Plant Cell Essays (Examples)

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Cells Are Known as the Basic Units

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76924792

Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.

One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.

Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…… [Read More]

References

" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html

STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html

J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.

 http://scitec.uwichill.edu.bb/cmp/online/el10c/gibbs/Diodes.htm
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Cell Wall's and Cell Membranes

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76639876

cells require a layer to separate the inside of the cell from the outside world. Cells have a semi-permiable membrane which controls what can and cannot enter the cell. In animal cells, as well as some others, this membrane is all that separates the cell from its surroundings. Plant cells, and many single-celled organisms such as bacteria have a rigid cell wall beyond the membrane that provides structure. (Buck) Cell membranes act as the cell's gatekeeper, but are not especially rigid or strong. Cell walls can limit the entry of certain types of molecules, but they do not provide the fine-grained traffic control function of the membrane. Cell walls, however are rigid and strong.

Cell membranes are semi-permeable; they only allow certain molecules to enter and exit. Some molecules, such as water can pass through the membrane through osmosis or diffusion. This process does not require any energy to be…… [Read More]

Andreas, Lpp. "Cell Biology." WikiBooks. February, 2005. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cell_biology

Buck, Jim. "Cell Wall." Wikipedia. July, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall

Wolf, Jfd. "Cell Membrane." Wikipedia. July, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane
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Cell Metabolism Define Metabolism Anabolism and Catabolism

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57095340

Cell Metabolism

Define metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism in full details

The cell is a complex organisms in which many chemical reaction take place so as to maintain normal cellular function. Cell metabolism can be defined as the process through which cells manufacture ATP which provides energy to the cells. Cells have evolved to form highly efficient metabolic mechanisms which differ depending on the cell. Aerobic respiration is responsible for cellular energy needs in animals while photosynthesis is the energy source for plants. The biochemical processes taking place in a cell are influenced by enzymes. Enzymes are catalysts made of proteins and they speed up the reactions in the cells (Porth, Carol & Carol, 2011).

Anabolism and catabolism comprise the two sets of chemical reactions that make up metabolism. During Anabolism, the cells of living organisms synthesize complex molecules from simple molecules through the use of energy. The main aim of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Calladine, C.R. (2008). Understanding DNA the molecule & how it works. Amsterdam [etc.], Elsevier Academic Press.

Engel, P.C. (2009). Pain-free biochemistry an essential guide for the health sciences. Chichester, UK, Wiley-Blackwell.

Garrett, R., & Grisham, C.M. (2010). Biochemistry. Belmont, CA, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Hartl, Daniel L. (2011). Essential genetics: a genomics perspective. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
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Eukaryotic Cells

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72282896

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:

There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:

The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer

Associates.

Diffen. (2013) "Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell" Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from  http://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell 

Gregory, Michael. (n. d.) "Protists" Lecture notes. Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20lectures/protists/protists.htm
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf

One of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…… [Read More]

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.

The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.

The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
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Cell Layout

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59458847

Operation Management

What type of layout would you use for the assembly of a television set? What are the reasons for this choice?

A product layout would be best suited for the assembly of a television set. Televisions sets, in general, are commodity products with very little differentiation between product classes. In many instances a Sony 32-inch high definition television will have many of the same components as the Sony 40-inch high definition television set. Conversely, auto manufacturers often use the same parts on similar vehicle types.

In regards to a television set, companies often mass produce these items to achieve economies of scale. Manufactures, such as those that create televisions, often have very high fixed costs associated with property, plant, and equipment. As such, the more television that are produced the cheaper on a per unit basis each television is. The manufacturer therefore has incentive to product a wide…… [Read More]

References:

1) Hyer, Nancy and Wemmerlov, Urban. (2002). Reorganizing the Factory: Competing through Cellular Manufacturing, Portland, OR

2) Ohno, Taiichi (1988). Toyota Production System. Productivity Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-915299-14-3

3) Swamdimass, Paul M. And Darlow, Neil R. (2000). 'Manufacturing Strategy', in Paul M. Swamidass (ed.), Innovations in competitive manufacturing, Boston, Mass.; London: Kluwer Academic, 17-24
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What Does the Cell Do in the Body

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39080830

Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.

What do cells do? That…… [Read More]

References

Alberts, B. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. UK: Taylor and Francis.

Karp, G. (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology. UK: Wiley and Sons.
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Photosynthesis vs Solar Cells Producing

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58659849

However, unlike chlorophyll, silicon cannot be used for energy-generation in its raw state, and must be processed by humans. Silicon is favored "because it remains a good conductor of electricity even after it has been heated. In order for silicon to be used for solar cells, it must be heavily heated to separate it from oxygen so that it can be further processed" (Stier 2009). Although solar energy is widely touted as a 'green' technology, the actual manufacture of silicon cells is relatively labor-intensive and results in the burning of a considerable amount of fossil fuels. In contrast, the photosynthesis that takes place in plants is truly 'green' (no pun intended). "Plants are able to create their 'solar panels' relatively inexpensively, so much so that in seasonal climates they regularly shed their leaves and rebuild them the following year using a clean, low-power energy source; out of locally-available and life-friendly…… [Read More]

References

Farabee, MJ. (2007). Photosynthesis. Maricopa University. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BiobookPS.html

The second law of thermodynamics. (2010). Flying Turtle. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at  http://www.flyingturtle.org/energy/2nd_Law.html 

Semiconductors: The science behind solar. (2011). Solar Cal Finder. Retrieved January 11, 2011

http://solar.calfinder.com/blog/solar-information/semiconductors-the-science-behind-solar/
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Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

Words: 1353 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41407566

Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.

The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.

Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.

Joy, Linda E. "A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology." Automotive Community. (2007). Web.

Khan, Abdul Majeed. "Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cells." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. (2009). Web.
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Fuel Cell the Study Focuses

Words: 4499 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31324712



Different Fuel Cell Technologies

U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),

Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),

Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);

Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)

The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…… [Read More]

References

Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.

Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.

Grove, W.R. (1842). On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science .vol. XXI: 417 -- 420.

Kordesch, K.(1999). Alkaline fuel cells applications, innovative energy technology. Austria: Institute of High Voltage Engineering, U Graz.
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord Blood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at  http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html 

Research Issues
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Family Background Plant Breeding History Plan Wisconsin

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26543255

Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan

Wisconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul Williams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. Wisconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marstaller, Tess, Hanmer, Tasia, Lang, Caitlin. "Assessing Fast Plant Growth in Different pH Levels." http://communityemmawillard.org. 2003. Web. http://community.emmawillard.org/Math/mathscienceweb/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels_files/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels.htm

Itis. "Brassica Rapa." www.itis.gov. No date. Web. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt-search_topic=TSN&search_value=23063

Williams, P.H., Hill, C.B. "Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassica." Science. 232 1385-1389. 1986. Web. http://www.fastplants.jp/pdf/science.pdf
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Effects of Coffee Grounds on the Growth of Tomato Plants

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5062084

stimuli can affect plant growth rates, robustness, flowering, and even fruit production. We also know that nitrogen is an important part of plant development, and contributes significantly to the thickness, leaf count, and stem width in most plants. A plant that is nitrogen deficient is generally small and develops slowly because it lacks the nitrogen necessary to manufacture adequate structure and genetic materials. This could leave the structure pale green, because it lacks adequate chlorophyll. On the other hand some plants may grow rapidly when supplied with excessive nitrogen. They develop protoplasm faster than they can build sufficient supporting materials in cell walls. The plant may grow weaker and be prone to more pathogens or injuries while developing smaller fruits or fruits with less seeds (Foyer and Zhang, eds. 2010).

Background- Coffee grounds have long been known to increase compost value and act as a fertilizer in plants. In fact,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Chalker-Scott, L. (Winter 2009). Coffee Grounds -- Will they Perk Up Plants?

Master Gardener. Cited in: http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/~linda%20chalker-scott/horticultural%20myths_files/Myths/Coffee%20grounds.pdf

Foyer, C. And Zhang, H., eds. (2010). Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants. Annual Review of Plants, Volume 42. New York: John Wiley.
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Biodiesel Plant Marketing & Business

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62106630

The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.

Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.

Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the PR benefits that accrue…… [Read More]

References

Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kram, J.W. (2008, April). Biodiesel blossoms in the Sunshine State. Biodiesel Magazine. [Online]. Available: http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2209&q=&page=3.

Schmidt, C.W. (2007). Biodiesel: Cultivating alternative fuels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 86-87.
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Dow Chemical Plant Dow Chemical

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11998169

Other performance plastic intermediates and products manufactured by Dow include bisphenol a, polyurethane and epichlorohydrin amongst others.

The water solutions business unit of Dow Chemical Company manufactures Film Tec reverse osmosis membranes. These membranes are largely used for water purification for human use and include Dowlex ion exchange resins and Carbowax polyethylene glycols. The agricultural segment of Dow Chemical Company, Dow Agro Sciences, produces various agricultural chemicals and consumer products. This segment is not only responsible for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, but it also sells different agricultural seeds commercially. On the other hand, consumer products include various chemicals like detergents, soaps and cosmetics.

Product Safety:

Despite the fact that Dow Chemical Company is the world's second largest chemical manufacturing firm, the company is also infamous for production of chemicals that are harmful to human beings. Throughout its history, Dow Chemical Company has from time to time come under serious criticism…… [Read More]

References:

"Dow Chemical Company" (2009, October 30). Zacks Investment Research. Retrieved June 25,

2010, from http://www.zacks.com/mediaroom/zer_get_pdf.php?r=Z533773

"Dow Energy-Track Record" (n.d.). The Dow Chemical Company. Retrieved June 25, 2010,

from http://energy.dow.com/track_record/
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Mor Genetics Mor Cell Division in Plants

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80982386

Mor

Genetics MOR

Cell division in plants is a process that is currently under intense study by biologists. One team of researchers in Australia has recently published a paper describing their research into the role that microtubules play in cell division and morphogenesis. While these structures have been identified to be involved in cell division and growth, how they form, disassemble, and reappear is not fully understood. The Australian team's research consisted of their testing the hypothesis that a gene in the plant A. thaliana, called mor 1, plays a role in the development of microtubules.

In order to test this hypothesis, the team determined that the mor1 locus in a mutant A. thaliana caused temperature sensitive mutations in the development of microtubules when the temperature was increased from 21?C to 29?C. They used immunofluorescence microscopy, a technique that stains cell structures with a fluorescent dye, to visualize the actual…… [Read More]

References

Whittington, Angela, et al.. "MOR1 is Essential for Organizing Cortical Microtubules

in Plants." (31 May, 2001). Nature 411, 610-613. Retrieved from www.nature.com
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Fuel Cell Technology There Are Over 600

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70476693

Fuel Cell Technology

There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")

As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.

I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. What was once a dream is now a reality.

I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004. http://globalwarming.enviroweb.org/ishappening/sources/sources_co2_facts3.html.

Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell4.htm.

Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell5.htm.

Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell2.htm.
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Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26433183

With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at,  http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf 

4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
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How to Various Pathogens Impact Their Host Plants

Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068200

evolution of plant viruses. All five peer-reviewed articles are related because they all delve into the evolution of plant viruses.

Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plan viruses, Gutierrez, et al., 2013. Plants use insects as the vectors for the spread of viruses. Insects historically go from one plant (host) to another; but recent evidence shows that viruses in plants, as they evolve, can actually have an influence "vector physiology and behavior" (Gutierrez, 2013). There is the possibility that insect "stresses" -- while feeding on plants -- may cause "major switches" in the way viruses evolve in plants (Gutierrez, 610).

The researchers found that "numerous plant viruses" can be and are transmitted by not just one insect, but by several insects. For example one species of aphids probes into a plant and another aphid species also makes "test probes"; this creates a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garcia-Arenal, F., and Fraile, A. (2013). Trade-offs in host range evolution of plant viruses. Plant Pathology, vol. 62, 2-9.

Gutierrez, S., Michalakis, Y., Van Munster, M., and Blanc, S. (2013). Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plant viruses. Functional Ecology, vol. 27, 610-622.

Rojas, M.R., Hagen, C., Lucas, W.J., and Gilbertson, R.L. (2005). Exploiting Chinks in the Plants' Armor: Evolution and Emergence of Geminiviruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43(1), 361-383.

Syller, J. (2014). Biological and molecular events associated with simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by invertebrate and fungal vectors. Molecular Plant Pathology, 15(4),
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Networked Terrorist Cell Jamaat Ul-Fuqra

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9224448



Although Jamaat Ul-Fuqra is based out of Pakistan, it operates primarily in the United States, Canada, and the Carribean. Its operations are scattered throughout the United States in rural communes supposedly meant to provide Muslims with a living environment free from destructive secular influences.

Some of these communes are believed to provide paramilitary or terrorist training to its members.

Jamaat Ul-Fuqra members have planned various small-scale acts of religion-directed violence, mainly against Hindu and Jewish interests. Their most well-known, definitely proven attack was the bombing of the Hotel Rajneesh in Portland, OR in 1983. However, they have also attacked other Muslim organizations, such as the Ahmadiyya, whose leader Mozaffar Ahmad was allegedly killed by Jamaat Ul-Fuqra operatives in 1983.

Most importantly, the organization is suspected to be collaborating with or to be under the influence of Al-Qaeda as a sleeper cell or as a training program for Al-Qaeda sleepers.

Stopping…… [Read More]

Jessica Stern (July/August 2003). The Protean Enemy. Foreign Affairs, 82/4. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/publication/6146/protean_enemy.html.

Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/jamaat-ul-fuqra.htm.

Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/jamaat-ul-fuqra.htm; B. Raman (July 3, 2003). Al-Qaeda clone takes root in the U.S. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/EG03Df07.html.
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Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Linked to the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33647649

evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian?

Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of taking in more air and converting it into energy. As eukaryotic cells evolved, they became more capable of respiration which added to the complexity of the evolutions of creatures.

Scientists believe that if there are no controls on the emission of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, the concentration of this gas could double by the end of the current century, leading to a significant rise in the average temperature of the Earth. What would be some of the likely evolutionary…… [Read More]

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Photosynthesis Is a Process in Plants Algae

Words: 495 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93561218

Photosynthesis is a process in plants, algae, and some prokaryotes, that coverts solar insulation into chemical energy stored in glucose or other organic compounds. Photosynthesis occurs in slightly different ways in higher plants relative to photosynthetic bacteria. Photosynthesis is an important process because it harnesses the sun's energy into utilizable forms of energy on earth. Most biological organisms such as animals and fungi are unable to directly use light energy to power biological processes such as active transport, cell division and muscle movement. ATP is used to power these processes. Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose and then the process of cellular respiration converts energy in glucose to energy in the form of ATP which is ultimately used to power biological processes. The energy produced by photosynthesis forms the foundation of virtually all terrestrial and aquatic food chains. As a result, photosynthesis is the…… [Read More]

References

Carter, J (2004). "Photosynthesis." SC Links, 2 Nov 2004. Retrieved from http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
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Compare and Contrasting Photosynthesis

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1599316

Photosynthesis is the process by the help of which plants make their own food by capturing the solar energy. Solar cell as compared to the plants coverts the sunlight into electric energy in order to be used by the human beings. This paper aims to highlight the differences and similarities between a plant cell and a solar cell in addition to the application of laws of thermodynamics to each system.

Laws of Thermodynamics

In the case of photosynthesis and the solar cells, three laws of thermodynamics are applicable. According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy, or mass cannot be created nor they can be destroyed (Rana, 2008, p. 67). The first law of thermodynamics is fulfilled by the plant cells as no new energy or mass is being created but solar energy is being converted into chemical energy or electric energy in the case of solar cells. Second law…… [Read More]

References

Nelson, J. (2003). The physics of solar cells, Volume 2 of Series on Properties of Semiconductor Materials. Imperial College Press.

Rana, F. (2008). The cell's design: how chemistry reveals the Creator's artistry. Baker Books.
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Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59806484

Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics

Photosynthesis is the systematic process used by plants as a means to harness solar energy. A semiconductor-based solar cell harnesses solar energy to convert it to electricity required by and used by humans. As such, the process of photosynthesis is a contributor to both plant and solar cells. There are numerous similarities and differences between plant and solar cells; however, they both ultimately work to produce energy. A plant cell is a structural and functional unit of a plant and characteristically has rigid cell walls Blankenship, 2011). With the simplest form of a plant cell, it forms a single cell constituting an entire organism, carrying out all life functions. One of the most conspicuous features of the plant cell is the presence of membrane bound organelles referred to as plastids. A photovoltaic or solar cell is a device that captures energy and transforms solar…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blankenship, R. (2011). Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies and recognizing the potential for improvement. Science, 332 (6031), 805-809.
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Animal Tissue DNA

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80676560

Chromatin Lab Report

The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.

DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added…… [Read More]

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Mutation Breeding of in Vitro

Words: 3499 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35803000

The size of the petiole can be increased or decreased through use of gamma radiation.

XI. The Effect of Mutation Breeding on Shoots and Stem

The initiation of shoots is controlled by the large number of genes in higher plants. This is clearly demonstrated in the alternations in shoots resulting following treatment with a mutagen. The increase in the number of shoots has many benefits which includes the increase in the number of branches which can ultimately result in the increase of yield according to Savov (1983). Furthermore, the proportion of shoots to the length of internodes is an essential factor of plants and in Malus pumila treated with gamma radiation demonstrated is an improvement in shoots and internodes ration. Therefore, the growth of the plant resulted through an increase in the number of branches. (Paprstein, 1988)

XII. The Effect of Mutation Breeding on Plant Height

A change in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Broertjes, C., and van Harten, M. (1978) Application of Mutation Breeding in the Improvement of Vegetatively Propagated Crops. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York.

Chylah, Averil; and Van, Marie Tran Thanh (2006) Differential Reactivity in Epidermal Cells of Begonia rex Excised and Grown in vitro. Physiologia Plantarium. Online available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119653454/abstract

Dijkstra-J; Pompe-JCAM; Meuleman-J; Speelman-L (1997) The application of digital image processing in grading of begonia pot plants.

Journal-of-Agricultural-Science. Netherlands. 1997.
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PCR Analysis of Gapdh Genes of Parsley

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13977066

PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley

PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley

The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.

As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kim, E. And Archibald, J. (2009) Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes. Plant Cell Monograph. 1-39.

Lopez-Juez, E. 2007. Plastid biogenesis, between light and shadows. J. Exper. Bot. 58: 11 -- 26.

Martin, W., Rujan, T., Richly, E., Hansen, A., Cornelsen, S., Lins, T., Leister, D., Stoebe, B., Hasegawa, M, & Penny, D. 2002. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastic phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. PNAS 99: 12246 -- 12251.

Plaxton, W.C. 1996. The organization and regulation of plant glycolysis. Annu. Rev. PlantPhysiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 185 -- 214.
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Photosynthesis Why There Would Be No People

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77422374

Photosynthesis

Why There Would Be No People Without Plants.

Plants play a crucial part in the life circle of animals and human beings and their importance in life cannot be undermined, they contribute to the global food chain as the primary source of food and are the reason that life exists. The lives of all the living organisms and human beings are dependent on plants, hence an explanation as to why plants are placed at the bottom of the food chain. Apart from the plants, no living creature can derive or make its own food, it is only the plants which are self sufficient and can manufacture their own food for survival (Anne, 2007).

Plants through the process called photosynthesis take in water, carbon dioxide and light to produce sugar which is in form of glucose and release a lot of oxygen into the air. Photosynthesis takes place in the…… [Read More]

References

Anne StClair, 2007. Helium. The importance of plant life in the global food chain. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.helium.com/items/255011-the-importance-of-plant-life-in-the-global-food-chain

Ecochem, 1998. Phosynthesis, Respiration and transpiration. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from  http://www.ecochem.com/resource_transpiration.html 

Global change, 2012. A Premier on Photosynthesis and the Functioning of cells. Retrieved April

9, 2012 from http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/energyflow/psn_primer.html
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Biofuels to Dissect Locust Guts

Words: 3671 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9348571



Importance of locust guts for this Study

Prediction of the increase in the worldwide energy consumption by 54% between 2001 and 2025 has led to the considerable interest in the production of bioenergy to meet the future needs. Energy derived from biofuels is converted from the metabolism of living organisms. Typically, biofuels has been identified by scientist and environmentalist as the most promising alternative to petroleum and fossil fuels. Biofuels are derived from biomass materials, which are already in solid fuel and later converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, which could be later, be stored for use. (Groom, Gray, Townsend, 2008).

Cellulose, Hemicelluloses and Lignin have been known to be abundant on earth and could be converted to biofuels. However, large-scale production of biofuels has not yet being implemented in many countries. One of the challenges facing the commercial production of biofuels is the costs associated in breaking down the…… [Read More]

References

Amani, E. & Chad.H.(2007). Ethanol Expansion in the Food vs. Fuel Debate: How Will Developing Countries Fare-Full Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 5 (2):1-21.

Atlas, R. (2010).Global prospects for the biofuels industry. Microbiology Australia.

Baffes, J & Haniotis, T.(2010). Placing the 2006/08 Commodity Price Boom into Perspective. Policy Research Working Paper 5371. The World Bank

Development Prospects Group.
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]

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Inquiry-Style Learning & Lesson Plan

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50118558

Grade Level: 3rd

Science

Lesson: The Cell (3 Day Lesson Series)

Background Concepts

The study of living things is known as Life Science. Since the basic unit of all living things is the cell, all things like plants human beings and animals have cells. As the basic unit of life, cells represent the foundational underlining that drives scientific research. In emphasizing their importance to the study of living things, cells abound the composition of life, and embody a key to new advancements in science. Elementary understanding and familiarity with this basic life unit gives school-aged students the exposure and fundamentals to help their learning of Life Science. Early introduction to understanding the function and parts of the cell helps students move toward more advance cellular topics and concepts in Life Science.

Goals & Learning Outcomes

The following statements encompass the learning outcomes for this lesson.

• Students will gain early…… [Read More]

References

West Virgina Department of Education. (2014, January 1). Inquiry-based lesson plans. Retrieved December 8, 2014, from http://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/Inquiry-BasedLessonPlans.html
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Histone H2AX in the Study

Words: 5478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64159440

These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSBs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).

Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.

Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.

Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.

Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.

Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
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Disffusion and Osmosis

Words: 1375 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14174240

Size and Temperature on Diffusion

In this experiment is expected that after 30 minutes, the diameter of the diffused dye ring will increase in size when placed at 37°C.

Time (minutes)

Distance (cm)

Janus Green at room temperature

Janus Green at 37°C

Potassium Permanganate at room temperature

Potassium Permanganate at 37°C

Measurement of diffusion of Janus Green and Potassium Permanganate at different temperatures.

Consistent with the expectations, potassium permanganate molecules spread further, 1.0 cm at room temperature and 1.1 at 37°C. This was longer compared to those of Janus Green that spread 0.3 cm at room temperature and 0.5cm at 37°C. It is evident that both molecules spread further at 37°C than at room temperature.

Effect of solute concentration on osmosis

Bag Contents (10ml)

Beaker Contents (200ml)

min

min

Total Mass Change

1

10% sucrose dH2O

+0.8

dH2O

10% sucrose

-0.7

3

10% sucrose

10% sucrose

10.2

10.3

+0.1

Figure…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Stoker, Stephen. General, Organic, And Biological Chemistry. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2010.
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Fate of Carbon in a

Words: 4902 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48440011



The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).

Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)

Area

NPP

Tot. NPP1

% of Total

% of Total

106 km2

gC m-2 y-1

X106mTC y-1

System

Global

Marine System:

Open Ocean

46

15,355…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.

Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.

Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.

Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
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Cellular Respiration

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16093328

Cellular Respiration

Give the overall general reaction for cellular respiration. State what eukaryotic cell organelle is involved.

Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In general, sugar is burned off, or oxidized, into CO2 and H2O. The overall formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP (heat). Mitochondria are the eukaryotic cell organelle involved in this process. It is considered the power center of the cell.

Define homoeothermic and endothermic.

Simply stated, homoeothermic refers to a warm-blooded animal. Homoeothermic animals are capable of regulating their own body temperatures internally and independent of their surroundings. Endotherms are similar in that they are also capable of maintaining a sufficient internal core body temperature, regardless of external conditions. Most (not all) homoeothermic animals are also endotherms and use metabolic heat production to keep warm.

What effect did lowering the…… [Read More]

Reference

"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
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Interconnectedness Between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38166727

Cellular Respiration and Function

Every living organism needs energy to survive since all cells require energy in order to perform the necessary biochemical reactions that sustain homeostasis within an organism. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis can be described as processes through which living organisms gain and utilize energy. However, photosynthesis is the process through which plant cell obtain and utilize energy from the sun and make it available to all living things. During this process, plants capture energy from the sun and transform it into chemical energy. Moreover, photosynthesis entails combining carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars like glucose through the use of energy from the sun (Editorial Board, 2012, p.51). In contrast, cellular respiration is the process through which cells are allowed to tap into the energy stored during photosynthesis. This process entails chemical reactions that break down glucose before converting it into a huge amount of ATP. The…… [Read More]

References

Editorial Board. (2012). Biology (1st ed.). Schaumburg, IL: Words of Wisdom, LLC.

"How are Respiration and Photosynthesis Related?" (n.d.). UCSB Science Line. Retrieved from UC Santa Barbara -- University of California website:  http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/index.html
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Should Parents Be Permitted to Choose the Gender of Their Child

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40826416

Genetic Engineering

What is Genetic Engineering? What is its purpose?

Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.

Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). When a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British

Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com.

Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.

Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au.
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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Words: 2537 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34104641

98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]

Bibliography

What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at'  http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html 

Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html

Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at: http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Elucidates on the Possibilities of

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37809455

Because of the wide variety of feedstocks ethanol offers great opportunity for economic growth and can help generate jobs outside traditional system.

There are many benefits of using ethanol as an alternative fuel. Most importantly the manageability of E85 is far easier than gasoline as it is less volatile. E85 fueling equipment is slightly different but costs almost the same as one used for storing and dispensing petroleum fuels. It is even possible to convert petroleum equipment into an E85. Moreover using E85 will reduce our overall use of petroleum consumption and replace it with a fuel produced or grown in the U.S. E85 also offers considerable environmental benefits. FFVs specifically designed for ethanol-based fuels are easily available, recommended and are affordable. Today E85 is sold at 60 stations in 16 states according to an Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet. (Robinson, 2004). Even though the overall mileage of E85 is…… [Read More]

Reference:

Alternative Fuels Data Center, 8 April 2005, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/whatis_eth.html

What is ethanol?, 8 April 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/whatis_eth.html

Jennifer Loven, May 17, 2005, Bush Promotes Ethanol As Alternative Fuel, Chicago Sun Times.

Stephen Thompson, Sept-Oct 2004, USDA study boosts fuel conversion efficiency rating for ethanol, Rural Cooperatives.
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Analyzing Generics Biologics and Biosimilars

Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87564564

Generics, Biologics, and Biosimilars

Properties of Generic Drugs, Biologics, and Biosimilars, with Examples and Usage

Generic drugs

Generic drugs denote pharmaceutical products that are typically meant to be substituted with some innovator product manufactured with no license from innovator, and sold in the markets after exclusive rights (such as patents) expire (WHO, 2016). Some of the properties of these drugs include;

Generic drugs are usually sold at prices considerably lower than branded price; and They are bioequivalent or identical to branded drugs in their strength, form, dosage, safety, quality, administration route, intended use, and performance characteristics.

Some generic medicine examples, together with their usage:

Paracetamol: this is the chemical constituent of numerous branded painkillers; it is, however, marketed as generic medicine, too, and utilized for pain alleviation.

Ibuprofen: his is employed for reducing fever and treating inflammation (swelling/irritation) or pain resulting from a number of conditions, including headache, back ache,…… [Read More]

References

Amgen. (2015). The Power of Biologics. Retrieved from Amgen Biosimilar Inc.: http://www.amgenbiosimilars.com/the-basics/the-power-of-biologics/

Bio.org. (2010, November 10). How do Drugs and Biologics Differ? Retrieved from Biotechnology Innovation Organization: http://www.bio.org/articles/how-do-drugs-and-biologics-differ

FDA. (2015, July 14). Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA): Generics. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/HowDrugsareDevelopedandApproved/ApprovalApplications/AbbreviatedNewDrugApplicationANDAGenerics/

FDA. (2015, August 28). Biosimilars. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/HowDrugsareDevelopedandApproved/ApprovalApplications/TherapeuticBiologicApplications/Biosimilars/
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Photosynthesis & Solar Photovoltaic Technology What Is

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47893104

Photosynthesis & Solar Photovoltaic Technology

What is photosynthesis and how does photosynthesis work? How is process of photosynthesis linked to photovoltaic technologies? How are they the same and how are they different? This paper will delve into those issues and provide answers to the questions.

Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants create their own food thanks to sunlight shining on them. Animals eat other organisms for their nutrient intake, but plants make their food thanks to the fact that they have chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the pigment that creates the green color in plants and it "…captures the Sun's energy and uses it to make sugars out of carbon dioxide from the air and water" (Ohio State University, 2008). The sugars are vital to the process because they provide fuel for the roots of the plant, the stems and leaves of the plant, and allow the plant to continue…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Green, Jenny. (2011). Photosynthesis or photovoltaics: Weighing the impact. ASU News

[Now]. Arizona State University. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from https://asunews.asu.edu/20110512_photosynthesis_photovolatics.

Luque, Antonio, and Hegedus, Steven. (2011). Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Mapel, J.K., and Baldo, M.A. (2007). "The Application of Photosynthetic Materials and Architectures to Solar Cells," in Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy
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Exchange of Genetic Material Between

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26300682

Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.

Conclusion

The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…… [Read More]

References

Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue

Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from www.sciencemag.com.

The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from http://www.otrr.org/FILES/Scripts_pdf
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Biology Lab

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37175489

Eukaryotic Cell

Try to identify the following structures in an amoeba (Fig. 4.2):

Nucleus: A single, membrane-bounded oval structure.

Food vacuoles: Membrane-bounded spheres that contain engulfed food. Are these present? Yes.

Contractile vacuoles: Transparent, membrane-bounded spheres used to expel excess water. Are these present? Yes.

Animal Cell Structure

Animal cells contain all the structures in Table 4.1 except they do not have a cell wall and do not have chloroplasts. Can animal cells make their own organic food? No. Why or Why not?

Plants have chloroplasts which allows them to convert solar energy to carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the organic food that plants then use for energy. Animals do not have chloroplasts and so are not capable of making their own organic food.

Observation: Elodea (Anacharis)

Can you locate the cell nucleus? Yes. It may be hidden by the chloroplasts, but when visible, it appears as a faint, gray lump…… [Read More]

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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]

References

Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…… [Read More]

References

FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm

Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/)

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
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Cyber Warfare

Words: 2636 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39907237

Cyber warfare continues to grow larger than imagination as the public becomes more aware of and involved in technology. This work in writing will identify a case study that presents a 'cell', 'klan', or 'state', which conducted or has the capacity to conduct cyber warfare. This work will describe the elements of: who, what, where, and why and means of conducting such cyber warfare and the organizational ideology behind the attack. Finally, this work will conclude with a review of how the attack could be prevented, either through training or certain tools.

There is a group that calls themselves 'Anonymous' which has exposed the weaknesses in American cybersecurity and while the group Anonymous is not staging or conducting cyberwarfare, they have revealed through their hacking of the Internet that hacking down the American infrastructure would not be as far-fetched as once was believed. Anonymous has managed to conduct hacking operations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Al Qaeda Video Calls for 'Electronic Jihad' on America (2012) The Threat Journal 23 May 2012. Retrieved from:  http://threatjournal.com/archive/tj05242012.html 

Paganini, Pierluigi (2012) Plan X: Developing U.S. Cyber Warfare Capabilities. Infosec Island. 4 Jun 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.infosecisland.com/blogview/21532-Plan-X-Developing-U.S.-Cyber-Warfare-Capabilities.html

Rollins, John and Wilson, Clay (2007) Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues. CRS Report for Congress. 22 Man 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL33123.pdf
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

Biology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Manufacturing World Class Manufacturing

Words: 15740 Length: 57 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64906972

Manufacturing

Seven Key Elements for Successful Implementation

Norman Binette, Jr.

Biddeford, Maine

Manufacturing organizations are built on the premise that they possess the ability to provide a wide variety of quality products for their customers. This reputation is dependent upon the constant review of existing processes and the identification of new and innovative methods of production that will enhance and increase the diversification of product lines. One such process that has proven itself as a valuable commodity in recent decades is World Class Manufacturing. This process involves a number of complex steps encompassing a variety of business units that are subject to continuous review and improvement. This process is designed to maximize employee productivity at all levels of the organization, from the assembly line to executive management. A successful World Class Manufacturing strategy will provide the organization with numerous opportunities for growth and will enable a successful transition to unique…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ahmad, S., and Schroeder, R. (2002). The importance of recruitment and selection process for sustainability of total quality management. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19(5), 540-550.

Benton, W.C., and Shin, H. (1998). Manufacturing planning and control: the evolution of MRP and JIT integration.

European Journal of Operational Research, 110, 411-

Damiani, A.S.M. Looking for the Gold: A TQM Success Story. POSPublications.
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Diversity and Organisms

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37020032

Diversity and Organisms

Phylogeny is the patterns of lineage branching, produced by the true evolutionary history of the organisms being considered (UCMP Web site). Speciation is the changes in related organisms to the point where they are different enough to be considered separate species. This occurs when populations of one species are separated and adapt to their new physiological, geographic, or behavioral environment (Evolution Library Web site).

Plants have a reproductive cycle, which has an "alternation" between a haploid (n=one copy of each chromosome) gametophyte generation and a diploid (2n=two copies of each chromosome) sporophyte generation. The haploid gametophyte produces haploid gametes, which fuse to form a diploid zygote. The zygote grows by mitosis into the diploid multicellular sporophyte, in which meiosis occurs in special regions creating haploid spores. The spores disperse, germinate into haploid gametophytes starting the cycle anew (Kennesaw Web site).

As plants have evolved, the sporophyte has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alternation of Generations." Kennesaw Web site. URL:

http://science.kennesaw.edu/biophys/biodiversity/plants/plaltgen2.htm

The Animal Kingdom." Chapters 20 & 21. The South Dakota State University Web site. URL: http://biomicro.sdstate.edu/Hutchesh/bio101/Text/Chapt20.htm

Determinate and Indeterminate cleavage." UTM Web site. URL:
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Grid-Connected Photovoltaic PV Systems Though

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59047870

Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).

PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BrighterEnergy.org. SunPower offers solar modules boasting 19% efficiency. 3 May 2010. Web. 20 October 2011.

Chen, Hong Wen. "Exposure and Health Risk of Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry Workers." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2007): 5-9.

Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). Home. n.d. Web. 20 October 2011.

Edelman, Philip. "Environmental and Workplace Contamination in the Semiconductor Industry: Implications for Future Health of the Workforce and Community." Environmental Health Perspectives 86 (1990): 291-295.
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Photosynthesis Is Critical for the Survival of

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49355656

Photosynthesis is critical for the survival of all life on earth. The process of photosynthesis within plants consists of two processes, one which begins with energy from the sun in the form of visible light, and another which is light-independent and capture carbon dioxide for glucose production (Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008).

Plants are green because they absorb the red and blue wavelengths of visible light, thereby reflecting the color green (University of Idaho, 2008). In the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation occurs when light pigments are absorbed by plant chloroplasts and converted into ATP and NADPH in the thylakoid membranes (University of Idaho, 2008; Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008). The light-independent phase, also known as the carbon fixation reactions, uses the ADP and NADPH to produce glucose from fixed and reduced carbon dioxide and the enzyme RuBisCo (University of Idaho, 2008; Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008). Water is…… [Read More]

References

Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., & Byers, B. (2008). Biology: Life on earth with physiology 8E. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.

Cohn, D. (2008). Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration; Powerpoint presentation. St. Louis, MO, USA.

Gregory, M. (2010). Cellular Respiration. Retrieved 02-20, 2011, from SUNY biology: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/cellular%20respiration/cellular.htm

IUPUI Dept of Biology. (2004, 02-16). Cellular Respiration. Retrieved 02-20, 2011, from biology.iupui.edu: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/n100/2k4ch7respirationnotes.html
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Biology Qs Microbes Exist All

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89102749

Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).

10)

There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]

Reference

CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
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Ionomics Genome Essentially the Genetic Hereditary

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140793

Open-air and microwaves digestion can both be used, with overall efficiencies favoring open-air methods especially when large magnitudes of samples are being used. This method also requires less handling of samples, leading to a lessened risk of contamination. The method recommended for the analysis of the diluted sample is the recently developed robust inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or ICP-MS, which can sensitively and simultaneously analyze the sample for multiple elements and deliver accurate readings of their presence. This technique also allows for the survival of small plants, requiring very small sample sizes to remain effective, which is a definite benefit of this method over others as it ensures that ionomic mutations that are found can survive and be bred for further study -- often an issue of importance with ionomics.

3)

one major application of the study of ionomics is simply a better understanding of the way organic tissues…… [Read More]

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Solar Energy as Typical Hydrocarbon

Words: 3689 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81011226

Around 21 billion of co2 is launched into the environment annually which is too much for the environment of Earth to neutralise or utilise normally. The manufacturing of co2 from burning non-renewable fuel sources is among the most considerably important contributing greenhouse gases. The boost of greenhouse gases in the environment is developing a substantial increase in worldwide temperature level which is a direct link in between non-renewable fuel sources and superior Global Warming. Global Warming has a considerable effect on biodiversity. As the environment warms due to superior Global Warming, the place of the weather envelopes will move substantially which could potentially lead to termination of types. Types should relocate with the altering environment by migrating to cooler environments. An instance of this is a type of Alpacas located on a lesser component of mountain and migrates further up the mountain due to increasing temperature levels. The environment greater…… [Read More]

References

Alan Davison. (2012). Alternative Energy. Retrieved from Alternative Energy Solutions for the 21st Century:  http://www.altenergy.org/ 

Bradford, T. (2006). Solar Revolution, the MIT Press, Massachusetts.

Cass, S. (2009). Solar power will make a difference-eventually. London: Oxford, 2009. Print

Crabtree, G, & Lewis, N. (2008). Solar Energy conversion. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1044(1), 309-321.Retrieved September 14th, 2012-2009, from EBSCO (10.1063/1.293729)
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Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28253040

Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study

behavior and mental processes.

behavioral disorders.

unconscious mental processes.

the meaning of dreams.

Cognitive psychology can best be described as

the study of higher mental processes.

the therapeutic applications of critical thinking.

the area of psychology which attempts to reduce judgmental thinking.

a subspecialty of psychology based exclusively on observation rather than experimentation.

Who was a leading proponent of behaviorism in the United States until his/her death in 1990?

Carl Rogers

Skinner

Ivan Pavlov

Albert Bandura

Charles Darwin argued that ____ determines physical traits of survival.

A. cognition

B. genetics

C. environment

D. nurture

5. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?

A. psychodynamic

B. humanistic

C. cognitive

D. sociocultural

6. Which of the following best describes a correlational study?

A. research that studies the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables

B. research that explains the effects of one variable on…… [Read More]

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Tissue Engineering Is an Interdisciplinary

Words: 1965 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76412480

(World Bank, 2007) Modern approaches to plant cloning or tissue culture techniques have been utilized by various nurseries in Thailand and the U.S. To bring rare and new species of plants in the commercial market, sometimes even before the botanists can manage to give the species a name. (Ogden, 2007)

Tissue engineered products have a bright marketing potential since they provide better alternatives to other forms of treatments. Cartilage and skin products have already been clinically approved and are available commercially. The Department of Health and Human Services in the U.S. has estimated that the future worldwide market for products of tissue engineering will be around $500 billion by 2010. A report published by the National Security Research Division of RAND corporation in 2006 has emphasized that tissue engineering will have a positive effect on more than one-third of the issues concerning a country's development including social structure, individual health,…… [Read More]

References

Atala, Anthony. (2007) "Principles of Regenerative Medicine"

Academic Press.

Bullis, Kevin. (2008, Jan/Feb) "Tiny Living Machines" Technology Review, Retrieved 1 May, 2008 at http://www.technologyreview.com/Nanotech/19874/

Friedman, Yali. (2007) "The Business of Biotechnology: Profit from the Expanding Influence of..." Logos Press.
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Alternative Sources of Energy Petroleum Commonly Referred

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49921076

Alternative Sources of Energy

Petroleum, commonly referred to as oil, is the main source of energy for the entire planet, but as it is a finite resource, there exists only so much of it. As a result of its becoming scarce, oil has become a precious commodity that is the source of much competition among nations. In the 21st century the world is frantically searching for alternative sources of energy other than oil and can perhaps turn to either biomass or magnesium as a possible substitute. Biomass is one of the oldest forms of energy and has been used ever since the invention of fire, while the energy potential of magnesium has only recently been discovered. But with some ingenuity and new technologies both of these forms of energy may be a successful alternative to petroleum.

Biomass as a fuel source can be utilized from the combustion of organic material…… [Read More]

References

"Biomass Energy." Alternative Energy. Retrieved from  http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/biomass.html 

"How Biomass Energy Works." Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/how-biomass-energy-works.html

Messina, John. (23 April 2010). "Magnesium: Alternative Power Source." Phys.Org.

Retrieved from http://phys.org/news191259549.html
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Living Organisms Are All Around

Words: 990 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5362034

The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)

Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). Without…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Biology-Online. (2005, May 15) "Chemical composition of the body." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www.biology-online.org/9/1_chemical_composition.htm.

Farabee, M.J. (2010a, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Introduction: The nature of science and biology." Retrieved December 1, 2011 from www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintro.html .

(2010b, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Chemistry II: Water and organic materials." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookchem2.html .

Whitmarsh, John and Govindjee. (1995) "Photosynthesis." Encyclopedia of Applied Physics.(Vol. 13): 513-532. VCH Publishers, Inc.
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Solar Energy the Threats Posed

Words: 2976 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14876734

At the present energy set-up nuclear energy provides around 20% of world's electricity. This energy is produced naturally -- by the sun and other stars making heat and light- and artificially-electricity from nuclear power plants. The nuclear power plants produce more energy using less fuel compared to the fossil fuels and hence it is seen as an environmentally friendly energy source (Ansolabehere, et al., 2003). However, the true scope of the consequences of developing nuclear energy has been realized through rather very unfortunate lessons. When names like Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Hiroshima and Fukushima are mentioned the only thought that runs the minds of many must be disaster. Nuclear plants pose a great danger to the surrounding community in case of any accident. Although, the chances of an accident ever happening are very minimal this has not counteracted the fear people have towards nuclear energy producing plants.

The Fukushima explosion…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansolabehere, S., Deutch, J., Driscoll, M.M., Gray, P.E., Holdren, J.P., Joskow, P.L., et al. (2003). The Future of Nuclear Powe,. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts.

Bradford, T. (2006). Solar Revolution, the MIT Press, Massachusetts.

Reyes, V. d. (2007). Bio-fuel,. De La Salle University, Dasmarinas.

Scheer, H. ((1995)). Solar energy's economic and social benefits. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 555-568.
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Biological Psychology

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81446152

Biological Psychology

Grade Course

Moss sex driven by scent by Gisela Telis (2012).

Mating is a natural process observed in every living thing in its own unique way. While worms can reproduce in the opposite head position, the sexual intercourse between humans is completely a different phenomenon. A similar yet different reproduction method is used by the Mosses. The article written by Gisela Telis (2012) demonstrates the recent findings on the innovative mating procedure of the Mosses. The article also compares the recent findings with the earlier studies done in previous years and is related to the field of biological psychology as it focuses upon plant evolution and the idea of pheromones.

Telis (2012) has found out that Mosses require help from tiny little creatures to play an important role in their mating procedure. Earlier it was observed and widely believed that Mosses reproduce by wind and water. In essence,…… [Read More]

References

Telis, G. (2004, July 18). Moss sex driven by scent. Science AAAS. Retrieved 21st July, 2012 from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/07/moss-sex-driven-by-scent.html?ref=hp

Williams R. (2012). Mairjuana reveals memory mechanism. Scientific American Mind, No. 45.
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Red Tides on the Gulf

Words: 3219 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19411407

brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aguirre, A. Alonso, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House and Mary C. Pearl.

Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University

Press, 2002.

Backer, Lorraine C., Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Yung Sung Cheng, Richard Pierce,
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Access and Quality Which Nuclear

Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28492692



2) Encyclopedia.com (http://encyclopedia.com)

1. Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

2. ADULT T-Cell Leukemia

3) Worldbook online

Available through Missoula Public library (if you have a library card)

or WorldBook (print edition, at your local library)

4) One other encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ATL&printable=yes

Computer science and logic

Active Template Library, from Microsoft

ATLAS Transformation Language, a QVT model transformation language for Model Driven Engineering

Alternating-time Temporal Logic, a branching-time temporal logic that naturally describes computations of multi-agent system and multiplayer games

Geography

Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA airport code: ATL)

Attleborough railway station, its National Rail code

Media

ATL (film), a 2006 film set in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Above the line (advertising), an advertising strategy

Across the Line (BBC Radio Ulster), a BBC Northern Ireland music brand

ATL (band), an R&B boy band

Above the Law (group), a Los Angeles-based rap group

All Time Low, a pop-punk band…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aztec Weapons. (2010). Aztec Warfare and Weapons. Retrieved July 1, 2010

from: http://www.aztec-indians.com/aztec-weapons.html.

Hrdlicka, D. (2004). "HOW Hard Does it Hit? A Study of Atlatl and Dart

Ballistics." Retrieved July 1, 2010 from the Jeffers Petroglyphs Historic Site at:http://www.thudscave.com/npaa/articles/howhard.htm
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Biology Qs the Primary Source

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82910581

Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).

6)

Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.

7)

The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]

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Solar Thermal Systems According to

Words: 4790 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66321068

In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.

In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & Roecker, 2011, pg 109-124).

Hot water consumption

Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.

The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…… [Read More]

References

Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.

Council, E.R. (2004). Renewable Energy in Europe: Building Markets and Capacity. London: James & James.

DeWinter, F. (1990). Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press.

Herring, H., Hardcastle, R., Phillipson, R., & Energy, G.B. (1988). Energy use and energy efficiency in UK commercial and public buildings up to the year 2000. London: HMSO.
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Blueberries a Brief Synopsis of the Australian

Words: 3074 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2181648

Blueberries

A BRIEF synopsis of the Australian Blueberry Industry

Introductory Production Information

Australian and World production

Average Yields

Plant Description

Botanical Classification

Important varieties

Morphological features

Seasonal growth cycle

Native to North America, the blueberry, is also known as bilberries, whortleberries and hurtle berries, (Filippone 2006). The blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae, or Heather family and its growth was regulated by the indigenous peoples of North America (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). Blueberries are of the genus Vaccinium, which originates from the Latin word vacca, which means cow. Captain James Cook, circa late 1700s, noted in his records that cows really liked to eat this tasty berry (Filippone 2006). The first European settlers recognized these berries to be analogous to kinds of berries found in their land of birth. For example, there's the blaeberry which is found in Scotland, whortleberries in Ireland, bilberries in Denmark, blabar in Sweden,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2005. 'Crop Profile for Wild Blueberry in Canada'. Prepared by: Pesticide Risk Reduction Program

Asoex, 2007. Fruit Export Statistics. Chilean Federal Association of Exporting.

AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS (ABS) 2008. Agricultural Commodities: Small Area Data, Australia, 2005-06 (Reissue), ABS No 7125.0.

Australian Blueberry Growers Association (ABGA). 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.australianblueberries.com.au/the_blueberry_story.php
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Biology Laboratory Report

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10813950

Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including the Monera, the Protista (Protoctista), the Fungi, the Plantae, and the Animalia. Each kingdom is further subdivided into separate phyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into phyla, while "plants" are subdivided into divisions.

Kingdom of Protista

Brown Alga

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Protista

Division

Heterokontophyta

Phaeophyceae

Orders

Dictyotales

Desmerestiales

Fucales

Laminariales (kelps) etc.

The Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Their distinctive greenish-brown color comes from the pigment fucoxanthin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies show their closest relatives are the yellow-green algae.

Red Alga

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Protista

Phylum

Rhodophyta

Classes

Florideophyceae

Bangiophyceae

Cyanidiophyceae

The red algae (Rhodophyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…… [Read More]

http://huskertsd.tripod.com/species_photos/grasshopper_sparrow_2.htm

http://community.webshots.com/photo/81120704/81121273fZHefA

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen
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Kidneys and How They Function

Words: 2771 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33287328

However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."

In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients

With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu.

Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease

Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu.
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Fruit Ripening Fruit Is an Integral Part

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93673749

Fruit Ripening

Fruit is an integral part of certain types of plants' ability to reproduce by providing a means to disperse it's seeds. The process of seed dispersal involves the activity of animals; which digest the fruit and disperse the seeds in its feces. But the fruit must appear and taste agreeable to the various animals which the plant depends upon to eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. In order to accomplish this, the fruit undergoes a physiological change which allows the fruit to become softer and more edible, while simultaneously changing colors. "The cause of fruit ripening is a natural form of a chemical synthesized to make PCV (polyvinyl chloride) piping and plastic bags - namely, a gaseous hormone called ethylene." (Kendrick, 2009) It is the production of ethylene that will activate certain genes inside the fruit that will begin the ripening process.

Once the production of ethylene…… [Read More]

References

Koning, R.E. "Home Page for Ross Koning." Plant Physiology Information

Website. 1994. Web. 19 May 2012.

 http://plantphys.info/plants_human/fruitgrowripe.shtml 

Kendrick, Mandy. "The Origins of Fruit Ripening." Scientific America.
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Society's Continuing Concern About Gas

Words: 2548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98688702

As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.

IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints

As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.

Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.

Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.

Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.