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The hazards that small plane pilot's face from the vagaries of weather is legendary. Some crashes like the aircraft crash of John F. Kennedy Jr. At the coast of Massachusetts in Jul 16, 1999 relates to 'conspiracy' theories, fear of sabotage and even to terrorist action. But there always will be the simple explanation of what went wrong, especially in a case where the aircraft is very vulnerable to the wind and climatic conditions. While big jets fly at higher altitudes and have sophisticated forewarning systems the smaller planes fly at lesser altitudes and are more susceptible to accidents owing to the unstable weather conditions. That being so it is possible that the accident occurred due to weather conditions and the inexperience of the pilot. In order to substantiate this hypothesis it is necessary to examine the possible conditions of weather that could have caused the disaster. Secondly it…
ABC News. (2009) JFK Jr. Refused Flight Instructor's Help. Retrieved 1 July 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./story?id=91890&page=1
Ahrens, C. Donald; Samson, Perry J. (2010) "Extreme Weather and Climate"
Clients PPT slide.
Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant gases in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a full 99% of its content. After these two gases, water vapor is second highest in concentration, followed by carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Ozone gas is also present in the atmosphere, along with a few other less common gases like Argon.
The four "spheres" of the atmosphere include the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and thermosphere. The isothermal layer and ozone layer are layers of the stratosphere.
In the stratosphere, which is above the troposphere, temperature remains constant for the first nine kilometers. ithin the isothermal layers of the atmosphere, temperature is constant. Moreover, nearing the ozone layer, temperatures rise with increased altitude. Therefore, temperature does not constantly decrease the higher we move up in the atmosphere.
Based on the graphic function of "air" pressure, we can see how gravity causes air density…
Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere. .
Weather is one of those magical subjects that almost everyone feels comfortable talking about no matter where they and no matter to whom they are speaking. It affects one's mood in both a negative and positive fashion and its effects have been felt throughout history. It is a world unifying factor that is completely beyond the control of anyone. As compelling as weather has been throughout history little has been known about it until very recently. Now all that has changed as technology is opening new discoveries every day but, despite little knowledge, the study of the weather, meteorology, still has an interesting history.
Meteorology affects us in a variety of different and diverse ways. For example, excessive rain or snow fall can result in flooding, transportation difficulties, washed out crops, and the loss of human and animal life. Conversely, a drought can result in water shortages, crop failure, and…
Bradford, M. (2001). Scanning the Skies: A History of Tornado Forecasting. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Doak, R.S. (2005). Galileo: Astronomer and Physicist. Mankanto, MN: Compass Point Books.
Frisinger, H.H. (1973). Aristotle's Legacy in Meteorology. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 198-204.
Geiger, P. (1818). Farmers Almanac. Lewiston, ME: Almanac Publishing Company.
Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds are more likely to occur.
ind speed is faster above the ground because it encounters less friction and winds move very fast when there is nothing to slow them down. This is why wind turbines are mounted on top of towers. Anemometers connected to control boxes are mounted on top of turbines with the purpose of providing data to the turbine. This makes it possible for turbines to start when wind speeds are useful and to stop when winds are slow.
Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to eather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)
Emeis, Stefan, "ind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)
"Geostrophic ind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of…
Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)
Emeis, Stefan, "Wind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)
"Geostrophic Wind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of Illinois Website: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/ (Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/geos.rxml
"Origin of Wind," Retrieved February 20, 2013, from the National Weather Service Website: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//synoptic/wind.htm
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
Cox, Forbes & Harris for example claim that:
The scope of the GUM is generally restricted to models with a single output quantity, so that metrology fields involving complex quantities are not directly covered. The presentation of the material is sometimes criticized and a number of documents aimed at providing a more tutorial explanation have been published [1, 26]. If Bayesian methods are to be used widely in metrology, they will need to be related to and made consistent with the general principles of the GUM. This could be the topic of a further supplement and could include guidance material on modelling, model selection and model validation. We should point out that Bayesian methods already have some currency in metrology and have had so for some time . (2004, pp. 87-88)
Though the common use and understanding and indeed the spread of the GUM method of expressing uncertainty is clear…
Ashley, K, Brisson, M, Howe, A, & Bartley, D 2009, 'Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Standardized Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Trace Beryllium in Air Filter Samples', Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene, 6, 12, pp. 745-750, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
Bell, S 1999 A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/documents/gruanmanuals/UK_NPL/mgpg11.pdf
Cox, M, Forbes, A, & Harris, P 2004, 'Bayesian estimation methods in metrology', AIP Conference Proceedings, 735, 1, pp. 84-95, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
Datla, R, Kessel, R, Smith, A, Kacker, R, & Pollock, D 2010, 'Review Article: Uncertainty analysis of remote sensing optical sensor data: guiding principles to achieve metrological consistency', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31, 4, pp. 867-880, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 June 2011.
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649
Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html
EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en
Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.
Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote ensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049. http://web.ebscohost.com.
This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of outhern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.
Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated
Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological ociety. 83.3 (2002): 393-403. http://web.ebscohost.com.
ince the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists…
Since the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater federal funding for the study of weather. This relatively old article suffers by virtue of being written before the political fallout that occurred after Hurricane Katrina. Still, it provides useful information about the interaction between policy and weather science, in terms of their effects upon human life. It is an opinion piece that stresses that weather research cannot meet society's need to know more about the weather unless the government invests more money in the science and technology of weather services such as forecasting, observational and computational weather mapping infrastructure, and research and development into the causes of climate change and extreme weather conditions. Of course, government's financial resources are strained today, but the article makes a persuasive point that the loss may be far larger if no investment is finally made, because of the ensuring weather-related damage.
Shelter Building." Basegear.com. 2008. http://www.basegear.com/shelters.html
This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of using caves and other tempting 'readymade' hideaways likely to contain animals. It also gives cautions against over-exertion and reminds the builder to make any temporary shelter in a prominent location, to ensure the lost backpacker is found as quickly as possible.
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
" Undulatus is one of the sub-species belonging to the cirrocumulus genus. One blogger claims that the undulatus asperatus is formed by the "interaction of the dry, moving air with the bottom of the existing cloud," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). This interaction "results in the rough appearance on the underside of the cloud, which is the part that we see from the ground," ("New Cloud- Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus").
Digital cameras are partly responsible for the discovery of the new cloud formation (Dell'Amore). Undulatus Asperatus are rare, so that in the past it would have been extremely difficult to capture the images on film and recommend them to official meteorological associations. ith digital photography, photographs are easier to obtain. The main obstacle towards officially classifying undulatus asperatus as a new cloud is knowledge. The Royal Meteorological Society is holding out for more specific information about how the cloud is formed…
"Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.undulatus-asperatus.org.lu/
"Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name." Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2009/jun/01/2?picture=348217730
"Clouds." 9 Sept. 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.theairlinepilots.com/met/clouds.htm
The Cloud Appreciation Society. "Altocumulus Undulatus." Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://cloudappreciationsociety.org/altocumulus-undulatus-may-07/
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.
London: Icon Books Ltd.
Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)
III. Specific Units of Analysis
Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area…
What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at http://www.wnrmag.com/supps/2000/apr00/global.htm .
Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020919065913.htm .
Douglas, Jerome (200) Global Warming Already Impacting Monsoons, Crop Production in India. 4 Dec. 2006 NewsTarget. Online available at
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
A study performed by Sarah Kang and Lorenzo M. Polvani from the Columbia University claims the Earth's ozone layer hole has affected atmospheric circulation in the Southern hemisphere all the way to the equator, leading to increased rainfall in the subtropics (Kang, 2011). Previous work showed the ozone caused a dominant westerly jet stream in the mid-latitudes to move toward the pole with accompanying shifts in precipitation patterns. This study used different computerized climate models in the effort to identify the impact of the ozone depletion compared to other factors. The experiment found moistening in high latitudes, drying in mid-latitudes, and moistening in the subtropics. etween fifteen and thirty five degrees south, the researchers saw about a ten percent increase in precipitation. The depletion of the ozone layer, from 8 to 25 miles up, has caused severe cooling in the stratosphere, expanding to the troposphere, and altering in…
Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm
Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802
Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404
Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html
Air Force Military Training 4
Aviation Tactical Force- to- Force Exercise
Military operations entails an interaction of multiple forces, hence sequencing their interaction during training is essential in promoting inter-service cooperation (Col Gopaul, 2017). Efficiency in training is determined by how well the training mirrors the battlefield. The sequencing of the battlefield is configured engaging in multi-service training exercises referred to as force- to- force exercise.
Force- to- force exercise training is a form of training that entails training with simulation equipment to realism to training as the training. Tactical force-to-force exercises essentially entail simulation and configuration of battlefield complexities to support basic training of pilots, mission commanders, and operators. The operation entails the interaction of technologies and forces with different operation experience (Kishore, 2017). The simulated exercises ensure warfighting competencies and swift execution and successful spectrum of operations as well as interforce relationship building (Col Gopaul, 2017). Force- to-…
Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).
The transport network in any region is highly…
Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.
DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.
Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.
Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.
Early Life & Education
Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use…
Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bowege.html
Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html
Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/wegener.html
Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)
Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)
Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…
141 Self-Examining Authority. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from McAir Aviation website: http://www.mcairaviation.com/141_flight_training.htm
1999 Mooney M290. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/1999-MOONEY-M20-Ovation-97012603
2007 172 Cessna Sky Hawk. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/2007-CESSNA-172-SKYHAWK-96517151
Become a Pilot. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from MVP Aero Academy website: http://www.mvpaeroacademy.com/
Each risk should be assigned to the appropriate level of implementation and approval. As an example, a decision to build that second data center we talked about would be a decision for the company management team. A decision to serialize, catalog, and appraise all of the engineering equipment would be decided and approved by the head of the engineering department. (Risk Management)
The plan created by the appropriate level should assess each risk assigned to him or her and propose the appropriate steps to take to alleviate or minimize the negative impact of a risk occurring. The overall company plan as well as the departmental plan should assign the responsible individual and the schedule for completion. (Risk Management)
Implementation of the plan is simply activating the well-thought-out plan that has been created and, most likely, approved by management.
Review and Update the Plan
This is one of the keys to…
Borge, Dan. The Book of Risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
Marrison, Christopher. The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement. New York: McGraw-Hill,
Risk Management." 2007. Intellimaker. 23 November 2008 http://www.intellimaker.com/ExtraPages.asp?sez=27&sched=134.
Robinson, Brian. Five Steps to Managing Risk. 27 June 2005. 23 November 2008 http://www.fcw.com/print/11_26/news/89361-1.html .
He invented a planetary system, which consisted of spheres, the earth being still at the center, and twenty-seven concentric spheres rotating around the earth.
Actually, most of his accomplishments are difficult to explain at all to the nonprofessional, since they involve the complicated fields of math and astronomy. ut, for those who work in those areas, Eudoxus accomplishments are extraordinary. However, what his work does is make the work today so much easier. Those who labor in those fields know the practicalities, complexities, and almost impossibility of what Eudoxus did.
Eudoxus made important contributions to the theory of proportion, where he made a definition allowing possibly irrational lengths to be compared in a similar way to the method of cross multiplying used today. A major difficulty had arisen in mathematics by the time of Eudoxus, namely the fact that certain lengths were not comparable. The theory developed by Eudoxus is…
Ancient Greek astronomy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2008, from University of British
Encyclopaedia Brittanica. (2008). Eudoxus of Cnidus. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from Encyclopaedia Brittanica: http://corporate.britannica.com/press/index.html
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…
Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.
Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.
Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
Terrible oads Houston Medical Center
Unfortunately, not all is well within the context of the Houston Medical Center. esidents and workers alike are being plagued with poor quality roads that are creating a situation where many are at a disadvantage in their own everyday lives. Potholes and poor roads throughout the Houston Medical Center facility are creating many residents and faculty alike to have to put up with poorly constructed roads, and thus potential damage to their own vehicles when driving on roads within the region. It is ridiculous in an era where public funds are being spent across the country for the residents of the Houston Medical Center region to have to continuously put up with such horrible road conditions. This can essentially create a situation where there is damage undertaken by vehicles driving on the premises. Vehicles of all types are being damaged while driving in the region.…
Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. "The Interstate Highway System." 2006. Available at www.eisenhower .utexas.edu/highway.htm.
Kuemmel, D. (1994, April). Accident study validates benefits of preventive maintenance. American City & County, 109, 52.
Takle, E.S. (1990, August). Bridge and roadway frost: occurrence and prediction by use of an expert system. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 29, 727-734.
Schnormeir, Russell H. "Asphalt Analysis, Sulfur Mixes, and Seal Coats," Transportation Research Record #1096. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board -- National Research Council, 1986.
Fields such as human interaction are too unpredictable to be manipulated under laboratory settings. Human behavior, too, varies from place to place, and, therefore, results of one study that is conducted in one situation to one specific sample of people may not (and rarely do) have the same carryover effects to a different group of individuals conducted in a different spot or time. In other words, experimental, or quantitative, experiments necessitate that variables be closely matched and more, rather than less, homogenous. Therefore, they are best used in the hard sciences where they more often and most likely show consistent and repetitious results. The field of people is, however, more unpredictable and 'messy'. To that end, therefore, I find qualitative experiments more useful here.
This is particularly so in this specific case where we seek to zone in on difficult patients and seek to understand their motives. The characteristics of…
Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Sensory experiences are nor reliable for making any statements, since people often mistake one thing for another. (Descartes talks about mirages). Knowledge based on reasoning is not always trustworthy, because people often make mistakes. (adding numbers is a classical example). Finally, knowledge is deemed by Descartes to be illusory, since it may come from dreams or insanity or from demons able to deceive men by making them believe that they are experiencing the real world, when are they are in fact not doing so. (the metaphysical approach in Descartes work is can be easily recognized here).
Following this analysis of existent forms of knowledge, Descartes concludes that certainty can be found in his intuition that, even if deceived, if he thinks he must exist: "Cogito ergo sum." The thought ("cogito") is a self-evident truth that gives certain knowledge of a particular thing's existence, i.e. one's self, but only the existence…
9. Dicker G, Descartes: An Analytical and Historical Introduction," Oxford, 1993
10. Flage D.E., Bonnen C.A., Descartes and Method: The Search for a Method in the Meditations," Routledge, 1999
Brians P., Gallwey M., Hughes D., Hussain, a., Law R., Myers M., Neville M., Schlesinger R., Spitzer a, Swan S. "Reading About the World," Volume 2, published by Harcourt Brace Custom Books. - excerpts from Descartes' works
He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)
Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of…
Aristotle: (384-322 B.C.E) Retrieved at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Aristotle's Taxonomy. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.unbf.ca/psychology/likely/greeks/aristotle2.htm . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Boeree, C. George. Darwin and Evolution. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/evolution.html . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Chain of Being. Retrieved at http://www.occultopedia.com/c/chain_of_being.htm . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…
Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.
Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp
Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm
Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com/ .
Legislation on liability and compensation is needed.
The United States should ratify the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols.
Federal planning for oil spills must be improved.
Studies of the long-term environmental and health effects must be undertaken expeditiously and carefully.
How NOAA responds to spills?
NOAA is a 24/7 service that monitors and waits for a help if there is a spill. They help protect and conserve the natural resources. As soon as they got call they go to the scene as fast as possible. They inspect the vessel, and study the spill, damage and spread in the affected area. We determine the success of their operation through the response of NOAA. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration has a mission based on the online source, http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2004/s2353.htm:
OR& R. is currently assisting with trajectory modeling, oil fate forecasting, weather, and information management and participating in over flights and resource…
"Clean-Up Techniques" [Online] Available at:
"Containment and Recovery of Floating Oil" [Online] Available at:
Etkin, D.S. 1997. Oil Spills from Vessels (1960-1995): An International Historical Perspective.
Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:
ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.
This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers
Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)
In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…
Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from www.ets.gov
Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.
Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.
Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
History Of the Organization's Formation
Objectives of ICAO as Specified in the Chicago Convention
Enhancing Safety and Security in Civil Aviation
Development and Constant Evaluation of Aviation Standards and Policies
Implementation of Standards and Practices
Timely esponse to Challenges
Changes in ICAO's Strategic Objectives
Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Objective
The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in November 1944 by the conclusion of the Chicago Convention held in that year. This organization was formed because of the need for securing cooperation and standardization of global aviation policies and practices. The United States of America played a crucial role in the organization's formation by inviting several states to the Convention on international civil aviation standards, policies, and procedures. Out of the 44 States that attended the Chicago Convention, 32 States signed an agreement that paved the way for ICAO's creation.
ICAO was mandated with…
"Annual Report of the Council." (2010). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.
Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/9952_en.pdf
"Annual Report of the Council." (2011). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.
Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/9975_en.pdf
Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…
Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-
Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.
Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.
Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
Aristotle is considered to be the philosopher of philosophers, he virtually wrote about everything, he pioneered most of the disciplines like psychology, biology, meteorology and political science. For almost a thousand years Aristotle's theories were unchallenged such was the impact of his philosophy and thought. The medieval philosophy of Scholastics and early enaissance thinkers borrowed heavily from Aristotle. At the root of Aristotle's philosophy was his doctrine of virtue and natural law. Aristotle believed that everything in life serves a purpose "telos" as he called it and distinguished "efficient" causes from "final" causes. 'Efficient causes are those things or processes that lead to the final cause, they are the means to ends, for example a painter uses paints and brush to create a work of art, the brush and paints are tools, process to make a painting. While the final cause is the end product, the painting. Similarly…
Paresh D. Bhatt Aristole on Happiness and Virtue: http://www.swaminarayan.org/essays/2002/2203.htm
Aristotle on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/aristotl.htm
Virtue Theory on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/v/virtue.htm
ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing
There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…
Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.
Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.
Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.
Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.
It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…
2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/annual_report_full_11.pdf
GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/235485.pdf .
Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1131&context=cm
Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://swfound.org/media/93632/SSI_FullReport_2012.pdf
Differential Heating of Materials
Lab eport in Geography
The heating of materials varies considerable depending on material composition and atmospheric conditions. A considerable amount of the sun's energy can be reflected back into the atmosphere, in a process called albedo (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 1998, p. 36). The average albedo rates for sand, mud, asphalt, and water are approximately 20-30%, 10%, 5-10%, and 3-80%, respectively, depending on the position of the sun relative to the surface of water (p. 40).
The process of heating materials will vary as well. For example, asphalt and dry sand would primarily use conduction for thermal transfer, while bodies of water or air would use convection (p. 30). On the other hand, thermal transfer for wet soil or mud has the added complexity of latent heating (p. 76). Latent heating or evaporation has a strong cooling effect on the liquid moisture remaining, a loss of 600…
Jones, L.L. (2015). Physical Geography Lab Manual: Geography 1401. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing.
Lutgens, F.K. & Tarbuck, E.J. (1998). The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…
Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm
Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online: http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm
Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
AbstractToday, organizations of all sizes and types rely on different types of projects to achieve their objectives. Indeed, project management has become a discipline unto itself in recent years and a growing body of scholarship has been developed in response to this trend. Moreover, there are also international organizations such as the Project Management Institute which are dedicated to helping business practitioners improve their project management skills. Although there remain some mixed views concerning optimal project management strategies, there is a growing consensus that successful project outcomes depend in large part on how well a specific project is organized from the outset, including most especially the initial conditions under which it will be pursued. In addition, the initial conditions of a given project also include the respective design and structure of an organization, which are the primary focus of this study. In sum, the likelihood of successful project management initiatives…
ReferencesAdewumi, A., Kagamba, J. & Alochukwu, A. (2016). Application of chaos theory in the prediction of motorized traffic flows on urban networks. Mathematical Problems in Engineering. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5656734 .Djavanshir, G. & Khorramshahgol, R. (2006). Applications of chaos theory for mitigating risks in telecommunication systems planning in global competitive market. Journal of Global Competitiveness. 14(1), 15-24. URL: web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.Doherty, N. & Delener, N. (2015, December). Chaos theory: Marketing and management implications. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9(4), 66-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.2001.11501904 .Englund, R. L. (2009). Applying chaos theory in a project-based organization. Paper presented at PMI Global Congress 2009EMEA, Amsterdam, North Holland, The Netherlands. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.Gayeski, D. M. & Majka, J. (1996, September). Untangling communication chaos: A communicator\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s conundrum for coping with change. Communication World, 13(7), 4-9. URL: web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxyGlenn, J. E. (1996). Chaos theory: The essential for military applications. Newport Papers. 10. URL: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/usnwc-newport-papers/10 .Levy, D. (2007, June). Chaos theory and strategy: Theory, application, and managerial implications. Strategic Management Journal, 15(S2), 167-178. DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250151011.Millerd, P. (2020). Integrating chaos: Building resilient organizations with chaos theory. Boundless. Retrieved from https://think-boundless.com/chaos-theory/ .Moshiri, S. (2002, Fall). A review on chaos and its applications in economics. Iranian Economic Research, 4(12), 29-68. URL: https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=38072 .Namaki, Z. (2018, January). The application of chaos management theories in organizations. International Journal of Management Technology, 5(1), 39-45. URL: https://www. eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Application-of-Chaos-Management-Theories-in-Organization.pdf.Oestreicher, C. (2007, September 9). A history of chaos theory. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9(3), 275-285.Safian, R. (2012, February). Generation flux. Fast Company, 162, 37-41. URL: web.a.ebsco host.com.ezproxy.Schmarzo, B. (2017, August 10). Why understanding chaos theory is important to your business. Dell Technologies. Retrieved from https://infocus.delltechnologies.com/william_ schmarzo/why-understanding-chao s-theory-is-important-to-your-business/.Stapleton, D., Hanna, J. B. & Ross, J. R. (2006, March 1). Enhancing supply chain solutions with the application of chaos theory. Supply Chain Management. DOI: https://www. emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/13598540610652483/full/html.van de Vliet, A. (2020). Order from chaos: Chaos theory. Management Today. Retrieved from https://www.managementtoday.co.uk/uk-order-chaos-chaos-theory/article/409520 .Yudin, A. (2008, April). From chaos to trends in forex. Futures: News, Analysis & Strategies for Futures, Options & Derivatives Traders. 37(4), 38-40. URL: web.a.ebscohost.com. ezproxy.
It is however worth noting that the effects of the contrails on the climatic conditions and the weather in general is negligible as compared to the greenhouse gasses constantly emitted from the various industries into the atmosphere. The effect of the contrails almost doesn't count since it clears off faster, indeed within hours and if the stay is prolonged then it cannot go beyond a few days, yet the industrially emitted greenhouse gases can take years to clear off and the effect on the weather pattern is very adverse.
Having seen the various ways through which the contrails can affect the climatic conditions, and the foreseeable effect that they may pose to the climatic conditions in the next few years to places that host many planes, there are suggestions that the plane industries should think of venturing into the manufacture of engines whose by product of the combustion is not…
Dictionary.com LLC, (2011). Contrail definition. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contrail
John Timmer (2011). Contrails impact climate more than planes' carbon emissions. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2011/03/contrails-impact-climate-more-than-planes-carbon-emissions.ars
Peter Tyson, (2006). The Contrail Effect. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/contrail-effect.html
Wynne Parry, (2011). Earth Warmed by Trails of Clouds that Jets Leave Behind. Retrieved May
Climate Change: Severe eather
Quite often, when people comment upon the effects of global warming, they comment that winters can still be quite severe. The fact that blizzards are still frequent occurrences is used as 'proof' of the persistence of climate change. However, although the temperature of the earth is steadily increasing, the effects of climate change mean that more intense storms are likely in the future, including blizzards. This is largely due to the melting of the polar ice caps. "In addition to affecting the ocean circulation patterns, Arctic sea ice is melting more rapidly and for longer periods each year, and is unable to replenish itself at the historical thickness levels in the briefer, warmer winter season. This can destabilize the polar vortex (see below) and raise the barometric pressure within it" ("It's Cold and My Car is Buried in Snow").
Destabilizing the polar vortex can result in…
"It's Cold and My Car is Buried in Snow. Is Global Warming Really Happening?" Union of Concerned Scientists. 17 Dec 2015. Web. 10 Nov 2016.
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
Humanity might not have the same effective power over the environment when fossil fuels run out. While this assumption is certainly believable, humans will not doubt reach a point where the greenhouse gas absorbing plants and bodies will no longer be able to keep up with human activity. This will further exacerbate the problem of human-caused global climate change. On the other hand, if humans are able to develop non-fossil fuel alternatives that do not have a negative effect on the environment on a global scale, the warming trend might very well be reversed in a generation or two. Either way, Ruddiman's arguments will likely be proven to be wrong or right, on a long enough timeframe.
ection IV: Opposing Points-of-View
Anthropologists, specifically, disagree with Ruddiman. ince the author himself is not an anthropology professor and admittedly has very little experience in this field, it would only seem natural that…
Allen, Robert, Scott Seaman and John DeLascio. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76 (2009): 12-9. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .
Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." The Heartland Institute. The Heartlander, Feb. 2003: n.pag. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.
Bert, Ray. Rev. Of Plows, Plagues, & Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, by William F. Ruddiman. Civil Engineering 78 (2008): 73.
Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009. Print.
Scientists are unable to determine the amounts of gases that will be released into the atmosphere because the early studies on permafrost melting are no longer accurate.
The melting of the permafrost does not only affect the environment because of the gases that it releases, but also, because it would lead to the erosion of the Arctic coastlines. This would have a devastating impact on the industry present there and on sites that are of great cultural importance. ith the coasts being eroded because of permafrost, sea waves and storms will have better access to the shore. Communities and ecosystems are anticipated to be affected by the floods coming in through the coastal wetlands. The financial costs required for mass movements are colossal, and, in some areas, relocation processes have already taken place. Communities and industrial facilities in coastal areas have had no other solution than to reposition, given the…
1. Brent Carpenter, "Warm Is the New Cold: Global Warming, Oil, UNCLOS Article 76, and How an Arctic Treaty Might Stop a New Cold War," Environmental Law 39.1 (2009).
2. Hassol, Susan; Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (2004). "Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment." Cambridge University Press.
3. Sommerkorn Martin & Hassol Susan Joy, "Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications EXECUTIVE SUMMARY." Retrieved April 21, from the WWF China Web site: http://www.wwfchina.org/wwfpress/publication/gdl/arcticreport.pdf
4. "IPCC Report The Arctic: Thawing Permafrost, Melting Sea Ice And More Significant Changes." Apr 11, 2007. Retrieved from the Science Daily Web site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070410140922.htm
The land could not resist to the saturation caused by the winds and the heavy rain and it had not been long before the aftermath materialized into swollen mountain streams. This later resulted into cascades of mud mixed with water running down the slopes in serious amounts. In spite of the fact that the island had several drains and catch basins which could be very effective in case of a small flood, they had been no match for the one on the February 20. The three rivers crossing Funchal, apparently meant to prevent flood water from entering the city, had been one of the motives for the waters quickly moving towards the streets.
A state of panic overtook the area, as the authorities were practically powerless. The intervention of the military had been crucial, as engineers could repair some of the structures that had suffered minor damage, while military rescue…
1. Elliot Larry & Tremlett Giles. "Madeira floods: death toll rises to 40." Retrieved April 27, 2010, from the Guardian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/feb/21/madeira-floods-death-toll-rises
2009). Though innovative, this use of the model appears to be highly reliable and appropriate given the context of the study. At the same time, very little direct observation is utilized for correlation to this data, and retroactive predictions are not presented to demonstrate the model's efficacy, raising some doubt.
Though the system of ozone depletion and recovery was thought to be fairly well understood given the decades of research on the subject, emerging data regarding significant influential issues that had previously gone unaccounted for have suggested that this understanding is not as complete or as accurate as was previously thought. Climate change is suggested in many of the studies to have a significant impact on the rates of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, which in turn is seen as having an effect on climate change in other studies. This potentially cyclical interaction gives rise to complexities that are…
Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).
However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…
1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4
3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.
4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site: http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/~clemons/blogs/prisonersblog.pdf
This tax would also concentrate of taxing large corporations as a result of the fact that they are among the most pollutant communities in the world.
The basic idea is that every individual who pollutes needs to take responsibility for his or her own actions. Also, a large amount of the money raised through taxing pollution would be invested in creating green technologies which would replace pollutant technologies in time. People need to understand that they are not being deprived of particular technologies through the fact that this tax is imposed, as they are actually heading toward a stage where technology is no longer pollutant, regardless of the level of comfort that it generates. Green cars can actually be much better than cars that run on fossil fuels, given that contemporary progress in the technological sector has made it possible for fossil fuels to appear like an obsolete source of…
Victor, David G. "Enforcing International Law: Implications for an Effective Global Warming Regime," Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum 10.1 (1999): 147
Victor, David G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001)
Accordingly, text article notes that "international negotiation is often not just between individual people, but between large delegations, each of which is well organized and where every person has specialized and skilled work. There may be cultural experts, linguists and subject specialists as well as a chief negotiator and support negotiators. In a complex negotiation, there may be multiple and interlined sub-negotiations going on at the same time, for example where a trade negotiation includes deal involving various industries and interests." (Changing Minds, 1)
This denotes that negotiations are typically an extremely complex and nuanced process. Such mediation may occur over an extended period of time and require multiple face-to-face encounters and the constant recasting of terms and conditions. This is because such negotiation is confounded by the true challenge of establishing an equilibrium between parties. Ideally, a negotiation will produce a compromise that is viewed as essentially favorable to…
Changing Minds. (2002). International Negotiations. Changing Minds.org.
McMahon, H. (2008). Fact Sheet: International Negotiations on Climate Change. World Resources Institute.
Other perspectives, such as the realist perspective, find that the threats posed by climate change are still uncertain and largely unsubstantiated, and other factors such as the global geopolitical situation also lead them to believe that now is not the time to pursue major hanges in energy production or industry. As international cooperation becomes more and more difficult, it will also become more difficult for to agree on international climate change regulations and rules, let alone enforce them, making an establishments of these rules now premature and effectively useless, according to this view. The fact that this perspective persist in many minds is a major barrier to the passing of effective climate change legislation.
Finally, many businesses show very little interest in adjusting their activities without federal mandates to do so. Carbon trading has failed as a voluntary enterprise, and the businesses and regions that have banded together in attempts…
The World Health Organization estimates that at least 15% of the world human population in non-developed countries lacks access to potable water. Because of this, at least 1/2 of the world's poor populations are infected with one or more of the main viral or parasitic diseases associated with rank or polluted water (Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers) . Changes in global population growth, unwise agricultural policies, and rapid and unchecked overdevelopment have skewed this balance to the point where almost 1 billion people lack access to safe water, resulting in almost 4 million deaths due to water related diseases annually. Ironically, less than 1% of the total fresh water globally is available for daily and direct human consumption. This is quite dramatic when one considers that a single American who takes a 5-minute shower uses more what than an individual in much of the developing world uses in an entire…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. Cited in: .
Houghton, J. (2009). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lovelock, J. (2010). The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. New York:
As sea level are on the rise, many millions will suffer more and more aggressive floods and entire coastal cities and industries will disappear unless significant investment is made in dam systems. Another socio-geographical effect is large fires due to high temperatures and winds that create disasters all over the planet. Also, freshwater systems in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, America, North America, Polar regions "showed an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems." (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.2007)
Global warming effects also reach more developed countries with effects not necessarily connected with the food supply or health issues, but climate change. The increase of severe weather phenomena in the last 10 years is quite visible, although no direct match can be made at this point as not enough data has been collected. As an in example of global…
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability" IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-es.html ).
National Geographic. What is Global Warming? 2010. Retrieved from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html
Pachauri, R.K. "Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" IPCC Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm
Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Katrina and Global Warming. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.pewclimate.org/specialreports/katrina.cfm
What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.
Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…
Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.
Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.
Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
"Global air temperatures have been rising at a steady trend rate of 0.5 degrees Centigrade per century since about 1750, as the world recovers from the little ice age." (Evans, Global Research, 2009
Global temperatures cooled off from 1940 through the late 1970's, which refutes the casual relationship earlier defined by scientists between rises in CO2 levels and global warming. Tsonis also points to a Washington Post article from 1922 that reports Greenland glaciers to be fast disappearing and arctic seals not engaging their warmer waters. Subsequently the period from the 1980's to 2000 showed an aggressive rise in temperature. Tsonis does agree to an element of human activity and greenhouse gas that contributes to the MDO cycle but does not believe in predictions of catastrophe associated with Global Warming. He further states that we may see reports of an on setting ice age by the early 2030's, as the…
Environmentalists 'exaggerated' threat to tropical rainforests from global warming. David Derbyshire. November 10, 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1328853/Environmentalists-exaggerated-threat-tropical-rainforests-global-warming.html
Global warming or global cooling? S. Anklesaria Aiyari. India Times. February 27, 2005. Retrieved from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-toi/all-that-matters/Global-warming-or-global-cooling/articleshow/1034077.cms
Global Warming or Global Cooling? A New Trend in Climate Alarmism. Dr. David Evans. Centre for Research on Globalization -- GlobalResearch.ca. July 23, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=14504
Skeptics on Human Climate Impact Seize on Cold Spell. Andrew C. Revin. The New York Times -- Science. March 2, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/02/science/02cold.html?_r=3&ex=1362114000&en=ac4d3adc9cb328c1&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin&oref=slogin
(Homer, 2007, pp. 37 -- 59) at the same time, many critics will find anomalies, highlighting how the opposite of warming trends may be occurring. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, the blizzard that would blanket the Eastern United States in February 2010. As critics would claim that if global warming was such a problem, why is the nation experiencing unusual cold fronts during the winter. A good example of this can be seen with comments from a former climate change expert at the Energy Department Joseph Romm who wrote, "Ideologues in the Senate keep pushing the anti-scientific disinformation that big snowstorms are evidence against human-caused global warming." (roder, 2007) This is important, because it shows how many critics will often point to the information that is being presented as flawed. Where, they will find examples to highlight how the opposite trend could be occurring.…
Broder, J. (2010). Climate Change Debate is Heating Up. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/science/earth/11climate.html
Homer, C. (2007). The Sky is Falling. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming. (pp. 37 -- 59). Washington D.C., Regenery
Maslin, M. (2007). Deep Water Circulation. Global Warming. (pp. 57 -- 62). Stillwater, MN: Voyager Press.
Robinson, M. (2008). Is Global Warming Happening Now? America Debates Global Warming. (pp. 6 -- 12) New York, NY: Rosen.
Planning for a larger center in the future eliminates the need to build an entire new center if it is someday required. The director should also do a risk analysis of the type of threats that face the community, and the facility. Another writer notes, "The Federal Emergency Management Agency has developed guidelines to assist a community in a risk assessment process" (Vaughn, 2008, p. 26). While hurricanes are the main concern, there can also be other treats, such as safety, security, staff health, and the overall operation of the facility.
The easiest way to organize the center is to follow the National Incident Management System (NIMS). It contains an incident command structure that is a common method of organizing the center. Commanders within the structure all have different areas of responsibility, including communications, damage assessment, available resources, and other key responsibilities (Editors, 2010, p. 8). Overseeing the activity…
Editors. (2010). Emergency operations center planning and design. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the Department of Defense Web site: http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_4_141_04.pdf .
Vaughn, M.R. (2008). Evaluating the need for a local emergency operations center. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the U.S. Fire Administration Web site:
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.
Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…
"Disagreement on Human-caused Climate Change." (n.d.). Climate Change & Global Warming
Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://climatechange.110mb.com/intro-debate-climate-change.htm
"Global Climate Change: Is it Human Caused?" (n.d.). Sierra County Prospect: 21st Century
News. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://www.sierracountyprospect.com/Global_Climate_Change.html
FEMA (2010) characterizes flash floods as a "dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, sticks, mud and other debris and can sweep away most things in its path." That such floods can arise without warning, and even without rain in the area, makes them especially dangerous. As flash floods typically occur along rivers, streams or in low-lying areas, the presentation will outline some of the major flash flood threat areas in our region. Estimates of potential damage will be given, based on the density of buildings, property and people in the potentially affected areas. The patterns of flash floods are less predictable and there is little advanced warning, which means that most flash flood management strategies are preventative in nature (i.e. keeping houses out of the most threatened areas).
The resource requirements for managing these flood risks will also be outlined in the presentation. There is a considerable amount…
NRC. (1994). Hurricane Hugo: Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and South Carolina, September 17-22, 1989. National Research Council Committee on Natural Disasters. Washington, DC: National Acadamies Press.
Chowdhury, S. & Kjelds, J. (2002). Simulation of coastal flooding with MIKE 11 and HEC-UNET. American Society of Civil Engineers. 2002. pp.205-214.
FEMA (2010). Flood. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.fema.gov/hazard/flood/index.shtm
The reality of modern life is that everything has a carbon footprint.
This is why it is important to offset it.
In Carbonica we don't believe in emission credits or permissible levels of carbon emissions.
We believe that the only acceptable level of emissions is zero.
We also believe that trees are the only true carbon offset and Nature's very efficient method of carbon capture.
We would like to help people like you make a difference, and with Carbonica you can become a zero footprint individual and make a positive contribution to the environment.
This mission statement exhibits the opposite problem from the earlier example; it is exhaustive, but it is neither brief nor efficient. It does make clear what services the organization gives (planting trees), but it does not specify how the organization accomplishes that objective until the sixth paragraph: "Our mission is to plant trees and fund multi-story…
From the historic standpoint, as well as from a scientific standpoint, the hill's ability to protect against tornados is once again promoted as a myth. Originated from the Native Americans, the myth argued that there were specific areas protected against tornados by land features, such as hills, rivers, mountains or ridges. The legends were passed on from one generation to the other and created a false sense of protection. Until the tornados hit almost all region in the ocky Mountains, to kill tens of people (Scavuzzo, 2004).
And aside from history and science, the third means of convincing the population would be through the use of the common sense. Considering a situation in which the hills did indeed reduce the risks of tornados in the region, it is impossible for them to entirely eliminate the threat. This virtually means that when the tornado hits, it will create loses. If the…
Scavuzzo, W., 2004, Tornado alert, Crabtree Publishing Company, ISBN 077871571X
1999, Myths, The Tornado Project, http://www.tornadoproject.com/myths/myths.htm last accessed on October 7, 2010
By doing so, they will safeguard the lives of the Miami inhabitants, as well as that of the millions of tourists to the region. What the local government would in fact do is to redistribute the funds collected in the form of taxes and redistribute them to the citizens by protecting them in case of emergencies. In case the endeavor fails, public pressure should be put on the authorities.
b) The community
The community should be approached through the media and asked to donate small amounts of money for the creation of the emergency plan. It is necessary to make it easy for the populations to donate and also to ask them to donate small sums of money; 2 dollars with an SMS to a given number for instance. For larger donations, the community members could make a payment in a pre-established bank account. It is however important to strongly…