Plant Cell Essays (Examples)

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Cells Are Known as the Basic Units

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76924792

Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.

One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.

Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting materials. The most common semiconductor devices are diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. The main duty of a semiconductor is to control voltages and currents so that everything works properly. Diodes are used to produce DC and AP. Transistors are used to vary the current of a heating element. Integrated circuits…… [Read More]


" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from

STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from

J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
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Cell Wall's and Cell Membranes

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76639876

cells require a layer to separate the inside of the cell from the outside world. Cells have a semi-permiable membrane which controls what can and cannot enter the cell. In animal cells, as well as some others, this membrane is all that separates the cell from its surroundings. Plant cells, and many single-celled organisms such as bacteria have a rigid cell wall beyond the membrane that provides structure. (Buck) Cell membranes act as the cell's gatekeeper, but are not especially rigid or strong. Cell walls can limit the entry of certain types of molecules, but they do not provide the fine-grained traffic control function of the membrane. Cell walls, however are rigid and strong.

Cell membranes are semi-permeable; they only allow certain molecules to enter and exit. Some molecules, such as water can pass through the membrane through osmosis or diffusion. This process does not require any energy to be expended, or any action on the part of the cell. It is therefore referred to as "passive transport." (Wolf) Other molecules can enter and exit the cell…… [Read More]

Andreas, Lpp. "Cell Biology." WikiBooks. February, 2005.

Buck, Jim. "Cell Wall." Wikipedia. July, 2005.

Wolf, Jfd. "Cell Membrane." Wikipedia. July, 2005.
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Cell Metabolism Define Metabolism Anabolism and Catabolism

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57095340

Cell Metabolism

Define metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism in full details

The cell is a complex organisms in which many chemical reaction take place so as to maintain normal cellular function. Cell metabolism can be defined as the process through which cells manufacture ATP which provides energy to the cells. Cells have evolved to form highly efficient metabolic mechanisms which differ depending on the cell. Aerobic respiration is responsible for cellular energy needs in animals while photosynthesis is the energy source for plants. The biochemical processes taking place in a cell are influenced by enzymes. Enzymes are catalysts made of proteins and they speed up the reactions in the cells (Porth, Carol & Carol, 2011).

Anabolism and catabolism comprise the two sets of chemical reactions that make up metabolism. During Anabolism, the cells of living organisms synthesize complex molecules from simple molecules through the use of energy. The main aim of anabolic reactions is building up tissues and body organs. Anabolic processes are responsible for increase in bone and muscle mass in animal. The end product for this reaction is includes proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. All cells require anabolic process and catabolic processes. The anabolic processes consume energy that is…… [Read More]


Calladine, C.R. (2008). Understanding DNA the molecule & how it works. Amsterdam [etc.], Elsevier Academic Press.

Engel, P.C. (2009). Pain-free biochemistry an essential guide for the health sciences. Chichester, UK, Wiley-Blackwell.

Garrett, R., & Grisham, C.M. (2010). Biochemistry. Belmont, CA, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Hartl, Daniel L. (2011). Essential genetics: a genomics perspective. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
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Eukaryotic Cells

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72282896

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:

There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:

The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the presence of mitochondria, chloroplasts, cell wall, and chromosomal DNA found in Eukaryotes distinguish them from the prokaryotes which do not have these features. (Diffen, 2013)

Of cells, and the evolution:

The fundamental unit of life is the cell. It was shown that the cells are of two types, based on…… [Read More]


Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer


Diffen. (2013) "Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell" Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from 

Gregory, Michael. (n. d.) "Protists" Lecture notes. Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from:

One of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold storage is required. Also, in areas with low health literacy, individuals may be highly resistant to getting vaccines via injection given that the injection causes instant pain for what seems to be a potentially far-off risk.

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a…… [Read More]

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.

The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.

The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
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Cell Layout

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59458847

Operation Management

What type of layout would you use for the assembly of a television set? What are the reasons for this choice?

A product layout would be best suited for the assembly of a television set. Televisions sets, in general, are commodity products with very little differentiation between product classes. In many instances a Sony 32-inch high definition television will have many of the same components as the Sony 40-inch high definition television set. Conversely, auto manufacturers often use the same parts on similar vehicle types.

In regards to a television set, companies often mass produce these items to achieve economies of scale. Manufactures, such as those that create televisions, often have very high fixed costs associated with property, plant, and equipment. As such, the more television that are produced the cheaper on a per unit basis each television is. The manufacturer therefore has incentive to product a wide array of televisions using the same components to further reduce costs (Ohno, 1988).

To facilitate this process, a product layout would allow for the greatest amount of efficiency as compared to the other forms of layouts. For one, the layout is geared primarily towards processes that are high volume and…… [Read More]


1) Hyer, Nancy and Wemmerlov, Urban. (2002). Reorganizing the Factory: Competing through Cellular Manufacturing, Portland, OR

2) Ohno, Taiichi (1988). Toyota Production System. Productivity Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-915299-14-3

3) Swamdimass, Paul M. And Darlow, Neil R. (2000). 'Manufacturing Strategy', in Paul M. Swamidass (ed.), Innovations in competitive manufacturing, Boston, Mass.; London: Kluwer Academic, 17-24
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What Does the Cell Do in the Body

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39080830

Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.

What do cells do? That depends on its cell type. There is more than one kind of cell. First of all, there are organisms that consist of a single cell, and then there are organisms that are multicellular. These latter are complex organisms, like humans. The different cell types in a person, for example, are…… [Read More]


Alberts, B. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. UK: Taylor and Francis.

Karp, G. (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology. UK: Wiley and Sons.
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Photosynthesis vs Solar Cells Producing

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58659849

However, unlike chlorophyll, silicon cannot be used for energy-generation in its raw state, and must be processed by humans. Silicon is favored "because it remains a good conductor of electricity even after it has been heated. In order for silicon to be used for solar cells, it must be heavily heated to separate it from oxygen so that it can be further processed" (Stier 2009). Although solar energy is widely touted as a 'green' technology, the actual manufacture of silicon cells is relatively labor-intensive and results in the burning of a considerable amount of fossil fuels. In contrast, the photosynthesis that takes place in plants is truly 'green' (no pun intended). "Plants are able to create their 'solar panels' relatively inexpensively, so much so that in seasonal climates they regularly shed their leaves and rebuild them the following year using a clean, low-power energy source; out of locally-available and life-friendly materials; and which decompose into nutrients that sustain soil organisms whose by-products ultimately support the continuing growth of plants" (Stier 2009). Plant solar energy is thus naturally part of the 'circle' of life on earth and plants naturally recycle the cells used in photosynthesis.

Although photosynthesis, because of its 'organic'…… [Read More]


Farabee, MJ. (2007). Photosynthesis. Maricopa University. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at

The second law of thermodynamics. (2010). Flying Turtle. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at 

Semiconductors: The science behind solar. (2011). Solar Cal Finder. Retrieved January 11, 2011
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Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

Words: 1353 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41407566

Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.

The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although they are not the same kind that will end up in vehicles or houses, they are a model of what is to come. Some fleets of cars and government vehicles, ferries, buses and other modes of public transportation have already begun to use fuel cell technology as a power source…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.

Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.

Joy, Linda E. "A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology." Automotive Community. (2007). Web.

Khan, Abdul Majeed. "Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cells." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. (2009). Web.
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Fuel Cell the Study Focuses

Words: 4499 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31324712

Different Fuel Cell Technologies

U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),

Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),

Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);

Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)

The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes place. (Mark, 2003).

Equation (4)

(Oxidation) 2H2 + 4OH H2O + 4e?

Fig. 2. AFC (Alkaline fuel cell)

Source: (Andujar et al. 2009).

Typically, electrons are released in this reaction and reach the cathode and react with water to generate (OH?) ions. Moreover, 2 water molecule and oxygen combine with…… [Read More]


Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.

Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.

Grove, W.R. (1842). On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science .vol. XXI: 417 -- 420.

Kordesch, K.(1999). Alkaline fuel cells applications, innovative energy technology. Austria: Institute of High Voltage Engineering, U Graz.
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord Blood, 2010).


Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in drug testing. The potential of the stem cells is an area that demands more research and testing to fully understand the untapped potential the stem cell. The information in this report does not contain a fraction of the information found on stem cells and could have been several more pages…… [Read More]


"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make up the body tissues such as bone cells, blood cells, muscle, and skin cells. Although stem cells are present in every cell of the body even in an adult, they lose some of their ability to make a wider range of cells with age. Hence, the youngest stem…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at 

Research Issues
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Family Background Plant Breeding History Plan Wisconsin

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26543255

Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan

Wisconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul Williams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. Wisconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family comes from.

The breeding history of Wisconsin fast plants is fairly elaborate, and is the brainchild of Williams. Initially, Williams' goal was to develop disease resistance for plants in the cruciferae family, which is why he began breeding brassica rapa with other plants within this same family. In determining which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marstaller, Tess, Hanmer, Tasia, Lang, Caitlin. "Assessing Fast Plant Growth in Different pH Levels." 2003. Web.

Itis. "Brassica Rapa." No date. Web.

Williams, P.H., Hill, C.B. "Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassica." Science. 232 1385-1389. 1986. Web.
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Effects of Coffee Grounds on the Growth of Tomato Plants

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5062084

stimuli can affect plant growth rates, robustness, flowering, and even fruit production. We also know that nitrogen is an important part of plant development, and contributes significantly to the thickness, leaf count, and stem width in most plants. A plant that is nitrogen deficient is generally small and develops slowly because it lacks the nitrogen necessary to manufacture adequate structure and genetic materials. This could leave the structure pale green, because it lacks adequate chlorophyll. On the other hand some plants may grow rapidly when supplied with excessive nitrogen. They develop protoplasm faster than they can build sufficient supporting materials in cell walls. The plant may grow weaker and be prone to more pathogens or injuries while developing smaller fruits or fruits with less seeds (Foyer and Zhang, eds. 2010).

Background- Coffee grounds have long been known to increase compost value and act as a fertilizer in plants. In fact, over 10% of coffee grounds are nitrogen-rich proteins that are typically expressed in an 11:1 ratio, ideal for plants. In addition, there are base oils, lips, and fatty acids that remain in the grounds and are slowly decomposed within the soil, and make bioavailable to the plant roots (Chalker-Scott, 2009).…… [Read More]


Chalker-Scott, L. (Winter 2009). Coffee Grounds -- Will they Perk Up Plants?

Master Gardener. Cited in:

Foyer, C. And Zhang, H., eds. (2010). Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants. Annual Review of Plants, Volume 42. New York: John Wiley.
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Biodiesel Plant Marketing & Business

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62106630

The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.

Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.

Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the PR benefits that accrue to such use.… [Read More]


Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kram, J.W. (2008, April). Biodiesel blossoms in the Sunshine State. Biodiesel Magazine. [Online]. Available:

Schmidt, C.W. (2007). Biodiesel: Cultivating alternative fuels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 86-87.
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Dow Chemical Plant Dow Chemical

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11998169

Other performance plastic intermediates and products manufactured by Dow include bisphenol a, polyurethane and epichlorohydrin amongst others.

The water solutions business unit of Dow Chemical Company manufactures Film Tec reverse osmosis membranes. These membranes are largely used for water purification for human use and include Dowlex ion exchange resins and Carbowax polyethylene glycols. The agricultural segment of Dow Chemical Company, Dow Agro Sciences, produces various agricultural chemicals and consumer products. This segment is not only responsible for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, but it also sells different agricultural seeds commercially. On the other hand, consumer products include various chemicals like detergents, soaps and cosmetics.

Product Safety:

Despite the fact that Dow Chemical Company is the world's second largest chemical manufacturing firm, the company is also infamous for production of chemicals that are harmful to human beings. Throughout its history, Dow Chemical Company has from time to time come under serious criticism because of the various harmful effects that some of its products have had on human beings as well as the environment. One of the reasons why this company, its subsidiaries and affiliated companies has been criticized and scrutinized is because Dow Company is largest manufacturer of chlorine in the world.…… [Read More]


"Dow Chemical Company" (2009, October 30). Zacks Investment Research. Retrieved June 25,

2010, from

"Dow Energy-Track Record" (n.d.). The Dow Chemical Company. Retrieved June 25, 2010,

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Mor Genetics Mor Cell Division in Plants

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80982386


Genetics MOR

Cell division in plants is a process that is currently under intense study by biologists. One team of researchers in Australia has recently published a paper describing their research into the role that microtubules play in cell division and morphogenesis. While these structures have been identified to be involved in cell division and growth, how they form, disassemble, and reappear is not fully understood. The Australian team's research consisted of their testing the hypothesis that a gene in the plant A. thaliana, called mor 1, plays a role in the development of microtubules.

In order to test this hypothesis, the team determined that the mor1 locus in a mutant A. thaliana caused temperature sensitive mutations in the development of microtubules when the temperature was increased from 21?C to 29?C. They used immunofluorescence microscopy, a technique that stains cell structures with a fluorescent dye, to visualize the actual microtubules of both wild type and mutant A. thaliana at different temperatures. The mutant A thaliana, were determined to contain two mutant alleles, each having "single amino-acid substitutions in the HEAT repeat nearest the N. terminus." (Whittington 611) When exposed to temperatures of 29 ?C for a period of 90…… [Read More]


Whittington, Angela, et al.. "MOR1 is Essential for Organizing Cortical Microtubules

in Plants." (31 May, 2001). Nature 411, 610-613. Retrieved from
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Fuel Cell Technology There Are Over 600

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70476693

Fuel Cell Technology

There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")

As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.

I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. What was once a dream is now a reality.

I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice. And, in the end, I will recommend a course of action for the beginnings of the infrastructure that is sure to be an entirely new chapter in our global history.

To understand why hydrogen fuel cells hold the key to combating our pollution problems, one must first understand how fuel…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004.

Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. 27 May 2004.

Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. 27 May 2004.

Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. 27 May 2004.
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Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26433183

With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.… [Read More]


1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at, 

4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
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How to Various Pathogens Impact Their Host Plants

Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068200

evolution of plant viruses. All five peer-reviewed articles are related because they all delve into the evolution of plant viruses.

Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plan viruses, Gutierrez, et al., 2013. Plants use insects as the vectors for the spread of viruses. Insects historically go from one plant (host) to another; but recent evidence shows that viruses in plants, as they evolve, can actually have an influence "vector physiology and behavior" (Gutierrez, 2013). There is the possibility that insect "stresses" -- while feeding on plants -- may cause "major switches" in the way viruses evolve in plants (Gutierrez, 610).

The researchers found that "numerous plant viruses" can be and are transmitted by not just one insect, but by several insects. For example one species of aphids probes into a plant and another aphid species also makes "test probes"; this creates a "genetic bottleneck" (Gutierrez, 616). Researchers learned that by measuring those bottlenecks they can understand the insect feeding behaviors. Insects that colonize on a host plant for a long-term provide the best chances for transmission of viruses (to the next plant they visit). Results of this research show that: a) when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garcia-Arenal, F., and Fraile, A. (2013). Trade-offs in host range evolution of plant viruses. Plant Pathology, vol. 62, 2-9.

Gutierrez, S., Michalakis, Y., Van Munster, M., and Blanc, S. (2013). Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plant viruses. Functional Ecology, vol. 27, 610-622.

Rojas, M.R., Hagen, C., Lucas, W.J., and Gilbertson, R.L. (2005). Exploiting Chinks in the Plants' Armor: Evolution and Emergence of Geminiviruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43(1), 361-383.

Syller, J. (2014). Biological and molecular events associated with simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by invertebrate and fungal vectors. Molecular Plant Pathology, 15(4),
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Networked Terrorist Cell Jamaat Ul-Fuqra

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9224448

Although Jamaat Ul-Fuqra is based out of Pakistan, it operates primarily in the United States, Canada, and the Carribean. Its operations are scattered throughout the United States in rural communes supposedly meant to provide Muslims with a living environment free from destructive secular influences.

Some of these communes are believed to provide paramilitary or terrorist training to its members.

Jamaat Ul-Fuqra members have planned various small-scale acts of religion-directed violence, mainly against Hindu and Jewish interests. Their most well-known, definitely proven attack was the bombing of the Hotel Rajneesh in Portland, OR in 1983. However, they have also attacked other Muslim organizations, such as the Ahmadiyya, whose leader Mozaffar Ahmad was allegedly killed by Jamaat Ul-Fuqra operatives in 1983.

Most importantly, the organization is suspected to be collaborating with or to be under the influence of Al-Qaeda as a sleeper cell or as a training program for Al-Qaeda sleepers.

Stopping Terrorism

Countries worldwide, and the United States especially, have taken dramatic steps to counter terrorism. Legally, the U.S. Government has expanded the jurisdiction and powers of the nation's counterterrorism agencies. After 9/11, President Bush created the Department of Homeland Security, which consolidated a number of previous federal agencies into a…… [Read More]

Jessica Stern (July/August 2003). The Protean Enemy. Foreign Affairs, 82/4. Retrieved from

Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from

Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from; B. Raman (July 3, 2003). Al-Qaeda clone takes root in the U.S. Asia Times. Retrieved from
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Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Linked to the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33647649

evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian?

Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of taking in more air and converting it into energy. As eukaryotic cells evolved, they became more capable of respiration which added to the complexity of the evolutions of creatures.

Scientists believe that if there are no controls on the emission of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, the concentration of this gas could double by the end of the current century, leading to a significant rise in the average temperature of the Earth. What would be some of the likely evolutionary effects of this climatic change?

Scientists believe that if the carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels continues to build up in the atmosphere, the repercussion for the environment will be serious. Since average temperatures will increase, animals would have to evolve skin which was less warm such as the eradication…… [Read More]

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Photosynthesis Is a Process in Plants Algae

Words: 495 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93561218

Photosynthesis is a process in plants, algae, and some prokaryotes, that coverts solar insulation into chemical energy stored in glucose or other organic compounds. Photosynthesis occurs in slightly different ways in higher plants relative to photosynthetic bacteria. Photosynthesis is an important process because it harnesses the sun's energy into utilizable forms of energy on earth. Most biological organisms such as animals and fungi are unable to directly use light energy to power biological processes such as active transport, cell division and muscle movement. ATP is used to power these processes. Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose and then the process of cellular respiration converts energy in glucose to energy in the form of ATP which is ultimately used to power biological processes. The energy produced by photosynthesis forms the foundation of virtually all terrestrial and aquatic food chains. As a result, photosynthesis is the crucial source of carbon in the organic molecules found in most organisms. The high oxygen concentration in the atmosphere is derived directly from the light reactions of photosynthesis. Prior to the evolution of photosynthesis on earth, the atmosphere was absent of any oxygen

The rate of photosynthesis is determined by…… [Read More]


Carter, J (2004). "Photosynthesis." SC Links, 2 Nov 2004. Retrieved from
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Compare and Contrasting Photosynthesis

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1599316

Photosynthesis is the process by the help of which plants make their own food by capturing the solar energy. Solar cell as compared to the plants coverts the sunlight into electric energy in order to be used by the human beings. This paper aims to highlight the differences and similarities between a plant cell and a solar cell in addition to the application of laws of thermodynamics to each system.

Laws of Thermodynamics

In the case of photosynthesis and the solar cells, three laws of thermodynamics are applicable. According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy, or mass cannot be created nor they can be destroyed (Rana, 2008, p. 67). The first law of thermodynamics is fulfilled by the plant cells as no new energy or mass is being created but solar energy is being converted into chemical energy or electric energy in the case of solar cells. Second law says that not all of the energy absorbed from the reservoir can be converted into work. Plant cells and the solar cells fulfill this law as some of the energy is lost as heat and not all the captured solar energy is converted into electric or chemical energy. At absolute…… [Read More]


Nelson, J. (2003). The physics of solar cells, Volume 2 of Series on Properties of Semiconductor Materials. Imperial College Press.

Rana, F. (2008). The cell's design: how chemistry reveals the Creator's artistry. Baker Books.
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Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59806484

Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics

Photosynthesis is the systematic process used by plants as a means to harness solar energy. A semiconductor-based solar cell harnesses solar energy to convert it to electricity required by and used by humans. As such, the process of photosynthesis is a contributor to both plant and solar cells. There are numerous similarities and differences between plant and solar cells; however, they both ultimately work to produce energy. A plant cell is a structural and functional unit of a plant and characteristically has rigid cell walls Blankenship, 2011). With the simplest form of a plant cell, it forms a single cell constituting an entire organism, carrying out all life functions. One of the most conspicuous features of the plant cell is the presence of membrane bound organelles referred to as plastids. A photovoltaic or solar cell is a device that captures energy and transforms solar radiation to electricity through the photovoltaic effect. In order to generate power that is useful, the solar cell must form a group of cells that are interconnected, referred to as photovoltaic module or a solar panel. The amount of power generated by the solar cell is contingent upon the amount…… [Read More]


Blankenship, R. (2011). Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies and recognizing the potential for improvement. Science, 332 (6031), 805-809.
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Animal Tissue DNA

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80676560

Chromatin Lab Report

The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.

DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added to the tissue and is further isolated by centrifuge and other mechanical stirring methods. Once the saline solution has done its job by reducing the strength of the chemical bonds between the protein and the DNA, the DNA can be more readily isolated by adding ethanol to the mixture, which…… [Read More]

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Mutation Breeding of in Vitro

Words: 3499 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35803000

The size of the petiole can be increased or decreased through use of gamma radiation.

XI. The Effect of Mutation Breeding on Shoots and Stem

The initiation of shoots is controlled by the large number of genes in higher plants. This is clearly demonstrated in the alternations in shoots resulting following treatment with a mutagen. The increase in the number of shoots has many benefits which includes the increase in the number of branches which can ultimately result in the increase of yield according to Savov (1983). Furthermore, the proportion of shoots to the length of internodes is an essential factor of plants and in Malus pumila treated with gamma radiation demonstrated is an improvement in shoots and internodes ration. Therefore, the growth of the plant resulted through an increase in the number of branches. (Paprstein, 1988)

XII. The Effect of Mutation Breeding on Plant Height

A change in the height of a plant is an important horticultural characteristic however, plant height in mutation breeding is not a common feature as tallness in a plant is not a desired characteristic since an increase in the height of a plant results in a negative impact on the plant stem stability.

XIII.…… [Read More]


Broertjes, C., and van Harten, M. (1978) Application of Mutation Breeding in the Improvement of Vegetatively Propagated Crops. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York.

Chylah, Averil; and Van, Marie Tran Thanh (2006) Differential Reactivity in Epidermal Cells of Begonia rex Excised and Grown in vitro. Physiologia Plantarium. Online available at:

Dijkstra-J; Pompe-JCAM; Meuleman-J; Speelman-L (1997) The application of digital image processing in grading of begonia pot plants.

Journal-of-Agricultural-Science. Netherlands. 1997.
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PCR Analysis of Gapdh Genes of Parsley

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13977066

PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley

PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley

The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.

As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard, a number of studies, accelerating in the last decade, have indicated that GAPDH is not an uncomplicated, simple glycolytic protein. Instead, independent laboratories identified diverse biological properties of the mammalian GAPDH protein. These included roles for GAPDH in membrane transport and in membrane fusion, microtubule assembly, nuclear RNA export, protein…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kim, E. And Archibald, J. (2009) Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes. Plant Cell Monograph. 1-39.

Lopez-Juez, E. 2007. Plastid biogenesis, between light and shadows. J. Exper. Bot. 58: 11 -- 26.

Martin, W., Rujan, T., Richly, E., Hansen, A., Cornelsen, S., Lins, T., Leister, D., Stoebe, B., Hasegawa, M, & Penny, D. 2002. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastic phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. PNAS 99: 12246 -- 12251.

Plaxton, W.C. 1996. The organization and regulation of plant glycolysis. Annu. Rev. PlantPhysiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 185 -- 214.
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Photosynthesis Why There Would Be No People

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77422374


Why There Would Be No People Without Plants.

Plants play a crucial part in the life circle of animals and human beings and their importance in life cannot be undermined, they contribute to the global food chain as the primary source of food and are the reason that life exists. The lives of all the living organisms and human beings are dependent on plants, hence an explanation as to why plants are placed at the bottom of the food chain. Apart from the plants, no living creature can derive or make its own food, it is only the plants which are self sufficient and can manufacture their own food for survival (Anne, 2007).

Plants through the process called photosynthesis take in water, carbon dioxide and light to produce sugar which is in form of glucose and release a lot of oxygen into the air. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts using the green pigment called the chlorophyll found in the mesophyll cells of the leaves. The upper and the lower epidermis parts of the leaf provide protection while gaseous exchange takes place through the microscopic holes found at the lower epidermis called the stomates, it is through the stomates…… [Read More]


Anne StClair, 2007. Helium. The importance of plant life in the global food chain. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from

Ecochem, 1998. Phosynthesis, Respiration and transpiration. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from 

Global change, 2012. A Premier on Photosynthesis and the Functioning of cells. Retrieved April

9, 2012 from
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Biofuels to Dissect Locust Guts

Words: 3671 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9348571

Importance of locust guts for this Study

Prediction of the increase in the worldwide energy consumption by 54% between 2001 and 2025 has led to the considerable interest in the production of bioenergy to meet the future needs. Energy derived from biofuels is converted from the metabolism of living organisms. Typically, biofuels has been identified by scientist and environmentalist as the most promising alternative to petroleum and fossil fuels. Biofuels are derived from biomass materials, which are already in solid fuel and later converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, which could be later, be stored for use. (Groom, Gray, Townsend, 2008).

Cellulose, Hemicelluloses and Lignin have been known to be abundant on earth and could be converted to biofuels. However, large-scale production of biofuels has not yet being implemented in many countries. One of the challenges facing the commercial production of biofuels is the costs associated in breaking down the fibrous plant material. However, the destructive capability of locusts could be used to breakdown the tough cellulose that could be used for the production of biofuels. With the capability of the locusts to break down the tough cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses, the study explores the locust guts wall to identify…… [Read More]


Amani, E. & Chad.H.(2007). Ethanol Expansion in the Food vs. Fuel Debate: How Will Developing Countries Fare-Full Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 5 (2):1-21.

Atlas, R. (2010).Global prospects for the biofuels industry. Microbiology Australia.

Baffes, J & Haniotis, T.(2010). Placing the 2006/08 Commodity Price Boom into Perspective. Policy Research Working Paper 5371. The World Bank

Development Prospects Group.
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts followed by stochastic recombination into the plant genome. Electroporation is thought to generate transient pores within the plasmalemma and facilitate transfer of the DNA inside the plant cell. Integration would subsequently be enriched or selected for in order to identify plants which have successfully incorporated the desired transgene.

7. If…… [Read More]

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Inquiry-Style Learning & Lesson Plan

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50118558

Grade Level: 3rd


Lesson: The Cell (3 Day Lesson Series)

Background Concepts

The study of living things is known as Life Science. Since the basic unit of all living things is the cell, all things like plants human beings and animals have cells. As the basic unit of life, cells represent the foundational underlining that drives scientific research. In emphasizing their importance to the study of living things, cells abound the composition of life, and embody a key to new advancements in science. Elementary understanding and familiarity with this basic life unit gives school-aged students the exposure and fundamentals to help their learning of Life Science. Early introduction to understanding the function and parts of the cell helps students move toward more advance cellular topics and concepts in Life Science.

Goals & Learning Outcomes

The following statements encompass the learning outcomes for this lesson.

• Students will gain early exposure to biological concepts, and demonstrate understanding for the definition and role of the cell.

• Students will recognize a select set of vocabulary words associated with cellular parts and functions.

• Students will be able to identify several parts of the cell.

• Student will associate cellular functionality with…… [Read More]


West Virgina Department of Education. (2014, January 1). Inquiry-based lesson plans. Retrieved December 8, 2014, from
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Histone H2AX in the Study

Words: 5478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64159440

These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSBs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).

Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.

Now, let us see how histone and histone-like proteins work in dinoflagellates, most of which are marine planktons that commonly live in fresh water and belongs to a large group of flagellate protists. When they reproduce, they generate red tide that contains toxins. According to BioMed Central, a significant finding of the study of histone and…… [Read More]


Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.

Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.

Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.

Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
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Disffusion and Osmosis

Words: 1375 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14174240

Size and Temperature on Diffusion

In this experiment is expected that after 30 minutes, the diameter of the diffused dye ring will increase in size when placed at 37°C.

Time (minutes)

Distance (cm)

Janus Green at room temperature

Janus Green at 37°C

Potassium Permanganate at room temperature

Potassium Permanganate at 37°C

Measurement of diffusion of Janus Green and Potassium Permanganate at different temperatures.

Consistent with the expectations, potassium permanganate molecules spread further, 1.0 cm at room temperature and 1.1 at 37°C. This was longer compared to those of Janus Green that spread 0.3 cm at room temperature and 0.5cm at 37°C. It is evident that both molecules spread further at 37°C than at room temperature.

Effect of solute concentration on osmosis

Bag Contents (10ml)

Beaker Contents (200ml)



Total Mass Change


10% sucrose dH2O



10% sucrose



10% sucrose

10% sucrose




Figure 2. Quantifying changes in the mass of dialysis bags due to osmosis.

During this experiment it was concluded that a 10ml bag increased in mass up to 7.4% when placed in a hypotonic solution, for 40 minutes. When placed in a hypertonic solution, the same 10ml bag decreased 7% to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Stoker, Stephen. General, Organic, And Biological Chemistry. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2010.
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Fate of Carbon in a

Words: 4902 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48440011

The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).

Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)



Tot. NPP1

% of Total

% of Total

106 km2

gC m-2 y-1

X106mTC y-1



Marine System:

Open Ocean










Continental shelf





Algal Beds & reef




Estuaries (exc. marsh)




Tot. Marine




Continental System:

Terrestr. Env.




Swamp and Marsh






Lakes and Streams

2…… [Read More]


Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.

Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.

Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.

Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
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Cellular Respiration

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16093328

Cellular Respiration

Give the overall general reaction for cellular respiration. State what eukaryotic cell organelle is involved.

Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In general, sugar is burned off, or oxidized, into CO2 and H2O. The overall formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP (heat). Mitochondria are the eukaryotic cell organelle involved in this process. It is considered the power center of the cell.

Define homoeothermic and endothermic.

Simply stated, homoeothermic refers to a warm-blooded animal. Homoeothermic animals are capable of regulating their own body temperatures internally and independent of their surroundings. Endotherms are similar in that they are also capable of maintaining a sufficient internal core body temperature, regardless of external conditions. Most (not all) homoeothermic animals are also endotherms and use metabolic heat production to keep warm.

What effect did lowering the temperature have on the mouse's oxygen consumption? What is the effect on cellular respiration? Is this result what you would expect?

The experiment revealed that whether the temperature was 24 C. Or 17 C. The mouse's oxygen consumption remained the same (15ml). One would normally expect to see a slight…… [Read More]


"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
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Interconnectedness Between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38166727

Cellular Respiration and Function

Every living organism needs energy to survive since all cells require energy in order to perform the necessary biochemical reactions that sustain homeostasis within an organism. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis can be described as processes through which living organisms gain and utilize energy. However, photosynthesis is the process through which plant cell obtain and utilize energy from the sun and make it available to all living things. During this process, plants capture energy from the sun and transform it into chemical energy. Moreover, photosynthesis entails combining carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars like glucose through the use of energy from the sun (Editorial Board, 2012, p.51). In contrast, cellular respiration is the process through which cells are allowed to tap into the energy stored during photosynthesis. This process entails chemical reactions that break down glucose before converting it into a huge amount of ATP. The ATP is then utilized by cells to fuel their various processes.

As evident in this description, it seems that cellular respiration and photosynthesis are interconnected since they are interdependent processes. Actually, the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis are interdependent since each of them produces or generates what the other…… [Read More]


Editorial Board. (2012). Biology (1st ed.). Schaumburg, IL: Words of Wisdom, LLC.

"How are Respiration and Photosynthesis Related?" (n.d.). UCSB Science Line. Retrieved from UC Santa Barbara -- University of California website:
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Should Parents Be Permitted to Choose the Gender of Their Child

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40826416

Genetic Engineering

What is Genetic Engineering? What is its purpose?

Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.

Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- When a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another, it "transfers those traits"; and hence, genetic engineering is not the same as "classical plant and animal breeding" ( Classical breeding is based on "traits"; for example a farmer could breed a yellow cow to a brown cow, and a new color will have been developed in the offspring. But…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British

Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from

Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.

Retrieved March 31, 2016, from
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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Words: 2537 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34104641

98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science Panel, 2003)

VIII. Controversy Surrounding Transgenic Crops

The work of Schahczenski and Adam (2006) states that there has been "great controversy among government agencies, business consortia, researchers, and certain nonprofit organizations" concerning the "capacity to produce transgenic crops." In 2001 it is related that the Experiment Station Committee on Organization…… [Read More]


What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' 

Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at:

Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at:
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on human and ecological health. We also have to consider the principle issues of integrity, unity and sovereignty and their role in the research studies (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Even though the social, financial, political and moral issues are interlinked and inter-dependent features, they will be tackled separately in this…… [Read More]


Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Elucidates on the Possibilities of

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37809455

Because of the wide variety of feedstocks ethanol offers great opportunity for economic growth and can help generate jobs outside traditional system.

There are many benefits of using ethanol as an alternative fuel. Most importantly the manageability of E85 is far easier than gasoline as it is less volatile. E85 fueling equipment is slightly different but costs almost the same as one used for storing and dispensing petroleum fuels. It is even possible to convert petroleum equipment into an E85. Moreover using E85 will reduce our overall use of petroleum consumption and replace it with a fuel produced or grown in the U.S. E85 also offers considerable environmental benefits. FFVs specifically designed for ethanol-based fuels are easily available, recommended and are affordable. Today E85 is sold at 60 stations in 16 states according to an Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet. (Robinson, 2004). Even though the overall mileage of E85 is also lower than that with gasoline, E85 also produces 40% less carbon monoxide than regular gas, 20% lesser particle emissions and toxics. Ethanol manufacturers say that greater energy is produced by using ethanol-based fuels than is consumed in the production of the same.

Fuel Ethanol Still With Lyne Arm

Fuel…… [Read More]


Alternative Fuels Data Center, 8 April 2005, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at

What is ethanol?, 8 April 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at

Jennifer Loven, May 17, 2005, Bush Promotes Ethanol As Alternative Fuel, Chicago Sun Times.

Stephen Thompson, Sept-Oct 2004, USDA study boosts fuel conversion efficiency rating for ethanol, Rural Cooperatives.
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Analyzing Generics Biologics and Biosimilars

Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87564564

Generics, Biologics, and Biosimilars

Properties of Generic Drugs, Biologics, and Biosimilars, with Examples and Usage

Generic drugs

Generic drugs denote pharmaceutical products that are typically meant to be substituted with some innovator product manufactured with no license from innovator, and sold in the markets after exclusive rights (such as patents) expire (WHO, 2016). Some of the properties of these drugs include;

Generic drugs are usually sold at prices considerably lower than branded price; and They are bioequivalent or identical to branded drugs in their strength, form, dosage, safety, quality, administration route, intended use, and performance characteristics.

Some generic medicine examples, together with their usage:

Paracetamol: this is the chemical constituent of numerous branded painkillers; it is, however, marketed as generic medicine, too, and utilized for pain alleviation.

Ibuprofen: his is employed for reducing fever and treating inflammation (swelling/irritation) or pain resulting from a number of conditions, including headache, back ache, toothache, minor injury, arthritis, or menstrual cramps.

1. Penicillin G: this drug is utilized for treating a wide range of bacterial illnesses. Further, it is utilized for preventing bacterial endocarditis or heart infection.


Biologics are produced within animal/plant cells, microorganisms, and other living systems. A majority of these are…… [Read More]


Amgen. (2015). The Power of Biologics. Retrieved from Amgen Biosimilar Inc.: (2010, November 10). How do Drugs and Biologics Differ? Retrieved from Biotechnology Innovation Organization:

FDA. (2015, July 14). Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA): Generics. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration:

FDA. (2015, August 28). Biosimilars. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration:
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Photosynthesis & Solar Photovoltaic Technology What Is

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47893104

Photosynthesis & Solar Photovoltaic Technology

What is photosynthesis and how does photosynthesis work? How is process of photosynthesis linked to photovoltaic technologies? How are they the same and how are they different? This paper will delve into those issues and provide answers to the questions.

Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants create their own food thanks to sunlight shining on them. Animals eat other organisms for their nutrient intake, but plants make their food thanks to the fact that they have chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the pigment that creates the green color in plants and it "…captures the Sun's energy and uses it to make sugars out of carbon dioxide from the air and water" (Ohio State University, 2008). The sugars are vital to the process because they provide fuel for the roots of the plant, the stems and leaves of the plant, and allow the plant to continue to grow. And once the plant has made adequate food through sunlight to provide a healthy condition for the plant, it releases oxygen into the air, and of course oxygen is what humans and animals need in order to breathe and live.

In the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Green, Jenny. (2011). Photosynthesis or photovoltaics: Weighing the impact. ASU News

[Now]. Arizona State University. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Luque, Antonio, and Hegedus, Steven. (2011). Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Mapel, J.K., and Baldo, M.A. (2007). "The Application of Photosynthetic Materials and Architectures to Solar Cells," in Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy
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Exchange of Genetic Material Between

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26300682

Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.


The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and possibly did some of the first recombination experiments, Burbank deserves to be accredited with the many experiments he did in find viable crosses and graft to promote better strains of plants and trees. Burbank discovered numerous (over 800) varieties of flower's, grasses, grains, vegetables, cacti, and fruit trees still in…… [Read More]


Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue

Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from

The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from
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Biology Lab

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37175489

Eukaryotic Cell

Try to identify the following structures in an amoeba (Fig. 4.2):

Nucleus: A single, membrane-bounded oval structure.

Food vacuoles: Membrane-bounded spheres that contain engulfed food. Are these present? Yes.

Contractile vacuoles: Transparent, membrane-bounded spheres used to expel excess water. Are these present? Yes.

Animal Cell Structure

Animal cells contain all the structures in Table 4.1 except they do not have a cell wall and do not have chloroplasts. Can animal cells make their own organic food? No. Why or Why not?

Plants have chloroplasts which allows them to convert solar energy to carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the organic food that plants then use for energy. Animals do not have chloroplasts and so are not capable of making their own organic food.

Observation: Elodea (Anacharis)

Can you locate the cell nucleus? Yes. It may be hidden by the chloroplasts, but when visible, it appears as a faint, gray lump on one side of the cell.

7. Can you detect movement of chloroplasts in this cell or any other…… [Read More]

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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as maize, soya beans, peanuts, wheat, barley and a variety of fruit trees. The advantages of these genetically modified plants ensure that most of the people do not go hungry.

The genesis of GMP (Genetically Modified Plants) involves the selection of healthy and high yielding plants and processing them in specialized…… [Read More]


Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL:

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000)

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: