Meteorology Essays (Examples)

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Winds Are the Large-Scale Flow

Words: 1515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73708817

Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds are more likely to occur.

ind speed is faster above the ground because it encounters less friction and winds move very fast when there is nothing to slow them down. This is why wind turbines are mounted on top of towers. Anemometers connected to control boxes are mounted on top of turbines with the purpose of providing data to the turbine. This makes it possible for turbines to start when wind speeds are useful and to stop when winds are slow.

orks cited:

Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to eather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)

Emeis, Stefan, "ind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)

"Geostrophic ind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)

Emeis, Stefan, "Wind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)

"Geostrophic Wind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of Illinois Website: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/geos.rxml

"Origin of Wind," Retrieved February 20, 2013, from the National Weather Service Website: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//synoptic/wind.htm
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Flood Assessment in the Nerang

Words: 9418 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51158747

The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.

The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).

Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…… [Read More]

References

Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.

CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.

Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate

Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
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GUM Origins and Applications of

Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5344254

Cox, Forbes & Harris for example claim that:

The scope of the GUM is generally restricted to models with a single output quantity, so that metrology fields involving complex quantities are not directly covered. The presentation of the material is sometimes criticized and a number of documents aimed at providing a more tutorial explanation have been published [1, 26]. If Bayesian methods are to be used widely in metrology, they will need to be related to and made consistent with the general principles of the GUM. This could be the topic of a further supplement and could include guidance material on modelling, model selection and model validation. We should point out that Bayesian methods already have some currency in metrology and have had so for some time [27]. (2004, pp. 87-88)

Though the common use and understanding and indeed the spread of the GUM method of expressing uncertainty is clear…… [Read More]

References

Ashley, K, Brisson, M, Howe, A, & Bartley, D 2009, 'Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Standardized Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Trace Beryllium in Air Filter Samples', Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene, 6, 12, pp. 745-750, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.

Bell, S 1999 A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement  http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/documents/gruanmanuals/UK_NPL/mgpg11.pdf 

Cox, M, Forbes, A, & Harris, P 2004, 'Bayesian estimation methods in metrology', AIP Conference Proceedings, 735, 1, pp. 84-95, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.

Datla, R, Kessel, R, Smith, A, Kacker, R, & Pollock, D 2010, 'Review Article: Uncertainty analysis of remote sensing optical sensor data: guiding principles to achieve metrological consistency', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31, 4, pp. 867-880, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
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Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall

Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75958886

The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).

Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).

Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.

orks Cited

Asner,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649

Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html

EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en

Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
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Buckley Bruce Edward J Hopkins

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49046560

He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.

Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote ensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049. http://web.ebscohost.com.

This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of outhern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.

Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated

Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological ociety. 83.3 (2002): 393-403. http://web.ebscohost.com.

ince the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists…… [Read More]

Since the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater federal funding for the study of weather. This relatively old article suffers by virtue of being written before the political fallout that occurred after Hurricane Katrina. Still, it provides useful information about the interaction between policy and weather science, in terms of their effects upon human life. It is an opinion piece that stresses that weather research cannot meet society's need to know more about the weather unless the government invests more money in the science and technology of weather services such as forecasting, observational and computational weather mapping infrastructure, and research and development into the causes of climate change and extreme weather conditions. Of course, government's financial resources are strained today, but the article makes a persuasive point that the loss may be far larger if no investment is finally made, because of the ensuring weather-related damage.

Shelter Building." Basegear.com. 2008.  http://www.basegear.com/shelters.html 

This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of using caves and other tempting 'readymade' hideaways likely to contain animals. It also gives cautions against over-exertion and reminds the builder to make any temporary shelter in a prominent location, to ensure the lost backpacker is found as quickly as possible.
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American Planning in the Next

Words: 3215 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88334151

The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.

Climate Change: Precipitation

The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).

About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.

Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.

Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .

Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
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Clouds in 2009 the First

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1761210

" Undulatus is one of the sub-species belonging to the cirrocumulus genus. One blogger claims that the undulatus asperatus is formed by the "interaction of the dry, moving air with the bottom of the existing cloud," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). This interaction "results in the rough appearance on the underside of the cloud, which is the part that we see from the ground," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus").

Digital cameras are partly responsible for the discovery of the new cloud formation (Dell'Amore). Undulatus Asperatus are rare, so that in the past it would have been extremely difficult to capture the images on film and recommend them to official meteorological associations. ith digital photography, photographs are easier to obtain. The main obstacle towards officially classifying undulatus asperatus as a new cloud is knowledge. The Royal Meteorological Society is holding out for more specific information about how the cloud is formed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.undulatus-asperatus.org.lu/

"Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name." Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2009/jun/01/2?picture=348217730

"Clouds." 9 Sept. 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.theairlinepilots.com/met/clouds.htm

The Cloud Appreciation Society. "Altocumulus Undulatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://cloudappreciationsociety.org/altocumulus-undulatus-may-07/
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Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions

Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59872704



The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.

Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).

Question Four…… [Read More]

References

Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.

London: Icon Books Ltd.

Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
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Global Warming and Crop Production

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4643574

The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)

III. Specific Units of Analysis

Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area…… [Read More]

Bibliography

What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at http://www.wnrmag.com/supps/2000/apr00/global.htm.

Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020919065913.htm.

Douglas, Jerome (200) Global Warming Already Impacting Monsoons, Crop Production in India. 4 Dec. 2006 NewsTarget. Online available at http://news.mongabay.com/2006/1204-ca.html.

California Agriculture Could Plunge Due to Global Warming (2006) Mongabay Online Dec. 2006 available at http://news.mongabay.com/2006/1204-ca.htm.
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Tornadoes Including the Basic Background

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2349196

Seconds later the twister struck. The kitchen door fell on the husband, pinning him to the ground. After the roof blew away, hail battered his face and body. The house disintegrated, but he survived and so did the dog. The woman, however, was crushed in the debris (osenfeld 179).

By coincidence, researchers from the University of Oklahoma were just outside Spencer before the tornado hit, which is one reason authors like osenfeld know so much about the tornado that destroyed Spencer. He writes, "Just a mile outside town, scientists from the University of Oklahoma had parked a small truck full of computers and meteorological equipment. They had driven more than 300 miles to document Spencer's tornado with their Doppler radar" (osenfeld 180). These were professional storm chasers, who knew how to follow the weather that often predicts tornadoes.

In recent years, "storm chasing" has become a popular recreational pastime. Professional…… [Read More]

References

Abraham Resnick. Due to the Weather: Ways the Elements Affect Our Lives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Robertson, David. "Beyond Twister: A Geography of Recreational Storm Chasing on the Southern Plains [*]." The Geographical Review 89.4 (1999): 533.

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey O. Inside the World's Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards. New York: Plenum Press, 1999.
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Statistical Project

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10431132

Statistical Research

A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere all the way to the equator, leading to increased rainfall in the subtropics (Kang, 2011). Previous work showed the ozone caused a dominant westerly jet stream in the mid-latitudes to move toward the pole with accompanying shifts in precipitation patterns. This study used different computerized climate models in the effort to identify the impact of the ozone depletion compared to other factors. The experiment found moistening in high latitudes, drying in mid-latitudes, and moistening in the subtropics. etween fifteen and thirty five degrees south, the researchers saw about a ten percent increase in precipitation. The depletion of the ozone layer, from 8 to 25 miles up, has caused severe cooling in the stratosphere, expanding to the troposphere, and altering in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm

Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University:  http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802 

Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404

Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA:  http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html
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What Is the Best Hurricane Model for Insurance Company

Words: 2110 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85501872

Insurance in Illinois

Hurricanes and Insurance Burdens & Considerations

The insurance industry in the United States is a major economic force in the country, but is the largest commercial entity regulated at a state, rather than a federal level. This has been the case since the McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945. An insurance policy company mush go through regulation on a state-to-state level, where policies and practices often differ. While outsourcing has been a major business force in most other financial markets, insurance companies are largely American-owned and traded due to the obstacle that state by state regulation poses on foreign influences (Lehrer 2010).

Due to the fact that Illinois in an inland state, it is geographically protected from most major hurricanes, although tropical system remnants that move in from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean do move up onto the area occasionally. The majority of data regarding the…… [Read More]

Resources

Associated Press (2008). "Thousands Still Without Power in Illinois." WTHI-TV. http://www.wthitv.com/Global/story.asp?S=9009105&nav=menu593_2.

Angel, James, R. (2005) Tropical storms reduced drought in Illinois in 2005. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science July, 2006 Volume: 99 Source Issue: 3-4.

CBS/AP (2008). "Millions Still In Dark Over Ike Recovery." CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/18/national/main4457061.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-30.

Changnon, Stanley A. (1996)
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Role of Geoinformatics in 21st

Words: 2707 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456614

Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).

The transport network in any region is highly…… [Read More]

References

Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.

DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.

Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.

Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
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Aircraft Engine Fuel on Our

Words: 2050 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44180171

At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).

Conclusions

With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.

Appendixes

Appendix a

Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere

University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)

Appendix B

Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…… [Read More]

References

Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from     http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm    

University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
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Albert Lothar Wegener

Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6868740

Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.

Early Life & Education

Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use…… [Read More]

References

Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bowege.html 

Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at  http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html 

Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/wegener.html

Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
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Popularity of Aviation Has Continue

Words: 7059 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79080535

This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)

Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)

Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

141 Self-Examining Authority. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from McAir Aviation website:  http://www.mcairaviation.com/141_flight_training.htm 

1999 Mooney M290. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/1999-MOONEY-M20-Ovation-97012603

2007 172 Cessna Sky Hawk. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/2007-CESSNA-172-SKYHAWK-96517151

Become a Pilot. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from MVP Aero Academy website: http://www.mvpaeroacademy.com/
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Risk Management Program First We

Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81061391

Each risk should be assigned to the appropriate level of implementation and approval. As an example, a decision to build that second data center we talked about would be a decision for the company management team. A decision to serialize, catalog, and appraise all of the engineering equipment would be decided and approved by the head of the engineering department. (Risk Management)

The plan created by the appropriate level should assess each risk assigned to him or her and propose the appropriate steps to take to alleviate or minimize the negative impact of a risk occurring. The overall company plan as well as the departmental plan should assign the responsible individual and the schedule for completion. (Risk Management)

Implementation of the plan is simply activating the well-thought-out plan that has been created and, most likely, approved by management.

Review and Update the Plan

This is one of the keys to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borge, Dan. The Book of Risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

Marrison, Christopher. The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement. New York: McGraw-Hill,

Risk Management." 2007. Intellimaker. 23 November 2008 http://www.intellimaker.com/ExtraPages.asp?sez=27&sched=134.

Robinson, Brian. Five Steps to Managing Risk. 27 June 2005. 23 November 2008 http://www.fcw.com/print/11_26/news/89361-1.html.
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Eudoxus of Cnidus Boyer in

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78300262

He invented a planetary system, which consisted of spheres, the earth being still at the center, and twenty-seven concentric spheres rotating around the earth.

Actually, most of his accomplishments are difficult to explain at all to the nonprofessional, since they involve the complicated fields of math and astronomy. ut, for those who work in those areas, Eudoxus accomplishments are extraordinary. However, what his work does is make the work today so much easier. Those who labor in those fields know the practicalities, complexities, and almost impossibility of what Eudoxus did.

Eudoxus made important contributions to the theory of proportion, where he made a definition allowing possibly irrational lengths to be compared in a similar way to the method of cross multiplying used today. A major difficulty had arisen in mathematics by the time of Eudoxus, namely the fact that certain lengths were not comparable. The theory developed by Eudoxus is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Greek astronomy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2008, from University of British

Colombia: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~berciu/PHILIP/TEACHING/PHYS340/NOTES/FIL

ES/(7)Greek-Astronomy.pdf

Encyclopaedia Brittanica. (2008). Eudoxus of Cnidus. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from Encyclopaedia Brittanica: http://corporate.britannica.com/press/index.html
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Inconvenient Truth Former Vice President

Words: 11687 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45554107

The hope, of course, that to the extent possible, both groups will invest themselves, and their money, in the ways that Mr. Gore is going to suggest in the film.

The Scientist and Mentors

Finally, Mr. Gore shows an image of earth that was made by a friend of his - all of the experts in the film are friends of Mr. Gore. The image was, again, made over a period of years and shows all the geographic locations of the earth. This is important because it segues into Mr. Gore's new direction of rhetoric; a story about two teachers, one he liked very much, the other not so well. Now, this explanation of his impression, his like or dislike of these teachers is intended to accomplish several things in the connection between Mr. Gore and his audience. Also, the audience has changed from a young audience, to one of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buell, Frederick. From Apocalypse to Way of Life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century, New York, New York, Taylor and Francis Books, Inc., 2003.

Douglas, Richard. Growthism and the Green Backlash, the Political Quarterly, 78/4,

October-December, 2007, 547-555.

Durkin, Martin (dir). The Great Global Warming Swindle, film documentary, WAGtv,
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European Resistance Movements in the

Words: 4304 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43688761

A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.

A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).

Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.

Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.

Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
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Terrible Roads Houston Medical Center Unfortunately Not

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38416858

Terrible oads Houston Medical Center

Unfortunately, not all is well within the context of the Houston Medical Center. esidents and workers alike are being plagued with poor quality roads that are creating a situation where many are at a disadvantage in their own everyday lives. Potholes and poor roads throughout the Houston Medical Center facility are creating many residents and faculty alike to have to put up with poorly constructed roads, and thus potential damage to their own vehicles when driving on roads within the region. It is ridiculous in an era where public funds are being spent across the country for the residents of the Houston Medical Center region to have to continuously put up with such horrible road conditions. This can essentially create a situation where there is damage undertaken by vehicles driving on the premises. Vehicles of all types are being damaged while driving in the region.…… [Read More]

References

Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. "The Interstate Highway System." 2006. Available at www.eisenhower .utexas.edu/highway.htm.

Kuemmel, D. (1994, April). Accident study validates benefits of preventive maintenance. American City & County, 109, 52.

Takle, E.S. (1990, August). Bridge and roadway frost: occurrence and prediction by use of an expert system. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 29, 727-734.

Schnormeir, Russell H. "Asphalt Analysis, Sulfur Mixes, and Seal Coats," Transportation Research Record #1096. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board -- National Research Council, 1986.
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Defilippi and Crismon 2000 Observed

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13880214

Fields such as human interaction are too unpredictable to be manipulated under laboratory settings. Human behavior, too, varies from place to place, and, therefore, results of one study that is conducted in one situation to one specific sample of people may not (and rarely do) have the same carryover effects to a different group of individuals conducted in a different spot or time. In other words, experimental, or quantitative, experiments necessitate that variables be closely matched and more, rather than less, homogenous. Therefore, they are best used in the hard sciences where they more often and most likely show consistent and repetitious results. The field of people is, however, more unpredictable and 'messy'. To that end, therefore, I find qualitative experiments more useful here.

This is particularly so in this specific case where we seek to zone in on difficult patients and seek to understand their motives. The characteristics of…… [Read More]

Sources

Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
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Descartes' Discourse on Methods Contributions

Words: 3092 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75801694

Sensory experiences are nor reliable for making any statements, since people often mistake one thing for another. (Descartes talks about mirages). Knowledge based on reasoning is not always trustworthy, because people often make mistakes. (adding numbers is a classical example). Finally, knowledge is deemed by Descartes to be illusory, since it may come from dreams or insanity or from demons able to deceive men by making them believe that they are experiencing the real world, when are they are in fact not doing so. (the metaphysical approach in Descartes work is can be easily recognized here).

Following this analysis of existent forms of knowledge, Descartes concludes that certainty can be found in his intuition that, even if deceived, if he thinks he must exist: "Cogito ergo sum." The thought ("cogito") is a self-evident truth that gives certain knowledge of a particular thing's existence, i.e. one's self, but only the existence…… [Read More]

9. Dicker G, Descartes: An Analytical and Historical Introduction," Oxford, 1993

10. Flage D.E., Bonnen C.A., Descartes and Method: The Search for a Method in the Meditations," Routledge, 1999

Brians P., Gallwey M., Hughes D., Hussain, a., Law R., Myers M., Neville M., Schlesinger R., Spitzer a, Swan S. "Reading About the World," Volume 2, published by Harcourt Brace Custom Books. - excerpts from Descartes' works
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Man Did Evolve Man Is

Words: 3818 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67588956

He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)

Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of…… [Read More]

References

Aristotle: (384-322 B.C.E) Retrieved at  http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html . Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Aristotle's Taxonomy. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.unbf.ca/psychology/likely/greeks/aristotle2.htm. Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Boeree, C. George. Darwin and Evolution. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/evolution.html. Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Chain of Being. Retrieved at  http://www.occultopedia.com/c/chain_of_being.htm . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
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18th C Decorative Botanical Art

Words: 3104 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77815266



In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.

Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.

Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp

Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm

Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com/.
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Chaos Theory the Phenomenon of

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63311016

By doing so, organizations are aiming to embrace chaos and diversity, which they believe will lead to multiple "butterflies" bringing about positive change (Goldoff, 2000; Stilwell, 1996).

Thus, as Petzinger (1999), Stuart (1995), and Richardson observe, chaos theory has led to organizations being viewed as organic or living systems that will find orderly solutions if they are allowed to do so. However, this does not imply that management should let go of all control. On the contrary, all chaos theory implies is that organizational management needs to be more sensitized to environmental changes, leading to flexibility, responsiveness, dynamism, and a reduced reliance on precise planning (Stilwell, 1996). For, as events unfold, there is always an allowance for freedom of choice in making decisions to change or stay with the nature of processes at work. The use of chaos theory, however, helps in tracing the "butterfly effect" of management decisions, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldoff, A.C. "Decision-Making in Organizations: The New Paradigm." International

Journal of Public Administration. Vol. 23:11, 2000, p. 2017.

Petzinger, Thomas Jr. "A New Model for the Nature of Business: It's Alive!" The Wall Street

Journal. February 26, 1999. Accessed May 10, 2005: http://management.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ& sdn=management& zu=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.petzinger.com%2Falive.shtml
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Noaa Stands for National Oceanic

Words: 3867 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59858055



Legislation on liability and compensation is needed.

The United States should ratify the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols.

Federal planning for oil spills must be improved.

Studies of the long-term environmental and health effects must be undertaken expeditiously and carefully.

How NOAA responds to spills?

NOAA is a 24/7 service that monitors and waits for a help if there is a spill. They help protect and conserve the natural resources. As soon as they got call they go to the scene as fast as possible. They inspect the vessel, and study the spill, damage and spread in the affected area. We determine the success of their operation through the response of NOAA. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration has a mission based on the online source, http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2004/s2353.htm:

OR& R. is currently assisting with trajectory modeling, oil fate forecasting, weather, and information management and participating in over flights and resource…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"Clean-Up Techniques" [Online] Available at:

"Containment and Recovery of Floating Oil" [Online] Available at:



Etkin, D.S. 1997. Oil Spills from Vessels (1960-1995): An International Historical Perspective.
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Acing the Praxis Science as

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44790024

Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:

ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.

This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers

Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)

Conclusion

In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from www.ets.gov

Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.

Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.

Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
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Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).

Leades in Bitish Engineeing

Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List
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Marketing Communication Plan

Words: 2287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52863509

Marketing Communications Plan for 5 Star Adventure Tours

Executive Overview

The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) defines ecotourism as "Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people" (2005, p.3). Ecotourism has become the fastest growing segment of the global tourism industry, the largest sector in the world economy. Because climate is one of the main drivers of international tourism, with the majority of tourists seeking to relax in the sun or snow, climate change is expected to have a significant impact on international tourism, and therefore on ecotourism.

This marketing communication plan details marketing plans for 5 Star Adventure Tours, www.5staradventure.com.au, consistently ranked among the top five tour operators in Australia, and an accredited Advanced Eco Tourism Operator. The marketing plan also discusses the size of the global tourist and ecotourist markets, which have been experiencing record growth during the last decade. Given…… [Read More]

Works Cited

5 Star Adventure Tours. (2011). Home. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 July 2011].

Fennell, D.A. (2008) Ecotourism. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.

Hamilton, J.M., Maddison, D.J., & Tol, R.S.J. (2005). Effects of climate change on international tourism. Inter-Research. [online] Available at:  http://www.fnu.zmaw.de/fileadmin/fnu-files/models-data/htm/climrestourism.pdf  > [Accessed 1 August 2011].

Nabuur.com (n.d.). Ecotourist Market Profile. The Global Neighbor Network .[online] Available at: [Accessed 29 July 2011].
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Changes in Priorities of Icao Since 1944 and Present

Words: 2894 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45310863

History Of the Organization's Formation

Objectives of ICAO as Specified in the Chicago Convention

Enhancing Safety and Security in Civil Aviation

Development and Constant Evaluation of Aviation Standards and Policies

Implementation of Standards and Practices

Timely esponse to Challenges

Additional Objectives

Changes in ICAO's Strategic Objectives

Safety Objective

Security Objective

Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Objective

The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in November 1944 by the conclusion of the Chicago Convention held in that year. This organization was formed because of the need for securing cooperation and standardization of global aviation policies and practices. The United States of America played a crucial role in the organization's formation by inviting several states to the Convention on international civil aviation standards, policies, and procedures. Out of the 44 States that attended the Chicago Convention, 32 States signed an agreement that paved the way for ICAO's creation.

ICAO was mandated with…… [Read More]

References:

"Annual Report of the Council." (2010). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.

Retrieved September 30, 2013, from  http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/9952_en.pdf 

"Annual Report of the Council." (2011). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.

Retrieved September 30, 2013, from  http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/9975_en.pdf
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Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Words: 3364 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90105340

Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…… [Read More]

References

Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-

Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.

Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.

Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
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Aristotle Virtue Aristotle Is Considered to Be

Words: 1042 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41341244

Aristotle: Virtue

Aristotle is considered to be the philosopher of philosophers, he virtually wrote about everything, he pioneered most of the disciplines like psychology, biology, meteorology and political science. For almost a thousand years Aristotle's theories were unchallenged such was the impact of his philosophy and thought. The medieval philosophy of Scholastics and early enaissance thinkers borrowed heavily from Aristotle. At the root of Aristotle's philosophy was his doctrine of virtue and natural law. Aristotle believed that everything in life serves a purpose "telos" as he called it and distinguished "efficient" causes from "final" causes. 'Efficient causes are those things or processes that lead to the final cause, they are the means to ends, for example a painter uses paints and brush to create a work of art, the brush and paints are tools, process to make a painting. While the final cause is the end product, the painting. Similarly…… [Read More]

References

Paresh D. Bhatt Aristole on Happiness and Virtue:  http://www.swaminarayan.org/essays/2002/2203.htm 

Aristotle on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/aristotl.htm

Virtue Theory on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/v/virtue.htm http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/aristotl.htm http://www.swaminarayan.org/essays/2002/2203.h
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How ICE and Rain Affect Normal Operations Focusing on Icing

Words: 3763 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15663040

ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing

There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.

Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.

Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.

Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
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Internet and Crime

Words: 1223 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92738069

Cyber Crime

Critical infrastructure

There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.

It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…… [Read More]

Reference

2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from  http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/annual_report_full_11.pdf 

GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from  http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/235485.pdf .

Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1131&context=cm

Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://swfound.org/media/93632/SSI_FullReport_2012.pdf
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Thermal Transfer Rates for Different Materials

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60279090

Differential Heating of Materials

Lab eport in Geography

The heating of materials varies considerable depending on material composition and atmospheric conditions. A considerable amount of the sun's energy can be reflected back into the atmosphere, in a process called albedo (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 1998, p. 36). The average albedo rates for sand, mud, asphalt, and water are approximately 20-30%, 10%, 5-10%, and 3-80%, respectively, depending on the position of the sun relative to the surface of water (p. 40).

The process of heating materials will vary as well. For example, asphalt and dry sand would primarily use conduction for thermal transfer, while bodies of water or air would use convection (p. 30). On the other hand, thermal transfer for wet soil or mud has the added complexity of latent heating (p. 76). Latent heating or evaporation has a strong cooling effect on the liquid moisture remaining, a loss of 600…… [Read More]

References

Jones, L.L. (2015). Physical Geography Lab Manual: Geography 1401. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing.

Lutgens, F.K. & Tarbuck, E.J. (1998). The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Forensic Entomology

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3275813

Forensic

According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm 

Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online:  http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm 

Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
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Contrails and Their Affect on

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98265268



It is however worth noting that the effects of the contrails on the climatic conditions and the weather in general is negligible as compared to the greenhouse gasses constantly emitted from the various industries into the atmosphere. The effect of the contrails almost doesn't count since it clears off faster, indeed within hours and if the stay is prolonged then it cannot go beyond a few days, yet the industrially emitted greenhouse gases can take years to clear off and the effect on the weather pattern is very adverse.

Having seen the various ways through which the contrails can affect the climatic conditions, and the foreseeable effect that they may pose to the climatic conditions in the next few years to places that host many planes, there are suggestions that the plane industries should think of venturing into the manufacture of engines whose by product of the combustion is not…… [Read More]

References

Dictionary.com LLC, (2011). Contrail definition. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contrail

John Timmer (2011). Contrails impact climate more than planes' carbon emissions. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2011/03/contrails-impact-climate-more-than-planes-carbon-emissions.ars

Peter Tyson, (2006). The Contrail Effect. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/contrail-effect.html 

Wynne Parry, (2011). Earth Warmed by Trails of Clouds that Jets Leave Behind. Retrieved May
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Hurricanes and Global Warming the

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85079546

It is well-known that tropical cyclones form over warm water and it is the heat in the water from which they get their energy. Therefore it is reasonable to believe that warmer waters could increase hurricane intensity and activity. armer waters would translate into more energy to fuel the tropical cyclone and make their effects more pronounced. There is also evidence that global warming is contributing to changing circulation patterns.

Sea level rise due to warmer conditions which melts glaciers and sea ice can have a number of implications for the Earth's storm patterns. Many climate models have suggested that with warmer temperatures there would be higher wind speeds in hurricanes. In fact, one study shows a 70% increase since the mid-1970s of an index of hurricane activity related to the total power dissipation, which is proportional to the cube of the maximum wind speed, integrated over the lifetime of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthes, R., Corell, R., Holland, G., Hurrell, J., MacCrackin, M., & Trenberth, K. (2006). Hurricanes and Global Warming - Potential Linkages and Consequences. Bulletin of the American Meteoroligical Society, 623-628.
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Blizzards and Global Warming

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64062455

Climate Change: Severe eather

Quite often, when people comment upon the effects of global warming, they comment that winters can still be quite severe. The fact that blizzards are still frequent occurrences is used as 'proof' of the persistence of climate change. However, although the temperature of the earth is steadily increasing, the effects of climate change mean that more intense storms are likely in the future, including blizzards. This is largely due to the melting of the polar ice caps. "In addition to affecting the ocean circulation patterns, Arctic sea ice is melting more rapidly and for longer periods each year, and is unable to replenish itself at the historical thickness levels in the briefer, warmer winter season. This can destabilize the polar vortex (see below) and raise the barometric pressure within it" ("It's Cold and My Car is Buried in Snow").

Destabilizing the polar vortex can result in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"It's Cold and My Car is Buried in Snow. Is Global Warming Really Happening?" Union of Concerned Scientists. 17 Dec 2015. Web. 10 Nov 2016.
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Ruddiman Plows Annotation of W F

Words: 4273 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67526396

He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.

Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.

Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…… [Read More]

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Ruddiman's Account of Ancient Human

Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69627461

Humanity might not have the same effective power over the environment when fossil fuels run out. While this assumption is certainly believable, humans will not doubt reach a point where the greenhouse gas absorbing plants and bodies will no longer be able to keep up with human activity. This will further exacerbate the problem of human-caused global climate change. On the other hand, if humans are able to develop non-fossil fuel alternatives that do not have a negative effect on the environment on a global scale, the warming trend might very well be reversed in a generation or two. Either way, Ruddiman's arguments will likely be proven to be wrong or right, on a long enough timeframe.

ection IV: Opposing Points-of-View

Anthropologists, specifically, disagree with Ruddiman. ince the author himself is not an anthropology professor and admittedly has very little experience in this field, it would only seem natural that…… [Read More]

Sources

Allen, Robert, Scott Seaman and John DeLascio. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76 (2009): 12-9. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .

Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." The Heartland Institute. The Heartlander, Feb. 2003: n.pag. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.

Bert, Ray. Rev. Of Plows, Plagues, & Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, by William F. Ruddiman. Civil Engineering 78 (2008): 73.

Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009. Print.
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Warming Arctic Global Warming Has

Words: 2577 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98169472

Scientists are unable to determine the amounts of gases that will be released into the atmosphere because the early studies on permafrost melting are no longer accurate.

The melting of the permafrost does not only affect the environment because of the gases that it releases, but also, because it would lead to the erosion of the Arctic coastlines. This would have a devastating impact on the industry present there and on sites that are of great cultural importance. ith the coasts being eroded because of permafrost, sea waves and storms will have better access to the shore. Communities and ecosystems are anticipated to be affected by the floods coming in through the coastal wetlands. The financial costs required for mass movements are colossal, and, in some areas, relocation processes have already taken place. Communities and industrial facilities in coastal areas have had no other solution than to reposition, given the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Brent Carpenter, "Warm Is the New Cold: Global Warming, Oil, UNCLOS Article 76, and How an Arctic Treaty Might Stop a New Cold War," Environmental Law 39.1 (2009).

2. Hassol, Susan; Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (2004). "Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment." Cambridge University Press.

3. Sommerkorn Martin & Hassol Susan Joy, "Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications EXECUTIVE SUMMARY." Retrieved April 21, from the WWF China Web site: http://www.wwfchina.org/wwfpress/publication/gdl/arcticreport.pdf

4. "IPCC Report The Arctic: Thawing Permafrost, Melting Sea Ice And More Significant Changes." Apr 11, 2007. Retrieved from the Science Daily Web site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070410140922.htm
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Hydrological Hazard or Water Resource

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75990949

The land could not resist to the saturation caused by the winds and the heavy rain and it had not been long before the aftermath materialized into swollen mountain streams. This later resulted into cascades of mud mixed with water running down the slopes in serious amounts. In spite of the fact that the island had several drains and catch basins which could be very effective in case of a small flood, they had been no match for the one on the February 20. The three rivers crossing Funchal, apparently meant to prevent flood water from entering the city, had been one of the motives for the waters quickly moving towards the streets.

A state of panic overtook the area, as the authorities were practically powerless. The intervention of the military had been crucial, as engineers could repair some of the structures that had suffered minor damage, while military rescue…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Elliot Larry & Tremlett Giles. "Madeira floods: death toll rises to 40." Retrieved April 27, 2010, from the Guardian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/feb/21/madeira-floods-death-toll-rises
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Ozone the Recovery of Stratospheric

Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67168758

2009). Though innovative, this use of the model appears to be highly reliable and appropriate given the context of the study. At the same time, very little direct observation is utilized for correlation to this data, and retroactive predictions are not presented to demonstrate the model's efficacy, raising some doubt.

Discussion

Though the system of ozone depletion and recovery was thought to be fairly well understood given the decades of research on the subject, emerging data regarding significant influential issues that had previously gone unaccounted for have suggested that this understanding is not as complete or as accurate as was previously thought. Climate change is suggested in many of the studies to have a significant impact on the rates of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, which in turn is seen as having an effect on climate change in other studies. This potentially cyclical interaction gives rise to complexities that are…… [Read More]

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Prisoner's Dilemma and the Fight

Words: 7692 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85065728



Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).

However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.

2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4

3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.

4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site:  http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/~clemons/blogs/prisonersblog.pdf
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Community it Affects and Describe

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46133578

This tax would also concentrate of taxing large corporations as a result of the fact that they are among the most pollutant communities in the world.

The basic idea is that every individual who pollutes needs to take responsibility for his or her own actions. Also, a large amount of the money raised through taxing pollution would be invested in creating green technologies which would replace pollutant technologies in time. People need to understand that they are not being deprived of particular technologies through the fact that this tax is imposed, as they are actually heading toward a stage where technology is no longer pollutant, regardless of the level of comfort that it generates. Green cars can actually be much better than cars that run on fossil fuels, given that contemporary progress in the technological sector has made it possible for fossil fuels to appear like an obsolete source of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Victor, David G. "Enforcing International Law: Implications for an Effective Global Warming Regime," Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum 10.1 (1999): 147

Victor, David G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001)
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New York Times Like Profile

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76766914

At which point, the overall problem becomes worse. In Griffith's case, he believes that if can cut energy demand (by offering viable solutions), then you can have an impact on addressing the underlying problem. This is significant, because it shows how these two factors would contribute directly to the research that he is conducting. ("Seminars about Long-Term Thinking")

As a result, Griffith has started a number of different initiatives that can help address these various challenges affecting the global community to include: developing human power solutions (to address different energy needs), supporting collaborative efforts and through the establishment of companies that will focus exclusively on these issues. The most notable is: his startup company Squibb Labs. These different elements are important, because they are showing how Griffith is taking his experience and he is using them, to address underlying long-term challenges affecting society. ("Seminars about Long-Term Thinking")

The Total Impact…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Saul Griffith.' Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2011

"Seminars about Long-Term Thinking." Long Now, 2011. Web. 14 Feb. 2011

"Short Bio Saul Griffith." Saul Griffith, 2011. Web. 14 Feb. 2011

Dean, Josh. "Saul Griffith's Cool Ideas." Inc. Web. 14 Feb. 2011
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International Negotiation and Cross-Cultural Realities

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48066080

Accordingly, text article notes that "international negotiation is often not just between individual people, but between large delegations, each of which is well organized and where every person has specialized and skilled work. There may be cultural experts, linguists and subject specialists as well as a chief negotiator and support negotiators. In a complex negotiation, there may be multiple and interlined sub-negotiations going on at the same time, for example where a trade negotiation includes deal involving various industries and interests." (Changing Minds, 1)

This denotes that negotiations are typically an extremely complex and nuanced process. Such mediation may occur over an extended period of time and require multiple face-to-face encounters and the constant recasting of terms and conditions. This is because such negotiation is confounded by the true challenge of establishing an equilibrium between parties. Ideally, a negotiation will produce a compromise that is viewed as essentially favorable to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Changing Minds. (2002). International Negotiations. Changing Minds.org.

McMahon, H. (2008). Fact Sheet: International Negotiations on Climate Change. World Resources Institute.
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Reaching Climate Change Legislation in

Words: 435 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16945963

Other perspectives, such as the realist perspective, find that the threats posed by climate change are still uncertain and largely unsubstantiated, and other factors such as the global geopolitical situation also lead them to believe that now is not the time to pursue major hanges in energy production or industry. As international cooperation becomes more and more difficult, it will also become more difficult for to agree on international climate change regulations and rules, let alone enforce them, making an establishments of these rules now premature and effectively useless, according to this view. The fact that this perspective persist in many minds is a major barrier to the passing of effective climate change legislation.

Finally, many businesses show very little interest in adjusting their activities without federal mandates to do so. Carbon trading has failed as a voluntary enterprise, and the businesses and regions that have banded together in attempts…… [Read More]

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Rise if the Industrial Revolution

Words: 1467 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19922595

The World Health Organization estimates that at least 15% of the world human population in non-developed countries lacks access to potable water. Because of this, at least 1/2 of the world's poor populations are infected with one or more of the main viral or parasitic diseases associated with rank or polluted water (Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers) . Changes in global population growth, unwise agricultural policies, and rapid and unchecked overdevelopment have skewed this balance to the point where almost 1 billion people lack access to safe water, resulting in almost 4 million deaths due to water related diseases annually. Ironically, less than 1% of the total fresh water globally is available for daily and direct human consumption. This is quite dramatic when one considers that a single American who takes a 5-minute shower uses more what than an individual in much of the developing world uses in an entire…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. Cited in: .

Houghton, J. (2009). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lovelock, J. (2010). The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. New York:

Basic Books.
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Global Warming Is Accepted or

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39643377

As sea level are on the rise, many millions will suffer more and more aggressive floods and entire coastal cities and industries will disappear unless significant investment is made in dam systems. Another socio-geographical effect is large fires due to high temperatures and winds that create disasters all over the planet. Also, freshwater systems in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, America, North America, Polar regions "showed an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems." (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.2007)

Global warming effects also reach more developed countries with effects not necessarily connected with the food supply or health issues, but climate change. The increase of severe weather phenomena in the last 10 years is quite visible, although no direct match can be made at this point as not enough data has been collected. As an in example of global…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability" IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 Retrieved from   http://www.ipcc.ch /publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-es.html ).

National Geographic. What is Global Warming? 2010. Retrieved from  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html 

Pachauri, R.K. "Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" IPCC Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Retrieved from  
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Government Roles in Disaster Recovery

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90881084

What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.

Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.

Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.

Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
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Global Warming a Theory or

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54241330

"Global air temperatures have been rising at a steady trend rate of 0.5 degrees Centigrade per century since about 1750, as the world recovers from the little ice age." (Evans, Global Research, 2009

Global temperatures cooled off from 1940 through the late 1970's, which refutes the casual relationship earlier defined by scientists between rises in CO2 levels and global warming. Tsonis also points to a Washington Post article from 1922 that reports Greenland glaciers to be fast disappearing and arctic seals not engaging their warmer waters. Subsequently the period from the 1980's to 2000 showed an aggressive rise in temperature. Tsonis does agree to an element of human activity and greenhouse gas that contributes to the MDO cycle but does not believe in predictions of catastrophe associated with Global Warming. He further states that we may see reports of an on setting ice age by the early 2030's, as the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Environmentalists 'exaggerated' threat to tropical rainforests from global warming. David Derbyshire. November 10, 2010.  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1328853/Environmentalists-exaggerated-threat-tropical-rainforests-global-warming.html 

Global warming or global cooling? S. Anklesaria Aiyari. India Times. February 27, 2005. Retrieved from:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-toi/all-that-matters/Global-warming-or-global-cooling/articleshow/1034077.cms 

Global Warming or Global Cooling? A New Trend in Climate Alarmism. Dr. David Evans. Centre for Research on Globalization -- GlobalResearch.ca. July 23, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=14504

Skeptics on Human Climate Impact Seize on Cold Spell. Andrew C. Revin. The New York Times -- Science. March 2, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/02/science/02cold.html?_r=3&ex=1362114000&en=ac4d3adc9cb328c1&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin&oref=slogin
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Global Warming Is Global Warming

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64916566

(Homer, 2007, pp. 37 -- 59) at the same time, many critics will find anomalies, highlighting how the opposite of warming trends may be occurring. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, the blizzard that would blanket the Eastern United States in February 2010. As critics would claim that if global warming was such a problem, why is the nation experiencing unusual cold fronts during the winter. A good example of this can be seen with comments from a former climate change expert at the Energy Department Joseph Romm who wrote, "Ideologues in the Senate keep pushing the anti-scientific disinformation that big snowstorms are evidence against human-caused global warming." (roder, 2007) This is important, because it shows how many critics will often point to the information that is being presented as flawed. Where, they will find examples to highlight how the opposite trend could be occurring.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Broder, J. (2010). Climate Change Debate is Heating Up. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/science/earth/11climate.html

Homer, C. (2007). The Sky is Falling. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming. (pp. 37 -- 59). Washington D.C., Regenery

Maslin, M. (2007). Deep Water Circulation. Global Warming. (pp. 57 -- 62). Stillwater, MN: Voyager Press.

Robinson, M. (2008). Is Global Warming Happening Now? America Debates Global Warming. (pp. 6 -- 12) New York, NY: Rosen.
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Emergency Operation Center for a

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14702432

Planning for a larger center in the future eliminates the need to build an entire new center if it is someday required. The director should also do a risk analysis of the type of threats that face the community, and the facility. Another writer notes, "The Federal Emergency Management Agency has developed guidelines to assist a community in a risk assessment process" (Vaughn, 2008, p. 26). While hurricanes are the main concern, there can also be other treats, such as safety, security, staff health, and the overall operation of the facility.

Organization

The easiest way to organize the center is to follow the National Incident Management System (NIMS). It contains an incident command structure that is a common method of organizing the center. Commanders within the structure all have different areas of responsibility, including communications, damage assessment, available resources, and other key responsibilities (Editors, 2010, p. 8). Overseeing the activity…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2010). Emergency operations center planning and design. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the Department of Defense Web site:  http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_4_141_04.pdf .

Vaughn, M.R. (2008). Evaluating the need for a local emergency operations center. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the U.S. Fire Administration Web site:

http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/pdf/efop/efo42770.pdf.
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Human Activities on Global Climate

Words: 3322 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7492424

A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.

Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…… [Read More]

References:

"Disagreement on Human-caused Climate Change." (n.d.). Climate Change & Global Warming

Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://climatechange.110mb.com/intro-debate-climate-change.htm

"Global Climate Change: Is it Human Caused?" (n.d.). Sierra County Prospect: 21st Century

News. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from  http://www.sierracountyprospect.com/Global_Climate_Change.html
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Management in This Presentation I

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3344545

FEMA (2010) characterizes flash floods as a "dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, sticks, mud and other debris and can sweep away most things in its path." That such floods can arise without warning, and even without rain in the area, makes them especially dangerous. As flash floods typically occur along rivers, streams or in low-lying areas, the presentation will outline some of the major flash flood threat areas in our region. Estimates of potential damage will be given, based on the density of buildings, property and people in the potentially affected areas. The patterns of flash floods are less predictable and there is little advanced warning, which means that most flash flood management strategies are preventative in nature (i.e. keeping houses out of the most threatened areas).

The resource requirements for managing these flood risks will also be outlined in the presentation. There is a considerable amount…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

NRC. (1994). Hurricane Hugo: Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and South Carolina, September 17-22, 1989. National Research Council Committee on Natural Disasters. Washington, DC: National Acadamies Press.

Chowdhury, S. & Kjelds, J. (2002). Simulation of coastal flooding with MIKE 11 and HEC-UNET. American Society of Civil Engineers. 2002. pp.205-214.

FEMA (2010). Flood. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.fema.gov/hazard/flood/index.shtm
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Dalit Freedom Network Mission Statement

Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19693445



The reality of modern life is that everything has a carbon footprint.

This is why it is important to offset it.

In Carbonica we don't believe in emission credits or permissible levels of carbon emissions.

We believe that the only acceptable level of emissions is zero.

We also believe that trees are the only true carbon offset and Nature's very efficient method of carbon capture.

We would like to help people like you make a difference, and with Carbonica you can become a zero footprint individual and make a positive contribution to the environment.

This mission statement exhibits the opposite problem from the earlier example; it is exhaustive, but it is neither brief nor efficient. It does make clear what services the organization gives (planting trees), but it does not specify how the organization accomplishes that objective until the sixth paragraph: "Our mission is to plant trees and fund multi-story…… [Read More]

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Risk Perception and Communication Human

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27216049



From the historic standpoint, as well as from a scientific standpoint, the hill's ability to protect against tornados is once again promoted as a myth. Originated from the Native Americans, the myth argued that there were specific areas protected against tornados by land features, such as hills, rivers, mountains or ridges. The legends were passed on from one generation to the other and created a false sense of protection. Until the tornados hit almost all region in the ocky Mountains, to kill tens of people (Scavuzzo, 2004).

And aside from history and science, the third means of convincing the population would be through the use of the common sense. Considering a situation in which the hills did indeed reduce the risks of tornados in the region, it is impossible for them to entirely eliminate the threat. This virtually means that when the tornado hits, it will create loses. If the…… [Read More]

References:

Scavuzzo, W., 2004, Tornado alert, Crabtree Publishing Company, ISBN 077871571X

1999, Myths, The Tornado Project, http://www.tornadoproject.com/myths/myths.htm last accessed on October 7, 2010
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Responsible for Emergency Planning in

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60176008

By doing so, they will safeguard the lives of the Miami inhabitants, as well as that of the millions of tourists to the region. What the local government would in fact do is to redistribute the funds collected in the form of taxes and redistribute them to the citizens by protecting them in case of emergencies. In case the endeavor fails, public pressure should be put on the authorities.

b) The community

The community should be approached through the media and asked to donate small amounts of money for the creation of the emergency plan. It is necessary to make it easy for the populations to donate and also to ask them to donate small sums of money; 2 dollars with an SMS to a given number for instance. For larger donations, the community members could make a payment in a pre-established bank account. It is however important to strongly…… [Read More]

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Global Warming Neglecting the Complexities

Words: 1667 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69501337



It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.

Conclusion

As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.

eferences

Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…… [Read More]

References

Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"

http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/153038/?topic=49491

Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya

Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
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Security Council France Over the

Words: 1323 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21103955

This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Effects of Global Warming are Everywhere, 2007, National Geographic. Available from: . [27 September 2010].

Future Effects, n.d. UNFCC, Available from: . [27 September 2010].

Hurricane Katrina. 2010, Hurricane Katrina. Available from: . [27 September 2010].

NOAA Raises 2005 Hurricane Season Outlook, 2005, NOAA. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
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Sustainable New Orleans Wanting to

Words: 1367 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2546277

If people were to realize the imminent danger, they would have probably paid more attention to the wetlands. It seemed irresponsibly to invest in something such as marshes and lands that were seemingly of little use to the city and individuals thus preferred to invest in other matters, such as the Mississippi River's commercial purpose. However, seeing the damage, the tens of billions of dollars lost in the disaster, and the lives lost it is likely that the price to pay for restructuring the wetlands would have been significantly smaller.

In addition to the improper management of the Mississippi River and the lack of regard in reference to the wetlands, the magnitude of the disaster was influenced by the levee construction standing protecting the land from the river and the sea. hile the levee system was actually meant to prevent floods from happening, it failed entirely in accomplishing its purpose.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Eckel Catherine; Grossman, Philip J., and Angela Milano, "Is More Information Always Better? An Experimental Study of Charitable Giving and Hurricane Katrina," Southern Economic Journal (2007): 74.2

2. "Creating a sustainable and desirable New Orleans." Ohio State University. 01 August 2010.

"Creating a sustainable and desirable New Orleans." Ohio State University. 01 August 2010.

"Creating a sustainable and desirable New Orleans." Ohio State University. 01 August 2010.
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Expert Panel on Global Warming

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4596144

Currently she is a Scientist III working with the Institute for the Study of Society and Environment (ISSE) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Her research focuses on human exploitation of climate-sensitive natural resources, and the socioeconomic and institutional factors affecting resource management decisions in the context of uncertainty and competing interests.

Dr. Thomas J. ilbank received a Ph. D. In Geography from Syracuse in 1969. He is a recognized expert in energy and environmental policy, developing countries, global change, technology and society, and institution-building. Currently he is employed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the title of Corporate Research Fellow and Leader, Global Change and Developing Country Programs. Dr. ilbank has studied the links between everyday economic and household activities and climate change. He is a contributor to the book, Global Change and Local Places: Estimating, Understanding, and Reducing Greenhouse Gases. This book reports on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hansen, James. GISS Personnel Directory. 2010. Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 27 July 2010. .

Miller, Kathleen. Institute for the Study of Society and Environment. 2010. Kathleen Millar's Home Page. 27 July 2010. <  http://www.isse.ucar.edu/staff/miller/index.php >.

Simmons. 5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming. NDI. Environmental Graffiti. 27 July 2010. .

Wilbank, Thomas J. Environmental Sciences Division. 2010. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 27 July 2010. <  http://www.esd.ornl.gov/people/wilbanks/index.shtml >.
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Joshua Tree the Desert Climate

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64256542

(ikipedia, 1) Likewise, early American settlers in these regions found this a crucial plant to be used in the efforts of homesteading and industrialization. Using the dense fibrous substance of the trunk in order to render fencing and other demarcations of property, the pioneers subjected much of the available stock of Joshua Trees in this region to exploitation. This accounts in part for the reduced presence of these in the general landscape. Indeed, research also denotes that the steam engine which was so central to early industrialization appealed heavily to the slow-burning of the dense Joshua Tree fibers as a way of generating fuel. (ikipedia, 1)

Though its use in native cultures was omnipresent, the most prominent of symbols relating to the Joshua Tree also emerges from the engagement of American pioneers. Initially, research tells, the Joshua Tree was encountered in formal recording by Mormon settlers. It was their view…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (RSABG). (2010). Living Collection: In the Garden. RSABG.org.

Wikipedia. (2010). Joshua Tree. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
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Environmental Review the Carbon in

Words: 734 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59271345



10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.

11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed

12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.

Chapter 13

5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…… [Read More]

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Small Price for a Large

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8070366

Moreover, the mean temperature of the planet earth shall only change once there is an inequality between the rates of energy added and energy lost. What this implies is that any substance which can alter the rates of flow of energy may cause the warming of the earth or the cooling of the world.

As far as man-made global warming is concerned, the additional carbon dioxide in the air is known to decrease the rate as which planet earth cools to the exterior space. This readily happens in nature during the greenhouse effect of the atmospheric system. The greenhouse effect is a natural process in which water vapor, clouds, carbon dioxide and methane serve as a radiative blanket. Therefore, the lower atmosphere of the earth and the surface are lagged. Consequently, the earths mean surface temperature is escalated by approximately thirty three degrees celsius. Likewise, the globe's natural greenhouse effect…… [Read More]

Reference

Roy, Spencer W.

Models is Wrong.31 May 2009. 24 May 2010.
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Rapid Growth of the Global

Words: 1457 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65023170

The term "hockey stick" was given to this controversy by Jerry Mahlman, a climatologist who described a patter that is relatively flat to 1900 (the shaft) and then a sharp increase after 1900 that corresponds to the blade (see above) (Climate Legacy, 2004). This graph has been the key piece of evidence in views supported by the United Nations and IPCC regarding greenhouse gas emissions and environmental change.

Arguments against using the Hockey Stick as the only answer to climate claim that it is taken out of context when it comes to global climatic time. In addition, graphing the last 150 years causes, what some scientists say, is noisy data in which relatively minor changes appear to be over exaggerated because of the template of the graph. This, called small-amplitude variations, may be true from an empirical sense, but have little meaning statistically when dealing with macro-science like climate (Von…… [Read More]

REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED

Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. (2007). IPCC. Cited in:

  http://www.ipcc.ch /publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/spms2.html 

Climate Legacy of 'Hockey Stick..' (2004). BBC News. Cited in:

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3569604.stm
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Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate

Words: 4856 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86822626



Figure 3. Central England Temperature

Note: Blue bars indicates changes in CET annual values during the period 1877 to 2006 relative to the average over the 1961-90 baseline period (about 9.5 "C). Error bars enclose the 95% confidence range and the red line highlights decadal variations.

Source: UK Climate Projections 2011 at http://ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk / content/view/751/500/

As shown in Figure 3 above, the Central England temperature (CET) has increased by approximately one degree Celsius since 1980; in fact, the year 2006 was the warmest on record (Central England temperature 2010). Some salient trends represented by these historic weather patterns include:

1. Following a period of relative long-term stability for most of the 20th century, CET has increased by about a degree Celsius since the 1980s. This is a more rapid rise than that of the global average land-surface temperature over the same period, and considerably faster than that of the global…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R.D., Seaman, S.M. & Delascio, J.E. 2009 "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims

and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76(1): 12-13.

"A low-carbon UK." 2011 U.K. Department of Energy & Climate Change. [online] available:

http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/lc_uk/lc_uk.aspx.
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Global Warming What Are the

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33740409



In their October press release, the PE organization provided narrative to explain how the data breaks down as far as political party. The public is "divided" when it comes to the question of whether scientists themselves agree that human activity is the cause of global warming. Forty-four percent say scientists agree and 44% say scientists do not agree on the data regarding global warming. That data is radically different from what PE learned in July, 2006, when 59% of those polled said scientists agree on global warming and only 29% said scientists do not agree.

"A substantial majority of Democrats (79%) say there is solid evidence" that the average temperature on the planet has been rising recently, and 53% of Democrats believe the warming is caused by human activity, PE continues. But among Republicans, just 38% agree with the statement that the earth is actually warming up and only 16%…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Media Matters. (2010). Brain Freeze: Conservative media still using winter weather to attack global warming. Retrieved January 14, 2011, from http://mediamatters.org.

Pachauri, Rajendra. (2010). Statement of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change at the opening of the UNFCCC meeting, 29 November, 2010, Cancun, Mexico. Retrieved January, 2011, from  http://www.ipcc.ch .

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2010). Little Change in Opinions about Global

Warming. Retrieved January 14, 2011, from http://people-press.org/report/669.