This then helps the teacher to appropriately adjust their approach and teaching skills to address the particular weak points that the students or particular student might have.
There is need to incorporate computers in class as well particularly in some particular topics in teaching second language. This applies especially when it comes to the use of language in creating formal documents or such like formal types of writing which can best the imbibed by the students.
With the availability of the computers, there will need also to have language systems used to help the students especially in the independent learning process. This will help the students grow some level of independence and self-reliance in learning more details of language as they can easily look up the meaning and use of words and phrases even in the absence of the teacher.
LCD projector is yet another technology that can be used in a class setting to aid in the teaching of English. The instructor can use it for the daily teaching but more significantly it can be used by the students in their presentations in class while engaging in class activities that will enable them learn faster.
Sound systems are also instrumental in settings like the lecture theatres where the number of students is high. In teaching language, there is need for clear articulation of the words and pronunciation since the learners pick it as spoken by the instructor. This means clarity and audibility is paramount in an English class hence technology can aid in achieving this.
Recording devices like the cassette player are also important technologies that should be included in a class of second language. This will make it easier for the students to have recordings of the lessons to use later on for their references as well as to be able to record themselves as a way of putting in practice what they learned.
It is also important to have DVD players with overhead projectors and the projection screen in the second language classes. These can be used to show videos of conversations that contain lessons beneficial to the class (Benjamin Cabrera, et al., 2010).… [Read More]
These people are also, reportedly, more creative, and also excellent at problem solving. One Moroccan individual was injured in an accident, she was a bi-lingual, and she could speak both French and Arabic before the accident. During her recovery, she found to her amazement, tat she could speak French one day but not Arabic, and one day, Arabic and not French. After three months, she could speak both fluently.
Today, with the increasing advent of globalization in every sphere of life, it must be stated that almost everyone has something to say about it. While a businessman may feel that the world markets would open up as a direct consequence of globalization, some others may feel that since globalization would only serve to, eventually, widen the already wide gap between the rich and the poor of the world, it may not be such a nice thing, after all. However, the implications of the phenomenon for educators are extremely significant; people can now move freely from one country to another, for any number of reasons, including, for example, a desire for better economic conditions, a need for labor, refugee who move form the country of their birth to another country, oppression of one group of people by another, and also when a natural disaster strikes.
When multitudes of people are mobile, it can only mean that it would directly affect the linguistic, cultural, racial, and religious diversity within schools and between the children of the school. For example in Toronto in Canada almost fifty eight percent of children is from homes where Standard English is not spoken; nor is it the means of communication within the family. It must be mentioned that this is a common enough phenomenon in many schools in North America, and in Europe, but at the same time, it is indeed a controversial issue, wherein educational policies and methodologies vary vastly between these kinds of diverse population. Many students, for whom English is not their mother tongue, were punished previously, but today, however, they would not be punished. At the same time, however, the subtle message that if the child does not speak English, he will not be completely accepted by the school is omnipresent, and therefore, these children would have to naturally renounce their allegiance to their own home and language and culture.
Some…… [Read More]
He is 37 years old, born in France, of Senegalese descent. His native language is French, but he also speaks Wolof, Fulani, and American English. He was from a middle class background and was educated in the French school system. He knew virtually no English when he arrived in 1997. he took a job as a factory line worker in the plant and learned English rapidly, using his skills to move up in the company.
The methodology for the study of this worker was an ethnographic case study intended to understand the individual dynamics of this individual at his place of employment, using theory-based or operational construct sampling. In this approach, the sample becomes representative of the phenomenon of interest, with the interest in this case being the subject's social identity in his second language. The two methods of data collection used are observation and interviews. The observations covered a period of six months from August 2000 through the end of January 2001. The subject was shadowed during working hours over this period, observing how he communicates within the speech communities of the cultures and contexts on the site. This provides a more complete picture of the influences exerted by the site on the subject or by the subject on the site.
This was followed by four interviews conducted during the observations in order to get data on a more personal level. The type of interview is one in which the subject can generate talk and select the conversational path he chooses, using what is fundamentally a narrative approach.
Analysis of this data was achieved using coding, first by constructing a descriptive reality of general codes existing at the site, and second by using the interview data to look more closely at the themes that emerge from the observations. The theme of language and identity was prominent through the coding process for both sets of data, and two general themes of identity surfaced, namely social awareness and the construction of relationships. Miles divides these themes into subcategories, noting first four distinct…… [Read More]
Theoretically, CLIL draws on research that situates the integration of language and content as the relationship between form and meaning. An understanding of the theory and practice related to the content-based classroom is essential to the present study. In this section of the chapter, I outline the underlying theory and rationale commonly cited as a basis for CLIL, review empirical research that has evaluated CLIL in the classroom, and outline various approaches designed to integrate language and content.
CLIL is an umbrella term that captures a wide range of classroom models that include attention to content and language. CLIL is premised on the belief that language and content are inseparable in SLA, and that language is "a system that relates what is being talked about (content) and the means used to talk about it (expression)" (Mohan, p. 1). As a pedagogical framework, CLIL has been widely adopted as an alternative to traditional models of teaching that separated language and content. These models promoted teaching of language as the subject of classroom instruction and have been criticized as consisting of "piecemeal, bottom-up approaches" (Stryker & Leaver, 6). In adult and school-based education, it "aims at eliminating the artificial separation between language instruction and subject matter classes" (Brinton. 2) and offers a two for one approach. Theoretically, CLIL draws on research that situates the integration of language and content as the relationship between form and meaning. An understanding of the theory and practice related to the content-based classroom is essential to the present study. In this section of the chapter, I outline the underlying theory and rationale commonly cited as a basis for CLIL, review empirical research that has evaluated CLIL in the classroom, and outline various approaches designed to integrate language and content
Selinker pointed out that context may affect L2 learners' inter-language (IL) development and performance. The term content area literacy has recently come to be associated with emergent term
In the professional and research literature, support for the integration of language and content draws largely on research situated in SLA and related disciplines. For example, research in cognitive psychology exploring the link between depth of processing and memory has found that input that is semantically rich encourages greater depth of processing and facilitates recall of learning (Anderson & Reder, 403), and research in learning theory suggests that interesting content engages learners and encourages the development of an associative network…… [Read More]
Second Language Learning
To What Extent May L1 Affect Second Language Learning
Linguistic and Metalinguistic Knowledge
This category includes variables that are effective in both reading and listening comprehension and that involve knowledge about the structure of language, such as its syntax and morphology. Two questions guide the discussion here: How does linguistic knowledge in L2 develop, and how does linguistic knowledge in L1 affect L2 linguistic knowledge, indicating cross-language transfer?
Syntactic Knowledge. The development of syntactic knowledge has been one of the most productive research areas in applied linguistics, especially in the field of second language acquisition. A typical study involves selecting a linguistic dimension (for example, relative clause formation strategies) and then comparing groups of bilinguals who have different ways of representing that parameter in their L1 (Robert & Williams, 2009). These studies tend to emphasize the Universal Grammar underlying all languages and suggest that second language acquisition involves setting new values for the universal parameters. Initially, L1 parameters are used in interpreting L2 but, with experience, new values are set for L2. For example, Jackson, (1981) focused on the adjacency conditions in English and French. In English, the adjacency requirement is much stricter than in French. That is, a verb and its direct object need to be next to each other. In White's study, English and French speakers made grammaticality judgments to French and English sentences that did or did not violate the adjacency assumption. French speakers judged adjacency requirements more flexibly, even with English sentences, whereas the English speakers judged the adjacency requirement more strictly for both French and English sentences. In short, L1 strategies were used to interpret L2 sentences. However, some researchers suggest that L2 learning is different from L1 acquisition, and that Universal Grammar plays a minimal role in L2 learning, especially for adults (Dodson, 1985). Also note the distinction made between acquisition vs. learning in this discussion, where the former, but not the latter, implies innate, nondeliberate processes). A defining moment for the field was in the late 70s / early 80s when it became evident that…… [Read More]
A child who has been exposed to English as part of the curriculum of his or her native school will likely have an advantage over a child who has not. The processes of learning a new language are themselves helpful, even if the child has not previously been exposed to English. Being prepared for learning irregular verbs, understanding how to diagram a sentence, and figuring out unfamiliar words in context are all skills that are essential to becoming fluent. Never having thought about a language in a critical fashion is an additional obstacle for non-English speakers who have never had formal language training. "This helps explain why foreign exchange students tend to be successful in American high school classes: They already have high school level proficiency in their native language," and often an additional language (Walqui 2000).
The psychological motivation for learning a new language cannot be discounted. A child from a high-achieving background who is happy to be in the United States and wishes to assimilate quickly will have fewer internal obstacles than a child who is more ambivalent about doing so because he or she fears a loss of ties to his or her own culture. "Feeling they have to give up their own linguistic and cultural background to join the more prestigious society associated with the target language," can cause the child an identity conflict that does not facilitate ease of learning (Walqui 2000). Parents who view speaking the new language as a betrayal of the child's native culture and parents who do not allow English to be spoken at home can increase the learner's anxiety. Even if parents are not fluent, encouraging and supporting the child's English language studies is vitally important. Peer support from the child's native language group of friends, and of friends who are native speakers in the child's second language can also facilitate the child's conscious or unconscious motivation when learning.
Walqui, Aida. (2000, September). Contextual factors in second language…… [Read More]
The acculturation model developed by Schumann (1978) consists of a taxonomy of variables that were developed based on the concept that both social (group) and affective (individual) variables are the primary causative variables as shown in Table __ below. In this regard, the term "acculturation" is used to refer to the learner's positive identification with, and hence social and psychological integration with, the target language group. For instance, Schumann notes that, "[T]he learner will acquire the second language only to the degree that he acculturates" (1978, p. 29).
Taxonomy of variables influencing second-language acquisition
Dominance; Nondominance; Subordination; Assimilation; Acculturation; Preservation; Enclosure; Cohesiveness; Size; Attitude; Intended Length of Residence in Target Language Area.
Language Shock; Culture Shock; Motivation; Ego-permeability.
Tolerance for Ambiguity; Sensitivity to Rejection; Introversion/Extroversion; Self-esteem.
Cognitive Development; Cognitive Processes; Imitation; Analogy; Generalization; Rote memorization; Cognitive Style; Field Dependence; Category Width; Cognitive Interference; Monitoring.
Lateralization; Transfer; Infrasystems.
Modern Language Aptitude; IQ; Strephosymbolia.
Nesting Patterns; Transition Anxiety; Reaction to Teaching Methods; Choice of Learning Strategies.
Frequency; Salience; Complexity; Type of Interlocutor.
Goals; Teacher; Method; Text; Duration; Intesity.
Source: Schumann (1986), p. 380
Sociologists such as Geert Hofstede have been studying the effects of cross-cultural differences between countries, and his analysis of cultural dimensions for Canada and China make it clear that there are some similarities in terms of the masculinity dimension but some rather significant differences between these two countries in terms of the other four dimensions as shown in Figure __ below (see Appendix a for complete descriptions of these five cultural dimensions).
Figure __. Comparison of Geert Hofstede's Five Cultural Dimensions for Canada and China
Power Distance Index
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Source: Hofstede…… [Read More]
The researcher observed the following conclusions about conversation analysis
The use of a conversation-analytical transcription is important because it pinpoints details which are essential for understanding code-switches and the negotiation of roles and relations (Steensig 2004).
The method also provided a detailed analysis of what it is pertinent for each participant to do at precise points in the interaction (Steensig 2004). This is critical to comprehending the context in which events such as code-switches, occur (Steensig 2004).
The conversation-analysis theory can also aid in understanding how Participants make alliances and afford "power wielding" in the interaction (Steensig 2004).The author asserts that "Although this point was only cursorily developed in Steensig (2000a) it was claimed that detailed analyses using conversation analytical methods may be a clue to a better understanding of the social relations between the participants (Steensig 2004)."
Advantages and Disadvantages of Conversation analysis
The primary advantage of conversation analysis is that it relies upon the participants' actual conversational process. According to Steensig (n.d.) "Conversation Analysis only uses data from recordings of situations in people's daily lives where nothing has been done to favor certain types of behaviour or otherwise experimentally control what is going on (Steensig n.d.)." Because analyst only use the participants actual conversations they can garner an accurate view of the participants actual organizational structure as it relates to second language acquisition. Steensig (2004) also notes that the conversation analysis method is advantageous because the detailed manner in which the data is gathered makes it easier to understand and draw conclusions from.
The primary disadvantage of conversation analysis is the sheer complexity interpreting the data once it is collected. There are a myriad of factors researchers take into consideration, including body language and the tone of the conversation. In some cases, the conversations that are researched are relatively short and it may be difficult for the researcher to gather an accurate analysis…… [Read More]
first language (L1) in the second language EFL classroom (L2). The study provides a brief historical background of the use of native or target language for a classroom teaching. The literatures are also reviewed to enhance to a greater understanding on the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis. Theoretical arguments are provided to support or against the use of monolingual or bilingual approach in a teaching environment. While some scholars believe that monolingual approach is the best to teaching, some scholars support bilingual approach.
There is a growing debate among scholars, academicians and professionals whether a classroom teaching of ELT (English language teaching) should exclude or include native language (LI) and the issue has led leading to a long-term controversy. (Brown, 2000). Supporters of monolingual approach argue that instructors should avoid using L1 in the classroom environment. At the end of the 19th century, supporters of the Direct Method banned the use native language. However the positive role of native language in classrooms has been recently acknowledged on the ground that native language is a rich resource in the classroom environment and if used judiciously can enhance a greater understanding of learning and teaching of a target language. (Cook, 2001). However, there is still no positive agreement on the exact role of both L1 and L2. The review of the literature provides the historical overview of the debate.
The idea of avoiding the native language or mother tongue in classroom language teaching dated back to several centuries. "The development of ELT as a casual career for young people visiting Europe encouraged teachers to make a virtue of the necessity of using only English." (Harbord, 1992 p 350). Moreover, the growth of the training movement of British-based teacher with the need to train teachers working in multilingual classes reinforces the avoidance of mother tongue. Over the years, the effect avoidance of mother tongue in classroom has made vast majority of non-native speakers, who constitute majority of language teachers to feel guilty in their ability to teach…… [Read More]
Critique of Cross-cultural Culture Awareness for Second/Foreign Language
This context confers to foreign culture, which can be any language apart from the original mother language. The article restricts itself to French as the "foreign language," which is not the case to every human. The author of the article talks about French textbooks and matters pertaining French speaking world, instead of covering various languages too. The introductory part (abstract) translation is French, which clearly shows the bias aspect of the author. In the article, learning of French and Francophone cultures is applicable to any second or foreign language. Cultures performed by different language groups are totally different, and if anyone wishes to learn a different foreign language as a second language apart from French, he/she will have different concepts from the one who has learned French as the second language. The author also restricts herself to one region and shows the reaction of only Canadians (Americans) to francophone culture as a foreign culture, limiting the thoughts to a classroom level.
Foreign cultures and language impact negatively and are often resisted, native, very different from the mother language, and not easy for anyone to accept, unless he/she has the desire. The author narrates the story about a boy, whom she tries to present her native French model to him, but the boy, who speaks English and is an American, ends up reacting negatively about the French native. The author also says that the reaction towards such foreign language can range from hostile, fear and even resistant. To some, the cultural differences might be non- existence to them. Foreign languages are not to be taken seriously, but purposely for fun and humor.
Foreign culture causes diversion of an individual from his/her normal culture to another. Learning of another culture is difficult and is self satisfactory driven, regardless of the importance of the foreign culture to the original community. The author says learning foreign culture is something less of an affinity for the second language, since it is motivational driven. Studying the foreign…… [Read More]
Thus, the connection between social choices and variability in language for the second language leaner is remarkably clear. What is left up to interpretation, however, is the extent to which variability is influenced by linguistic or social factors, by internal or external factors. Based on the observations of sociolinguists, the results of the VARBRUL program, and recent studies into this issue, it is clear that social factors play at least some role in the acquisition of the target language by the second language learner. By investing further research into this area, however, linguists cannot only make a determination regarding the degree to which variation in second language learners is influenced by social factors, but they can also draw implications for the nature of language and the appropriateness of the prominent universal grammar theories. For instance, if the internal universal constraints variable were to be proven conclusive, this would stand as supportive evidence for the universal grammar theories. However, should social factors be proven more influential upon second language learner variability, the degree to which Chomskian ideas are accepted may have to be reconsidered. As it stands, however, the research favors Chomsky without lending solid credence to his theories.… [Read More]
24). The findings of this study challenge accepted notions concerning the efficacy of the teacher-initiated initiation -- response -- feedback (IRF) sequences that are delivered in whole group teacher-fronted environments.
Based on his findings, Baynham argues that "teacher and students are robustly claiming interactive space in classroom talk, bringing the outside into discussion. This data, drawn from narrative and classroom data in case studies of Adult ESOL classrooms, points to less docile more agentive and open-ended models of classroom discourse than have typically been evidenced in the literature" (2006, p. 24).
The researcher presents an analysis of discourse, interview, and observational data that suggest a mixed-code variety of English is adopted and developed among the focal youth and their peers around the globe to construct their relationships as bilingual speakers of English and other languages. This researcher emphasizes the need to study how people navigate across contexts of socialization in the locality of the nation-state and the virtual environments of the Internet to articulate new ways of using English.
This study used a multi-contextual approach to language socialization to examine the social and discursive practices in a Chinese/English bilingual chat room and how this Internet chat room provides an additional context of language socialization.
This study employed a language socialization approach in order to investigate how the modal verb want is being used in two middle school dance classes as a tool for socializing students into becoming what their teacher describes as "better people" as well as "better dancers." The results of this study support the theory that the use of mental state language in general, and the verb want in particular, plays an important role in making transparent the kinds of thought processes that are central to a number of socially valued competencies, including imitative, instructional and collaborative learning and the exercise of social, and thus also moral responsibility.
A central topic in the study of pragmatics is how language contributes to the socialization of culturally shared values, skills, and practices. Data collection and analysis includes ethnographic observation and the video recording, transcription, and linguistic and pragmatic analysis of…… [Read More]
English as a Second Language - Background Knowledge
Shirley Adams established in her research that "Along with vocabulary, a reader's background knowledge has been shown to be an important component of reading comprehension. The background experiences children bring to a reading selection affect how well they can understand it" (155). Furthermore, Adams points out that vocabulary is a critical factor in language development and subsequent reading comprehension (155). Generally, in learning a second language, "Teachers who create or select reading materials should keep in mind the backgrounds and present knowledge of their students. For example, reading selections for a beginning French class should include topics with which the students are already familiar rather than selections dealing exclusively with the target country or culture. Even though beginning students may not know all of the vocabulary in a reading selection, they are less likely to feel frustrated in their first attempts with a new language if the topic of the reading selection is already familiar to them" (158-159). As a result of this research, teachers providing second language instruction should gain an awareness of the limitations that their students possess and present them with unique opportunities for the acquisition of language skills.
Establishing a comfort zone between an ESL student and the teaching material will create a relaxed atmosphere upon which the teacher and the learner can build a mutually satisfying relationship. This can also be achieved through the identification of familiar or universal texts and topics that are not limited by boundaries. Furthermore, by drawing upon background knowledge (schema), students will be able to predict word meanings and then determine if their predictions are true or false. These experiences will enhance learning and permit students to gain experience in the acquisition of the English language and its various intrinsic meanings (VanDuzer 1).
Reading Instruction and Background Knowledge
Over tbe years, a number of theories have been developed that define the ways that reading instruction should be taught to students of…… [Read More]
ESL (English Second Language)
Context and significance
Relevant background literature
Limitations and anticipated problems
ESL (English Second Language)
In many nations, there are many high school students who have parents who speak no English. Often times this can be a problem because the kids will often have to interpret for them and very often involves them to miss school in order to do this. Is it possible that because there is a constant interruption in school that theses occurrences are having some kind of an effect on their achievement and even attendance. However, it seems to make sense that when these parents begin ESL (English second language) classes that there is a possibility that it may help their children achieve better in high-school because of less time having to interpret for them.
High-school students that have parents that do not speak english, involvement with their education have changed much through time. In the agricultural period, parents, typically fathers, had effect on the schools, nonetheless were not physically involved at the school. Small rural public parents had power as to how the school was operated; even telling teachers how they could and could not act outside the classroom. Now with non-English speaking parents it is hard to get them involved with their teenager's education to help them because of the language barrier. However, the more English a parent knows the better chance of them helping their child out which means.
Context and significance
The purpose of this study was to find out if high-school student's grades and attendance rate improve once their parents begin ESL (English second language) classes. This study will hopefully benefit schools seeking to improve high achievement among student who parents are non-English speaking. Principals may see different types of parental involvement not presently experienced in their schools with non-English parents. Furthermore, when executed, these factors may grow students' success and satisfaction in the school setting. The importance will be on recounting the evolution of the, the challenges encountered, and the strategies that will be used in response to the challenges. A set of recommendations concerning launching high parent involvement was will be compiled.
Relevant background literature
There has not been much study on High school students who have parents who speak no English. When endeavoring to comprehend how children learn best, achievement test scores…… [Read More]
The 'use' of language while the student learns is just as important as the quality of learning provided because without functional real-life use of the English Language there is no real grasp of the language and therefore the student might learn and yet not retain that learning. There are many activities that the teacher is able to use in the learning environment that not only assist the ESL learner but serve to educate students already in full grasp of English about other languages and cultures effectively pulling the ESL student into the activities and putting all students at ease in the learning environment. Social learning of the English language, or in fact in learning any language is very important as social learning provides an excellent platform for common everyday functional use of the language.
III. Responsibilities of the Teacher and School for the ESL Student
It is the responsibility of the teacher and school to provide the best possible learning environment and instructional opportunities for each student in the school and this is the same in view of the ESL students so that they are able to successfully advance through grades, graduate, go on to higher education or successfully gain employment and secure a future in the work world and community. These students fall under the inclusion standards and are educated in the same classroom with students who are speakers and readers of the English Language. As described in the previous section of this work, while this is a difficult task for the teacher at times, the teacher can use inclusion to the advantage of the learning of the ESL student.… [Read More]
Adult Second Language Learning: Chinese Semantics, Explicit Learning
The area of second language learning (Chinese) is explored in this work in view of the appropriateness of the methodologies expounded by literature on the subject. Specifically, the proper use of explicit teaching method by incorporating aids like cues, pairing, sequential affectations, and the timing of radical disposition has been attempted in this work. The knowledge of previous work has been used to evaluate the utility of explicit teaching methodology to adult learners of Chinese language. The outcome arrived at is that with certain restrictions (because of certain limitations of the study), explicit learning methodology can be a faster tool than implicit methods as displayed in longer retention of the learned concepts. Also, explicit teaching can aid expansion of vocabulary amongst learners if imbued with the right implements in shorter time compared to implicit teaching methodology.
According to Taft and Chung (1999) knowledge of radicals helps students grasp Chinese characters much better. They hold that students (children) of the language can grasp the language better through the method of explicit teaching of the radicals. The possible inspiration for such direction is the thought of relation between recall and stimulus proposed by Craik and Lockhart in 1972. According to their (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) contention, under the "levels of processing" theory that they put forth, students ingrain stimulus during their early learning phase better if the explanation of radicals is a part of language teaching. Such a relational correspondence and interactivity leads to better recall through amplified stimulus (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). The teaching of radicals, they believe, causes a heightened activity in the brain that makes it easier to recall than if radicals are not taught during the initial period of language learning. Their natural extension of the theory was that deeper involvement (with radicals and explanations in early stage of learning) would result in more stimulation leading to better recall value for a longer period. (Taft & Chung, 1999)
Understanding the basics of Chinese language involves the knowledge of radicals in conjunction with the characters. The moot question then is: what is the better sequence of teaching, radicals followed by character knowledge, both of them (radicals and characters) simultaneously or teaching the characters without first providing knowledge about radicals that go into forming the characters, i.e.…… [Read More]
English as a Second Language
America is known as a melting pot; people have migrated here from many different countries, cultures and speak different languages. Children are raised in homes where different languages are being spoken, some families use English primarily, however there are families that do not speak any English. Children raised in these household where there is little or no English will need to learn English in school. English is being taught in the schools as a second language in the mainstream classroom; however the students are not successful in this setting. Children in the ESL programs in the United States are not reading at the same level as students who are primary English speakers. All students in the mainstream classroom should be successful academically.
English as a second language (ESL) is an important aspect of the educational system. ESL is currently failing the children immersed in these programs. Many children in the United States speak English as a second language. Lasisi (2009) conducted research in this field to provide better information about ESL and how it can be improved. There were several variables in the study. Independent variables in the study are signs, maker of the sign, integration of verbal texts, visual images and multimodal resources. The dependent variables in the study are message representation, choice of sign, knowledge and learning practices in the classroom.
The participants in this study were chosen from a junior high school in California. Eighteen learners were chosen, mainly Hispanic, they participated in the study for three weeks. The participants were 12 females and 6 males from the seventh grade of the chosen school. This sample would represent the Hispanic population in junior high, who spoke English as a second language. The researcher of this study did not define literacy as just academic achievement; he included different types of technology such as computer,…… [Read More]
English as a Second Language
The main objective of the Lasisi research project was to explore how English as a Second Language (ESL) students who were in middle school would interpret advertisement images and they used visual representations to communicate (Lasisi, 2009). The Lasisi study was conducted in California, with mainly Hispanic students. The students were observed from the beginning of the class, once they were identified. The researcher and the students had time to get to know each other so that they could become familiar with each other. My research utilized the Lasisi's research to gather additional information in the school systems.
Students were randomly selected and asked questions about the English as Second Language program (ESL). Fifty seven percent of the students that participated in the study were black, non-Hispanic and forty three percent were white non-Hispanic. The majority of parents of these students (57%) were between the ages of 36-50 years old and 85% percent had a Bachelors degree as their highest level of education. Seventy one percent of the parents feel welcome and appreciated when they go to school and many of them find it difficult to participate in school activities because of different reasons such as lack of childcare, language barriers and other miscellaneous matters. Only 20% of the parents found it difficult to participate because of language barriers. The majority of the parents (42%) said they would participate in these school activities if they were held between…… [Read More]
ESL Students |
English as a Second Language Student Success in a Mainstream Classroom Setting
According to Kalaian & Freeman (1994), confidence is one of the key elements required to teach children. Instructors therefore need educational support to ensure that they can teach children with who's second language is English in an appropriate manner. According to the results of the research conducted by Center and Ward (1997), they discovered that the attitude of teachers toward inclusion reflected a lack of confidence in their ability to teach properly and in the level of support provided to them by the educational institution.
Inclusion can often been linked with the concept of mainstreaming in the educational field. It is the act of teaching handicapped and non-handicapped children together in the same classroom. It has been of interest in the field of Education ever since the late 1960s. Research had earlier revealed that special-education children were able to learn better when they were enrolled in general classrooms as opposed to special classes. There were also allegations that racial discrimination and prejudices were associated with children enrolled special-education schools (Gloeckler, 2002).
Certain elements have also been identified as having a significant influence on the attitude of teachers towards children from different cultures (Nieto, 2010). These elements include the intention or lack of intention to change their current ways of doing things, the existence of collaborative processes and training support (Richardson, 1998). May and Kundert (1996) emphasized that inadequate training can be a major problem for teachers when dealing with students who's second language is English. According to Chester and Beaudin (1996), a number of factors often influence the relationship between teachers and students whom are not as familiar with the English language. These factors include mentoring, appraisal processes for new staff teachers, individual strengths of the teacher, and the resources available to guide them when teaching kids with special needs.
Gloeckler (2002) argues that mainstreaming is more beneficial because it helps to prepare children…… [Read More]
English language learners
Journal comparison: TESOL Journal and the English Quarterly
Both the TESOL Journal and The English Quarterly, the official refereed journal of the CCTELA (Canadian Council of Teachers of English Language Arts), offer the opportunity to publish materials on the subject of English-language learning. However, the two journals have fundamentally different purposes. TESOL Journal is primarily a peer-reviewed academic journal with areas of specific interest. It is designed with a professional audience of educators in mind, although it does publish a few non-journal type articles. It is designed to use the research process to help teachers better use theory to "inform, shape, and ground teaching practices and perspectives" in the field of ESL (Submission requirements, 2012, TESOL Journal).
Submissions to TESOL Journal can take the form of general feature articles (which must include an abstract), articles on 21st century language skills, and articles on ESL students with interrupted formal education. There is also an ESL student voices section, in which students are encouraged to submit their material directly. In this area, "the editor welcomes essays that need development and will assign the author to a mentor for the purposes of developing the idea into a publishable manuscript" (Submission requirements, 2012, TESOL Journal). Other sections designed to elicit submissions from teachers in the field include a section on communities of participation in TESOL, which is solution-focused and discusses using community engagement to promote TESOL education. The language teacher research section showcases research conducted by teachers into their own practice. There is also a section for reviews of secondary materials. Examples of articles in the Journal's March 2010 issue include "ESL coteaching and collaboration: Opportunities to develop teacher leadership and enhance student learning;" "The uniqueness of EFL teachers: Perceptions of Japanese learners;" and "Serving ELLs with limited or interrupted education: Intervention that works."
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