317+ documents containing “meteorology”.
The hazards that small plane pilot's face from the vagaries of weather is legendary. Some crashes like the aircraft crash of John F. Kennedy Jr. At the coast of Massachusetts in Jul 16, 1999 relates to 'conspiracy' theories, fear of sabotage and even to terrorist action. But there always will be the simple explanation of what went wrong, especially in a case where the aircraft is very vulnerable to the wind and climatic conditions. While big jets fly at higher altitudes and have sophisticated forewarning systems the smaller planes fly at lesser altitudes and are more susceptible to accidents owing to the unstable weather conditions. That being so it is possible that the accident occurred due to weather conditions and the inexperience of the pilot. In order to substantiate this hypothesis it is necessary to examine the possible conditions of weather that could have caused the disaster. Secondly it is….
Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant gases in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a full 99% of its content. After these two gases, water vapor is second highest in concentration, followed by carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Ozone gas is also present in the atmosphere, along with a few other less common gases like Argon.
The four "spheres" of the atmosphere include the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and thermosphere. The isothermal layer and ozone layer are layers of the stratosphere.
In the stratosphere, which is above the troposphere, temperature remains constant for the first nine kilometers. ithin the isothermal layers of the atmosphere, temperature is constant. Moreover, nearing the ozone layer, temperatures rise with increased altitude. Therefore, temperature does not constantly decrease the higher we move up in the atmosphere.
Based on the graphic function of "air" pressure, we can see how gravity causes air density and air pressure to….
Weather is one of those magical subjects that almost everyone feels comfortable talking about no matter where they and no matter to whom they are speaking. It affects one's mood in both a negative and positive fashion and its effects have been felt throughout history. It is a world unifying factor that is completely beyond the control of anyone. As compelling as weather has been throughout history little has been known about it until very recently. Now all that has changed as technology is opening new discoveries every day but, despite little knowledge, the study of the weather, meteorology, still has an interesting history.
Meteorology affects us in a variety of different and diverse ways. For example, excessive rain or snow fall can result in flooding, transportation difficulties, washed out crops, and the loss of human and animal life. Conversely, a drought can result in water shortages, crop failure, and uncontrolled….
Bradford, M. (2001). Scanning the Skies: A History of Tornado Forecasting. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Doak, R.S. (2005). Galileo: Astronomer and Physicist. Mankanto, MN: Compass Point Books.
Frisinger, H.H. (1973). Aristotle's Legacy in Meteorology. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 198-204.
Geiger, P. (1818). Farmers Almanac. Lewiston, ME: Almanac Publishing Company.
Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds are more likely to occur.
ind speed is faster above the ground because it encounters less friction and winds move very fast when there is nothing to slow them down. This is why wind turbines are mounted on top of towers. Anemometers connected to control boxes are mounted on top of turbines with the purpose of providing data to the turbine. This makes it possible for turbines to start when wind speeds are useful and to stop when winds are slow.
Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to eather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)
Emeis, Stefan, "ind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)
"Geostrophic ind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of Illinois ebsite: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/geos.rxml
Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)
Emeis, Stefan, "Wind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)
"Geostrophic Wind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of Illinois Website: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/ (Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/geos.rxml
"Origin of Wind," Retrieved February 20, 2013, from the National Weather Service Website: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//synoptic/wind.htm
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from 3….
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
Cox, Forbes & Harris for example claim that:
The scope of the GUM is generally restricted to models with a single output quantity, so that metrology fields involving complex quantities are not directly covered. The presentation of the material is sometimes criticized and a number of documents aimed at providing a more tutorial explanation have been published [1, 26]. If Bayesian methods are to be used widely in metrology, they will need to be related to and made consistent with the general principles of the GUM. This could be the topic of a further supplement and could include guidance material on modelling, model selection and model validation. We should point out that Bayesian methods already have some currency in metrology and have had so for some time . (2004, pp. 87-88)
Though the common use and understanding and indeed the spread of the GUM method of expressing uncertainty is clear the….
Ashley, K, Brisson, M, Howe, A, & Bartley, D 2009, 'Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Standardized Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Trace Beryllium in Air Filter Samples', Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene, 6, 12, pp. 745-750, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
Bell, S 1999 A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/documents/gruanmanuals/UK_NPL/mgpg11.pdf
Cox, M, Forbes, A, & Harris, P 2004, 'Bayesian estimation methods in metrology', AIP Conference Proceedings, 735, 1, pp. 84-95, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
Datla, R, Kessel, R, Smith, A, Kacker, R, & Pollock, D 2010, 'Review Article: Uncertainty analysis of remote sensing optical sensor data: guiding principles to achieve metrological consistency', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31, 4, pp. 867-880, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R.….
Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649
Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html
EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en
Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.
Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote ensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049. http://web.ebscohost.com.
This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of outhern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.
Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated
Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological ociety. 83.3 (2002): 393-403. http://web.ebscohost.com.
ince the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater….
Since the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater federal funding for the study of weather. This relatively old article suffers by virtue of being written before the political fallout that occurred after Hurricane Katrina. Still, it provides useful information about the interaction between policy and weather science, in terms of their effects upon human life. It is an opinion piece that stresses that weather research cannot meet society's need to know more about the weather unless the government invests more money in the science and technology of weather services such as forecasting, observational and computational weather mapping infrastructure, and research and development into the causes of climate change and extreme weather conditions. Of course, government's financial resources are strained today, but the article makes a persuasive point that the loss may be far larger if no investment is finally made, because of the ensuring weather-related damage.
Shelter Building." Basegear.com. 2008. http://www.basegear.com/shelters.html
This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of using caves and other tempting 'readymade' hideaways likely to contain animals. It also gives cautions against over-exertion and reminds the builder to make any temporary shelter in a prominent location, to ensure the lost backpacker is found as quickly as possible.
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city and also….
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
" Undulatus is one of the sub-species belonging to the cirrocumulus genus. One blogger claims that the undulatus asperatus is formed by the "interaction of the dry, moving air with the bottom of the existing cloud," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). This interaction "results in the rough appearance on the underside of the cloud, which is the part that we see from the ground," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus").
Digital cameras are partly responsible for the discovery of the new cloud formation (Dell'Amore). Undulatus Asperatus are rare, so that in the past it would have been extremely difficult to capture the images on film and recommend them to official meteorological associations. ith digital photography, photographs are easier to obtain. The main obstacle towards officially classifying undulatus asperatus as a new cloud is knowledge. The Royal Meteorological Society is holding out for more specific information about how the cloud is formed and….
"Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.undulatus-asperatus.org.lu/
"Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name." Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2009/jun/01/2?picture=348217730
"Clouds." 9 Sept. 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.theairlinepilots.com/met/clouds.htm
The Cloud Appreciation Society. "Altocumulus Undulatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://cloudappreciationsociety.org/altocumulus-undulatus-may-07/
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
The pressure gradient….
Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.
London: Icon Books Ltd.
Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)
III. Specific Units of Analysis
Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area of….
What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at http://www.wnrmag.com/supps/2000/apr00/global.htm .
Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020919065913.htm .
Douglas, Jerome (200) Global Warming Already Impacting Monsoons, Crop Production in India. 4 Dec. 2006 NewsTarget. Online available at
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products used as management decision support systems for other off -- the shelf applications (Barron….
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere all the way to the equator, leading to increased rainfall in the subtropics (Kang, 2011). Previous work showed the ozone caused a dominant westerly jet stream in the mid-latitudes to move toward the pole with accompanying shifts in precipitation patterns. This study used different computerized climate models in the effort to identify the impact of the ozone depletion compared to other factors. The experiment found moistening in high latitudes, drying in mid-latitudes, and moistening in the subtropics. etween fifteen and thirty five degrees south, the researchers saw about a ten percent increase in precipitation. The depletion of the ozone layer, from 8 to 25 miles up, has caused severe cooling in the stratosphere, expanding to the troposphere, and altering in the….
Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm
Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802
Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404
Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html
Air Force Military Training 4
Aviation Tactical Force- to- Force Exercise
Military operations entails an interaction of multiple forces, hence sequencing their interaction during training is essential in promoting inter-service cooperation (Col Gopaul, 2017). Efficiency in training is determined by how well the training mirrors the battlefield. The sequencing of the battlefield is configured engaging in multi-service training exercises referred to as force- to- force exercise.
Force- to- force exercise training is a form of training that entails training with simulation equipment to realism to training as the training. Tactical force-to-force exercises essentially entail simulation and configuration of battlefield complexities to support basic training of pilots, mission commanders, and operators. The operation entails the interaction of technologies and forces with different operation experience (Kishore, 2017). The simulated exercises ensure warfighting competencies and swift execution and successful spectrum of operations as well as interforce relationship building (Col Gopaul, 2017). Force- to- Force simulations enables….
Meteorology The hazards that small plane pilot's face from the vagaries of weather is legendary. Some crashes like the aircraft crash of John F. Kennedy Jr. At the coast of…Read Full Paper ❯
Climate/Meteorology Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant gases in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a full 99% of its content. After these two gases, water vapor is second highest…Read Full Paper ❯
Weather is one of those magical subjects that almost everyone feels comfortable talking about no matter where they and no matter to whom they are speaking. It affects one's…Read Full Paper ❯
Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds…Read Full Paper ❯
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change. The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment…Read Full Paper ❯
Cox, Forbes & Harris for example claim that: The scope of the GUM is generally restricted to models with a single output quantity, so that metrology fields involving complex…Read Full Paper ❯
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are…Read Full Paper ❯
He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion. Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain…Read Full Paper ❯
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with…Read Full Paper ❯
" Undulatus is one of the sub-species belonging to the cirrocumulus genus. One blogger claims that the undulatus asperatus is formed by the "interaction of the dry, moving air…Read Full Paper ❯
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane).…Read Full Paper ❯
The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be…Read Full Paper ❯
Artificial Intelligence hat is AI? Future of AI The Expert System hat is an Expert System? Three Major Components of an Expert System Structure of an Expert System Neural network Fuzzy Logic Chaos Engineering Field and Benefit Debate on Comparison Artificial…Read Full Paper ❯
Statistical Research A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere…Read Full Paper ❯
Air Force Military Training 4 Aviation Tactical Force- to- Force Exercise Military operations entails an interaction of multiple forces, hence sequencing their interaction during training is essential in promoting inter-service cooperation…Read Full Paper ❯