworn enemy, because he believed that both countries were brothers.
We all have a lot to learn from Gandhi.
Take Martin Luther King, Jr., for instance, who based his entire…
Throughout his life, Mahatma Gandhi gave emphasis to the notion that his twin principles of truth and nonviolence must be put in practice in every aspect of life as they have the strength to solve a number of human problems. His teachings were being practiced by his faithful disciples after achieving the political independence. The most prominent person in this regard is the leader and the spiritual heir of Gandhi, Vinoba Bhave (Bary, Hay, Weiler & Yarrow, 1958).
Vinoba Bhave is, thus, one of those great devout reformers of modern India whose selfless services have inspired the hearts of innumerable countrymen. At a very early age, Vinoba was determined to undertake a lifetime celibacy & selfless service to the needy. He was in search of a life in which he could synthesize both spirituality and practicality. When he discovered Gandhi, both of them worked for the…
Bary, T.D., Hay, S.N., Weiler, R., & Yarrow, A. (1958). Sources of Indian Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100539926
Bhave, Vinoba. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117006628
Mehta, S. (n.d.). Bhoodan-Gramdan Movement-50 Years: A Review. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.mkgandhi-sarvodaya.org/vinoba/bhoodan.htm
Muzumdar, H.T. (1952). Mahatma Gandhi Peaceful Revolutionary. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved April 20, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9283380
It was also discovered that the Moderates did not have sufficient representation in Congress. The Moderates were aware of Tilak's loyalty to the Congress but did not appreciate it. They even thoroughly resisted his entry and that of his friends to it. Tilak then cooperated with Annie esant in forming two home rule leagues, one in Maharashtra and the other in Madras. Their Lucknow Congress in 1916 healed the division. oth sides wanted to restore the old and honorable conditions. After agreeing on some membership conditions, the Moderates accepted the extremists. The Lucknow Congress honored and recognized Tilak as a the sole political hero of the time. The Moderates could have offered Tilak the presidency of the Congress but Tilak was known to have a pledge of self-denial. He withdrew his name from the 1907 Nagpur Congress and suggested that it be replaced by the name of Lala Laipat Rai.…
British Broadcasting Corporation. Mohandas Gandhi. Historic Figures. BBC.Co.Uk, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gandhi_mohandas.shtml
Edidin, Peter. 1947: the End of the Raj. New York Times Upfront: the Scholastic, Inc., January 30, 2006
Indian National Congress. The Congress and the Freedom Movement. AICC, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://aicc.org.in/the_congress_and_the_freedom_movement.htm
Leathem, Rebecca. Mahatma Gandhi. Business Asia: First Charlton Communications Pty, Ltd., February 15, 1999
This special treat was their way of expressing how important my visits were to them. We then discussed current events, reminisced about their lives during the Korean War, and talked about their children and grandchildren. For that summer, I became their personal bridge to the mainland. Even more important, they no longer felt ostracized. At the same time, the experience changed my life even more than theirs. I found that my volunteer efforts could further the change I want to see in the world -- an end to discrimination and injustice. [making other people's lives better in some way]
Because of my experience on Sorok Island, I now regularly visit residents at a Los Angeles nursing home. Many of these men and women have the same need as [names]. They want to talk with someone, because their children are too busy to visit or they are alone. These people also…
It is also more likely to create a constructive rather than a destructive outcome, it is a process of conflict resolution that may aim to arrive at the truth of a given situation rather than simple victory for one side and it is the only technique of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions (eber and Burrowes, n.d.).
Nonviolent action is a method by which people who reject passivity and submission, and who see struggle as necessary, can have their conflict without violence. Nonviolent acts are not seen as an attempt to steer clear of or ignore conflict. They are one reaction to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, particularly how to wield powers effectively. It consists of acts of protest and persuasion, noncooperation and nonviolent intervention designed to undermine the sources of power of the opponent in order to bring about change…
Burstein, Stanley M. And Shek, Richard. 2005. "World History Ancient Civilizations." Texas:
Holt, Rinhart and Winston
Jones, Chris. 2008. "Analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail."
Web. 27 April 2010.
5. Kant's "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the "Critique of Pure Reason"?
The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs -- and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them…
Berkeley, G. (1994). Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. Arete Press, Claremont, CA.
Hume, D. (1738). A Treatise on the Human Nature. Escuela de Filosofia Universidad ARCIS.
Kidd, S.D. (1988). The Intersubjective Heart. Sorbonne.
Kline, A. (2009). Kierkegaard, Abraham, and the Nature of Faith. Soren Kierkegaard Biography. Online at http://atheism.about.com/od/existentialistphilosophers/a/kierkegaard_2.htm
Two, countries or world leaders might act with selfish motives. For instance, genocide might be ignored if that country is a valuable trading partner or a member of a strategic alliance.
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
Discussion 1: Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr. And Nelson Mandela all organized massive movements based on non-violent solutions to major social crises. In each of these cases, non-violent solutions resulted in positive social change. Ghandi secured India's independence from British colonial rule; King bolstered the Civil Rights movement and helped break down institutionalized racism in the United States; and Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid even from within his prison cell. Each of these cases demonstrates the effectiveness of non-violence as a means to secure social change. Moreover, in each of these cases the non-violent movement brought the cause into the public arena. Ghandi, King, and Mandela garnered tremendous support for their causes by refraining from…
Mentors helped mold Eboo Patel by giving shape to Patel's dreams and shedding light on the paths that the author might take to reach his goals. Working with mentors also gave Patel insight into diversity, and revealed worldviews previously hidden from everyday sight. Patel honors his mentors for their varied contributions to his intellectual and spiritual development. In Acts of Faith, Patel spends a great deal of time discussing his mentors because he also wants to show his readers that their success depends on the cultivation of deep and meaningful relationships with other people. Mentors are guides, teachers, and confidents. They can serve in the role of coach, by inspiring and cheerleading. Mentors can also offer constructive criticism when those in their tutelage need it the most.
Although Patel honors a plethora of people that inspired and motivated him to create the Interfaith Youth Core, he focuses on a…
Patel, Eboo. Acts of Faith. Boston: Beacon, 2007.
Change Is a Planned Process
Change, everyone believes, is the only certain element in this highly chaotic and uncertain world. However I believe that change is a highly systemic process, which doesn't take place as abruptly as it appears to. This might seem like a strange statement to some but when we delve deeper into the subject of change, we realize that like everything that is pre-destined and pre-determined, change is also a highly well planned phenomenon. Mahatma Gandhi once said that for change to occur, we must become that change. This is exactly what I mean by change being a planned process.
It is true that change appears to be as unplanned as it comes, our realities change within nanoseconds and our world might never be the same after a small incident that lasted about four minutes. But still I believe that for change to enter our lives it…
They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:
"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."
Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…
Harrell, Willie J. (2009). "We Shall Crush Apartheid: Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, and the Rhetoric of the South African Anti-apartheid Jeremiad. Ethnicity and Race in a Changing World: A Review Journal, Vol 1 Issue 1, January 2009, found online at http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/journals/journal.asp?id=18 , retrieved March 20, 2010.
Downing, David (2003). Apartheid in South Africa,
Another element shared in common by Shinto and Taoism is religious purity. The concept of purity is taken to a greater extreme in Shinto, in which physical illness is perceived as spiritual impurity. A Taoist is concerned with both physical and spiritual health, but practices Tai Chi and similar methods of calming and balancing body and mind.
Shinto is an indigenous Japanese religion, whereas Taoism originates in China. Although the two religions have different geographic origins and different means of worship, they share some elements in common. Both include reverence for ancestors or ancestral spirits, and both are concerned with physical and spiritual purity.
Written Assignment Unit Three
2. Discuss the process that led to the formation of the Talmud. Explain the basic contents of the Talmud and their relation to the Torah.
The Torah refers to the Hebrew Bible as a sacred text. The Talmud evolved as a living…
Crime vs. Sin
A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…
Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.
Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.
Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.
Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
Business Ethics magazine recently awarded the Chroma Technology Corporation, a Vermont-based manufacturer of high-tech optical lens products, the "Living Economy Award" as part of the 16th Annual Business Ethics Awards. The Living Economy Award is offered to the company that best exemplifies "the living economy with practices of employee ownership, fair wages, and environmental stewardship," (Business Ethics). One of the key reasons why Chroma earned the accolade was due to its unique official salary structure: no employee earns less than $37,500 and none more than $75,000; therefore, no upper-level management official makes more than twice as much as anyone on the shop floor. Chroma's unique salary structure in part reflects my vision of corporate business ethics and the values I would like to embody as a professional. There are other reasons why I admire Chroma's policies. They employ an egalitarian meeting format modeled after the Quakers; they ensure environmental sustainability…
Corporate Social Responsibility Report." Business Ethics. http://www.business-ethics.com/ .
Non-Violence." BBC Online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/war/nonviolence.shtml.
My inspiration for defining a productive life has always been greatly influenced by Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi and I came to the realization that I could contribute more to the betterment of my society and to the welfare of a larger number of people by directing my energies toward a career in administrative health care than I could ever possibly achieve by practicing clinical medicine. As clinicians, even the most successful of us can only affect a relatively small number of individuals in our careers. However, as health care administrators and public advocates and educators, we can actually help transform our societies from communities where only a relatively small number of people have access to modern health care services into communities in which adequate health care services and access to basic preventative medicine become widespread and more evenly distributed throughout the human community.
Therefore, I hope to pursue a…
Political or Social Problem
Racism has been a major social problem in American history going back to the colonial period of the 17th and 18th Centuries, and by no means only in the former slave states of the South. In fact, the condition of blacks in the United States has always been a central social, political and economic problem that resulted in the nation's most destructive war in 1861-65 and in its most important civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. As the moral and spiritual leader of the latter, Martin Luther King's place in American history is well-known: this was the central preoccupation of his life from 1955-68, and he died as a martyr to this cause. Karl Marx was merely a foreign observer of the U.S. Civil ar, but he understood the issues of slavery and racism very well and was an enthusiastic abolitionist and supporter of…
Gilman, S.L. "Karl Marx and the Secret Language of the Jews" in Jessop, Bob (Ed) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought. Routledge, 1999: 22-41.
King, Martin Luther. "Address to the Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the National Bar Association, August 20, 1959" in Carson, Clayborne (Ed) The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume V, Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959-December 1960. University of California Press, 2005.
Marx, Karl. "Comments on the North American Events," Die Presse, October 12, 1862 and "The Election Results in the Northern States," Die Presse, November 23, 1862 in Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels, Writings on the U.S. Civil War. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/us-civil-war/index.htm
Communication and Leadership
hat makes a great leader? How is a great leader made? There is no single answer to that question because there are as many different kinds of great leaders as there are problems in society that need to be overcome. hile certainly it is true that many important and effective leaders share a number of the same qualities, it is also imperative to remember that each leader has different challenges that face him or her because of the particular historical circumstances that call that person to be a leader.
This research proposal maps out a plan to study the ways in which African-Americans become leaders in the United States today, looking at the struggles that they have to overcome in terms of the general level of background racism that still exists in this nation. But this is certainly not a research project designed to cast pity on…
We now turn away from recent history to contemporary American society to look at the ways in which some contemporary African-Americans are becoming leaders in their communities, despite the racism that they face from the surrounding world. http://www.twbookmark.com/books/33/0446675466/chapter_excerpt9276.html
Violent vs. Non-Violent evolution
Violent revolutions and non-violent revolutions began to unfold with great regularity after the 1400's, 1500's and 1600's when much to most of the world became colonized by the Dutch, the French, the British and the Spanish. Both the United States and modern-day India became free from the same ruling country, that being Great Britain. However, the differences are quite stark when one gets beyond that similarity. Even though violent revolutions are often required or at least quicker, the independence of India in the 1940's proved that non-violent revolution can be equally effective, albeit tumultuous in its own right.
Great Britain at one time controlled most of the world, it seemed, along with Spain, France and a few other countries. Indeed, the land now owned by the United States was, at one time or another, controlled by the British, the French, the Spaniards and their descendants…
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…
Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.
Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.
Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.
Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.
Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…
The phenomenon of globalization is a very controversial one, as some people are against it despite the fact that they are aware that the process is unavoidable. From the early ages people have felt the need to socialize and civilizations have been absorbed into one another. The process of globalization has both advantages and disadvantages, but, people are dedicated to making it happen regardless to the consequences that their actions have.
The human race started building civilization several millennia ago, and, from there on, humans have become addicted to it. It is in the human nature to constantly seek for advancement and to interact with others. One of the main disadvantages that civilization poses, however, is that is provides better grounds for evil to develop. Crimes are taken to a whole new level in the modern world. Another disadvantage that globalization brings is the fact that vices are also advancing…
Hopkins, A.G. "Globalization in World History" .
 Hopkins, A.G. "Globalization in World History" .
Business coach Jonathan Farrington reports that the standards that follow team work should underpin how a person operates. The purpose of a team is to get work done satisfactorily by involving everyone and gaining through their individual strengths. Involving people with a variety of interests on broad issues is motivational and very effective. Myriad views can enhance methods, standards, processes and overall effectiveness and productivity. Other people's differences need to be respected, regardless how unusual they appear, and any personal biases eliminated. It is never healthy to underestimate people or make quick judgments about them. Humans are very complex beings; just because a person says or does one thing, he/she should not be immediately categorized.
When becoming involved with a team, it is necessary to spend time to understand its goals, the ultimate task that is to be performed and each person's responsibilities to accomplish the goals. At first, it…
Ansary, T.(2009). Degrees & Training: What is a Leader? Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/departments/elearning/Default.aspx?
Bruce, C.E. (nd) Making the Transition from Campus to Workplace. Black Collegean Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.black-collegian.com/career/transition-199805.shtml
Burke, R.J., Oberklaid, F., & Burgess, Z. (2005) Organizational values, job experiences and satisfactions among female and male psychologists. Community, Work & Family, 8(1): 53-68
Career Media (1999), Graduate Careers in Information Technology, Westlake: Watcham Penrose Associates.
Dangers linger in any relationship where one party holds power and the other party gives it. Any student of leadership, must recognize that tripwire, and assiduously avoid it through correctly recognizing the dangers that abuse of power can bring.
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and omen. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J., & Boydell, T. (1944). A Manager's Guide To Self-Development 4th ed. London: McGraw-Hill.
Ulrich, D., Zenger, J., Smallwood, N., & . (1953; CR 1999). Results-Based…
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and Women. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
However, when the Greeks reach their boats, Odysseus cannot help but once again proving his devotion to achieve glory wherever he goes, informing Polyphemus in regard to his true identity and thus infuriating the gods. This is Odysseus' biggest mistake, since it is because of this act that Poseidon is reluctant to let the Greek hero live, with the god of sea constantly stressing Odysseus and making his journey even longer.
3. Poseidon is obviously Odysseus's biggest enemy, given that he is in control of the waters and that Odysseus has no choice but to travel by water in order to reach his homeland. As Polyphemus' father, Poseidon is determined to punish Odysseus and struggles to prevent the Greek hero from achieving his goal. Poseidon's wrath could have been avoided if Odysseus had not insisted in revealing his identity to the Cyclops, who was thus enabled to inform his father…
Homer, "The Odyssey of Homer," Ingram, Cooke, 1853.
Where the urns (1978) book sets itself apart is through its evaluation of the practice and theory of leadership skills. In the book, urns (1978) states that he defined leadership as "leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations -- the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations -- of both leaders and followers" (p. 19).
Another important reason that urns (1978) remains so popular today is that he addresses leadership styles throughout the book by using examples that can be easily related to. Moses, Napoleon, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. are all discussed. How they led, why, and in what capacity can shed significant light on specific types of leadership skills and the styles with which they best fit. Also included in urns' (1978) book are Adolf Hitler and Machiavelli, and they are all used to show how leaders who…
Benson, F. (1994). One right way doesn't work with leadership either. Journal for Quality and Participation. 17(4): 86-89.
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
' However, ill-tempered is a somewhat subjective judgment, given that the protestors of the civil rights era were likely to be judged as similarly 'ill tempered' by those who opposed African-American legal parity with whites. King's claim of lovingly breaking the law did not mean that he joyously accepted his punishment of jail time for exercising his rights in the segregated south: King may have embraced his punishment because of his hopes for change, not out of some sort of self-abnegating humility. The civil rights movement was about self-assertion of one's rights. The love in his heart came from his hope for the possibility of change. This did not mean, just like contemporary groups, that he was not outraged by his jailing and the violent actions of the police against civil rights demonstrators.
But James J. Lopach and Jean A. Luckowski seem to have another agenda: their distaste for the…
According to Aiken, this liberation is only achieved after twelve years as a monk and eight rebirths. Souls who do not achieve liberation are either reborn as another life on earth or suffer punishment in one of the eight levels of hell.
Once a householder undertakes the path to liberation of the soul, according to the Jain Center of America, he must take and follow the five vows:
Ahimsa -- nonviolence
Satya -- truthfulness
Asteya -- not stealing
Brahmacarya -- celibacy or monogamy
Aparigraha -- detachment from material possessions 'All the venerable ones (arhats) of the past, present and future discourse, counsel, proclaim, propound and prescribe thus in unison: do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture or kill any creature or living being' (Uttaraadhyayan Sutra)
Hibbets explains that ahimsa (nonviolence) is the most fundamental value to the Jains. Because they believe that all living things (animals, plants, insects,…
Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 5 May 2011.
Anonymous. "Jainism." ReligionFacts. N.p. 18 January 2008. Web. 5 May 2011.
Hibbets, Maria. Extremists for Love: The Jain Perspective on Nonviolence. Beliefnet. N.p. Web. 5 May 2011.
"Jainism." Jain Center of America. Web. 5 May 2011.
Allard, Harry and James Marshall. Miss Nelson Is Missing. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. Print.
Miss Nelson is a non-threatening instructor whose students take advantage of her gentle personality by misbehaving. One day Miss Nelson disappears and is replaced by an ill-tempered substitute, Miss Viola Swamp, who makes the children appreciate their good-natured teacher. The book is designed for primary and early elementary readers.
Beaumont, Karen. I Ain't Gonna Paint No More! Florida: Harcourt, Inc. 2005. Print.
A little boy has been caught and chastised for decorating his home with a box of paints. His mother takes the paint set away from him and tells him, "Ya ain't gonna paint no more!" He soon reacquires the box of paints and becomes busily engaged in painting himself from head to toe. Preschool children will enjoy this book.
Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. New York: Collins Publishers.…
Dave, a fifth-grader, is astonished to learn in a report about India that Mahatma Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence to give his mind a rest. Dave attempts to give it a try, but being a constant talker, he finds it difficult to remain silent. He and a friend convince the entire fifth grade class to try the experiment. Despite a long-standing animosity, the boys and girls in the classroom form a bond during their periods of silence by trying to find other ways to communicate.
DiCamillo, Kate. Because of Winn-Dixie. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Candlewick Press. 2000. Print.
India Opal Buloni moves to Naomi, Florida when her father obtains a position as a preacher in a local church. Opal's mother left the family when she was only three years old and she has no friends in Naomi. One day she finds a big, ugly dog wandering around in a
The end result of Swaraj remains key to Satyagraha, however. Just as Kant and Mills championed the rights of individuals over the rights of governments, so too did Gandhi. Gandhi's philosophy was never intended to create a political state or states on the subcontinent. Instead Gandhi sought to actually and symbolically liberate the individual Indian from an oppressive state of being. The average Indian was beholden both to the Raj and also to a socially stratified, outmoded society that hindered religious and personal freedom.
Thus, liberation was to be experienced not only in the liberation of Indians from colonial rule but also in the liberation of Indians from the caste system. To Gandhi, colonialism poisoned the individual spirit and prohibited personal liberty. Overthrowing colonialism could never have depended on Duragraha, political protest borne of anger. Satyagraha is the only ethical means to accomplish the goals of liberation. Gandhi was also…
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
S. today are called African-Americans or Afro-Americans. As Africans had been brought into the U.S. they had been deprived by their traditions, being forced to integrate in the larger, more complex community. In spite of the slave owners and traders' efforts to break them completely from their culture, during their first years on American land, the blacks managed to keep most of their traditions. However, as time passed, black traditions changed into American traditions and African people became Americans.
Black people in Texas have a very rich history and as they've managed to become independent as a minority, their culture has also been revived. Moreover, the black community in Texas has contributed to the Texan history as it has also contributed to the birth of several important Texans.
A large part of the Hispanics residents of the U.S. inhabit the state of Texas and their number has visibly grown during…
Clutter, a.W., Nieto, R.D. Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from the Ohio State University Web site: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5237.html
Glasrud, a. B, & Smallwood, J. (2007). The African-American Experience in Texas: An Anthology. Texas Tech University Press.
1994-1995). Black-Texans. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from Texas Almanac Web site: http://www.texasalmanac.com/culture/groups/black.html
2000). The Spanish, Mexicans, Tejano. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from UTSA's Institute of Texan cultures Web site: http://www.texancultures.utsa.edu/publications/texansoneandall/tejano.htm
Of corse, there were some African-Americans like Malcolm X, an
otspoken champion of black activism, who felt that King's non-violent
ideals wold never work and ths spported the se of violence or at least
the threat of violence in order to win the concessions they demanded.
Ironically, Dr. King was assassinated in 1968 and in the weeks and months
that followed his death, the American Civil Rights movement seemed to
flonder in ftility while the militants like Malcolm X gained new
inflence and new followers among yonger African-Americans living in
rban/city ghettos and on college campses across the contry. Bt King's
legacy lived on and by the end of the 1960's, segregation had been otlawed
and all African-Americans achieved eqal rights related to employment,
voting and the ability to rn for pblic office at the state…
urban/city ghettos and on college campuses across the country. But King's
legacy lived on and by the end of the 1960's, segregation had been outlawed
and all African-Americans achieved equal rights related to employment,
voting and the ability to run for public office at the state and federal
Right livelihood means a person should not indulge in an activity which is not right; every individual must earn their livelihood by doing right activities. Very few people in the world are following this and this is why they have wealth but not the satisfaction and health. Satisfaction can only be got if an individual practices the noble eight fold path. Cheating other people for money can make a person rich but that individual will never be satisfied because to get satisfaction one must earn their livelihood by right fair and right means. Right concentration is another issue which very few people in the world follow. They focus all their energy into negative things and as a result of which negativity increases and at the end of the day they remain unsatisfied and disappointed. Right concentration means focusing upon all the right things, earlier I used to one among those…
The first independent clause begins in a strong active voice, with a strong decisive verb, (Graff, 2006).
This represents his shift from true passiveness to a form of non-violent action. Then, the dependent clause "realizing that except for Christmas," begins with a gerund. The verb to realize is transformed into a noun with the adding of a "-ing." This is aimed at showing the general modality of the speaker. The speaker and all involved had a previous knowledge of the realization involved in the process. Then King Jr. refers back to the object Easter with the subject and verb of "this is." This is a form of a relative clause which is therefore a form of adjective clause, (Lewis, 1986).
The next sentence continues the modality of the gerund verb. This sentence is a dependent attached to an independent clause first beginning with a gerund, "Knowing that a strong economic…
King, Martin Luther Jr. (1963). Letter from Birmingham jail. University of Pennsylvania. African Studies. 12 June. 2008. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html
Lewis, Michaels. (1986). The English verb: an exploration of structure and meaning.
Language Teaching Publications.
Strunk, William & White, E.B. (1999). The elements of style. Longman Publishers.
e are consuming too many of our natural resources and our use of fossil fuels threaten the survival of our planet. The developing world seems to placing further strains upon the earth, with no signs of abatement in population growth or industrialization. e are torn apart by nationalism rather than united as a species, in the Middle East, in Africa, and Eastern Europe. e have more material goods, but less spiritual satisfaction.
In answer to all of these questions, we must look to the persona of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi, first and foremost, grappled with issues afflicting the region, and the cultures and faiths that are most troubling to the geopolitical crisis of today, namely the tensions between the Muslim and Hindu populations of East Asia. He also provided many solutions to all peoples, not just his own. His philosophy of nonviolence inspired Martin Luther King Jr. He also embraced people…
Hughes, Langston. "Harlem." Langston Hughes. 12 Mar 2008. http://members.aol.com/olatou/hughes.htm
Owen, Wilfred. "Dulce et Decorum Est." Emory University. 12 Mar 2008. http://www.english.emory.edu/LostPoets/Dulce.html
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
However, "although not as critical as going without water, missing even a few meals can cause a host of undesirable complications," such as lethargy, confusion and disorientation, poor judgment, a weakened immune system and the "inability to maintain body temperature which can lead to hypothermia, heat exhaustion and heat stroke." Much like studies done on surviving without water, exactly how long a person can go without food varies tremendously, yet it is dependent on several important factors, such as a person's overall state of health, the amount of muscle on the body which is "broken down by a starving body and used for both fuel and nutrients," the amount of body fat (an overweight person will normally survive longer than a thin or underweight person), a person's metabolism and the temperature of the environment in which a person finds himself; that is, a cold environment expends additional calories to stay…
Autrotrophic Humans Survive With No Food or Water." Unexplainable.net. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at http://www.unexplainable.net/artman/publish/article_1333.shtml .
Glanze, Walter D., Ed. Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company, 2003.
How Long Can You Live Without Food?" Survival Topics. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at http://www.survivaltopics.com/survival/how-long-can-you-live-without-food .
Myers, Harold M. The Human Body and Survival Techniques. New York: G.H. Patterson, 2004.
Way before Enron, and again in present-day society, how many companies polluted the water with PCBs and other chemicals despite the fact that they knew it would be harmful to the people living in the area? The Love Canal was the first case of many on hazardous waste and its health impact. and, how many years after Ibsen's play was this? Too many! The more people change, the more they stay the same.
In order for a democratic society to remain democratic and not be controlled by an individual or group of individuals, the Dr. Stockmanns are needed to notice and speak out against the corruption that exists. How else can the world be made into a better place for future generations, without people who want to see it improved? Look at what happened in Nazi Germany, because people saw what was happening but looked the other way.
Ibsen, Henrik (1999). Enemy of the people. New York: Dover Publications.
This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.
Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.
The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…
references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India >.
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s
McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.sixsmart.com/SSPapers/subindia.htm >.
One of the most famous public speeches in American history was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. On August 28, 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. The context of the speech is important: millions of Americans were growing tired and fed up with the lack of progress made with civil rights and equality. As Mount (2010) puts it, "In 1950's America, the equality of man envisioned by the Declaration of Independence was far from a reality. People of color -- blacks, Hispanics, Asians -- were discriminated against in many ways, both overt and covert." King grew up in the South and had personally experienced racism and discrimination. He also understood the need to work systematically to eliminate oppression and injustice. In 1959, something momentous happened in King's life that would ultimately lead to his earning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Martin Luther King, Jr. traveled…
Chew, R. 2011. Martin Luther King, Jr. Lucid Cafe. Retrieved online: http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96jan/king.htmL
Conan, N. 2011. On his day, King's Dream speech in its entirety. NPR. Jan 17, 2011. Transcript online: http://www.npr.org/2011/01/17/133000851/on-his-day-kings-dream-speech-in-its-entirety
King, M.L. 1963. I Have a Dream. Full text online at: http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html
King, M.L. 1963-b. Letter from a Birmingham Jail. Text online at: http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html
mysteries of life is what the future holds. Knowledge of the present and past is clear but no one, no matter how intelligent or wise, is capable of predicting what the future might bring. Many try and, in some marginal way, are correct in their predictions but for most the future is the great unknown.
With the future unknown the best that one can do is prepare for as many eventualities as possible. As unpredictable as life is the one certainty is that the need for a quality education is an essential part of it. Toward this end, I certainly anticipate within the next ten years to have completed my formal education and to have established roots in my business career. As I intend to pursue a masters degree in business, I will have only been in the working environment for, at most, four years but should have been able…
Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.
The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…
The only constant in life is change. Perhaps, it is the recognition of this fact that led the management guru, Peter Drucker, to observe, "Leaders grow; they are not made." Peter Drucker's words are significant because they imply that the test of true leadership lies in the ability to grow by leading change (1999). Indeed, some of the world's greatest leaders such as Franklin D. oosevelt, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King are admired precisely because they possessed such a quality: "Effective leadership, research suggests ... is a function of the situation in which it is found." (Kotter, 1988, p. 21) Thus, it is evident that good leaders are people who continuously engage in a process of change in order to secure a better future.
The examples of oosevelt, Gandhi, and King also serve to illustrate another quality that a good leader must possess, which is the quality of…
Drucker, P. (1999, June). The new commandments of change. Excerpt from Management
Challenges for the 21st Century. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990601/804.html
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Heart Quotes Center. (2004). Leadership Quotes and Proverbs. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004:
Nature.... General Will
The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.
Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…
1. Locke, John, The Second Treatise on Government, ed by Thomas P. Peardon, Indianapolis, In.; The Library of Liberal Arts, 1952
2. Lavine, T.Z From Socrates to Sartre Bantam; Reissue edition, 1985
3. Camus, Albert The Stranger Vintage; Reissue edition, 1989
4. Marx, Karl Communist Manifesto Signet Classics; Reprint edition, 1998
Doctor Martin Luther King, Jr. is celebrated four decades after his death because he was an effective and persuasive civil rights advocate. A holiday marks the birthday of Doctor King because of what he accomplished using nonviolent civil disobedience in the tradition of Mahatma Gandhi. However, the holiday also reminds students of English, of History, of Speech, and of Law how to be a persuasive rhetorician. King was so effective and persuasive precisely because he was an enormously powerful wordsmith; King was uniquely able to translate overwhelming emotions and sensitive subject matter into logical, well-formed, and inarguable stances. As a result, his "I have a dream" speech has become a part of common vernacular, as have several original sayings derived from his speeches and writings. Statements such as "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" have become so famous that many people would actually be hard-pressed to…
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
As Minister of Law in India's first post-independence government, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar drafted the constitution of India that provided the legal framework for the abolition of many oppressive aspects in Indian society (Beshkin pp). Ambedkar is regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution and the country's leading champion of human rights.
The caste system in India is one of the world's longest surviving forms of social stratification (O'Neill pp). This fifteen hundred year old system follows the basic precept that "all men are created unequal" (O'Neill pp). The ranks in Hindu society come from a legend in which the main groupings, or varnas, emerge from a primordial being:
From the mouth come the Brahmans the priests and teachers.
From the arms come the Kshatriyas the rulers and soldiers.
From the thighs come the Vaisyas merchants and traders.
From the feet come the Sudras -- laborers
Lopez, David S. Jr. A Modern Buddhist Bible: Essential Readings from East and West. Beacon Press. 2002; pp 3.
Baucom, Ian. "Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, and Belief."
Church History; 9/1/1999; pp.
Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind. "Theravada Buddhism and modernization:
They forget about their daily problems and feel transformed. By the time the war is over, the myth of a noble cause worth dying for will seem to have dissolved, but in the beginning dissent amounts to political suicide.
Barbara J. Lee, instead of going along with the crowd and mouthing the popular view, chose to demand that we question and examine our society and ourselves. She apparently recognizes that when we stop doing that, our moral fabric is eroded and replaced by a warped version of reality. Ms. Lee refused to accept the warped version. She was willing to be the only representative to speak out against making a "preemptive strike," that is, invading a small country that did nothing to us. Thus, she risked being labeled "unpatriotic" which could lose her an election.
Artists, musicians, and poets are usually the socially conscious dissenters in society, but during wartime,…
, in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2003)
However, King's leadership in the civil-rights movement was challenged in the mid-1960s as others such as Malcolm X grew more militant. Indeed, his life paralleled the life of his hero Mahatma Gandhi. The originator of the nonviolent protest, Gandhi too took criticism as more militant colleagues pushed against non-violence in his later years.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s interests, however, broadened from civil rights to subsume criticism of the Vietnam War and a deeper concern over poverty. His plans for a Poor People's March to Washington were interrupted (1968) for a trip to Memphis, Tenn., in support of striking sanitation workers. On Apr. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of…
Adams, Russell. (1963) Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. (1964) What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson.
Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.
African-American Desk Reference. (2005). Thomas W. Burton. New York: Schaumberg.
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
One of the most pervasive archetypes in literature is the hero. The Greeks presented a complex and very human type of hero, often referred to as the tragic hero. eaders can relate especially to tragic heroes because tragic heroes have flaws. Their flaws make tragic heroes more human, and are effective protagonists even when their plans fail. The hero who is semi-divine or divine is a less compelling story, given that few if any human beings can relate to a figure who is flawless, immortal, and possessing of unlimited strength. Graphic novels present complex characters including some that fit the definition of tragic hero. Modern literature teems with examples of heroes who are just like us: they have good intentions, they are far from perfect, and they sometimes fail. Yet embedded in the definition of hero is the imperative that the individual must be able to put aside egotism,…
Franklin, J.H. (n.d.). The train from hate. Retrieved online: http://www2.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/scraig/Franklin.htm
Knight, E. (n.d.). Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane. Retrieved online: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15411
Quinonez, E. (2000). Bodega Dreams. Vintage.