Plant Cell and describes the structure & function of each part
Parts of a Plant Cell:
Protoplast': is bounded by a Cell Membrane and contains Cytoplasm, which consists of:
Organelles (consists of Plastids, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum)
Structure and Functions of Each Part
Cell Wall: The Cell Wall is composed mainly of Cellulose whose molecules are joined together in fibrils as layers and contains openings to make it permeable. Most Cell Walls also contain lignins, which add rigidity, and waxes, such as cutin and suberin, which reduce water loss from cells. Its main function is to protect the cellular contents, and provide structural support to the plant. It is also involved in transport, absorption, and secretion during a plant's life cycle.
Vacuole: Vacuoles are cavities filled with cell sap and bounded by a membrane. The cell sap is made up of water containing…… [Read More]
Plant Cell and Solar Cell: Similarities and Differences
Photosynthesis is that process by which plants harness the solar energy for producing food. These cells help the plants to trap energy from the daylight. This trapped light is converted into other constituents that are then used by the plant to manufacture food. The additional components such as oxygen are released to the atmosphere. After these processes, the light energy is converted to chemical energy. The modern science has been able to develop technologies containing semiconductors that have solar cells. The solar energy is trapped and is converted to electricity by these solar cells (Haile & O'Connell, 2005).
The semiconductors and photosynthesis have some similarities and dissimilarities. As far as the similarities are concerned, their aim is to harness the solar energy. While plants use photosynthesis to lock in energy from the sun for manufacturing food, semiconductors trap solar energy…… [Read More]
he RHDl gene product appears to be necessary for proper initiation of root hairs, whereas the RHDS, RHD3, and RHD4 gene products are required for normal hair elongation. hese results demonstrate that root hair development in Arabidopsis is amenable to genetic dissection and should prove to be a useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms governing cell differentiation in plants.(Schiefelbein & Somerville, 1990, p.235)
he genetic analysis of root hair development has identified several genes that are required for the initiation and growth of the root hair. RHL1, RHL2, and RHL3 genes are active during the formation of a bulge early in root hair growth. RHL1 encodes a nuclear protein of unknown function that is required for the formation of the polarized outgrowth. RHD6 activity is necessary to localize the site of hair initiation in the trichoblast. RHD6 acts through an auxin/ethylene pathway, as the rhd6 mutant phenotype can…… [Read More]
Meiosis, Transpiration, Monocots, Dicots, Plant Cell, Angiosperms, Fungi, Algae
The Events of Meiosis and the Importance of Prophase 1
Generally, meiosis has two divisions of events. Each constitutes 4 phases of same names but of different division number. They are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. From Meiosis of Access Excellence, the events in meiosis can be summarized as the following.
Prophase 1 - chromosomes duplicate into a pair of chromatid. Later, exchanging of fragments or crossing-over may occur.
Metaphase 1 - aligning of chromosome pairs at the center of the cell.
Anaphase 1 - separation of homologous pairs to opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase 1 - homologous pairs separate and forms two daughter cells
Prophase 2 - no replication of DNA
Metaphase 2 - aligning of chromosomes at the center of each cell
Anaphase 2 - the chromatids separate moving to opposite cell direction
Telophase 2-4 cells are formed…… [Read More]
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…… [Read More]
Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:
There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.
Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:
The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]
On average, male skeletons are larger than female skeletons, but just as some women are larger than some males, this distinction does not hold firm in all instances. Female pelvic regions tend to be wider than male pelvic regions, an evolutionary feature that has made childbirth easier. Female bones tend to be thinner and less dense than male bones, and thus the female skeleton tends to be lighter than male skeletons.
The skull is one of the most notable sites of difference between male and female skeletons. The teeth of males tend to be larger, and above their eye sockets men tend to have a more visible brow ridge while women often have none. The male skull tends to have a squarer (as opposed to a pointed) chin and is more angular in its demarcations than the female skull. Women's nose openings are more apt to be pointed, rather than…… [Read More]
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression
of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf
ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…… [Read More]
What type of layout would you use for the assembly of a television set? What are the reasons for this choice?
A product layout would be best suited for the assembly of a television set. Televisions sets, in general, are commodity products with very little differentiation between product classes. In many instances a Sony 32-inch high definition television will have many of the same components as the Sony 40-inch high definition television set. Conversely, auto manufacturers often use the same parts on similar vehicle types.
In regards to a television set, companies often mass produce these items to achieve economies of scale. Manufactures, such as those that create televisions, often have very high fixed costs associated with property, plant, and equipment. As such, the more television that are produced the cheaper on a per unit basis each television is. The manufacturer therefore has incentive to product a wide…… [Read More]
Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.
What do cells do? That…… [Read More]
Fuel Cells in Green Engineering
The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.
The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…… [Read More]
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…… [Read More]
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]
Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan
isconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul illiams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. isconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family…… [Read More]
The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.
Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.
Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the P benefits that accrue…… [Read More]
Other performance plastic intermediates and products manufactured by Dow include bisphenol a, polyurethane and epichlorohydrin amongst others.
The water solutions business unit of Dow Chemical Company manufactures Film Tec reverse osmosis membranes. These membranes are largely used for water purification for human use and include Dowlex ion exchange resins and Carbowax polyethylene glycols. The agricultural segment of Dow Chemical Company, Dow Agro Sciences, produces various agricultural chemicals and consumer products. This segment is not only responsible for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, but it also sells different agricultural seeds commercially. On the other hand, consumer products include various chemicals like detergents, soaps and cosmetics.
Despite the fact that Dow Chemical Company is the world's second largest chemical manufacturing firm, the company is also infamous for production of chemicals that are harmful to human beings. Throughout its history, Dow Chemical Company has from time to time come under serious criticism…… [Read More]
Cell division in plants is a process that is currently under intense study by biologists. One team of researchers in Australia has recently published a paper describing their research into the role that microtubules play in cell division and morphogenesis. While these structures have been identified to be involved in cell division and growth, how they form, disassemble, and reappear is not fully understood. The Australian team's research consisted of their testing the hypothesis that a gene in the plant A. thaliana, called mor 1, plays a role in the development of microtubules.
In order to test this hypothesis, the team determined that the mor1 locus in a mutant A. thaliana caused temperature sensitive mutations in the development of microtubules when the temperature was increased from 21?C to 29?C. They used immunofluorescence microscopy, a technique that stains cell structures with a fluorescent dye, to visualize the actual…… [Read More]
Fuel Cell Technology
There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")
As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.
I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. hat was once a dream is now a reality.
I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…… [Read More]
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]
evolution of plant viruses. All five peer-reviewed articles are related because they all delve into the evolution of plant viruses.
Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plan viruses, Gutierrez, et al., 2013. Plants use insects as the vectors for the spread of viruses. Insects historically go from one plant (host) to another; but recent evidence shows that viruses in plants, as they evolve, can actually have an influence "vector physiology and behavior" (Gutierrez, 2013). There is the possibility that insect "stresses" -- while feeding on plants -- may cause "major switches" in the way viruses evolve in plants (Gutierrez, 610).
The researchers found that "numerous plant viruses" can be and are transmitted by not just one insect, but by several insects. For example one species of aphids probes into a plant and another aphid species also makes "test probes"; this creates a…… [Read More]
Although amaat Ul-Fuqra is based out of Pakistan, it operates primarily in the United States, Canada, and the Carribean. Its operations are scattered throughout the United States in rural communes supposedly meant to provide Muslims with a living environment free from destructive secular influences.
Some of these communes are believed to provide paramilitary or terrorist training to its members.
amaat Ul-Fuqra members have planned various small-scale acts of religion-directed violence, mainly against Hindu and ewish interests. Their most well-known, definitely proven attack was the bombing of the Hotel Rajneesh in Portland, OR in 1983. However, they have also attacked other Muslim organizations, such as the Ahmadiyya, whose leader Mozaffar Ahmad was allegedly killed by amaat Ul-Fuqra operatives in 1983.
Most importantly, the organization is suspected to be collaborating with or to be under the influence of Al-Qaeda as a sleeper cell or as a training program for Al-Qaeda sleepers.
Stopping…… [Read More]
evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian?
Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of taking in more air and converting it into energy. As eukaryotic cells evolved, they became more capable of respiration which added to the complexity of the evolutions of creatures.
Scientists believe that if there are no controls on the emission of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, the concentration of this gas could double by the end of the current century, leading to a significant rise in the average temperature of the Earth. What would be some of the likely evolutionary…… [Read More]
Chromatin Lab Report
The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.
DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added…… [Read More]
The size of the petiole can be increased or decreased through use of gamma radiation.
XI. The Effect of Mutation reeding on Shoots and Stem
The initiation of shoots is controlled by the large number of genes in higher plants. This is clearly demonstrated in the alternations in shoots resulting following treatment with a mutagen. The increase in the number of shoots has many benefits which includes the increase in the number of branches which can ultimately result in the increase of yield according to Savov (1983). Furthermore, the proportion of shoots to the length of internodes is an essential factor of plants and in Malus pumila treated with gamma radiation demonstrated is an improvement in shoots and internodes ration. Therefore, the growth of the plant resulted through an increase in the number of branches. (Paprstein, 1988)
XII. The Effect of Mutation reeding on Plant Height
A change in the…… [Read More]
PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley
PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley
The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 188.8.131.52) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.
As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…… [Read More]
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]
Grade Level: 3rd
Lesson: The Cell (3 Day Lesson Series)
The study of living things is known as Life Science. Since the basic unit of all living things is the cell, all things like plants human beings and animals have cells. As the basic unit of life, cells represent the foundational underlining that drives scientific research. In emphasizing their importance to the study of living things, cells abound the composition of life, and embody a key to new advancements in science. Elementary understanding and familiarity with this basic life unit gives school-aged students the exposure and fundamentals to help their learning of Life Science. Early introduction to understanding the function and parts of the cell helps students move toward more advance cellular topics and concepts in Life Science.
Goals & Learning Outcomes
The following statements encompass the learning outcomes for this lesson.
• Students will gain early…… [Read More]
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]
Size and Temperature on Diffusion
In this experiment is expected that after 30 minutes, the diameter of the diffused dye ring will increase in size when placed at 37°C.
Janus Green at room temperature
Janus Green at 37°C
Potassium Permanganate at room temperature
Potassium Permanganate at 37°C
Measurement of diffusion of Janus Green and Potassium Permanganate at different temperatures.
Consistent with the expectations, potassium permanganate molecules spread further, 1.0 cm at room temperature and 1.1 at 37°C. This was longer compared to those of Janus Green that spread 0.3 cm at room temperature and 0.5cm at 37°C. It is evident that both molecules spread further at 37°C than at room temperature.
Effect of solute concentration on osmosis
Bag Contents (10ml)
Beaker Contents (200ml)
Total Mass Change
10% sucrose dH2O
Figure…… [Read More]
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
15,355…… [Read More]
Give the overall general reaction for cellular respiration. State what eukaryotic cell organelle is involved.
Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In general, sugar is burned off, or oxidized, into CO2 and H2O. The overall formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP (heat). Mitochondria are the eukaryotic cell organelle involved in this process. It is considered the power center of the cell.
Define homoeothermic and endothermic.
Simply stated, homoeothermic refers to a warm-blooded animal. Homoeothermic animals are capable of regulating their own body temperatures internally and independent of their surroundings. Endotherms are similar in that they are also capable of maintaining a sufficient internal core body temperature, regardless of external conditions. Most (not all) homoeothermic animals are also endotherms and use metabolic heat production to keep warm.
What effect did lowering the…… [Read More]
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…… [Read More]
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]
Because of the wide variety of feedstocks ethanol offers great opportunity for economic growth and can help generate jobs outside traditional system.
There are many benefits of using ethanol as an alternative fuel. Most importantly the manageability of E85 is far easier than gasoline as it is less volatile. E85 fueling equipment is slightly different but costs almost the same as one used for storing and dispensing petroleum fuels. It is even possible to convert petroleum equipment into an E85. Moreover using E85 will reduce our overall use of petroleum consumption and replace it with a fuel produced or grown in the U.S. E85 also offers considerable environmental benefits. FFVs specifically designed for ethanol-based fuels are easily available, recommended and are affordable. Today E85 is sold at 60 stations in 16 states according to an Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet. (obinson, 2004). Even though the overall mileage of E85 is…… [Read More]
Generics, Biologics, and Biosimilars
Properties of Generic Drugs, Biologics, and Biosimilars, with Examples and Usage
Generic drugs denote pharmaceutical products that are typically meant to be substituted with some innovator product manufactured with no license from innovator, and sold in the markets after exclusive rights (such as patents) expire (WHO, 2016). Some of the properties of these drugs include;
Generic drugs are usually sold at prices considerably lower than branded price; and They are bioequivalent or identical to branded drugs in their strength, form, dosage, safety, quality, administration route, intended use, and performance characteristics.
Some generic medicine examples, together with their usage:
Paracetamol: this is the chemical constituent of numerous branded painkillers; it is, however, marketed as generic medicine, too, and utilized for pain alleviation.
Ibuprofen: his is employed for reducing fever and treating inflammation (swelling/irritation) or pain resulting from a number of conditions, including headache, back ache,…… [Read More]
Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.
The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…… [Read More]
Try to identify the following structures in an amoeba (Fig. 4.2):
Nucleus: A single, membrane-bounded oval structure.
Food vacuoles: Membrane-bounded spheres that contain engulfed food. Are these present? Yes.
Contractile vacuoles: Transparent, membrane-bounded spheres used to expel excess water. Are these present? Yes.
Animal Cell Structure
Animal cells contain all the structures in Table 4.1 except they do not have a cell wall and do not have chloroplasts. Can animal cells make their own organic food? No. Why or Why not?
Plants have chloroplasts which allows them to convert solar energy to carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the organic food that plants then use for energy. Animals do not have chloroplasts and so are not capable of making their own organic food.
Observation: Elodea (Anacharis)
Can you locate the cell nucleus? Yes. It may be hidden by the chloroplasts, but when visible, it appears as a faint, gray lump…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).
In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.
(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff
Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…… [Read More]
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…… [Read More]
Cyber warfare continues to grow larger than imagination as the public becomes more aware of and involved in technology. This work in writing will identify a case study that presents a 'cell', 'klan', or 'state', which conducted or has the capacity to conduct cyber warfare. This work will describe the elements of: who, what, where, and why and means of conducting such cyber warfare and the organizational ideology behind the attack. Finally, this work will conclude with a review of how the attack could be prevented, either through training or certain tools.
There is a group that calls themselves 'Anonymous' which has exposed the weaknesses in American cybersecurity and while the group Anonymous is not staging or conducting cyberwarfare, they have revealed through their hacking of the Internet that hacking down the American infrastructure would not be as far-fetched as once was believed. Anonymous has managed to conduct hacking operations…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Seven Key Elements for Successful Implementation
Norman inette, Jr.
Manufacturing organizations are built on the premise that they possess the ability to provide a wide variety of quality products for their customers. This reputation is dependent upon the constant review of existing processes and the identification of new and innovative methods of production that will enhance and increase the diversification of product lines. One such process that has proven itself as a valuable commodity in recent decades is World Class Manufacturing. This process involves a number of complex steps encompassing a variety of business units that are subject to continuous review and improvement. This process is designed to maximize employee productivity at all levels of the organization, from the assembly line to executive management. A successful World Class Manufacturing strategy will provide the organization with numerous opportunities for growth and will enable a successful transition to unique…… [Read More]
Diversity and Organisms
Phylogeny is the patterns of lineage branching, produced by the true evolutionary history of the organisms being considered (UCMP Web site). Speciation is the changes in related organisms to the point where they are different enough to be considered separate species. This occurs when populations of one species are separated and adapt to their new physiological, geographic, or behavioral environment (Evolution Library Web site).
Plants have a reproductive cycle, which has an "alternation" between a haploid (n=one copy of each chromosome) gametophyte generation and a diploid (2n=two copies of each chromosome) sporophyte generation. The haploid gametophyte produces haploid gametes, which fuse to form a diploid zygote. The zygote grows by mitosis into the diploid multicellular sporophyte, in which meiosis occurs in special regions creating haploid spores. The spores disperse, germinate into haploid gametophytes starting the cycle anew (Kennesaw Web site).
As plants have evolved, the sporophyte has…… [Read More]
Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).
PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…… [Read More]
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]
Open-air and microwaves digestion can both be used, with overall efficiencies favoring open-air methods especially when large magnitudes of samples are being used. This method also requires less handling of samples, leading to a lessened risk of contamination. The method recommended for the analysis of the diluted sample is the recently developed robust inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or ICP-MS, which can sensitively and simultaneously analyze the sample for multiple elements and deliver accurate readings of their presence. This technique also allows for the survival of small plants, requiring very small sample sizes to remain effective, which is a definite benefit of this method over others as it ensures that ionomic mutations that are found can survive and be bred for further study -- often an issue of importance with ionomics.
one major application of the study of ionomics is simply a better understanding of the way organic tissues…… [Read More]
The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)
Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…… [Read More]
Moss sex driven by scent by Gisela Telis (2012).
Mating is a natural process observed in every living thing in its own unique way. While worms can reproduce in the opposite head position, the sexual intercourse between humans is completely a different phenomenon. A similar yet different reproduction method is used by the Mosses. The article written by Gisela Telis (2012) demonstrates the recent findings on the innovative mating procedure of the Mosses. The article also compares the recent findings with the earlier studies done in previous years and is related to the field of biological psychology as it focuses upon plant evolution and the idea of pheromones.
Telis (2012) has found out that Mosses require help from tiny little creatures to play an important role in their mating procedure. Earlier it was observed and widely believed that Mosses reproduce by wind and water. In essence,…… [Read More]
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…… [Read More]
2) Encyclopedia.com (http://encyclopedia.com)
1. Anterior Temporal Lobectomy
2. ADULT T-Cell Leukemia
3) Worldbook online
Available through Missoula Public library (if you have a library card)
or Worldook (print edition, at your local library)
4) One other encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ATL&printable=yes
Computer science and logic
Active Template Library, from Microsoft
ATLAS Transformation Language, a QVT model transformation language for Model Driven Engineering
Alternating-time Temporal Logic, a branching-time temporal logic that naturally describes computations of multi-agent system and multiplayer games
Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA airport code: ATL)
Attleborough railway station, its National Rail code
ATL (film), a 2006 film set in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Above the line (advertising), an advertising strategy
Across the Line (C Radio Ulster), a C Northern Ireland music brand
ATL (band), an R& boy band
Above the Law (group), a Los Angeles-based rap group
All Time Low, a pop-punk band…… [Read More]
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).
Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.
The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…… [Read More]
A BIEF synopsis of the Australian Blueberry Industry
Introductory Production Information
Australian and World production
Seasonal growth cycle
Native to North America, the blueberry, is also known as bilberries, whortleberries and hurtle berries, (Filippone 2006). The blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae, or Heather family and its growth was regulated by the indigenous peoples of North America (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). Blueberries are of the genus Vaccinium, which originates from the Latin word vacca, which means cow. Captain James Cook, circa late 1700s, noted in his records that cows really liked to eat this tasty berry (Filippone 2006). The first European settlers recognized these berries to be analogous to kinds of berries found in their land of birth. For example, there's the blaeberry which is found in Scotland, whortleberries in Ireland, bilberries in Denmark, blabar in Sweden,…… [Read More]
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.
Kingdom of Protista
Laminariales (kelps) etc.
Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.
Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…… [Read More]
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…… [Read More]
Fruit is an integral part of certain types of plants' ability to reproduce by providing a means to disperse it's seeds. The process of seed dispersal involves the activity of animals; which digest the fruit and disperse the seeds in its feces. But the fruit must appear and taste agreeable to the various animals which the plant depends upon to eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. In order to accomplish this, the fruit undergoes a physiological change which allows the fruit to become softer and more edible, while simultaneously changing colors. "The cause of fruit ripening is a natural form of a chemical synthesized to make PCV (polyvinyl chloride) piping and plastic bags - namely, a gaseous hormone called ethylene." (Kendrick, 2009) It is the production of ethylene that will activate certain genes inside the fruit that will begin the ripening process.
Once the production of ethylene…… [Read More]
As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.
IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints
As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…… [Read More]