Second Language Essays (Examples)

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While I understand why non-literal meanings are particularly difficult for speakers to comprehend, it seems to me that interlanguage would be easier for people learning second languages, because they can draw from examples of interlanguage from their native language. After all, even elementary school children have difficulty understanding the existence of idioms, homonyms, and other examples of words and phrases that have alternate definitions.
I appreciated the description of the developmental stages for language acquisition in Chapter 4; the progression from subject to direct object, indirect object, object of preposition, possessive, and object of comparison provided a useful classification of the progression of language acquisition. However, I was confused by the author's contention that "Developmental stages are not like closed rooms. Learners do not leave one behind when they enter another" (Lightbown and Spada, 92). While it is true that different people absorb material at different rates, it seems very….

This then helps the teacher to appropriately adjust their approach and teaching skills to address the particular weak points that the students or particular student might have.
There is need to incorporate computers in class as well particularly in some particular topics in teaching second language. This applies especially when it comes to the use of language in creating formal documents or such like formal types of writing which can best the imbibed by the students.

With the availability of the computers, there will need also to have language systems used to help the students especially in the independent learning process. This will help the students grow some level of independence and self-reliance in learning more details of language as they can easily look up the meaning and use of words and phrases even in the absence of the teacher.

LCD projector is yet another technology that can be used in a….

He is 37 years old, born in France, of Senegalese descent. His native language is French, but he also speaks Wolof, Fulani, and American English. He was from a middle class background and was educated in the French school system. He knew virtually no English when he arrived in 1997. he took a job as a factory line worker in the plant and learned English rapidly, using his skills to move up in the company.
The methodology for the study of this worker was an ethnographic case study intended to understand the individual dynamics of this individual at his place of employment, using theory-based or operational construct sampling. In this approach, the sample becomes representative of the phenomenon of interest, with the interest in this case being the subject's social identity in his second language. The two methods of data collection used are observation and interviews. The observations covered a….

Theoretically, CLIL draws on research that situates the integration of language and content as the relationship between form and meaning. An understanding of the theory and practice related to the content-based classroom is essential to the present study. In this section of the chapter, I outline the underlying theory and rationale commonly cited as a basis for CLIL, review empirical research that has evaluated CLIL in the classroom, and outline various approaches designed to integrate language and content.
CLIL is an umbrella term that captures a wide range of classroom models that include attention to content and language. CLIL is premised on the belief that language and content are inseparable in SLA, and that language is "a system that relates what is being talked about (content) and the means used to talk about it (expression)" (Mohan, p. 1). As a pedagogical framework, CLIL has been widely adopted as an alternative….

Second Language Learning
To What Extent May L1 Affect Second Language Learning

Linguistic and Metalinguistic Knowledge

This category includes variables that are effective in both reading and listening comprehension and that involve knowledge about the structure of language, such as its syntax and morphology. Two questions guide the discussion here: How does linguistic knowledge in L2 develop, and how does linguistic knowledge in L1 affect L2 linguistic knowledge, indicating cross-language transfer?

Syntactic Knowledge. The development of syntactic knowledge has been one of the most productive research areas in applied linguistics, especially in the field of second language acquisition. A typical study involves selecting a linguistic dimension (for example, relative clause formation strategies) and then comparing groups of bilinguals who have different ways of representing that parameter in their L1 (Robert & Williams, 2009). These studies tend to emphasize the Universal Grammar underlying all languages and suggest that second language acquisition involves setting new….

A child who has been exposed to English as part of the curriculum of his or her native school will likely have an advantage over a child who has not. The processes of learning a new language are themselves helpful, even if the child has not previously been exposed to English. Being prepared for learning irregular verbs, understanding how to diagram a sentence, and figuring out unfamiliar words in context are all skills that are essential to becoming fluent. Never having thought about a language in a critical fashion is an additional obstacle for non-English speakers who have never had formal language training. "This helps explain why foreign exchange students tend to be successful in American high school classes: They already have high school level proficiency in their native language," and often an additional language (Walqui 2000).
The psychological motivation for learning a new language cannot be discounted. A child….

The acculturation model developed by Schumann (1978) consists of a taxonomy of variables that were developed based on the concept that both social (group) and affective (individual) variables are the primary causative variables as shown in Table __ below. In this regard, the term "acculturation" is used to refer to the learner's positive identification with, and hence social and psychological integration with, the target language group. For instance, Schumann notes that, "[T]he learner will acquire the second language only to the degree that he acculturates" (1978, p. 29).
Table

Taxonomy of variables influencing second-language acquisition

Variable

Examples

Social Factors

Dominance; Nondominance; Subordination; Assimilation; Acculturation; Preservation; Enclosure; Cohesiveness; Size; Attitude; Intended Length of esidence in Target Language Area.

Affective Factors

Language Shock; Culture Shock; Motivation; Ego-permeability.

Personality Factors

Tolerance for Ambiguity; Sensitivity to ejection; Introversion/Extroversion; Self-esteem.

Cognitive Factors

Cognitive Development; Cognitive Processes; Imitation; Analogy; Generalization; ote memorization; Cognitive Style; Field Dependence; Category Width; Cognitive Interference; Monitoring.

Biological Factors

Lateralization; Transfer; Infrasystems.

Aptitude Factors

Modern Language Aptitude;….


The researcher observed the following conclusions about conversation analysis

The use of a conversation-analytical transcription is important because it pinpoints details which are essential for understanding code-switches and the negotiation of roles and relations (Steensig 2004).

The method also provided a detailed analysis of what it is pertinent for each participant to do at precise points in the interaction (Steensig 2004). This is critical to comprehending the context in which events such as code-switches, occur (Steensig 2004).

The conversation-analysis theory can also aid in understanding how Participants make alliances and afford "power wielding" in the interaction (Steensig 2004).The author asserts that "Although this point was only cursorily developed in Steensig (2000a) it was claimed that detailed analyses using conversation analytical methods may be a clue to a better understanding of the social relations between the participants (Steensig 2004)."

Advantages and Disadvantages of Conversation analysis

The primary advantage of conversation analysis is that it relies upon….

first language (L1) in the second language EFL classroom (L2). The study provides a brief historical background of the use of native or target language for a classroom teaching. The literatures are also reviewed to enhance to a greater understanding on the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis. Theoretical arguments are provided to support or against the use of monolingual or bilingual approach in a teaching environment. While some scholars believe that monolingual approach is the best to teaching, some scholars support bilingual approach.
There is a growing debate among scholars, academicians and professionals whether a classroom teaching of ELT (English language teaching) should exclude or include native language (LI) and the issue has led leading to a long-term controversy. (Brown, 2000). Supporters of monolingual approach argue that instructors should avoid using L1 in the classroom environment. At the end of the 19th century, supporters of the Direct Method banned the use native….

Linguistics
Critique of Cross-cultural Culture Awareness for Second/Foreign Language

This context confers to foreign culture, which can be any language apart from the original mother language. The article restricts itself to French as the "foreign language," which is not the case to every human. The author of the article talks about French textbooks and matters pertaining French speaking world, instead of covering various languages too. The introductory part (abstract) translation is French, which clearly shows the bias aspect of the author. In the article, learning of French and Francophone cultures is applicable to any second or foreign language. Cultures performed by different language groups are totally different, and if anyone wishes to learn a different foreign language as a second language apart from French, he/she will have different concepts from the one who has learned French as the second language. The author also restricts herself to one region and shows the reaction….

24). The findings of this study challenge accepted notions concerning the efficacy of the teacher-initiated initiation -- response -- feedback (IF) sequences that are delivered in whole group teacher-fronted environments.
Based on his findings, Baynham argues that "teacher and students are robustly claiming interactive space in classroom talk, bringing the outside into discussion. This data, drawn from narrative and classroom data in case studies of Adult ESOL classrooms, points to less docile more agentive and open-ended models of classroom discourse than have typically been evidenced in the literature" (2006, p. 24).

Lam (2004)

The researcher presents an analysis of discourse, interview, and observational data that suggest a mixed-code variety of English is adopted and developed among the focal youth and their peers around the globe to construct their relationships as bilingual speakers of English and other languages. This researcher emphasizes the need to study how people navigate across contexts of socialization in….

234).
Thus, the connection between social choices and variability in language for the second language leaner is remarkably clear. What is left up to interpretation, however, is the extent to which variability is influenced by linguistic or social factors, by internal or external factors. Based on the observations of sociolinguists, the results of the VABUL program, and recent studies into this issue, it is clear that social factors play at least some role in the acquisition of the target language by the second language learner. By investing further research into this area, however, linguists cannot only make a determination regarding the degree to which variation in second language learners is influenced by social factors, but they can also draw implications for the nature of language and the appropriateness of the prominent universal grammar theories. For instance, if the internal universal constraints variable were to be proven conclusive, this would stand….

English as a Second Language - Background Knowledge
KNOWLEDGE

Shirley Adams established in her research that "Along with vocabulary, a reader's background knowledge has been shown to be an important component of reading comprehension. The background experiences children bring to a reading selection affect how well they can understand it" (155). Furthermore, Adams points out that vocabulary is a critical factor in language development and subsequent reading comprehension (155). Generally, in learning a second language, "Teachers who create or select reading materials should keep in mind the backgrounds and present knowledge of their students. For example, reading selections for a beginning French class should include topics with which the students are already familiar rather than selections dealing exclusively with the target country or culture. Even though beginning students may not know all of the vocabulary in a reading selection, they are less likely to feel frustrated in their first attempts with a….

The 'use' of language while the student learns is just as important as the quality of learning provided because without functional real-life use of the English Language there is no real grasp of the language and therefore the student might learn and yet not retain that learning. There are many activities that the teacher is able to use in the learning environment that not only assist the ESL learner but serve to educate students already in full grasp of English about other languages and cultures effectively pulling the ESL student into the activities and putting all students at ease in the learning environment. Social learning of the English language, or in fact in learning any language is very important as social learning provides an excellent platform for common everyday functional use of the language.
III. Responsibilities of the Teacher and School for the ESL Student

It is the responsibility of the….

Adult Second Language Learning: Chinese Semantics, Explicit Learning
The area of second language learning (Chinese) is explored in this work in view of the appropriateness of the methodologies expounded by literature on the subject. Specifically, the proper use of explicit teaching method by incorporating aids like cues, pairing, sequential affectations, and the timing of radical disposition has been attempted in this work. The knowledge of previous work has been used to evaluate the utility of explicit teaching methodology to adult learners of Chinese language. The outcome arrived at is that with certain restrictions (because of certain limitations of the study), explicit learning methodology can be a faster tool than implicit methods as displayed in longer retention of the learned concepts. Also, explicit teaching can aid expansion of vocabulary amongst learners if imbued with the right implements in shorter time compared to implicit teaching methodology.

Introduction

According to Taft and Chung (1999) knowledge of….

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10 Pages
Essay

Communication - Language

Second Language Lightbown and Spada

Words: 3079
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Essay

While I understand why non-literal meanings are particularly difficult for speakers to comprehend, it seems to me that interlanguage would be easier for people learning second languages, because…

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3 Pages
Research Paper

Teaching

Second Language Teaching Technology and

Words: 858
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

This then helps the teacher to appropriately adjust their approach and teaching skills to address the particular weak points that the students or particular student might have. There is…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Communication - Language

Second Language Research Miles C

Words: 1159
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

He is 37 years old, born in France, of Senegalese descent. His native language is French, but he also speaks Wolof, Fulani, and American English. He was from…

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30 Pages
Research Proposal

Communication - Language

Second Language Oral Production in

Words: 10651
Length: 30 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

Theoretically, CLIL draws on research that situates the integration of language and content as the relationship between form and meaning. An understanding of the theory and practice related…

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20 Pages
Essay

Communication - Language

Second Language Learning to What Extent May

Words: 6360
Length: 20 Pages
Type: Essay

Second Language Learning To What Extent May L1 Affect Second Language Learning Linguistic and Metalinguistic Knowledge This category includes variables that are effective in both reading and listening comprehension and that…

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2 Pages
A2 Coursework

Communication - Language

Second Language T-Chart Help vs

Words: 710
Length: 2 Pages
Type: A2 Coursework

A child who has been exposed to English as part of the curriculum of his or her native school will likely have an advantage over a child who…

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24 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Second Language Learning Motivations of

Words: 9074
Length: 24 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

The acculturation model developed by Schumann (1978) consists of a taxonomy of variables that were developed based on the concept that both social (group) and affective (individual) variables…

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18 Pages
Term Paper

Communication - Language

Sla Second Language Aquisition as

Words: 5181
Length: 18 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The researcher observed the following conclusions about conversation analysis The use of a conversation-analytical transcription is important because it pinpoints details which are essential for understanding code-switches and the negotiation…

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24 Pages
Essay

Communication - Language

First Language L1 in the Second Language

Words: 6580
Length: 24 Pages
Type: Essay

first language (L1) in the second language EFL classroom (L2). The study provides a brief historical background of the use of native or target language for a classroom…

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4 Pages
Article Critique

Communication - Language

Cross-Cultural Awareness for Second Language Learners by Elizabeth Knutson

Words: 1206
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Article Critique

Linguistics Critique of Cross-cultural Culture Awareness for Second/Foreign Language This context confers to foreign culture, which can be any language apart from the original mother language. The article restricts itself to…

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10 Pages
Essay

Communication - Language

Theory Behind Second Language Socialisation

Words: 2820
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Essay

24). The findings of this study challenge accepted notions concerning the efficacy of the teacher-initiated initiation -- response -- feedback (IF) sequences that are delivered in whole group…

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5 Pages
Essay

Communication - Language

Sll Variability in Second Language

Words: 1536
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

234). Thus, the connection between social choices and variability in language for the second language leaner is remarkably clear. What is left up to interpretation, however, is the extent…

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11 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

English as a Second Language - Background

Words: 2903
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Term Paper

English as a Second Language - Background Knowledge KNOWLEDGE Shirley Adams established in her research that "Along with vocabulary, a reader's background knowledge has been shown to be an important component…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

English as a Second Language

Words: 646
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The 'use' of language while the student learns is just as important as the quality of learning provided because without functional real-life use of the English Language there…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Teaching

Learning Chinese as a Second Language

Words: 2129
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Adult Second Language Learning: Chinese Semantics, Explicit Learning The area of second language learning (Chinese) is explored in this work in view of the appropriateness of the methodologies expounded by…

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