Meteorology Essays (Examples)

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Winds Are the Large-Scale Flow

Words: 1515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73708817

Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds are more likely to occur.

Wind speed is faster above the ground because it encounters less friction and winds move very fast when there is nothing to slow them down. This is why wind turbines are mounted on top of towers. Anemometers connected to control boxes are mounted on top of turbines with the purpose of providing data to the turbine. This makes it possible for turbines to start when wind speeds are useful and to stop when winds are slow.… [Read More]

Works cited:

Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)

Emeis, Stefan, "Wind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)

"Geostrophic Wind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of Illinois Website:

"Origin of Wind," Retrieved February 20, 2013, from the National Weather Service Website:
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Flood Assessment in the Nerang

Words: 9418 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51158747

The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.

The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang River, Coomera River, Pimpama River, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang River catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera River area to the North. The Nerang River catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).

Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang River and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from 3 to 92, making them susceptible to regional scale flooding of longer duration as well as short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009).

By definition, local flooding results from heavy rainfall over short time period in a confined area. This type of flooding typically lasts only a short time until the…… [Read More]


Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.

CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.

Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate

Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
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GUM Origins and Applications of

Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5344254

Cox, Forbes & Harris for example claim that:

The scope of the GUM is generally restricted to models with a single output quantity, so that metrology fields involving complex quantities are not directly covered. The presentation of the material is sometimes criticized and a number of documents aimed at providing a more tutorial explanation have been published [1, 26]. If Bayesian methods are to be used widely in metrology, they will need to be related to and made consistent with the general principles of the GUM. This could be the topic of a further supplement and could include guidance material on modelling, model selection and model validation. We should point out that Bayesian methods already have some currency in metrology and have had so for some time [27]. (2004, pp. 87-88)

Though the common use and understanding and indeed the spread of the GUM method of expressing uncertainty is clear the evolving trends in its use will likely continue to include suggestions for both suspension and expansion of its use in meteorology and elsewhere.… [Read More]


Ashley, K, Brisson, M, Howe, A, & Bartley, D 2009, 'Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Standardized Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Trace Beryllium in Air Filter Samples', Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene, 6, 12, pp. 745-750, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.

Bell, S 1999 A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement 

Cox, M, Forbes, A, & Harris, P 2004, 'Bayesian estimation methods in metrology', AIP Conference Proceedings, 735, 1, pp. 84-95, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.

Datla, R, Kessel, R, Smith, A, Kacker, R, & Pollock, D 2010, 'Review Article: Uncertainty analysis of remote sensing optical sensor data: guiding principles to achieve metrological consistency', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31, 4, pp. 867-880, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
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Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall

Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75958886

The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).

Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (Wang 2004).

Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974.

Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005.

EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at

Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
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Buckley Bruce Edward J Hopkins

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49046560

He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.

Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARSAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049.

This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARSAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of Southern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.

Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated

Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 83.3 (2002): 393-403.… [Read More]

Since the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater federal funding for the study of weather. This relatively old article suffers by virtue of being written before the political fallout that occurred after Hurricane Katrina. Still, it provides useful information about the interaction between policy and weather science, in terms of their effects upon human life. It is an opinion piece that stresses that weather research cannot meet society's need to know more about the weather unless the government invests more money in the science and technology of weather services such as forecasting, observational and computational weather mapping infrastructure, and research and development into the causes of climate change and extreme weather conditions. Of course, government's financial resources are strained today, but the article makes a persuasive point that the loss may be far larger if no investment is finally made, because of the ensuring weather-related damage.

Shelter Building." 2008. 

This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of using caves and other tempting 'readymade' hideaways likely to contain animals. It also gives cautions against over-exertion and reminds the builder to make any temporary shelter in a prominent location, to ensure the lost backpacker is found as quickly as possible.
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American Planning in the Next

Words: 3215 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88334151

The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.

Climate Change: Precipitation

The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).

About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city and also as the local heat stability and hydrologic series (Spronken-Smith). This will be a big issue 20 years from now because the urban heat island effect is going to cause the warmer air (counting its higher attentions of pollutants and moisture) to start increasing more freely than cooler air…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.

Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.

Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .

Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
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Clouds in 2009 the First

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1761210

" Undulatus is one of the sub-species belonging to the cirrocumulus genus. One blogger claims that the undulatus asperatus is formed by the "interaction of the dry, moving air with the bottom of the existing cloud," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). This interaction "results in the rough appearance on the underside of the cloud, which is the part that we see from the ground," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus").

Digital cameras are partly responsible for the discovery of the new cloud formation (Dell'Amore). Undulatus Asperatus are rare, so that in the past it would have been extremely difficult to capture the images on film and recommend them to official meteorological associations. With digital photography, photographs are easier to obtain. The main obstacle towards officially classifying undulatus asperatus as a new cloud is knowledge. The Royal Meteorological Society is holding out for more specific information about how the cloud is formed and why they would differ from other types of undulatus clouds and the udder-like "mamma clouds." As with altocumulus undulatus asperatus, mamma clouds look ominous but "by the time you see them, the storm cloud is already heading off to make news elsewhere," (the Cloud Appreciation Society). According to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from

"Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name." Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from

"Clouds." 9 Sept. 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from

The Cloud Appreciation Society. "Altocumulus Undulatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from
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Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions

Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59872704

The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.

Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).

Question Four

The pressure gradient force is the acceleration of air that occurs due to pressure differences in the atmosphere. In general, air moves from a region of high atmospheric pressure to one of low. This movement produces wind. Frictional force is the resistance or force that is produced when the surfaces…… [Read More]


Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.

London: Icon Books Ltd.

Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
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Hurricanes and Typhoons Are an

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50978697

The effect is impressive, a typhoon induces the energy equivalent to 10000 nuclear bombs, producing several dozen meters waves, washing up coasts, buildings and basically all the constructions set under the action of the storm. The cause of the natural disaster is simple - the converging winds which gather power from Ocean coasts and conglomerate into a huge natural force that sweeps away all natural or artificial environment. There are some necessary prerequisite that enable the occurrence of hurricanes and typhoons - high humidity, light winds in the upper atmosphere and warm seas conceive the cyclonic force that is the key defining element of the storm. If one of these elements is not present, the storm will loose in intensity or will not occur at all.

The period of occurrence is also important because losses could be limited in case the storms could be predicted or avoided in any way. So the critical periods for the North Atlantic region is august to October, while the Pacific and Asian waters are strongly affected by hurricanes and typhoons in the interval December-June.

The statistics over the past 50 years have shown that the global warming is also an important factor in the…… [Read More]


1) David Biello, American Scientist - Hurricane Force - September 05, 2006

2) Sarah Graham, American Scientist - Hurricanes getting stronger, Study Suggests, September 16, 2005

3) Mark a. Lander, N. Davidson, H. Rosendal, J. Knaff, and R. Edson, J. Evans, R. Hart. www.aoml.noaa.govFIFTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP on TROPICAL CYCLONES. Retrieved on 2006- 12-14.

4) Pielke, R.A. Jr. (2005). "Meteorology: Are there trends in hurricane destruction?." Nature: E11. doi: 10.1038/nature04426
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Global Warming and Crop Production

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4643574

The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)

III. Specific Units of Analysis

Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area of the study. It is important to note that there may be other criteria not mentioned in this report depending upon the specific area or region the study is conducted and there may also be crop-specific criteria that must be used in assessment in making final determinations in a study…… [Read More]


What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at

Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at

Douglas, Jerome (200) Global Warming Already Impacting Monsoons, Crop Production in India. 4 Dec. 2006 NewsTarget. Online available at

California Agriculture Could Plunge Due to Global Warming (2006) Mongabay Online Dec. 2006 available at
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

What is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

What is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company FuziWare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products used as management decision support systems for other off -- the shelf applications (Barron 111).

In order to tell that AI is present, we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. For a relative scale of reference, large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Tornadoes Including the Basic Background

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2349196

Seconds later the twister struck. The kitchen door fell on the husband, pinning him to the ground. After the roof blew away, hail battered his face and body. The house disintegrated, but he survived and so did the dog. The woman, however, was crushed in the debris (Rosenfeld 179).

By coincidence, researchers from the University of Oklahoma were just outside Spencer before the tornado hit, which is one reason authors like Rosenfeld know so much about the tornado that destroyed Spencer. He writes, "Just a mile outside town, scientists from the University of Oklahoma had parked a small truck full of computers and meteorological equipment. They had driven more than 300 miles to document Spencer's tornado with their Doppler radar" (Rosenfeld 180). These were professional storm chasers, who knew how to follow the weather that often predicts tornadoes.

In recent years, "storm chasing" has become a popular recreational pastime. Professional storm chasers include meteorologists and scientists who are studying storms to try to discover how to predict them earlier and understand just how they form, travel where they do, and then disappear. This type of chasing was popularized in the 1996 Stephen Spielberg film "Twister," and has become a popular…… [Read More]


Abraham Resnick. Due to the Weather: Ways the Elements Affect Our Lives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Robertson, David. "Beyond Twister: A Geography of Recreational Storm Chasing on the Southern Plains [*]." The Geographical Review 89.4 (1999): 533.

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey O. Inside the World's Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards. New York: Plenum Press, 1999.
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Statistical Project

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10431132

Statistical Research

A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere all the way to the equator, leading to increased rainfall in the subtropics (Kang, 2011). Previous work showed the ozone caused a dominant westerly jet stream in the mid-latitudes to move toward the pole with accompanying shifts in precipitation patterns. This study used different computerized climate models in the effort to identify the impact of the ozone depletion compared to other factors. The experiment found moistening in high latitudes, drying in mid-latitudes, and moistening in the subtropics. Between fifteen and thirty five degrees south, the researchers saw about a ten percent increase in precipitation. The depletion of the ozone layer, from 8 to 25 miles up, has caused severe cooling in the stratosphere, expanding to the troposphere, and altering in the air circulation patterns. The study found that high altitude shifts helped lower altitude changes causing higher precipitation in the subtropics.

Some misconceptions exist between the Antarctic ozone hole and changes in surface weather and climate (Karoly, 2012). The ozone hole absorbs less UV radiation cooling the stratosphere over Antarctica…… [Read More]


Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily:

Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: 

Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation:

Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA:
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What Is the Best Hurricane Model for Insurance Company

Words: 2110 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85501872

Insurance in Illinois

Hurricanes and Insurance Burdens & Considerations

The insurance industry in the United States is a major economic force in the country, but is the largest commercial entity regulated at a state, rather than a federal level. This has been the case since the McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945. An insurance policy company mush go through regulation on a state-to-state level, where policies and practices often differ. While outsourcing has been a major business force in most other financial markets, insurance companies are largely American-owned and traded due to the obstacle that state by state regulation poses on foreign influences (Lehrer 2010).

Due to the fact that Illinois in an inland state, it is geographically protected from most major hurricanes, although tropical system remnants that move in from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean do move up onto the area occasionally. The majority of data regarding the effects of weather extremes in the state of Illinois pertains to the effect of hail on crop health. Hurricane Ike, however, created severe damage and problems for inland North America, including Illinois (Associated Press 2009).

The major effect of Hurricane Ike in Illinois was flooding, which was rampant along the…… [Read More]


Associated Press (2008). "Thousands Still Without Power in Illinois." WTHI-TV.

Angel, James, R. (2005) Tropical storms reduced drought in Illinois in 2005. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science July, 2006 Volume: 99 Source Issue: 3-4.

CBS/AP (2008). "Millions Still In Dark Over Ike Recovery." CBS News. Retrieved 2008-09-30.

Changnon, Stanley A. (1996)
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Role of Geoinformatics in 21st

Words: 2707 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456614

Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).

The transport network in any region is highly influenced by the geographical features in the area both during and after their construction. Therefore, in order to properly plan and manage such transport network, especially for road, water, and rail, it is important that the geographical data is gathered, analyzed, and appropriately interpreted. This will enable those involved in…… [Read More]


Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.

DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.

Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.

Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
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Aircraft Engine Fuel on Our

Words: 2050 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44180171

At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).


With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.


Appendix a

Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere

University of Berlin (

Appendix B

Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial Jet Aircraft

Species Emission index (g kg 1)

CO2 3160

H2O 1240

CO 2

NOx (as NO2) 12

SOx (as SO2) 0.8

Soot 0.04

University of Berlin (

Appendix C

Increased Demand for Aviation Travel


Appendix D

Increased Production of Ozone in Presence of Aviation Emissions

IPCC Ozone…… [Read More]


Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from 

University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from
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Albert Lothar Wegener

Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6868740

Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.

Early Life & Education

Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use in several Arctic expeditions later in his life. Wegener studied in Berlin, Heidelberg and Innsbruck and earned his PhD in astronomy from the University of Berlin in 1904. However, he was more interested in geophysics and started to study the emerging sciences of meteorology and climatology. He spent most of…… [Read More]


Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at 

Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at

Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at

Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
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Popularity of Aviation Has Continue

Words: 7059 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79080535

This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)

Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)

Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who would like to qualify for private pilot and commercial pilot certification (the Commercial Pilot Program). This program will help you to receive your private pilot's certification first and then you can begin working on your commercial pilot's license. This is an important distinction to remember, as a variety of schools…… [Read More]


141 Self-Examining Authority. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from McAir Aviation website: 

1999 Mooney M290. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website:

2007 172 Cessna Sky Hawk. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website:

Become a Pilot. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from MVP Aero Academy website:
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Risk Management Program First We

Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81061391

Each risk should be assigned to the appropriate level of implementation and approval. As an example, a decision to build that second data center we talked about would be a decision for the company management team. A decision to serialize, catalog, and appraise all of the engineering equipment would be decided and approved by the head of the engineering department. (Risk Management)

The plan created by the appropriate level should assess each risk assigned to him or her and propose the appropriate steps to take to alleviate or minimize the negative impact of a risk occurring. The overall company plan as well as the departmental plan should assign the responsible individual and the schedule for completion. (Risk Management)

Implementation of the plan is simply activating the well-thought-out plan that has been created and, most likely, approved by management.

Review and Update the Plan

This is one of the keys to any successful risk management plan. Again, the appropriate level of management must review, on a regular basis, not only the existing plan and status, but any new risks that need to be added to the plan. If there are new risks, or existing risks that are thought to be more…… [Read More]


Borge, Dan. The Book of Risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

Marrison, Christopher. The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement. New York: McGraw-Hill,

Risk Management." 2007. Intellimaker. 23 November 2008

Robinson, Brian. Five Steps to Managing Risk. 27 June 2005. 23 November 2008
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Eudoxus of Cnidus Boyer in

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78300262

He invented a planetary system, which consisted of spheres, the earth being still at the center, and twenty-seven concentric spheres rotating around the earth.

Actually, most of his accomplishments are difficult to explain at all to the nonprofessional, since they involve the complicated fields of math and astronomy. But, for those who work in those areas, Eudoxus accomplishments are extraordinary. However, what his work does is make the work today so much easier. Those who labor in those fields know the practicalities, complexities, and almost impossibility of what Eudoxus did.

Eudoxus made important contributions to the theory of proportion, where he made a definition allowing possibly irrational lengths to be compared in a similar way to the method of cross multiplying used today. A major difficulty had arisen in mathematics by the time of Eudoxus, namely the fact that certain lengths were not comparable. The theory developed by Eudoxus is set out in Euclid's Elements Book V. Definition 4 in that Book is called the Axiom of Eudoxus. (Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 2008)

G.L. Huxley, writes, in his "Dictionary of Scientific Biography,"

It is difficult to exaggerate the significance of Eudoxus' theory, for it amounts to a rigorous definition of real number.…… [Read More]


Ancient Greek astronomy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2008, from University of British



Encyclopaedia Brittanica. (2008). Eudoxus of Cnidus. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from Encyclopaedia Brittanica:
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Inconvenient Truth Former Vice President

Words: 11687 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45554107

The hope, of course, that to the extent possible, both groups will invest themselves, and their money, in the ways that Mr. Gore is going to suggest in the film.

The Scientist and Mentors

Finally, Mr. Gore shows an image of earth that was made by a friend of his - all of the experts in the film are friends of Mr. Gore. The image was, again, made over a period of years and shows all the geographic locations of the earth. This is important because it segues into Mr. Gore's new direction of rhetoric; a story about two teachers, one he liked very much, the other not so well. Now, this explanation of his impression, his like or dislike of these teachers is intended to accomplish several things in the connection between Mr. Gore and his audience. Also, the audience has changed from a young audience, to one of mixed baby boomer generation and young people.

Mr. Gore goes on to share with the audience, as he stands beside the image of the planet in geographic view with the image of South America and, across the ocean, Africa, at that point that is historically iconic because it is image…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buell, Frederick. From Apocalypse to Way of Life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century, New York, New York, Taylor and Francis Books, Inc., 2003.

Douglas, Richard. Growthism and the Green Backlash, the Political Quarterly, 78/4,

October-December, 2007, 547-555.

Durkin, Martin (dir). The Great Global Warming Swindle, film documentary, WAGtv,
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Inventions Become'so Commonplace That

Words: 1082 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85588908

With his understanding of electricity he designed a metal rod that was attached to the high point of a building. A metal wire or cable ran from the rod, down the side of a building and into the ground. When lighting struck, the electricity followed the cable down into the ground and prevented damage to the building. Franklin thought of the lightening rod in 1750, but it was three more years before he perfected it. (Bell 10). Franklin believed that the lightning rod was his most important invention, and it surely saved many buildings and lives since then.

In Franklin's time, the street lamps were very inefficient and the glass globes became dark with soot from oil burned inside. They needed to be cleaned daily. Franklin recognized that the problem had to do with lack of airflow inside the globe. In his Autobiography (126-127), he describes the improvement he made to street lights: "I therefore suggested composing them of four flat panes, with a long funnel above to draw up the smoke, and crevices admitting air below, to facilitate the ascent of the smoke; by this means they were kept clean, and did not grow dark in a few hours,…… [Read More]

Resources Cited:

Bell, Carrie L. Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment. Berkeley, CA.. University of California Press, 2003.

Goodman, Nathan G. The Ingenious Dr. Franklin: Selected Scientific Letters of Benjamin Franklin Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press

Pace, Antonio. Benjamin and Italy. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1958.

PBS. The Little Things. Retrieved April 18. 2008.
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European Resistance Movements in the

Words: 4304 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43688761

A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.

A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).

Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains along the Albanian border. Republicans, their leader was Napoleon Zervas, who had served as an officer during the First World War but had been dismissed from the Army because of leading a coup d'etat against the monarchy 16 years earlier. In 1942 he led about 100 men against an Axis…… [Read More]


Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.

Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.

Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
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Terrible Roads Houston Medical Center Unfortunately Not

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38416858

Terrible Roads Houston Medical Center

Unfortunately, not all is well within the context of the Houston Medical Center. Residents and workers alike are being plagued with poor quality roads that are creating a situation where many are at a disadvantage in their own everyday lives. Potholes and poor roads throughout the Houston Medical Center facility are creating many residents and faculty alike to have to put up with poorly constructed roads, and thus potential damage to their own vehicles when driving on roads within the region. It is ridiculous in an era where public funds are being spent across the country for the residents of the Houston Medical Center region to have to continuously put up with such horrible road conditions. This can essentially create a situation where there is damage undertaken by vehicles driving on the premises. Vehicles of all types are being damaged while driving in the region. Moreover, there are financial concerns in that commuters in the area then have the burden of cost when it comes to repairing vehicles damaged. Vehicles are damaged more easily while on such unreliable and horrible road conditions.

Problem Background

Highways and other throughways are popular throughout a number of major…… [Read More]


Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. "The Interstate Highway System." 2006. Available at www.eisenhower

Kuemmel, D. (1994, April). Accident study validates benefits of preventive maintenance. American City & County, 109, 52.

Takle, E.S. (1990, August). Bridge and roadway frost: occurrence and prediction by use of an expert system. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 29, 727-734.

Schnormeir, Russell H. "Asphalt Analysis, Sulfur Mixes, and Seal Coats," Transportation Research Record #1096. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board -- National Research Council, 1986.
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Defilippi and Crismon 2000 Observed

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13880214

Fields such as human interaction are too unpredictable to be manipulated under laboratory settings. Human behavior, too, varies from place to place, and, therefore, results of one study that is conducted in one situation to one specific sample of people may not (and rarely do) have the same carryover effects to a different group of individuals conducted in a different spot or time. In other words, experimental, or quantitative, experiments necessitate that variables be closely matched and more, rather than less, homogenous. Therefore, they are best used in the hard sciences where they more often and most likely show consistent and repetitious results. The field of people is, however, more unpredictable and 'messy'. To that end, therefore, I find qualitative experiments more useful here.

This is particularly so in this specific case where we seek to zone in on difficult patients and seek to understand their motives. The characteristics of 'difficult' patients vary from case to case and from time to time with, it seems to me, attendant impossibility of structuring any rigid, consistent rules. ' Difficulty' depends on patient, mood, context, and numerous other variables all of which differ according to individual case. This situation makes it particularly difficult…… [Read More]


Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
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Continents Collide Plate Tectonics Theory

Words: 2180 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61667849

Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Theories

It is by now universally recognized that the continents and other land masses on the earth are constantly moving, albeit at a very slow rate and have been on the move for millions of years. The land masses have collided, broken apart and drifted across the planet while floating on the fiery mantle beneath the outer layer of its crust. The Continental Drift and Plate Tectonic theories indicate that about 250 million years ago there was only one continent on earth named Pangaea

This great land mass fragmented and its parts began to move away from one another forming the great oceans in between the continents. As an extension of these theories, it can now be predicted with a fair degree of confidence that the moving Continents will one day come together again to form a single giant land mass. This paper describes the Continental drift and Plate Tectonic theories and traces their history, discusses the key players who were involved in developing the theories and examines the current state of scientific knowledge about Earth's geology and paleontology.

Theory of the Continental Drift

The idea that the earth's continents have drifted has a long…… [Read More]


Barry, Patrick L. (2004). "Continents in Collision." First Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from 

Kious, W.J. And Tilling, R.I. (1999). "Developing the Theory." From the online book

This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. USGS Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from

----------------------- -- . (1999). "Historical perspective." From the online book
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Descartes' Discourse on Methods Contributions

Words: 3092 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75801694

Sensory experiences are nor reliable for making any statements, since people often mistake one thing for another. (Descartes talks about mirages). Knowledge based on reasoning is not always trustworthy, because people often make mistakes. (adding numbers is a classical example). Finally, knowledge is deemed by Descartes to be illusory, since it may come from dreams or insanity or from demons able to deceive men by making them believe that they are experiencing the real world, when are they are in fact not doing so. (the metaphysical approach in Descartes work is can be easily recognized here).

Following this analysis of existent forms of knowledge, Descartes concludes that certainty can be found in his intuition that, even if deceived, if he thinks he must exist: "Cogito ergo sum." The thought ("cogito") is a self-evident truth that gives certain knowledge of a particular thing's existence, i.e. one's self, but only the existence of the person who thinks it is accepted as certain.

Finally, considering that all our thoughts which we have when we are awake can also come to us when we are sleeping without a single one of them being true, I resolved to pretend that everything I had ever thought…… [Read More]

9. Dicker G, Descartes: An Analytical and Historical Introduction," Oxford, 1993

10. Flage D.E., Bonnen C.A., Descartes and Method: The Search for a Method in the Meditations," Routledge, 1999

Brians P., Gallwey M., Hughes D., Hussain, a., Law R., Myers M., Neville M., Schlesinger R., Spitzer a, Swan S. "Reading About the World," Volume 2, published by Harcourt Brace Custom Books. - excerpts from Descartes' works
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Man Did Evolve Man Is

Words: 3818 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67588956

He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)

Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of Knowledge' was elucidated at length, and through some of Thomas Kuhn's works on the 'closed circle' theory. Nietzsche has been likened by many as a warrior who had to fight against the dogmatic and inflexible type of thinking of his times. (Nietzsche Theory of Knowledge or Epistemology)

Another philosopher who…… [Read More]


Aristotle: (384-322 B.C.E) Retrieved at . Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Aristotle's Taxonomy. 2000. Retrieved at Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Boeree, C. George. Darwin and Evolution. 2000. Retrieved at Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Chain of Being. Retrieved at Accessed on 16 November, 2004
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18th C Decorative Botanical Art

Words: 3104 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77815266

In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.

Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental remedies, along with recipes, including one using the exotic Japanese tea plant, the white opium poppy and cannabis; it was supposed to be good for gout.

As a result of his personal collecting, and his purchase of others' collections, Sloane "managed to mix the simple businessman in him with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.

Claude Aubriet

Eighteenth century textiles,

Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+.
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Noaa Stands for National Oceanic

Words: 3867 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59858055

Legislation on liability and compensation is needed.

The United States should ratify the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols.

Federal planning for oil spills must be improved.

Studies of the long-term environmental and health effects must be undertaken expeditiously and carefully.

How NOAA responds to spills?

NOAA is a 24/7 service that monitors and waits for a help if there is a spill. They help protect and conserve the natural resources. As soon as they got call they go to the scene as fast as possible. They inspect the vessel, and study the spill, damage and spread in the affected area. We determine the success of their operation through the response of NOAA. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration has a mission based on the online source,

OR& R. is currently assisting with trajectory modeling, oil fate forecasting, weather, and information management and participating in over flights and resource and shoreline assessment. Trajectory modeling uses oceanographic, meteorology and hydrographic information to forecast where the spill might go and its potential effects on the coastal environment. Shoreline assessment is done by surveying affected shoreline, segment by segment, to collect information about the shoreline habitats and degree of oil contamination. This…… [Read More]


"Clean-Up Techniques" [Online] Available at:

"Containment and Recovery of Floating Oil" [Online] Available at:

Etkin, D.S. 1997. Oil Spills from Vessels (1960-1995): An International Historical Perspective.
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Acing the Praxis Science as

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44790024

Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:

Based on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.

This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers

Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)


In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014 for elementary Science is one part of the Praxis required for all forthcoming elementary teachers. It contains multiple choice questions and constructed response questions in the areas of general (reading, writing, and mathematics), the content and subject area (Science, Mathematics, Social Studies, History, Physical Education and Foreign Languages) and a…… [Read More]


Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from

Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.

Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.

Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
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Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Engineers should focus on the improvement of the performance of the economy. This relates to the transformation of the theories of controlling the world and adopting new frameworks in the operating in conjunction with the planet. New engineers need to adopt and implement new theories of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in relation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameron 2010 p.40).

Leaders in British Engineering

According to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th century stretches from the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concerned style would have made its first appearance in 1870s and would have held great influence in the late Victorian period. It was marked through the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emerged in the mid-Victorian periods, advances in science-based industries such as engineering and chemicals, spread of electric power and the adoption of novel types of managerial organizations linked to the rise of the managerially controlled corporations (Bodde 2004, p. 45). This period saw the transformation from rule of thumb techniques in industry to a world of more intricate mechanization, large-scale organizations which include science-based industries in electrical engineering and organic chemistry.

Electricity…… [Read More]

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List
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Marketing Communication Plan

Words: 2287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52863509

Marketing Communications Plan for 5 Star Adventure Tours

Executive Overview

The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) defines ecotourism as "Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people" (2005, p.3). Ecotourism has become the fastest growing segment of the global tourism industry, the largest sector in the world economy. Because climate is one of the main drivers of international tourism, with the majority of tourists seeking to relax in the sun or snow, climate change is expected to have a significant impact on international tourism, and therefore on ecotourism.

This marketing communication plan details marketing plans for 5 Star Adventure Tours,, consistently ranked among the top five tour operators in Australia, and an accredited Advanced Eco Tourism Operator. The marketing plan also discusses the size of the global tourist and ecotourist markets, which have been experiencing record growth during the last decade. Given the occurrence of global warming and climate change, 5 Star, which offers bushwalking and alpine high country tours in the Victoria region of Australia, is uncertain of the impact on its business.

While the growth rate of international tourism is projected to increase over the coming decades, it may slow…… [Read More]

Works Cited

5 Star Adventure Tours. (2011). Home. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 July 2011].

Fennell, D.A. (2008) Ecotourism. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.

Hamilton, J.M., Maddison, D.J., & Tol, R.S.J. (2005). Effects of climate change on international tourism. Inter-Research. [online] Available at:  > [Accessed 1 August 2011]. (n.d.). Ecotourist Market Profile. The Global Neighbor Network .[online] Available at: [Accessed 29 July 2011].
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Changes in Priorities of Icao Since 1944 and Present

Words: 2894 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45310863

History Of the Organization's Formation

Objectives of ICAO as Specified in the Chicago Convention

Enhancing Safety and Security in Civil Aviation

Development and Constant Evaluation of Aviation Standards and Policies

Implementation of Standards and Practices

Timely Response to Challenges

Additional Objectives

Changes in ICAO's Strategic Objectives

Safety Objective

Security Objective

Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Objective

The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in November 1944 by the conclusion of the Chicago Convention held in that year. This organization was formed because of the need for securing cooperation and standardization of global aviation policies and practices. The United States of America played a crucial role in the organization's formation by inviting several states to the Convention on international civil aviation standards, policies, and procedures. Out of the 44 States that attended the Chicago Convention, 32 States signed an agreement that paved the way for ICAO's creation.

ICAO was mandated with eight major objectives in its initial years of operation, which were mainly conducted by the Provisional International Civil Aviation before the signing permanent ratifications for the organization's creation. The structure of the organization has two major segments i.e. A sovereign body or The Assembly and a governing body or The…… [Read More]


"Annual Report of the Council." (2010). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.

Retrieved September 30, 2013, from 

"Annual Report of the Council." (2011). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.

Retrieved September 30, 2013, from
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Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Words: 3364 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90105340

Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing space industry. Such developments have been in compliance with the supportive space tourism study programs within a range of countries. This leads to the development of a scenario that receives a mutual consensus among the space industry (Ashford, 1984). Supposing some $18 billion of funding could be available to each…… [Read More]


Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-

Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.

Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.

Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
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Aristotle Virtue Aristotle Is Considered to Be

Words: 1042 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41341244

Aristotle: Virtue

Aristotle is considered to be the philosopher of philosophers, he virtually wrote about everything, he pioneered most of the disciplines like psychology, biology, meteorology and political science. For almost a thousand years Aristotle's theories were unchallenged such was the impact of his philosophy and thought. The medieval philosophy of Scholastics and early Renaissance thinkers borrowed heavily from Aristotle. At the root of Aristotle's philosophy was his doctrine of virtue and natural law. Aristotle believed that everything in life serves a purpose "telos" as he called it and distinguished "efficient" causes from "final" causes. 'Efficient causes are those things or processes that lead to the final cause, they are the means to ends, for example a painter uses paints and brush to create a work of art, the brush and paints are tools, process to make a painting. While the final cause is the end product, the painting. Similarly he saw that every object and every action has a final purpose and this determines its 'good'. Thus if we understand the final good of an organism, we will then be able to understand the necessary natural processes by means of which it will reach that end. According to Aristotle…… [Read More]


Paresh D. Bhatt Aristole on Happiness and Virtue: 

Aristotle on Internet Encyclopedia:

Virtue Theory on Internet Encyclopedia:
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How ICE and Rain Affect Normal Operations Focusing on Icing

Words: 3763 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15663040

ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing

There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. Both the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans and budgets. Fogs, thunderstorms, freezing rain, snowstorms, crosswinds, poor visibility, icing, and en-route turbulence are the types of weather that make delays and changes in route unavoidable.

According to reports available the day the crash of 747-jetliner of Singapore Airlines occurred there was heavy rain in the city of Taipei.…… [Read More]


Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.

Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.

Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.

Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
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Internet and Crime

Words: 1223 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92738069

Cyber Crime

Critical infrastructure

There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.

It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop more recognition to sate light in terms of critical infrastructure. Sate lights make available a considerable function in terms of climate as well as monitoring in relation to natural disaster, communication, prior caution systems, worldwide broadcasting, meteorology, direction-finding, exactitude strikes, reconnaissance, remote sensing, observation, as well as the encroachment of…… [Read More]


2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from 

GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from

Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from

Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from
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Thermal Transfer Rates for Different Materials

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60279090

Differential Heating of Materials

Lab Report in Geography

The heating of materials varies considerable depending on material composition and atmospheric conditions. A considerable amount of the sun's energy can be reflected back into the atmosphere, in a process called albedo (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 1998, p. 36). The average albedo rates for sand, mud, asphalt, and water are approximately 20-30%, 10%, 5-10%, and 3-80%, respectively, depending on the position of the sun relative to the surface of water (p. 40).

The process of heating materials will vary as well. For example, asphalt and dry sand would primarily use conduction for thermal transfer, while bodies of water or air would use convection (p. 30). On the other hand, thermal transfer for wet soil or mud has the added complexity of latent heating (p. 76). Latent heating or evaporation has a strong cooling effect on the liquid moisture remaining, a loss of 600 calories for every gram of water turned into vapor. Based on the above information, the materials that would heat the quickest when exposed to a heat source would be asphalt > sand > water > mud. This hypothesis assumes that the air is not saturated with water vapor.


Containers…… [Read More]


Jones, L.L. (2015). Physical Geography Lab Manual: Geography 1401. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing.

Lutgens, F.K. & Tarbuck, E.J. (1998). The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Forensic Entomology

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3275813


According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as significant applications of forensic entomology include investigating potential cases of food contamination, and aiding civil lawsuits involving human-insect interactions (Byrd, 2014). Forensic entomology may have even broader applications into crimes related to livestock. Because of the striking role insects and arthropods play in the global chain of life, entomology has…… [Read More]


Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online: 

Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online:

Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online:
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Analyyzing Drought in California Causes and Impacts

Words: 1472 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89003686

California --Causes and Impacts

What is drought and why does it occur

The phenomenon of drought is regarded as an inescapable, cyclic hazard, and its build-up is gradual. The quantity of stream flow and precipitation, or degree of deficiency in groundwater that may cause drought in any given area might not have the same consequences in another area. This is because it is dependent of the quantity and type of water required, as well as alternative water supplies found within a region in any given time period. While the development of drought has already had significant impacts in the 21st century, it might now also be turning increasingly frequent. Drought cases across the world have increased, caused possibly by technological advancements in food production and shelter techniques, and in basic service provision, leading to massive food production and human settlement concentrations that are almost reaching or surpassing natural resource sources' capacities (Woo 129). Prior to mitigation of its impacts, one has to identify its onset. Longer-term weather forecasts are yet to succeed, and have suffered obstructions by the recent increased weather variability. Thus, focus has moved to establishing drought indexes, since drought thresholds help identify its onset.

Causes of droughts…… [Read More]


Deister, Ane D. "Working Toward an Active National Drought Policy." Journal of American

Water Works Association. 93.3 (2001): 48-57. Print.

Diaz, Henry F. "Recent California Water Year Precipitation Deficits: A 440-Year Perspective."

Journal of Climate 28.12 (2015): 4637-4652. Print.
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Contrails and Their Affect on

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98265268

It is however worth noting that the effects of the contrails on the climatic conditions and the weather in general is negligible as compared to the greenhouse gasses constantly emitted from the various industries into the atmosphere. The effect of the contrails almost doesn't count since it clears off faster, indeed within hours and if the stay is prolonged then it cannot go beyond a few days, yet the industrially emitted greenhouse gases can take years to clear off and the effect on the weather pattern is very adverse.

Having seen the various ways through which the contrails can affect the climatic conditions, and the foreseeable effect that they may pose to the climatic conditions in the next few years to places that host many planes, there are suggestions that the plane industries should think of venturing into the manufacture of engines whose by product of the combustion is not water, or if it has to be water then it should be in very minimal amounts so as to avoid foming contrails.… [Read More]

References LLC, (2011). Contrail definition. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from

John Timmer (2011). Contrails impact climate more than planes' carbon emissions. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from

Peter Tyson, (2006). The Contrail Effect. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from 

Wynne Parry, (2011). Earth Warmed by Trails of Clouds that Jets Leave Behind. Retrieved May
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Hurricanes and Global Warming the

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85079546

It is well-known that tropical cyclones form over warm water and it is the heat in the water from which they get their energy. Therefore it is reasonable to believe that warmer waters could increase hurricane intensity and activity. Warmer waters would translate into more energy to fuel the tropical cyclone and make their effects more pronounced. There is also evidence that global warming is contributing to changing circulation patterns.

Sea level rise due to warmer conditions which melts glaciers and sea ice can have a number of implications for the Earth's storm patterns. Many climate models have suggested that with warmer temperatures there would be higher wind speeds in hurricanes. In fact, one study shows a 70% increase since the mid-1970s of an index of hurricane activity related to the total power dissipation, which is proportional to the cube of the maximum wind speed, integrated over the lifetime of the storm (Anthes, et al., 2006). Therefore such a relationship would have significant implications for society on many levels. One such implication would be building codes and ensuring that vulnerable areas are able to withstand stronger storms with higher wind speeds. There are also implications for storm surges because these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthes, R., Corell, R., Holland, G., Hurrell, J., MacCrackin, M., & Trenberth, K. (2006). Hurricanes and Global Warming - Potential Linkages and Consequences. Bulletin of the American Meteoroligical Society, 623-628.
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Ruddiman Plows Annotation of W F

Words: 4273 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67526396

He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.

Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.

Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning with his own explanation of the problem. The anomalous rise in methane cannot be accounted for by natural law since in his detailed investigations tropical and boreal wetlands have shrunk and have not emitted more methane than expected. Citing his own and others' research, he claims the new source generating…… [Read More]

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Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62840279

Faults in isolating carbon as the main source of dangerous climate change, such as carbon-based life forms depend on the gas, inform us as to best orient are response to environmental changes.

Other ways to prevent or reverse global warming include geo-engineering -- or terraforming -- the planet. The basis of this idea posits that the Earth's climate can be manipulated by human technological advents. One tactic being considered is the launching of sulfur particles high into the stratosphere in order to lower the temperature of the Earth.

According to Jeff Goodell, author of How to Cool the Earth, "the impacts of this [on both the atmosphere and the Arctic] are being explored by a number of climate modelers," Goodell says. Still, data and conclusions on this option is scant. Such proceedings also take on a geopolitical nature. Who controls the technology and, by extension, the Earth's temperature? Temperature management entails manipulating the amount of sunlight the Earth reflects, as opposed to absorb. One technique calls for the placement of thousands of square miles of reflective sheets in the desert to reflect sunlight. This has grave implications for the ecosystems of the desert, and it is uncertain whether it would…… [Read More]

Accessed at:

7. ____. Can We 'Cool The Planet Through Geoengineering? National Public Radio, 15 April 2010

Accessed at:
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Ruddiman's Account of Ancient Human

Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69627461

Humanity might not have the same effective power over the environment when fossil fuels run out. While this assumption is certainly believable, humans will not doubt reach a point where the greenhouse gas absorbing plants and bodies will no longer be able to keep up with human activity. This will further exacerbate the problem of human-caused global climate change. On the other hand, if humans are able to develop non-fossil fuel alternatives that do not have a negative effect on the environment on a global scale, the warming trend might very well be reversed in a generation or two. Either way, Ruddiman's arguments will likely be proven to be wrong or right, on a long enough timeframe.

Section IV: Opposing Points-of-View

Anthropologists, specifically, disagree with Ruddiman. Since the author himself is not an anthropology professor and admittedly has very little experience in this field, it would only seem natural that this specific type of academic opposition could in fact be the most damaging to Ruddiman's theories. Anthropologists argue that there were not enough humans on the planet, even a few millennia ago to ever have exacted enough change to avert a global ice age (Silver, 1992). In fact, many of…… [Read More]


Allen, Robert, Scott Seaman and John DeLascio. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76 (2009): 12-9. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .

Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." The Heartland Institute. The Heartlander, Feb. 2003: n.pag. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.

Bert, Ray. Rev. Of Plows, Plagues, & Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, by William F. Ruddiman. Civil Engineering 78 (2008): 73.

Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009. Print.
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Warming Arctic Global Warming Has

Words: 2577 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98169472

Scientists are unable to determine the amounts of gases that will be released into the atmosphere because the early studies on permafrost melting are no longer accurate.

The melting of the permafrost does not only affect the environment because of the gases that it releases, but also, because it would lead to the erosion of the Arctic coastlines. This would have a devastating impact on the industry present there and on sites that are of great cultural importance. With the coasts being eroded because of permafrost, sea waves and storms will have better access to the shore. Communities and ecosystems are anticipated to be affected by the floods coming in through the coastal wetlands. The financial costs required for mass movements are colossal, and, in some areas, relocation processes have already taken place. Communities and industrial facilities in coastal areas have had no other solution than to reposition, given the fact that the warming Arctic had been threatening them.

Another impact that permafrost thawing is likely to have on the Arctic is that frozen ground contains toxic and even radioactive materials which will be released into the environment once the permafrost melts. Humans and wildlife will be deeply affected as…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Brent Carpenter, "Warm Is the New Cold: Global Warming, Oil, UNCLOS Article 76, and How an Arctic Treaty Might Stop a New Cold War," Environmental Law 39.1 (2009).

2. Hassol, Susan; Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (2004). "Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment." Cambridge University Press.

3. Sommerkorn Martin & Hassol Susan Joy, "Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications EXECUTIVE SUMMARY." Retrieved April 21, from the WWF China Web site:

4. "IPCC Report The Arctic: Thawing Permafrost, Melting Sea Ice And More Significant Changes." Apr 11, 2007. Retrieved from the Science Daily Web site: