"Medical School Essays"

Filter results by:


View Full Essay

Medical Admissions Fortunately or Not Essay

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56470243

My predilection for working under stress prepares me psychologically for the unique and demanding profession. The college professor who advised that my disposition and talents lend themselves to a career in osteopathy told me that osteopaths need to be creative as well as analytical: to assess situations and make decisions that synthesize years of prior knowledge and experience. I believe I possess the qualities that would prepare me for a successful and rewarding career as an osteopathic physician.

As I seek entry into your esteemed medical school program with a focus in osteopathy, I can assure you of my capacity to meet challenges with poise and calm. My business experience has prepared me for the demands of medical school: owning a business while attending school full-time has not deterred nor tired me physically. I look forward to participating in your program; I assure you that I will represent your school with aplomb; and thank you for your consideration.… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Medical Nursing Medical L Nursing the United Essay

Words: 1796 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6008465

Medical Nursing

Medical l Nursing

The United States has the largest number of professional nurses in the world totalled 3 millions approximately. Despite the available large number of professional nurses, there is still imbalance between the supply and demand for nurses in the United States. Demand for the professional nurses has outnumbered the supply. Typically, critical nursing shortage has become a serious issue in the United States, and the production capacity is lagging based on the estimated future needs. The concept of nursing shortage refers to the situation where the demand for nurses outnumbers the supply. The worsening nursing shortage in the United States has created the demand for more nurses to fill the gap. Many private and public sectors healthcare leaders have advocated for the serious solution to boost the supply of nurses. One of the solutions advocated is that the U.S. should facilitate the migration of foreign graduate nurses to address the nursing shortage. The suggested solution has generated a heated debate among the healthcare professionals and the policy makers. (Dudley.2009).

This paper contributes to the debate. The paper provides the case scenario to provide greater understanding on the effect of nursing shortage in the United States.

Case Scenario

I am a professional staff nurse working at the Superior Hospital. The issue of nursing shortage is a major problem affecting the high quality healthcare delivery within our organization. Superior Hospital was established in 1985. The objective of our organization is to deliver value to the stakeholders by providing high quality healthcare to the patients. The hospital has adhered to this objective by recruiting high quality medical staff. By adhering to this policy, our hospital has been able to deliver high quality healthcare to the customers. To continue delivering high quality healthcare service, our hospital maintains a policy to uniquely employ only the nurses trained in the accredited U.S. medical schools. All the medical staffs working in our hospital are trained in the U.S. medical schools. Since the formation of our hospital, no foreign-trained nurse has ever been recruited. In the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of patients patronizing our hospital leading to the urgent need to recruit more staff nurses. The Superior Hospital seeks…… [Read More]

Aiken, L.H. (2007). U.S. Nurse Labor Market Dynamics Are Key to Global Nurse

Sufficiency. Health Service Research.42(3):1299-1320.
View Full Essay

Medical Skills Needed to Be Essay

Words: 2203 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74711001

According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project Report "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)

In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular effort to develop physician's values, social perspectives, and interpersonal skills for the practice of medicine. The authors define medical ethics education as more clinically centered than human values education and more inclusive of philosophical, social, and legal issues than is interpersonal skills training."

According to Calman & Downie (1987) in their work entitled Practical Problems in the Teaching of Ethics to Medical Students: Practical problems do exist in the teaching of ethics to students in medical school. "The use of students projects, buzz groups, case histories and discussion points" are all described and stated is that "there is a need for student assessment or examination at the end of this course....[and the] teachers require a broad background in philosophy, clinical medicine and teaching skills."

In the work of Musick (1999) stated is that "efforts to reform medical education have emphasized the need to formalize instruction in medical ethics. However, the discipline of medical ethics education is still searching for an acceptable identity among north American medical schools; in these schools, no real consensus exists on it definition. Medical educators are grappling with…… [Read More]

Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.

Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.
View Full Essay

Medical Billing and Coding Can Be Described Essay

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74201388

Medical billing and coding can be described as the process of presenting and following up on claims to health insurance companies for the purpose of obtaining payment for services provided by the healthcare provider. Regardless of whether an insurance company is government-owned or privately owned company, the process for medical billing and coding is similar for many companies. For an individual to become a specialist in medical billing and coding, he/she is usually encouraged to become certified through taking an exam. While such individuals are not compelled by the law to do so, certification schools have been established as avenues for theoretical foundation for students entering this field.

What is Medical Billing and Coding?

Generally, the medical billing and coding process is an interaction between the insurance company that caters for the health expenses and the health care provider. Medical coding involves the allocation of either a numeric or alphanumeric code to a clinical procedure, diagnosis, or treatment. This process facilitates the easy, fast, and precise retrieval of information for review of the medical billing and the patient's health information or record. This process is important in the medical field because it can be used in collection of data to carry out health studies, analyze outcomes on patients, and in health care planning.

While billing and coding are used interchangeably in the medical field, coding basically entails translating clinical documentation into numeric or alphanumeric codes. This clinical documentation process can range from a single word or phrase to the entire stay of the patient in hospital. On the contrary, billing involves the management and filing of claims, preparation of insurance forms, processing of working denials and payments. This process usually requires the transfer of necessary information from coded data to reimbursement claims (Becker, 2009).

History of Medical Billing and Coding in America:

Medical billing and coding is a concept that has existed in the medical field for approximately 500 years. However, the history of these practices can be traced back to early 1900s when doctors began to organize themselves into the…… [Read More]

Becker, J.M. (2009). A guide to coding compliance. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

"Career Guide -- Medical Coding." (2011, July). Medical Support Services Training. Retrieved February 25, 2012, from http://www.med-certification.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/All-About-Medical-Coding2.pdf
View Full Essay

School Clinics Affects on Students Essay

Words: 3382 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58532109

Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).

3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.

4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.

Great levels of differences can be made by the schools in improving heath of the students. There is a great variety of educational supports that can be provided by the schools. Some of these services include healthcare programs, mental health services and breakfast programs. The importance of school-based programs lies in the fact that a large part of daily lives of the students spend in the schools. Thereby, the changes that will be implemented by the schools will remain for long (Kropski, Keckley, and Jensen, 2008, p. 1010). Ensuring students health is one of the main aims of the schools.it is seen that schools require that proper physical examinations are carried out on the students in order to make sure that they are healthy. Certain set of immunizations are required to be carried out on the students to make sure that any contagious disease are not transmitted within the students. School-based health care has played the most important role in maintain health and academic achievements of the students.

School-based clinics and healthcare systems have played important roles in greatly reducing dropout rates and failure on courses. Studies have shown that there are certain public schools in Dallas that have been serving for the healthcare of the students. The mental healthcare services and clinical services offered in these schools have shown that there is 32% reduction in school absentees, 31% reduction in the rates of course failures, and more than 95% reduction in the disciplinary issues (Bruzzese, Sheares, Vincent, Du, Sadeghi, Levison,…… [Read More]

Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.

Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
View Full Essay

Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing Use of Essay

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30556120

Medical Use of Marijuana

Increasing use of medical marijuana

Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.

Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research can appropriately come up with.

There are various factors that point at devastating effects and after-effects of marijuana use be it for medical purposes or not. These reasons have left a trail of destructions some of which are non-redeemable. The calls for medical use of marijuana are not anything new in the field of medicine particularly taking into account the past errors with more lethal drugs. For instance, the past president for California Narcotic Officers Association Ronald E. Brooks (2010) submitted that heroine was initially developed to act as a non-addicting analgesic that would effectively replace morphine and the devastating results are now known all over. Sigmund Freud made the same mistake by indicating that cocaine was a non-addictive and quite harmless drug, the same mistake replicated in 1980s by Dr. Lester Grinspoon when he publicly pronounced cocaine to be as harmless and safe to use as aspirin, the society now knows the truth about both. These are mistakes that must not be repeated with marijuana bearing that the theory surrounding the successful use and non-addictive use of marijuana are based on anecdotal circumstances and are not universally applicable. This must not be allowed on the background of the devastations that cocaine and heroin, hitherto thought to be non-addictive, have brought to the society at large.

Ethical effects

The long-term use of marijuana leads to addiction hence…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Medical Writing Boon and Bane' Essay

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36094312

These examples highlight that technology is always a tool, a way of enhancing human judgment -- we must not mistake it as a replacement for good nursing practice.

After all, the use of a computer is no substitute for a medical education. Anyone who works in a hospital can see this -- the increased accessibility of information through the Internet also means that patients often come in, convinced that they are suffering from a serious illness, allergy, or condition, based more upon a diagnosis Googled on WebMD, rather than upon the fact that they saw a doctor! If a computer alone was required to diagnose, everyone would have a degree!

Don't get me wrong -- I use technology every day in my life, and thank my lucky stars, and my patient's lucky stars, that it is so ubiquitous. When health care providers wish to communicate, the use of cell phones is invaluable, such as when an emergency case is being sent from another hospital. But all of the technology in the world cannot compensate for having a reasonable patient load per nurse. A nurse needs to talk to the patient, to find out about the individual beyond his or her constellation of symptoms during a hospital stay -- and check to see if he or she understands as well as simply receives a treatment plan upon discharge. Additionally, although a nurse might be able to contact a doctor at a moment's notice with a cell phone, it is essential that the doctor have the time to devote to the case to provide valuable expertise.

The shift to evidence-based medicine, or medicine squarely grounded in the scientific method, has both corresponded with as well as fueled the enthusiasm for the benefits of technology. But there is also a place for individualization, even intuition that technology cannot provide. While I do not live in fear of being outsourced, I do often wonder if some of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Schools and Education Over the Last Several Essay

Words: 4678 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36633796

Schools and Education

Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "We live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. Without expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it is unlikely that our society will meet the challenges that lay ahead. Today we publically object to discrimination and celebrate the principles of equality. To one extent each consequence is a process of vast social change. This is not something that simply economic. Certain segments of society have benefited from the new emphasis on human capital, while others have been left behind. The widening gulf between those families who have success in school and those who have not could eventually pose a major dilemma for everyone. The differences in educational accomplishments of children from a variety of backgrounds have been identified as key factors in social inequalities." (Rury, 2013, pp. 1, 2, 244)

This is illustrating how those who are from less affluent environments will face more challenges when learning new ideas in schools. This is because they do not have the social structures which will help them at home and in school to comprehend new concepts that are presented to them. When this happens, there is a higher probability that they will have poorer performance academically from these frustrations. (Rury, 2013)

To fully understand how this is affecting the…… [Read More]

Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
View Full Essay

School-Based Intervention Trials for the Essay

Words: 14493 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7664904

, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.

Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Because of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).

If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips, candy, soda, and other foods that are fine in moderation but are not good as a daily diet for young children (Mokdad, et al., 1999). It is clear that obesity is a serious problem in children and one that is not easily solved.

Research Questions

Based on the background and other information presented here, there are four specific research questions that will be asked:

Which age-groups profit best from prevention interventions?

In regard to the gender effects of prevention intervention, what can be done to improve effects in the less successful sex?

Which approach of prevention is most effective and efficient - universal, selective, or targeted prevention?

What are the best ways to include parents in these interventions and does this improve the effects?

Overview of the Study of this importance and magnitude needs an overview so that the reader can be provided with a sort of road map that makes them aware of…… [Read More]

Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.

Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
View Full Essay

School Improvement Project Proposal Improving Essay

Words: 4564 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29005100

Causative Analysis

There are several causes to why the students did not pass the state standardized test in mathematics and in language arts. It is strongly believe that the students were not adequately prepared for the test because they had not been completing the required assignments and attending the online classes offered by their teachers. Their lack of School Improvement 7 participation in the class, has lead them to a failing test score because if they had not completed the assignments in their learning management system, then there was no way for them to be adequately prepared for the materials on the tests. The course materials that are found in the learning management system are closely related to the state bench marks and are closely aligned with the state requirements.

There are several reasons that students may not complete work in their online classes. These reasons include lack of motivation, lack of parental guidance, computer issues and problems that stop them from logging in, lack of ability, medical issues or problems, social problems, or a number of other reasons.

Relationship of the Problem to Literature

There are many reasons that students may not be passing the standardized tests. The main reason within this online school is because of the lack of engagement on the students' part to complete the required lessons, activities, and courses. However, research has shown some other factors that may be playing a role in the high failure rates experienced by the district; and these should not be ignored. Maybe the tests are too long for the students. Maybe the students are experiencing high levels of testing anxiety and are unable to concentrate on the tests. Maybe the schools are not teaching to the standards. All of these and more could all be probable reasons other than lack of engagement as to why students are not passing the tests.

Many public, private, and online schools face similar situations. Many of their students are not passing the standardized tests. However, there are several different reasons students fail the tests in other schools. Some schools are even going as far as School Improvement 8 changing the number of questions that that a students has to answer correctly. "Fearing…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

School of Public Health Public Health Admissions Essay

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8491953

School of Public Health

Public Health Admissions Essay

The most logical next phase of my career would be the completion of a degree in Public Health Administration.

A currently hold a BS in Sociology and the diversity that this and my personal history have offered me will lend well to the challenges of a postgraduate degree program. I am goal driven and will succeed, regardless of the difficulty of the task. I have researched the program that is offered by your institution and I believe the curriculum and faculty afforded there will be exactly what I am looking for and exactly what my professional goals need to progress.

The impetuses for my professional goals are strongly rooted in my life history. I am an immigrant from Sierra Leone. The reality of meeting my education goals were at times in my life fortuitous accidents. As a child myself my parents and my eight siblings had no real understanding of the value of education. An American Peace Corps member working on a water project in my home village met my mother and myself by chance at a public market.

The buying of a few pieces of fruit sparked a conversation that changed my life, forever. This chance meeting began my journey through an education that had never even been considered before, as my family was entrenched in another life, a life of agriculture and subsistence. The aid worker persuaded the village teacher to admit me to school. I then went on to high school in the second largest city in Sierra Leone. In high school I earned a scholarship to attend Fourah Bay College at the University of Sierra Leone.

The intervention of this worker led me to aspire to gain an education that would serve my country and its people. These hopes endured even through the displacement of a violent civil war. My education was interrupted in 1997 by the closing of all the schools and my displacement into a meager existence in several refugee camps. During my education I had also endured the loss of both of my parents to malaria and then three siblings to the ravages of war. Recognizing all of this history and the incredible fortune I had in claiming one of a few precious spots as a refugee in America, my goals are now even more determined.

I am multi-lingual in several regional dialects…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Medical Fraud and Abuse -- Essay

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92526914

The facts that you have provided indicate extremely troubling circumstances that could seriously jeopardize the welfare of your organization. It is well-settled law that entities contracting for the services of subsidiaries are legally responsible for legal and ethical improprieties committed by those subsidiaries irrespective of whether or not the contracting organization had any specific involvement in or knowledge of those actions. Accordingly, we would strongly advise that you take immediate action to rectify the situations described in the manner outlined in our recommendations below.


To avoid the potentially serious criminal, civil, and financial consequences arising under MWHC's respondeat superior responsibility to prevent fraud and abuse in connection with its association with subsidiaries, it is hereby recommended that MWHC immediately:

1. Instruct the subsidiary to cease and desist from offering its contracted home health agency employees compensation of any kind in connection with client durable medical equipment (DME) orders from the subsidiary.

2. Instruct the subsidiary to cease and desist from offering financial rebates to patients who use its equipment.

3. Instruct the subsidiary either to (1) expand its payment to hospital and home health agency personnel for assisting its patients in learning how to use all types and brands of similar medical equipment, or (2) cease and desist from offering any such financial incentives in that regard.

4. Determine whether any specific individual was responsible for deliberately altering or fabricating objective medical and terminate that individual for cause.… [Read More]

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

USDHHS. (2004). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-Office of Inspector
View Full Essay

Medical and Medicine Oral Health Essay

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36555003


Limited information about oral hygiene and difficulty accessing preventive dental care are thought to add to the racial and income difference in the incidence of caries. Underprivileged and minority kids are more probable to have untreated dental decay, compared with more wealthy white children. In a recent examination of national survey data, the General Accounting Office found that underprivileged children had five times more untreated decay than did children from higher earnings families. Untreated decay can result in troubles with eating and drinking, talking, and education. Children who are underprivileged experience twelve times the number of limited activity days caused by dental troubles, compared with more wealthy children (Lewis, Grossman, Domoto and Deyo, 2000).

The baby teeth start to come through at varying ages throughout a child's first year of life. A child is vulnerable to tooth rot as almost immediately as their first teeth come in if they have an adequate bacterial supply present in their mouth and have lengthened contact with carbohydrates. Chalky ashen spots on the teeth are the primary mark of dental problems. Together insufficient oral care and unsuitable eating practices that expose teeth to natural or refined sugars for long-drawn-out episodes add to the expansion of early childhood decay (Bright Futures in Practice: Oral Health Pocket Guide, 2004).

Although a child's teeth do not start to come in until the middle of the early years of development, oral health remains a problem since the possibility that caries might appear throughout the years. Even prior to a baby's birth, parents must ensure that their own mouths are as fit as can be in order to decrease spread of caries by transferring damaging bacteria from their mouth to a newborn baby's mouth. Health care experts must instruct families or caregivers in the following ways to avert spread of these bacteria from themselves to a child:

Follow good oral care and see a dentist regularly.

Do not share spoons, tableware, or toothbrushes with a child. .

Do not clean off a pacifier by placing it in their own mouths prior to giving it to a child. Check with a dentist about possibly using xylitol gum. This gum can have a constructive influence on oral well-being by reducing…… [Read More]

Bright Futures in Practice: Oral Health Pocket Guide (2004). Retrieved October 27, 2010, from Web site: http://brightfutures.aap.org/pdfs/Guidelines_PDF/8-

View Full Essay

Medical Nursing Graduate Study Challenges Essay

Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83110191

Bieber & Worley (2006) note that when students pay closer attention to their surroundings, and when teachers engage students in a more collaborative manner, students are more likely to set daily schedules that conform with their abilities and adapt to any limitations they may experience while juggling multiple responsibilities.

Anderson (1996) suggests that many Universities need to work with student's to accommodate their unique needs, as long as students are willing to engage in collaborative relationships with their peers (Austin, 2002) and families. One way to teach graduate students how to balance their education, career and any psychological or emotional blocks they may have to success is by teaching students to adopt self-efficient tools, such as creating daily task lists that limit the amount of time they spend on activities to ensure they fulfill all of their obligations (Bandura, 1982). Universities also have an obligation to effectively screen students (Brink, 1999) to ensure that students are well-informed of how much work they will need to take on as a student, and what resources may be available to them to overcome any foreseeable obstacles they might face in the near future.


Graduate students who have family obligations, work obligations and who desire to return to school after an extended absence face multiple challenges, including those associated with learning how to socialize with their peers, establish collaborative relationships and complete their studies without burning out and without suffering from ill emotional effects. Fortunately there are many strategies students can employ to achieve this, including those just mentioned; collaborating with peers and educators, learning to re-socialize with new peer groups and adopting tools like time management tools that will help students better accomplish their daily tasks. While an individual with full-time work responsibilities and part-time family obligations will face many challenges, there is ample evidence they can succeed when supplied with the tools highlighted in this research report.… [Read More]

Anderson, M.S. (1996). Collaboration, the doctoral experience, and the departmental environment. The Review of Higher Education, 19, 305-326.

Austin, a. (2002). Preparing the next generation of faculty: Graduate school as socialization to the academic career. Journal of Higher Education, 73, 95-122.
View Full Essay

Medical-Nursing Patterns of Knowing and Essay

Words: 844 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1012213

It is the dimension of knowing that connects with human experiences that are common but expressed and experienced uniquely in each instance. It is ultimately the processes of envisioning and rehearsing nurture artistic expression (Chinn, Kramer, & Chinn, 2008).

Empiric knowledge in nursing consists of knowledge development along with highlighting the role of conceptualizing and structuring ideas into knowledge expressions such as theories and formal descriptions. Theories and formal descriptions become shared as empiric knowledge in a discipline and serve to enable scientific competence in practice (Chinn, Kramer, & Chinn, 2008).

It is thought that if knowledge within any one pattern is not critically examined and integrated within the whole of knowing, that uncritical acceptance, narrow interpretation, distortions, and partial utilization of knowledge will occur. When the patterns are used in isolation from one another, the potential for synthesis of the whole is also lost. The formal expressions of knowledge are developed by using methods of inquiry that are grounded both in discursive scholarly methods and in practice specifically designed for each pattern (Behm, Comrie, Crane, Johnson, Popkess, Verbais, Yancey, Carstens, Keene, Davis, and Durbin, n.d.).

Integrating scholarly knowledge and practice knowledge and making them one is what makes a person a good nurse. I agree with Chinn and Kramer that there are five fundamental patterns of knowing and each is just as important as the next. I feel that based upon my own experiences these patterns are very accurate. Knowing is not something that can just be done in a scholarly setting, it is something that takes place all the time. I prefer the pattern of knowing that relates to the personal knowing. I feel that being nurse calls for one to reach deep inside in order to do the best job that they can, which makes this career all that more rewarding in the end.… [Read More]

Behm, Kathy, Comrie, Rhonda, Crane, Judy, Johnson, Charlotte, Popkess, Ann, Verbais, Chad,

Yancey, Val, Carstens, Belinda, Keene, Carol, Davis, Doris, and Durbin, Christine.(n.d.).