16 results for "Second Language Essays"

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Language And Thinking Language Is The One Essay

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35708581

Language and Thinking

Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are born with some kind of internal tool or system that facilitates their ability to learn language as infants. Sternberg's study also suggests that language does not influence thought, as an infant can recognize and utter phonemes different from those of the language of his native environment. The second stage if the babbling stage when the infant begins to connect consonants and vowels. Many of his learned consonants come from the language to which is exposed, often belonging to other languages or he himself constructs. His mouth cavity also begins to develop into that of the adult. The infant starts to control his speech muscles like the tongue, lips and palate. And following the second stage of babbling, the infant learns defined and clear one-word and two-word utterances (Faccone et al.).

It can be gleaned that a person learns language from infancy. He soon learns that language is important. It allows him to communicate with others (Stok 2012). Civilization came to be because of communication. He realizes that he needs language to express or transmit his thought to others. Human beings need and use language in speaking and writing in order to communicate and continue communicating. Thousands of languages have been devised to put one another's messages across. Although thoughts can be conjured without language, thinking requires language for cognitive thoughts. Again, cognition sets a human being apart from…… [Read More]

Sources:
2013. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.education.com/refrence/article/culture-language

Stok, Glen. Do We Need Language to Think? Hub Pages: Hub Pages, Inc., 2012.

Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://hubpages.com/hub/thinking.-thought-without-language
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Language Acquisition The Language Theory According To Essay

Words: 2692 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41710855

Language Acquisition

The language theory

According to Krashen 'communication' is the purpose of a language. Focusing on communicative abilities is just as important. The relevance of 'meaning' is also stressed upon. According to Terrell and Krashen, a language has its very own lexicon. The stress on vocabulary is apparent here and language is seen as a means to 'communicate meanings' as well as 'messages'. 'Acquisition' takes place in case where people understand messages in TL, according to Krashen. Natural Approach consists of 'messages', 'structures' and 'lexical items' in plain view. Production and perception are two lexicons on which clarification of messages and organization is dependent upon. According to Krashen, acquisition is a mere combination of rules of the language by employing language for communication. Linguistic competence is only attained by 'input' which contains structures at 'interlanguage+1' level (i+1). It is obtained by " comprehensible input'.

Learning theory of language

In his second theory of language acquisition (SLA), Krashen explains that adults develop competence in two ways in second languages: It is obtained by learning and acquisition. "The ability to learn second languages consists of two ways. 'Acquisition is the quintessential subconscious process which children employ during learning their first language…. [and] 'learning'…, [which is] is a cognitive process which results in acknowledging [rules of] a language" (Krashen 1985:1).

The fundamental hypothesis is nevertheless, Acquisition-Learning distinction in Krashen's theory. It is known widely in the language practitioners and linguists' groups.

In Krashen's own words, there are two systems for performance in second language. One is the 'the acquired system' and other is 'the learned system'. 'Acquisition' or 'acquired system' is a result of a cognitive process same as that observed in children when they learn their first language. Natural communication is needed for the meaningful interaction. The speakers are focused on not only their utterances but also bring in the communicative act.

Whereas the 'learned system' or the 'learning' is a result of formal instruction and it consists of a conscious process which produces meaning knowledge 'about' the language, for instance, the rules of the grammar are identified. In words…… [Read More]

References:
Bates, E., Thal, D., & Janowsky, J. (1992). Early language development and its neural correlates. In I. Rapin, & S. Segalowitz, Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. 7). Amsterdam, netherlands: Elsevier.

Brown, R., & Hanlon, C. (1970). Derivational Complexity and order of Acquisition in Child speech. In R. Hayes, Cognition and the Development of Language (pp. 11-53). New York, NY: John Wiley.
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Language Development Chart Essay

Words: 1136 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62384580

English Language Learning (Native Speakers)

Stage/Age

Language Overall

Phonology

Morphology

Syntax

Semantics

Implications on reading and writing

Practical Approaches

Birth -3 mo.

Cries, responds to tone, attentive to special sounds, and begins to vocalize.

Reflexive and diverse cries, coos and gurgles.

Verbal play, some consonants, laughing.

No understanding

Sounds or intensity as opposed to meaning.

Music and talk to child

Double syllables, MAMA, tunefully vocalize

Vocalizes pleasure and pain; initiates speech, reproduces babbles.

Increased sounds and imitation

Very little understanding

Truck red; hungry eat, etc.

Use of words and instructi8ons, jargon and jabber before frequent

Imitates some words, asks questions using intonation, vast improvement in tone and sound.

Stage I morphemes; nomination,

Most language is noun based, finger pointing, usually sentences are 2 words.

Action + Agent, Agent + Object, etc. (Daddy is laughing, I push the truck)

Very imitative stage

Show pictures of nouns and ask questions

2-4 years

Talks to self, asks questions, begins using sentences, large amount of vocabulary acquisition

May omit some phrases or parts of phrases, uses final consonants most of the time fewer omissions and learns to blend.

Present, progressive, location, learning some articles

Learning word order, 1/3 of all spoken words are nouns, utterances have few grammatical markers (no an, the, that); grows to 2-4-word phrases

I am here; Cat on box

Beginning to look at symbols

Help child "trace" letters with hands, show how to hold pencil or chalk, encourage mimicry

5 years

Fluent speech, recognizes past, present and future

Masters most consonants and improves intonation.

Mastering articles; past tense, third person

5-6-word phrases, uses contractions, possessive, past tense, progressive verbs (jumping, running).

An apple, a book, my dog, she went away, he brought the puppy

Move now from symbols (letters) to words and word combinations.

Spend time with pronunciation; cat -- c -- ah -- t, expand to write cat using pictographs

6 years

Has learned to pronounce and sound out, more fluent and confident in speaking.

Voiceless (th, sh, ch) are mastered; v, s, and zh mastered…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Kormos, J., Kontra, E., eds. (2008). Language Learners with Special Needs. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Publishing.

McCormack, R. (2011). Teaching Reading: Strategies and Resources. New York: Guilford Press.

Sax, N., Weston, E. (2007). Language Development Milestones. Retrieved November 2013 from: http://www.rehabmed.ualberta.ca/spa/phonology/milestones.pdf
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Language Learning Model Essay

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30535107

native language is learnt successfully and naturally by children, without any difficulty (Rui, Van and Jin, 2014). Children of all cultures acquire native languages at some point in life, in a suitable linguistic environment having adequate language output and input. However, many children learning second languages reveal that they face difficulties with second language that didn't occur while learning first languages. They are perplexed regarding their inability to understand or accurately and fluently use second languages, despite striving for years to learn them. It is often speculated whether second or target language learners can duplicate how they learnt their first language. Thus, a contrastive study of second and first language learning is of great significance to those who teach, and learn, second languages (Rui, Van and Jin, 2014).

Contrastive analysis

The main idea of contrastive analysis was construction of structural 'images' of two languages, followed by direct comparison between them (Ermira, 2013). Via 'mapping' a particular system on another, differences and similarities can be identified. Ascertaining the differences can facilitate a clearer understanding of problems faced by second language learners. Interference may arise from structurally- dissimilar areas of both languages. The above term denotes any native language influence that may impact second language acquisition. The word transfer originates from here, with a distinction between negative and positive transfer. The former occurs if there is any dissonance between first and second language, with second language acquisition becoming more challenging and taking longer due to 'newness' of second language's structure, while the latter occurs in case of concordance of first language with second language, with the acquisition process being much easier (Ermira, 2013).

The above concepts were crucial in contrastive analysis,…… [Read More]