Second Language Essays Examples

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Language and Language Practices Language Is the

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740802

Language and Language Practices

Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (Bloomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different than someone who is simply trying to learn enough German to get by on his trip to Europe, for example.

Instead, those who study language are focused on why language works as it does, and they often take interest in languages that are being phased out or that are no…… [Read More]

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
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Language Acquisition the Ways in

Words: 2004 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23917596

In the final analysis, people have been learning how to acquire language for millennia without the assistance of scientific investigation, but the need for young people to do so quickly in an increasingly multicultural country and globalized marketplace is more important than ever before because they will probably have to learn a second (or third) language at their earliest opportunity.


Birdsong, D. (1999). Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. This book examines reasons why very young learners might be subject to a critical period for language acquisition.

Costa, A.R., Mcilvane, W.J., & Wilkinson, K.M. (2001). Emergent word-object mapping by children: Further studies using the blank comparison technique. The Psychological Record, 51(3), 343. This study confirmed the usefulness of the blank comparison technique in emergent mapping research and provided the first data set from school-aged children.

Danby, S. (2002). The communicative competence of young children. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 27(3), 25. The author is a classroom teacher who emphasized the importance of individual differences in learning ability and how these affect the teacher's need for judicious application of classroom management techniques to avoid frustrating early language acquisition.

Dixon, W.E., Jr., & Smith,…… [Read More]

Birdsong, D. (1999). Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. This book examines reasons why very young learners might be subject to a critical period for language acquisition.

Costa, A.R., Mcilvane, W.J., & Wilkinson, K.M. (2001). Emergent word-object mapping by children: Further studies using the blank comparison technique. The Psychological Record, 51(3), 343. This study confirmed the usefulness of the blank comparison technique in emergent mapping research and provided the first data set from school-aged children.
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Language Diversity

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50628534

Language Diversity

Crawford begins the article by highlighting problems associated with second language instruction in American classrooms. According to the statistics cited most approaches used in these classrooms are inadequate to provide students with the necessary skills to communicate in the target language outside of the classroom. The reason for this is a lack of focus on communication skills, combined with an inflated focus on form rather than function. Despite efforts to improve upon this by methods such as the total immersion approach and the audiolingual method, results are still shown to be poor. Chomsky, Krashen and Cummins's theories are shown to have revolutionized language acquisition theories, and thus also language teaching methods. Furthermore Crawford shows that a child's inherent feelings about his or her own culture, and consequently about the culture represented by the target language, have a significant impact upon second language learning. It is then suggested that children be taught to honor and respect…… [Read More]

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Language Diversity and Education

Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46023537

Language Diversity and Education by Carlos J. Ovando, the author makes the point that the language diversity present in the United States has significant implications for all teachers and all students. He emphasizes the importance of both a person's first language and the dominant language in a culture. He notes the complexity of learning a second language: in addition to the cognitive mastery of vocabulary and grammar involved, fluency in a language involves discourse (structure of paragraphs and larger chunks of written language); appropriateness (adjusting language to the social setting); paralinguistics (body language, gestures, volume, pitch, etc.); and pragmatics (cultural norms involving language, subtle conversation skills). Even though ESL students may seem to be learning English rapidly, those language skills may be largely social and inadequate t the cognitive demands made on it in a classroom.

Ovando gave examples of true dialects in the United States -- creoles, or combinations of several languages developed so people of two or more languages could communicate. They include Gullah, French Creole…… [Read More]

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Language Acquisition Principles English Language

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54143522

A good starting point is identifying the factors that influence ELL student performance. According to Mitsutomi & McDonald, these factors include motivation, linguistic and cultural identity, study strategies, tolerance for ambiguity, and sociocultural support.

Although these factors provide a generic indication of the difficulties faced by ELL students, it is also recognized that each student is an individual, and enters the school system under widely varying circumstances and with differing expectations. Notably, the acquisition of English is hardly at all found to be influenced by whether or not the student had studied English as a foreign language in the home country.

These findings have some specific implications for the classroom. In the practical sense, teachers must recognize their own need to become sensitive not only to the language, but also to the culture needs of ELL students. As such, they need to develop a background in foreign languages and culture in order to meet these needs.

Specifically, teachers can for example use this knowledge to promote mutual respect among their students. Groups of ELL students can for example be encouraged to construct presentations of their own cultures and languages, sensitizing their fellow learners and also teachers to the beauty and…… [Read More]

In conclusion, the authors appear to indicate the importance of teachers being able to work together with ELL students in order to achieve their educational goals. Success in making such a connection will mean greater success for these students on the tertiary level as well, and eventually also in the world of work.


Mitsutomi, Maro & McDonald, VeraLynn (2005, Summer). Factors in learning Second Language and Culture. Academic Exchange Quarterly. Retrieved from database:;col1
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Language and Literacy Every Workplace Without Exception

Words: 1463 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6884949

Language and Literacy

Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we do business such as government agencies, attorneys, and externally-hired accountants. Each level of communication demands a different type of language and a different type of literacy. For example, speaking with my office mates involves informal banter and conversations that do not demand proper grammar, whereas composing a letter to a…… [Read More]

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Language Teaching and Learning Methods

Words: 3071 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98946947

Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.

In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural Approach, one must assess its advantages and disadvantages, both of which have been cited by researchers and scholars since the method first came into use in the late 1970s. Many of the cited advantages of this method stem from the one-on-one nature of the learning that takes place between teacher…… [Read More]

Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative

Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].
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Language Acquisition the Language Theory According to

Words: 2692 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41710855

Language Acquisition

The language theory

According to Krashen 'communication' is the purpose of a language. Focusing on communicative abilities is just as important. The relevance of 'meaning' is also stressed upon. According to Terrell and Krashen, a language has its very own lexicon. The stress on vocabulary is apparent here and language is seen as a means to 'communicate meanings' as well as 'messages'. 'Acquisition' takes place in case where people understand messages in TL, according to Krashen. Natural Approach consists of 'messages', 'structures' and 'lexical items' in plain view. Production and perception are two lexicons on which clarification of messages and organization is dependent upon. According to Krashen, acquisition is a mere combination of rules of the language by employing language for communication. Linguistic competence is only attained by 'input' which contains structures at 'interlanguage+1' level (i+1). It is obtained by " comprehensible input'.

Learning theory of language

In his second theory of language acquisition (SLA), Krashen explains that adults develop competence in two ways in second languages: It is obtained by learning and acquisition. "The ability to learn second languages consists of two ways. 'Acquisition is the quintessential subconscious process which children employ during learning their first language….…… [Read More]

Bates, E., Thal, D., & Janowsky, J. (1992). Early language development and its neural correlates. In I. Rapin, & S. Segalowitz, Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. 7). Amsterdam, netherlands: Elsevier.

Brown, R., & Hanlon, C. (1970). Derivational Complexity and order of Acquisition in Child speech. In R. Hayes, Cognition and the Development of Language (pp. 11-53). New York, NY: John Wiley.
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Language Acquisition

Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67661446

Language Acquisition" by J. Crawford, covers how people acquire a second language, and some "persistent problems" with how we teach a second language in America today. The author briefly covers a history of language acquisition, and how early Romans used "conversational dialogues" to help teach children many other languages, and how that method gradually altered throughout history, to the "grammar-translation approach" we tend to lean toward today. He also mentions some other less common methods that seem to show good results, such as the "direct" method, and the "audiolingual" method. The author also brings up many differing theories of language acquisition, and asks many questions about how students learn and teachers teach a second language. In fact, the author also raises questions about some techniques, and maintains they may be actually preventing children from learning another language, no matter how well thought of or well-executed they are. Clearly, while there are many theories in language development and acquisition, the author shows these theories do not always agree, and they form a diversity…… [Read More]

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Language Learning Model

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30535107

native language is learnt successfully and naturally by children, without any difficulty (Rui, Van and Jin, 2014). Children of all cultures acquire native languages at some point in life, in a suitable linguistic environment having adequate language output and input. However, many children learning second languages reveal that they face difficulties with second language that didn't occur while learning first languages. They are perplexed regarding their inability to understand or accurately and fluently use second languages, despite striving for years to learn them. It is often speculated whether second or target language learners can duplicate how they learnt their first language. Thus, a contrastive study of second and first language learning is of great significance to those who teach, and learn, second languages (Rui, Van and Jin, 2014).

Contrastive analysis

The main idea of contrastive analysis was construction of structural 'images' of two languages, followed by direct comparison between them (Ermira, 2013). Via 'mapping' a particular system on another, differences and similarities can be identified. Ascertaining the differences can facilitate a clearer understanding of problems faced by second language learners. Interference may arise from structurally- dissimilar areas of both languages. The above term denotes any native language influence that may…… [Read More]

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Language Teaching and Learning in

Words: 1321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27270341

As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.

Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.

Principles and features of task-based language teaching.

Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just a meaning system" and meaning is suppose to be given importance over form" (Watson, 2006) for the reason that TBL emphases on the language used to attain an exact result. Halliday (1973) in Willis makes the point that "language does not happen in an emptiness and it does not progress…… [Read More]

Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.

Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
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Language Proficiency and Content Understanding

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18461851

Seamless Bridge

As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a door or barrier.

I connect with this idea in the same way that Delia Pompa of Adolescent Literacy notes how important is the idea of building trust with ELLs and their families (AdLit, n.d.). Trust is the foundation of any relationship; whenever two entities come together to meet, there has…… [Read More]

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Education Language Acquisition and Learning

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78735701

Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.

Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in language acquisition. According to Gottlieb (2006), second language acquisition occurs along a "predictable" set of developmental stages (p. 26). Those developmental stages occur along a continuum. Educators can "arbitrarily" divide the continuum into levels for the express purpose of crafting classroom exercises. Given the vast increase in ELLs in Nebraska…… [Read More]

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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning. The first is the linguistic assimilation. This is a belief that all members of the society, regardless of their native language, need to learn and use the language that is dominant in the society or country in which they live. A good example of this is English-only movement which was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.
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Language and Memory Issues the

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54281025

Stages of Language Production:

While there is not necessarily a consensus among researchers as to the precise nature of human language production, one widely accepted view is the information processing approach (Robinson-Riegler, 422). In that framework, language production generally occurs in four specific stages: (1) conceptualization, (2) planning, (3) articulation, and (4) self-monitoring.

In that regard, the conceptualization stage refers to the internal process whereby the individual develops the desire to communicate a specific thought to others (Robinson-Riegler, 422). The planning stage consists of the decisions pertaining to how the thoughts to be communicated are organized into a linguistic plan within the framework of the language in which the individual hopes to communicate. The articulation stage involves the actual expression of the thoughts formulated in the conceptualization stage through the linguistic plan developed in the planning stage (Robinson-Riegler, 422).

Finally, the self-monitoring stage consists of the individual's purposeful awareness of the manner in which the articulation of the message achieves the communication objectives of the intended informational transmission; that includes monitoring the tone of the message and the apparent effect of the message on the intended recipient (Robinson-Riegler, 422). The self-monitoring stage also involves a preliminary evaluation by the individual…… [Read More]

Robinson-Riegler, G., and Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:

Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition. New Jersey: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.
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Language Skills During Communication While Highlighting Receptive

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90348523

Language Skills

During communication, while highlighting receptive skills learners may require to make verbal or non-verbal responses. For assessment of these receptive skills, learners need to respond to a written or a spoken text. Formal and informal feedback can also be used to provide information about the learners. Different listening materials are utilized by scholars in the course-line of learning; some materials contain all aspects of real spoken language hence they are authentic.

Recorded tapes, poems and songs, are authentic texts that can be used during learning. One of the complete texts that can be used during the learning process is a story. Stories involve emotions, ideas and hopes that shape the human life. A pleasant story is "Getting to the Wedding." [footnoteRef:2] It is a story that involves a boy trying to get home after school so that he can make it to a wedding. After he gets home, they leave with his family to the wedding, and they try using different means so that they can make to the wedding on time. It involves different emotions from different people in the family. It also involves different day-to-day activities, hence enabling the learner to know some things through observation…… [Read More]

Brinda, D. Patterns of the Story Teller. Mumbai: Pearson Education India, 2007.

Frey, O. Teaching and Learning L2 Grammar. London: GRIN Verlag, 2010.
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Language and What it Does

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44072447

Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.

Fast forward to 2012. An Aristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of Aristotle's plot formula.

As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy…… [Read More]

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Language and Religion

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84384420

Language and Religion

I visited the Anglican Church in my community, who congregates every Sunday at 10am. To gain access, I telephoned the Secretary of the church, who explained to me that services were open to any members of the public. She indicated that I would be most welcome and she sounded very friendly as well. She invited me to also speak to the Reverend and gave me his number. I followed her advice and telephoned the Reverend with my request and the reasons for wanting to attend the assembly. Like the Secretary, the Reverend was extremely friendly and open to my request. He asked a few questions about my research as well, and seemed interested in what I had to say. He struck me as a very warm person who truly believed in what he was doing. So, the following Sunday, as decided, I woke up early, dressed according to the fairly informal code of the congregation, and traveled to the Anglican church.

The church was a white building with a traditional clock tower and stained glass window. Large wooden doors took up most of the wall facing the street, and I joined members of the congregation to enter.…… [Read More]

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Language as Mirror and Prism

Words: 3716 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81997091

Apparently this view has much in its favor.

When we compare modern English with some of those Indian languages which are most concrete in their formative expression, the contrast is striking. When we say "The eye is the organ of sight, the Indian may not be able to form the expression the eye, but may have to define that the eye of a person or of an animal is meant. Neither may the Indian be able to generalize readily the abstract idea of an eye as the representative of the whole class of objects... (p. 64).

It does not seem to occur to Boas anywhere in the Handbook that such a way of talking about the world might not arise because the mind of the American Indians that he is writing about is "primitive" but rather because he or she is seeing the world in a very different way.

Boas would no doubt have argued that this is only a single truth, one that can be measured and experienced and agreed upon by reasonable men. (And, perhaps, some women.) But the idea that culture, and specifically language, actively shapes what we see in the world does not enter into his…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boas, F. (1911). The handbook of American Indian languages. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Boston: MIT Press.
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Second Ghetto From the First

Words: 2146 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67932276

" With this onslaught of blacks into their communities, there was an "exodus of Jews" (apparently no pun intended vis-a-vis the book Exodus about the Jews seeking a homeland) which created a "vacuum" that was immediately filled by a "housing-starved black population."

On page 415-16, Hirsch writes that the "real tragedy surrounding the emergence of the modern ghetto" is not that it has been "inherited" but that it has been "renewed and strengthened... with government sanction and support."

Finally, on page 416, Hirsch gets down to the bare bones, bottom line social dynamic of the problem that has been allowed to fester in Chicago (at least up to 1983 when he published this essay). When, he writes, the racial lines began to "harden" after the post-WWII influx of blacks into the second ghetto, "it was apparent that white hostility was of paramount importance in shaping the pattern of black settlement." Blacks were blackballed, so to speak, from moving into white communities. It was apparent from the first page of his essay, but on page 416 he begins to related to that fact. "White hostility" could have been the title of his essay. But meantime, he describes the federally-mandated "urban renewal"…… [Read More]

Hirsch, Arnold R. (1983). "From the First Ghetto to the Second Ghetto," in Making the Second

Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960, Arnold R. Hirsch, 412-419, Cambridge:
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Language of Choice Theory and

Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95037421

Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010).

g. What is the role of cognitions or thoughts?

According to Glasser, thoughts are just one aspect of "Total Behavior," which includes "acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). All human behavior is Total Behavior, and all human behavior is chosen. However, acting and thinking are the only two components of behavior a person can directly control. Therefore, a patient must indirectly control their feelings and physiology by directly controlling their thoughts and behaviors (Glasser & Glasser, 2010).

IV. What specific techniques are used in this theory?

Choice theory is based primarily on "Seven Caring Habits" and "Ten Axioms" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Seven Caring Habits are: "supporting, encouraging, listening, accepting, trusting, respecting, and negotiating differences" with creativity (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Ten Axioms are: we can only control our own behavior, we can only offer information, all chronic mental health issues stem from relationship issues, the relationship issue at fault is always occurring in the present, what happened in the past affects who we are today but the…… [Read More]

Erwin, J. (2004). The Classroom of Choice: Giving Students What They Need and Getting What You Want. . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Glasser, W., & Glasser, C. (2010). The Language of Choice Theory. HarperCollins ebook.
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Language Department Thinking Critically About

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63729647

Put us in the air and we can't do anything should anything happen to the plane. We, as humans, cannot fly on our own.

RA: Chapter eight also talks about assessing intelligence and there are many ways to do so. Intelligence, however, doesn't just refer to more analytical type of thinking. In the article "Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled?" authors Matthew, Zeidner and Roberts (2012) discuss how emotional intelligence is a fairly new construct in differential psychology. There are many proponents of this construct and they have made powerful arguments for emotional intelligence's importance in both basic and applied psychology (2012).

Emotional intelligence is a bit different than what we might normally think of as intelligence. It is a collection of aptitudes, skills and competencies for dealing with emotions and emotional encounters (Matthew et al. 2012). Perhaps one of the reasons emotional intelligence isn't considered much -- or when it is considered it is thought of as coming in second to other types of intelligence is because there are beliefs that emotions are somewhat more inferior to reasoning. The truth is, however, that many people trust their emotional intelligences -- their feelings and emotions -- when it comes to making…… [Read More]

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M. & Roberts, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled? Japanese psychological research,54(2), 105-127.

Myers, G. (2012). Psychology in everyday life. Worth Publishers.
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Language and Cognition Is Relatively

Words: 3138 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82941920

Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.

Recently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create a mental state inside a person to understand the disjunction between an external stimulus and a response. In a very simple example, someone is seen doing something clearly foolish, such as using mouthwash to wash one's hair. Being able to understand false beliefs is the result of a lengthy developmental…… [Read More]

Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.
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ELL Language Acquisition in English

Words: 9381 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9302051

First, Spanish sounds different from English in terms of vowel sounds, sentence stress, and timing. (Shoebottom, 2007, Spanish). In addition, Spanish speakers can confront grammar problems when learning English, "although Spanish is a much more heavily inflected language than English, there are many aspects of verb grammar that are similar. The major problem for the Spanish learner is that there is no one-to-one correspondence in the use of the tenses. So, for example, a Spanish learner might incorrectly use a simple tense instead of a progressive or a future one." (Shoebottom, 2007, Spanish). Moreover, because these issues reflect basic differences between the two languages, progressive learning in Spanish does not translate to better English ability.

In addition, the fact that English and Spanish share a common base language should make some aspects of English acquisition easier for the Spanish speaker than for the Arabic speaker. In fact, there are several areas of vocabulary overlap between Spanish and English, and the close relationships between Mexico and the American southwest and between Cuba and Florida have resulted in the integration of Mexican and Cuban words into American English. However, this overlap does not guarantee success. In fact, "since the Latin-derived words in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ahmad, N. (2004). Arab-American culture and health care. Retrieved November 16, 2007 from Case Western Reserve University

Web site:
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Speaking in the Target Language Is the

Words: 3146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76841042

speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?

Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.

As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research of Brown, researches depended upon the mean length of utterance (MLU) as an instrument to gauge development. One hand, the MLU was apparently difficult to use in particular cases. However, the problematic nature of this imperfect mean of measuring development is not suitable in the case of the acquisition of…… [Read More]

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.

Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
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Do You Think Animals Meet the Definition of Using Language

Words: 841 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60654014

feature of language and why?

The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become institutionalized and written down while others remain unspoken yet a vital part of communication.

Q2. Do you think animals meet the definition of using language? There are gorillas who have been trained to use sign language. Do they meet the definition of using language?

Animals clearly use sounds and gestures…… [Read More]

Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from: 
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Test Taking Strategies and Language

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7410282

Simply put, as test taking strategies grow more sophisticated the validity of language tests becomes increasingly threatened, and new test designs are responded to by new strategizing. A lack of cohesion in the approaches used to study test taking strategies and to practically apply knowledge obtained through academic research is also cited as problematic (Cohen, 2006). Without an appropriate way to measure and assess test taking strategies and their impact on test validity, more valid language testing methodologies cannot be developed.

Internal measures of construct validity have grown more sophisticated as a means of addressing both test taking strategy concerns and other potential issues when it comes to language test validity, but these have been far from entirely successful in making assurances against the erosion of test validity in the face of test taking strategy implementation (Goh & Aryadoust, 2010; Lee, 2011). Test taking strategies such as clue-word orientation, multiple choice elimination strategies, and a variety of other test taking strategies that are not involved with assuring proper knowledge representation but rather with "fooling" or "gaming" the test itself are all but impossible to control for (Lee, 2011; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). Elements of test design, from the test type…… [Read More]

Amer, a. (2007). EFL/ESL Test-Wiseness and Test-Taking Strategies. Sultan Qaboos University [dissertation].

Cheng, L. (2008). The key to success: English language testing in China. Language Testing 25(1): 15-37.
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Acquisition of Language Is a

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60998297

Reardless or whther the second language learner is a child or an adult there must be a concerted effort put for the to understand the cultural context of the second language. This responsibility lies with instructors and students. The instructor has te responsibility to teach certain cultural nuances ad habits and the learner has the responsibility of having an open mind so that the culture can be acquired. Failure to do so make it extremely difficult for an individual to acquire a second language. The impact of second language acquisition is that it serves as a conduit between the first culture and the language of the second culture. Once cultural context is understood the individual understands how to use the language and how to understand pothers when they use the language. This ability to communicate is often an aspect of language acquisition that is difficult to understand because the rules of culture are not neatly explained in textbooks. This is knowledge that can only be acquired through an exploration of the culture. Failure to engage in such exploration can prove to be a significant impediment to acquiring and truly understanding a second language.

The purpose of this discussion is to…… [Read More]

Bowlin, Carla Mackenzie Culture and language: communication barriers for Hispanic immigrants working in the U.S. And their Anglo-managers. Appalachian State University, 2006. Print

Citron, James L. "Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity." Hispania 78.1: (1995) 105-113. Print