Plant Cell Essays

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Cell Structure and Function Enzymes Essay

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80866447



Enzymes

1. How does temperature affect enzyme function?

Every enzyme demonstrates maximum activity at a particular temperature known as its optimum temperature. Generally, all enzymes are inactivated at temperatures below 10°C and get denatured (lose its three-dimensional protein nature) above its optimum temperature (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

Experiments conclude that enzyme activity increases by almost ten percent coupled to each degree rise in temperature until it reaches its optimum state and declines beyond it as they start denaturing (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

2. Do plants and animals have an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide? How could you test this?

The process of converting toxic hydrogen peroxide into harmless substances occurs at a very slow rate; therefore, both plants and animals have enzymes to catalyze it. Catalase is an enzyme that is present in animal cells; however, plants possess enzyme peroxidase to carry out this decomposition (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

It can be tested by mixing hydrogen peroxide and a piece of animal liver (containing catalase) or a piece of potato (source of peroxidase) in a test tube. Bubbles of gas will be observed showing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

3. How does the boiling water affect the overall reaction?

Boiling water has a temperature that is much higher than the optimum temperature of catalase and peroxidase, therefore; it will denature the enzymes thus causing a decrease in the rate of reaction (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

4. How can enzyme activity be increased?

Enzyme activity can primarily be increased by adjusting the surrounding temperature and pH to achieve optimal state for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

5. Design an experiment to determine the optimal temperature for enzyme function, complete with controls. Where would you find the enzymes for this experiment? What substrate would you use?

Place equal…… [Read More]

Sources:
Balloon diameter is directly related to the temperature. As increase in temperature causes expansion of gas molecules, therefore, the volume and thus the diameter of balloon also increases (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

7. Do you expect more enzyme activity if the substrate concentration is increased or decreased? Draw a graph to illustrate this relationship.

With an increase in substrate concentration, enzyme activity will significantly increase at initial values. However, as the active sites of enzymes get occupied by substrate molecules, the rate of reaction will not remain dependent prominently on the amount of substrate as then substrate molecules have to queue
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Cells Are Known as the Basic Units Essay

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76924792

Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.

One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.

Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting materials. The most common semiconductor devices are diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. The main duty of a semiconductor is to control voltages and currents so that everything works properly. Diodes are used to produce DC and AP. Transistors are used to vary the current of a heating element. Integrated circuits are used to demodulate and amplify radio signals. Some advantages of semiconductor devices include small size, consumption of small power, and being very efficient. Another advantage of semiconductor devices is that they can operate under extreme conditions.

Over 95% of solar cells produced are composed of silicon. Silicon is available in large quantities due to the fact that silicon is the second most abundant element on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html

STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
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Cell Wall's and Cell Membranes Essay

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76639876

cells require a layer to separate the inside of the cell from the outside world. Cells have a semi-permiable membrane which controls what can and cannot enter the cell. In animal cells, as well as some others, this membrane is all that separates the cell from its surroundings. Plant cells, and many single-celled organisms such as bacteria have a rigid cell wall beyond the membrane that provides structure. (Buck) Cell membranes act as the cell's gatekeeper, but are not especially rigid or strong. Cell walls can limit the entry of certain types of molecules, but they do not provide the fine-grained traffic control function of the membrane. Cell walls, however are rigid and strong.

Cell membranes are semi-permeable; they only allow certain molecules to enter and exit. Some molecules, such as water can pass through the membrane through osmosis or diffusion. This process does not require any energy to be expended, or any action on the part of the cell. It is therefore referred to as "passive transport." (Wolf) Other molecules can enter and exit the cell…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Andreas, Lpp. "Cell Biology." WikiBooks. February, 2005. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cell_biology

Buck, Jim. "Cell Wall." Wikipedia. July, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall

Wolf, Jfd. "Cell Membrane." Wikipedia. July, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane
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Cell Metabolism Define Metabolism Anabolism and Catabolism Essay

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57095340

Cell Metabolism

Define metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism in full details

The cell is a complex organisms in which many chemical reaction take place so as to maintain normal cellular function. Cell metabolism can be defined as the process through which cells manufacture ATP which provides energy to the cells. Cells have evolved to form highly efficient metabolic mechanisms which differ depending on the cell. Aerobic respiration is responsible for cellular energy needs in animals while photosynthesis is the energy source for plants. The biochemical processes taking place in a cell are influenced by enzymes. Enzymes are catalysts made of proteins and they speed up the reactions in the cells (Porth, Carol & Carol, 2011).

Anabolism and catabolism comprise the two sets of chemical reactions that make up metabolism. During Anabolism, the cells of living organisms synthesize complex molecules from simple molecules through the use of energy. The main aim of anabolic reactions is building up tissues and body organs. Anabolic processes are responsible for increase in bone and muscle mass in animal. The end product for this reaction is includes proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. All cells require anabolic process and catabolic processes. The anabolic processes consume energy that is released by the catabolic processes in the cell (Solomon, BERG & Martin, 2008).

Cell catabolism is where large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules with the release of energy. Some of the molecules broken down include polysaccharides which are broken down into monosaccharides and proteins into amino acids. The broken down molecules are used to form other bigger molecules or broken down to produce energy and waste products (Watson & Berry, 2003).

2. define endothermic and exothermic in full details

Chemical reactions occur with the release or absorption of energy to form the end products. The same case applies to cellular reactions occurring in the body or plant. Energy…… [Read More]

References:
Calladine, C.R. (2008). Understanding DNA the molecule & how it works. Amsterdam [etc.], Elsevier Academic Press.

Engel, P.C. (2009). Pain-free biochemistry an essential guide for the health sciences. Chichester, UK, Wiley-Blackwell.
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Eukaryotic Cells Essay

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72282896

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:

There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:

The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the presence of mitochondria, chloroplasts, cell wall, and chromosomal DNA found in Eukaryotes distinguish them from the prokaryotes which do not have these features. (Diffen, 2013)

Of cells, and the evolution:

The fundamental unit of life is the cell. It was shown that the cells are of two types, based on whether they contain a nucleus or not. The prokaryotic cells (bacteria) lack a nuclear envelope. That means they are non-membranous and the only other type of cells are the eukaryotic cells that have a nucleus in which the genetic material is separated from the cytoplasm. The genomes of the prokaryotic cells are simple, and these cells have no cytoplasm organelles or a cytoskeleton and these difference making them two branches have similarities that are common to both. In other words both have the same basic molecular mechanisms that created the argument that "all present-day cells are descended from a single primordial ancestor." (Cooper, 2000)

The evolution of the present cell sand the steps that created the replication of cells and the membranes and organelles are important. So how did the cells come into being in a situation when Earth was at the least position…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer

Associates.
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development Essay

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf

One of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold storage is required. Also, in areas with low health literacy, individuals may be highly resistant to getting vaccines via injection given that the injection causes instant pain for what seems to be a potentially far-off risk.

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast…… [Read More]

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Cell Layout Essay

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59458847

Operation Management

What type of layout would you use for the assembly of a television set? What are the reasons for this choice?

A product layout would be best suited for the assembly of a television set. Televisions sets, in general, are commodity products with very little differentiation between product classes. In many instances a Sony 32-inch high definition television will have many of the same components as the Sony 40-inch high definition television set. Conversely, auto manufacturers often use the same parts on similar vehicle types.

In regards to a television set, companies often mass produce these items to achieve economies of scale. Manufactures, such as those that create televisions, often have very high fixed costs associated with property, plant, and equipment. As such, the more television that are produced the cheaper on a per unit basis each television is. The manufacturer therefore has incentive to product a wide array of televisions using the same components to further reduce costs (Ohno, 1988).

To facilitate this process, a product layout would allow for the greatest amount of efficiency as compared to the other forms of layouts. For one, the layout is geared primarily towards processes that are high volume and low cost. This is particularly useful for television manufacturers as they often compete based on price. For example, in many instances, there is very little differentiation between a Phillips 32-inch HDTV, and a Pioneer 32-inch HDTV. As such, manufacturers often compete on price. Through the product layout system of production, costs can be spread over numerous products and reduced on a per unit basis.

In addition, there is very little variety in regards to the product layout. Components are usually assembled in mundane and repetitive fashion. Again, this is particularly useful to a television manufacturer as assembly is simple and straight forward. Machines, along with the appropriate personnel repeat…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1) Hyer, Nancy and Wemmerlov, Urban. (2002). Reorganizing the Factory: Competing through Cellular Manufacturing, Portland, OR

2) Ohno, Taiichi (1988). Toyota Production System. Productivity Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-915299-14-3
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What Does the Cell Do in the Body Essay

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39080830

Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.

What do cells do? That depends on its cell type. There is more than one kind of cell. First of all, there are organisms that consist of a single cell, and then there are organisms that are multicellular. These latter are complex organisms, like humans. The different cell types in a person, for example, are stem cells, blood cells, muscle cells, skin cells, neurons and fibroblasts. Each of these not only looks different from the other but also has its own function. At the same time, they all have the same genetic type within the one organism. So in me, for example, every cell has my genetic type sequence and carries my gene identity card, so to speak -- they just express themselves differently in terms of what they do.

It is difficult to talk about the origins of the cell without discussing the origins of life. Some take an evolutionary view of this matter and others take a creationist view of this. How cells came into being is something that can be theorized about or conjectured about and some feel very strongly…… [Read More]

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Photosynthesis vs Solar Cells Producing Essay

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58659849

However, unlike chlorophyll, silicon cannot be used for energy-generation in its raw state, and must be processed by humans. Silicon is favored "because it remains a good conductor of electricity even after it has been heated. In order for silicon to be used for solar cells, it must be heavily heated to separate it from oxygen so that it can be further processed" (Stier 2009). Although solar energy is widely touted as a 'green' technology, the actual manufacture of silicon cells is relatively labor-intensive and results in the burning of a considerable amount of fossil fuels. In contrast, the photosynthesis that takes place in plants is truly 'green' (no pun intended). "Plants are able to create their 'solar panels' relatively inexpensively, so much so that in seasonal climates they regularly shed their leaves and rebuild them the following year using a clean, low-power energy source; out of locally-available and life-friendly materials; and which decompose into nutrients that sustain soil organisms whose by-products ultimately support the continuing growth of plants" (Stier 2009). Plant solar energy is thus naturally part of the 'circle' of life on earth and plants naturally recycle the cells used in photosynthesis.

Although photosynthesis, because of its 'organic' nature is fundamentally a chemical process, while solar cells' conversion of energy is fundamentally an electrical process, both conform to the first law of thermodynamics. Commensurate with the first law of thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or transformed, merely converted into new forms of energy. "The second law says that each time energy gets transferred or transformed, some of it, and eventually all of it, gets less useful" (Second law, 2011, Flying Turtle). This is one of the problems with using green sources of energy: "We can catch some of it as it flows by, maybe with a turbine, or piston and crankshaft, maybe even a sail or wind turbine blades. We can transform some of it (but not all) into useful work" (Second law, 2011, Flying Turtle). But photosynthesis also involves energy storage as potential energy in the cells of a plant, rather than simply dissipates the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Farabee, MJ. (2007). Photosynthesis. Maricopa University. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BiobookPS.html

The second law of thermodynamics. (2010). Flying Turtle. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at  http://www.flyingturtle.org/energy/2nd_Law.html 
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Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Green Engineering Essay

Words: 1353 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41407566

Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.

The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although they are not the same kind that will end up in vehicles or houses, they are a model of what is to come. Some fleets of cars and government vehicles, ferries, buses and other modes of public transportation have already begun to use fuel cell technology as a power source (Joy).

The technology, then, has promise for its versatility in number of uses, but also for the variety of ways that the fuel can be provided (Patturaja). This essay will further discuss how fuel cells are constructed and how they can be used as a green innovation.

How Fuel Cells Work

Right now, there is only one type of fuel cell (Birch), but there are technologies on the near horizon that could use common garbage in the production of hydrogen.

To back up a bit, vehicles can convert fuel to energy in one of two ways and fuel cells are no different.

"[Vehicles] convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy (torque) in one of two methods: combustion, or electrochemical conversion in a fuel-cell: In combustion, the hydrogen is burned in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional gasoline (petrol) cars. In fuel-cell conversion, the hydrogen is reacted with oxygen to produce water and electricity, the latter of which is…… [Read More]

References:
Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.

Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.
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Fuel Cell the Study Focuses Essay

Words: 4499 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31324712



Different Fuel Cell Technologies

U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),

Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),

Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);

Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)

The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes place. (Mark, 2003).

Equation (4)

(Oxidation) 2H2 + 4OH H2O + 4e?

Fig. 2. AFC (Alkaline fuel cell)

Source: (Andujar et al. 2009).

Typically, electrons are released in this reaction and reach the cathode and react with water to generate (OH?) ions. Moreover, 2 water molecule and oxygen combine with 4 electrons to form 4 negatively charged hydroxyl ions.

The equation 5 below reveals that reaction:

Equation (5)

(Reduction) O2 + 2H2O + 4e OH?

AFC generally performs better at a temperature between 60 and 90 "C. However, recent AFC design operates at temperature between 23 and 70 "C. Generally, AFC is a low cost catalyst, work at low temperature and the AFC electrical efficiency is approximately 60%, however its CHP efficiency is more than 80%, and has ability to generate electricity of up to 20kW.

NASA was the first organization that used AFC to generate electric power and supply drinking water during the space application. Based…… [Read More]

Resources:
Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.

Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells Essay

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord Blood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in drug testing. The potential of the stem cells is an area that demands more research and testing to fully understand the untapped potential the stem cell. The information in this report does not contain a fraction of the information found on stem cells and could have been several more pages just defining the stem cells.… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations Essay

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make up the body tissues such as bone cells, blood cells, muscle, and skin cells. Although stem cells are present in every cell of the body even in an adult, they lose some of their ability to make a wider range of cells with age. Hence, the youngest stem cells, i.e., those found in the embryo are most useful for research and medicinal purposes.… [Read More]

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Family Background Plant Breeding History Plan Wisconsin Essay

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26543255

Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan

Wisconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul Williams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. Wisconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family comes from.

The breeding history of Wisconsin fast plants is fairly elaborate, and is the brainchild of Williams. Initially, Williams' goal was to develop disease resistance for plants in the cruciferae family, which is why he began breeding brassica rapa with other plants within this same family. In determining which plants would be best to breed with the brassica rapa that eventually became Wisconsin fast plants, Williams was looking for those with a relatively diminutive size, rapid flowering process, high productivity in terms of planting density and relatively easy growth in an indoors, laboratory environment facilitating copious quantities of fluorescent light.

After multiple decades of breeding this plant, Williams was able to expedite a life cycle for this type of plant from six months to one that completed itself in approximately five weeks. His breeding process largely consisted of planting, growing, and selecting certain plants that had the characteristics he desired. This artificial process enabled the researcher to take the most desirable components out of certain plants and combine them until he had achieved his desired effect. Williams and his research partner Curtis Hill…… [Read More]

References:
Marstaller, Tess, Hanmer, Tasia, Lang, Caitlin. "Assessing Fast Plant Growth in Different pH Levels." http://communityemmawillard.org. 2003. Web. http://community.emmawillard.org/Math/mathscienceweb/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels_files/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels.htm

Itis. "Brassica Rapa." www.itis.gov. No date. Web. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt-search_topic=TSN&search_value=23063
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Effects of Coffee Grounds on the Growth of Tomato Plants Essay

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5062084

stimuli can affect plant growth rates, robustness, flowering, and even fruit production. We also know that nitrogen is an important part of plant development, and contributes significantly to the thickness, leaf count, and stem width in most plants. A plant that is nitrogen deficient is generally small and develops slowly because it lacks the nitrogen necessary to manufacture adequate structure and genetic materials. This could leave the structure pale green, because it lacks adequate chlorophyll. On the other hand some plants may grow rapidly when supplied with excessive nitrogen. They develop protoplasm faster than they can build sufficient supporting materials in cell walls. The plant may grow weaker and be prone to more pathogens or injuries while developing smaller fruits or fruits with less seeds (Foyer and Zhang, eds. 2010).

Background- Coffee grounds have long been known to increase compost value and act as a fertilizer in plants. In fact, over 10% of coffee grounds are nitrogen-rich proteins that are typically expressed in an 11:1 ratio, ideal for plants. In addition, there are base oils, lips, and fatty acids that remain in the grounds and are slowly decomposed within the soil, and make bioavailable to the plant roots (Chalker-Scott, 2009).

Research Questions-

1) At what concentration will the nitrates from the coffee grounds produce a healthier plant? Looking at heights, increase amounts of leaves, flowers, and fruit.

2) What are the nitrates producing or changing in the soil to help cellular production?

Methodology - Using "Grow Lights" of appropriate solar spectrum, peat pots, commercial potting soil, coffee grounds and tomato seeds, five different planting media: 2 control 100% commercial potting soil and 2 100% coffee grounds; along with 6 pots of 3 different ratios of mixed soil and coffee grounds were studied. Height measurements were taken every 10 days for 7 weeks; the total experimental time was 40 days. Aged water and a mixture of 50/50 water and brewed coffee were used to hydrate the plants based on the following table:

A- Water with aged water:

100% soil

1:4 soil/coffee grounds

1:1 soil/coffee grounds

3:4 soil/coffee grounds duplicate

Duplicate

Duplicate

duplicate…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Chalker-Scott, L. (Winter 2009). Coffee Grounds -- Will they Perk Up Plants?

Master Gardener. Cited in: http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/~linda%20chalker-scott/horticultural%20myths_files/Myths/Coffee%20grounds.pdf

Foyer, C. And Zhang, H., eds. (2010). Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants. Annual Review of Plants, Volume 42. New York: John Wiley.
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Biodiesel Plant Marketing & Business Essay

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62106630

The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.

Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.

Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the PR benefits that accrue to such use.… [Read More]

References:
Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.