Meteorology Essays

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Winds Are the Large-Scale Flow Essay

Words: 1515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73708817

Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds are more likely to occur.

Wind speed is faster above the ground because it encounters less friction and winds move very fast when there is nothing to slow them down. This is why wind turbines are mounted on top of towers. Anemometers connected to control boxes are mounted on top of turbines with the purpose of providing data to the turbine. This makes it possible for turbines to start when wind speeds are useful and to stop when winds are slow.

Works… [Read More]

Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)

Emeis, Stefan, "Wind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)
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Flood Assessment in the Nerang Essay

Words: 9418 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51158747

The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.

The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang River, Coomera River, Pimpama River, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang River catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera River area to the North. The Nerang River catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).

Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang River and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from 3 to 92, making them susceptible to regional scale flooding of longer duration as well as short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009).

By definition, local flooding results from heavy rainfall over short time period in a confined area. This type of flooding typically lasts only a short time until the run-off is able to drain. Regional flooding results from heavy rainfall over a number of river catchments. The flooding covers a large geographic area and may trigger flooding in areas susceptible to local flooding. Regional flooding may take a number of days to subside. Riverine flooding only occurs in a single river catchment and is confined to that river system (Mirfenderesk, 2009). Design of the catchment system must take into account all of the possible flooding scenarios in the area. This creates a challenge for city planners and engineers alike.

CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems developed a system that considers the impact of climate change on Australia using a matrix that examine the affect of climate change on the infrastructure. (CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 2006). According to this assessment, the impact of climate change on infrastructure was assessed in terms of four different scenarios: buildings in coastal settlements, electricity distribution and transmission, water supply infrastructure in major cities, and port infrastructure and operations. The impact of climate change were evaluated according to the estimated economic shock associated with them. These estimates were assessed using…… [Read More]

Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.

CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
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GUM Origins and Applications of Essay

Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5344254

Cox, Forbes & Harris for example claim that:

The scope of the GUM is generally restricted to models with a single output quantity, so that metrology fields involving complex quantities are not directly covered. The presentation of the material is sometimes criticized and a number of documents aimed at providing a more tutorial explanation have been published [1, 26]. If Bayesian methods are to be used widely in metrology, they will need to be related to and made consistent with the general principles of the GUM. This could be the topic of a further supplement and could include guidance material on modelling, model selection and model validation. We should point out that Bayesian methods already have some currency in metrology and have had so for some time [27]. (2004, pp. 87-88)

Though the common use and understanding and indeed the spread of the GUM method of expressing uncertainty is clear the evolving trends in its use will likely continue to include suggestions for both suspension and expansion of its use in meteorology and elsewhere.… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ashley, K, Brisson, M, Howe, A, & Bartley, D 2009, 'Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Standardized Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Trace Beryllium in Air Filter Samples', Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene, 6, 12, pp. 745-750, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.

Bell, S 1999 A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement 
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Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall Essay

Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75958886

The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).

Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (Wang 2004).

Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.

Works… [Read More]

Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974.

Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005.
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Buckley Bruce Edward J Hopkins Essay

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49046560

He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.

Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARSAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049.

This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARSAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of Southern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.

Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated

Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 83.3 (2002): 393-403.

Since the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater federal funding for the study of weather. This relatively old article suffers by virtue of being written before the political fallout that occurred after Hurricane Katrina. Still, it provides useful information about the interaction between policy and weather science, in terms of their effects upon human life. It is an opinion piece that stresses that weather research cannot meet society's need to know more about the weather unless the government invests more money in the science and technology of weather services such as forecasting, observational and computational weather mapping infrastructure, and research and development into the causes of climate change and extreme weather conditions. Of course, government's financial resources are strained today, but the article makes a persuasive point that the loss may be far larger if no investment is finally made, because of the ensuring weather-related damage.

Shelter Building." 2008.

This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of…… [Read More]

Shelter Building." 2008. 

This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of using caves and other tempting 'readymade' hideaways likely to contain animals. It also gives cautions against over-exertion and reminds the builder to make any temporary shelter in a prominent location, to ensure the lost backpacker is found as quickly as possible.
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American Planning in the Next Essay

Words: 3215 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88334151

The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.

Climate Change: Precipitation

The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).

About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city and also as the local heat stability and hydrologic series (Spronken-Smith). This will be a big issue 20 years from now because the urban heat island effect is going to cause the warmer air (counting its higher attentions of pollutants and moisture) to start increasing more freely than cooler air over the areas that are non-urban (Oke 1987). Consequently, moisture and contaminants are taken into levels that are much higher of the urban air. Therefore, the urban heat island is creating air that is warmer and damper over the city. Once this is lifted, the air will normally cool and, if there is enough moisture available, precipitation and clouds may start to form. The improved amount of cloud concentration nuclei (CCN) and ice starting nuclei (in) from urban contamination further improves urban rain.

Qing Lu Lin and Robert Bornstein, meteorologists from San Jose State University, have been using data from meteorological stations that were being set up all through the 1996 Summer Olympics and discovered that the urban heat island that was in Atlanta shaped up some frequent thunderstorms (Ahrens). By means of the National Weather Service's ground-based meter to gather…… [Read More]

Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.

Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
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Clouds in 2009 the First Essay

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1761210

" Undulatus is one of the sub-species belonging to the cirrocumulus genus. One blogger claims that the undulatus asperatus is formed by the "interaction of the dry, moving air with the bottom of the existing cloud," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). This interaction "results in the rough appearance on the underside of the cloud, which is the part that we see from the ground," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus").

Digital cameras are partly responsible for the discovery of the new cloud formation (Dell'Amore). Undulatus Asperatus are rare, so that in the past it would have been extremely difficult to capture the images on film and recommend them to official meteorological associations. With digital photography, photographs are easier to obtain. The main obstacle towards officially classifying undulatus asperatus as a new cloud is knowledge. The Royal Meteorological Society is holding out for more specific information about how the cloud is formed and why they would differ from other types of undulatus clouds and the udder-like "mamma clouds." As with altocumulus undulatus asperatus, mamma clouds look ominous but "by the time you see them, the storm cloud is already heading off to make news elsewhere," (the Cloud Appreciation Society). According to the Royal Meteorological Society, "It is likely that the undulating and lumpy underside is caused by warm and cold air meeting at the boundary between the lower and middle atmosphere."

All undulatus clouds are created by varying winds at different altitutdes (the Cloud Appreciation Society). "When blowing at different speeds above and below the cloud layer, the wind can cause the cloud to bunch up into ridges, which curve, join and divide, like the lines on your finger," (the Cloud Appreciation Society). Because altocumulus undulatus asperatus do appear to be different from other undulatus clouds, it is highly likely that they will become the next cloud formation to be officially named in the International Cloud Atlas of the World Meteorological Organization.

Works… [Read More]

"Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from

"Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name." Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from
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Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions Essay

Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59872704

The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.

Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).

Question Four

The pressure gradient force is the acceleration of air that occurs due to pressure differences in the atmosphere. In general, air moves from a region of high atmospheric pressure to one of low. This movement produces wind. Frictional force is the resistance or force that is produced when the surfaces of two objects come into contact with each other.

The Coriolis effect is the effect of the fact that the Earth's rotation deflects air. Since the Earth spins to the east, objects in the Northern Hemisphere tend to veer slightly right and those in the Southern Hemisphere veer to the left. This is what causes the absence of both northerly and southerly winds in both the polar regions and the tropics. Trade winds are also determined by the Coriolis force (Barry & Chorley, 2003, p. 113).

Question Five

The Mediterranean climate found along the coast of Southern California is defined by a low level of rain and low rates of humidity. This results from the fact that during the summer there are high-pressure belts that move from the subtropics to the Northern Hemisphere and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.

London: Icon Books Ltd.
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Hurricanes and Typhoons Are an Essay

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50978697

The effect is impressive, a typhoon induces the energy equivalent to 10000 nuclear bombs, producing several dozen meters waves, washing up coasts, buildings and basically all the constructions set under the action of the storm. The cause of the natural disaster is simple - the converging winds which gather power from Ocean coasts and conglomerate into a huge natural force that sweeps away all natural or artificial environment. There are some necessary prerequisite that enable the occurrence of hurricanes and typhoons - high humidity, light winds in the upper atmosphere and warm seas conceive the cyclonic force that is the key defining element of the storm. If one of these elements is not present, the storm will loose in intensity or will not occur at all.

The period of occurrence is also important because losses could be limited in case the storms could be predicted or avoided in any way. So the critical periods for the North Atlantic region is august to October, while the Pacific and Asian waters are strongly affected by hurricanes and typhoons in the interval December-June.

The statistics over the past 50 years have shown that the global warming is also an important factor in the hurricane and typhoon phenomena. Humidity enhanced temperatures, and warm ocean waters contribute to the emergence and the multiplication of natural disasters. People must take actions to limit the negative consequences, and also try to stop pollution, which would slow down to some extent the global warming process.… [Read More]

1) David Biello, American Scientist - Hurricane Force - September 05, 2006

2) Sarah Graham, American Scientist - Hurricanes getting stronger, Study Suggests, September 16, 2005
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Global Warming and Crop Production Essay

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4643574

The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)

III. Specific Units of Analysis

Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area of the study. It is important to note that there may be other criteria not mentioned in this report depending upon the specific area or region the study is conducted and there may also be crop-specific criteria that must be used in assessment in making final determinations in a study of crop production as affected by global warming.… [Read More]

What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at

Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at
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Neural Network Essay

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

What is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

What is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company FuziWare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products used as management decision support systems for other off -- the shelf applications (Barron 111).

In order to tell that AI is present, we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. For a relative scale of reference, large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a fly (Butler and Caudill 5). It is, however, surprising what a computer can do with that intelligence once it has been put to work.

Almost any scientific, business, or financial industry can greatly benefit from Artificial Intelligence. The computer's ability to analyze variables provides a great advantage to these individuated fields. There are many ways that AI can be used to solve a problem. Virtually all these methods require special hardware and software to use them; making AI systems expensive to employ. Consulting firms -- companies that design computing solutions for their clients -- have offset that cost with the quality of the system. Many new AI systems now provide a special edge that is required to upstage the competition.

Three Major Components of an Expert system

Artificial intelligence includes knowledge-based systems, expert systems, and case-based reasoning. Each of these are relatively similar because they all use a fixed set of rules. Knowledge-based systems (KBS) are systems that depend on a large base of…… [Read More]

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
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Tornadoes Including the Basic Background Essay

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2349196

Seconds later the twister struck. The kitchen door fell on the husband, pinning him to the ground. After the roof blew away, hail battered his face and body. The house disintegrated, but he survived and so did the dog. The woman, however, was crushed in the debris (Rosenfeld 179).

By coincidence, researchers from the University of Oklahoma were just outside Spencer before the tornado hit, which is one reason authors like Rosenfeld know so much about the tornado that destroyed Spencer. He writes, "Just a mile outside town, scientists from the University of Oklahoma had parked a small truck full of computers and meteorological equipment. They had driven more than 300 miles to document Spencer's tornado with their Doppler radar" (Rosenfeld 180). These were professional storm chasers, who knew how to follow the weather that often predicts tornadoes.

In recent years, "storm chasing" has become a popular recreational pastime. Professional storm chasers include meteorologists and scientists who are studying storms to try to discover how to predict them earlier and understand just how they form, travel where they do, and then disappear. This type of chasing was popularized in the 1996 Stephen Spielberg film "Twister," and has become a popular form of entertainment for many thrill-seekers looking for new recreational opportunities. As one researcher notes, "Storm chasing began as a scientific research endeavor, but the majority of those who engage in the activity today do so as a leisure-time pursuit" (Robertson 533). There is even a magazine, "Storm Track," that caters specifically to recreational storm chasers and their hobby. By 1999, there were several vacation and touring companies operating in tornado alley, catering to tourists who wanted to spend their vacations chasing tornados. Many serious scientists and researchers feel that this increase in storm chasing interest is dangerous and is degrading the…… [Read More]

Abraham Resnick. Due to the Weather: Ways the Elements Affect Our Lives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Robertson, David. "Beyond Twister: A Geography of Recreational Storm Chasing on the Southern Plains [*]." The Geographical Review 89.4 (1999): 533.
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Statistical Project Essay

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10431132

Statistical Research

A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere all the way to the equator, leading to increased rainfall in the subtropics (Kang, 2011). Previous work showed the ozone caused a dominant westerly jet stream in the mid-latitudes to move toward the pole with accompanying shifts in precipitation patterns. This study used different computerized climate models in the effort to identify the impact of the ozone depletion compared to other factors. The experiment found moistening in high latitudes, drying in mid-latitudes, and moistening in the subtropics. Between fifteen and thirty five degrees south, the researchers saw about a ten percent increase in precipitation. The depletion of the ozone layer, from 8 to 25 miles up, has caused severe cooling in the stratosphere, expanding to the troposphere, and altering in the air circulation patterns. The study found that high altitude shifts helped lower altitude changes causing higher precipitation in the subtropics.

Some misconceptions exist between the Antarctic ozone hole and changes in surface weather and climate (Karoly, 2012). The ozone hole absorbs less UV radiation cooling the stratosphere over Antarctica in spring and summer. The changes in the Southern ocean currents, gas exchanges from Southern ocean, the atmosphere, and in the expansions of sea ice extent stem from the stronger encircling winds that are leading to reduced heat transfer from the lower altitudes. The reduction of ozone depleting chemicals is to reduce the ozone layer depletion, not just global warming.

Statement of the Problem

There are still issues of; the South Pole colder air, ozone depleting chemicals that remain in the atmosphere, and ice crystals that the chemical reactions take place upon (Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica, 2011). Researchers expect the ozone hole to persist one to two decades longer than previous predictions due to the long life times of chemicals still in the stratospheric ozone. Will the precipitation shifts start to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily:

Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: 
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What Is the Best Hurricane Model for Insurance Company Essay

Words: 2110 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85501872

Insurance in Illinois

Hurricanes and Insurance Burdens & Considerations

The insurance industry in the United States is a major economic force in the country, but is the largest commercial entity regulated at a state, rather than a federal level. This has been the case since the McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945. An insurance policy company mush go through regulation on a state-to-state level, where policies and practices often differ. While outsourcing has been a major business force in most other financial markets, insurance companies are largely American-owned and traded due to the obstacle that state by state regulation poses on foreign influences (Lehrer 2010).

Due to the fact that Illinois in an inland state, it is geographically protected from most major hurricanes, although tropical system remnants that move in from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean do move up onto the area occasionally. The majority of data regarding the effects of weather extremes in the state of Illinois pertains to the effect of hail on crop health. Hurricane Ike, however, created severe damage and problems for inland North America, including Illinois (Associated Press 2009).

The major effect of Hurricane Ike in Illinois was flooding, which was rampant along the DuPage, Des Plaines, and Chicago Rivers; the overflow of the Des Plaines River resulted in up to four feet of flooding in some forest areas. In terms of human life threats, most of the people who had to be evacuated and treated medically following Hurricane Ike were volunteers piling sandbags on the rivers' edges to mitigate the flooding damage. Former governor Rod Blagojevich declared a state of emergency for the entire state and over 45,000 residents lost power due to rain and wind damage to the electrical systems throughout the state. The crop damage following the remnants of Hurricane Ike in Illinois was extensive, hitting the corn and soybean crops that were planted in these rivers' valleys. There were no deaths reported in Illinois, but there were seven deaths reported in neighboring Indiana, where over 350,000 people lost power due to the storm (CBS News).

What happens when a storm is not technically classified…… [Read More]

Rotman Zelizer, Viviana A. (1983)Morals and markets: the development of life insurance in the United States. Transaction Publishers.

Staff Report (2008). "Death Toll From Ike Aftermath Climbs To 50." KCBS-TV.

Staff Report (2008). "Power Trouble Lingers After Ike Strikes Indiana." WRTV.
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Role of Geoinformatics in 21st Essay

Words: 2707 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456614

Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).

The transport network in any region is highly influenced by the geographical features in the area both during and after their construction. Therefore, in order to properly plan and manage such transport network, especially for road, water, and rail, it is important that the geographical data is gathered, analyzed, and appropriately interpreted. This will enable those involved in the construction and the maintenance of such networks to find the most appropriate routes suitable for construction. This will also guide them in choosing the kind of technology and material that they will use in such areas. This is important because when the wrong materials and technologies are applied in the construction and maintenance of such transport networks then their sustainability will be very low and such networks can be dangerous to the users. Geoinformatics is effective in such cases since it is possible to create a computer model of the networks before construction and predict the possible behavior which…… [Read More]

Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.

DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.
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Aircraft Engine Fuel on Our Essay

Words: 2050 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44180171

At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).


With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.


Appendix a

Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere

University of Berlin (

Appendix B

Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial Jet Aircraft

Species Emission index (g kg 1)

CO2 3160

H2O 1240

CO 2

NOx (as NO2) 12

SOx (as SO2) 0.8

Soot 0.04

University of Berlin (

Appendix C

Increased Demand for Aviation Travel


Appendix D

Increased Production of Ozone in Presence of Aviation Emissions

IPCC Ozone Production (

This chart represents the increased production of ozone in three cases where Nitrogen Oxide, (NOx) is present. Case 0 shows the levels of naturally occurring NOx levels and the production rates of ozone which correlates with it. Case 1 presents the reflection of current airborne readings of increase NOx levels. This shows an increase in ozone production. Case 2 is the hypothetical representation of massively increased ozone production in the event of an increase of NOx continues to higher levels.

Appendix D

IPCC Ozone Loss Rates (

NOx increases the loss rate of ozone within the stratosphere. The left table shows the loss rate of the ozone in terms of percentage per month, based on the corresponding altitude levels. The right panel portrays 20 & more nitrogen is introduced into the stratosphere.

Appendix E

This chart shows the three major emissions outside CO2 and NOx, and how they create particles that will then freeze and form into cirrus cloud particles. The chart outlines the chemical processes after such compounds are emitted from jet engines.… [Read More]

Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from " rel="follow" target="_blank">
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Albert Lothar Wegener Essay

Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6868740

Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.

Early Life & Education

Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use in several Arctic expeditions later in his life. Wegener studied in Berlin, Heidelberg and Innsbruck and earned his PhD in astronomy from the University of Berlin in 1904. However, he was more interested in geophysics and started to study the emerging sciences of meteorology and climatology. He spent most of his life studying these fields rather than astronomy. ("Alfred Wegener 1880-1930," 1998- A Science Odyssey Web site; Waggoner, 1996.) In 1906 he made his first expedition to Greenland to study polar air circulation. On his return, he joined the University of Marburg as a lecturer, but again took time off in 1912-13 on another expedition to Greenland. Before going on his second Greenland expedition, Wegener got married to the daughter of one of the leading meteorologists in Germany. He also joined the Army and fought in World War I before being discharged in 1914 after being wounded.

Initial Idea of the Theory of Continental Drift

While at Marburg, in 1911, Wegener noticed the matching coastlines of South America and Africa on either side of the Atlantic and also came across a scientific paper that listed fossils of identical plants and animals found on opposite sides of the Atlantic. He was intrigued by the phenomenon and began to investigate further the similarity of organisms separated by vast oceans. The existing scientific theory at the time explained such similarity by the conjecture that "land bridges" (now sunken) had once connected far-flung continents. (Waggoner, 1996.)

Wegener was not convinced by the theory…… [Read More]