Second Language Essays (Examples)

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Language Learning Acquisition My Language Learning Acquisition

Words: 1488 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45617951

Language Learning Acquisition

My Language Learning Acquisition

Learning languages that are not native to you is not easy, but it is something that can be done by people who are passionate and dedicated. The easiest way to learn a language is through immersion into that language, and the best time to learn is as a child. Children soak up so much of what they see and hear all around them, that they can pick up a new language almost without even trying to learn it. However, as they get older and move into adulthood, the acquisition of language becomes more difficult and complex. It is certainly not impossible to learn a language at any age, but there are times when it is more difficult and times when it is easier. Taking advantage of the easier times (such as childhood) is the best way to learn something new and retain it…… [Read More]

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Language and Language Practices Language Is the

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740802

Language and Language Practices

Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.

Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.
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Language and Thinking Language Is the One

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35708581

Language and Thinking

Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:

University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm

Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.

Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
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Language Is the Perfect Instrument

Words: 4854 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34736050

Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.

In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html

Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng

Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad.  http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
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Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63717607

If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.

Ascription to the rules of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kemerling, Garth. "Language and Logic." 27 Oct 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from   http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e04.htm  

Schutz, Ricardo. "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." 20 Aug. 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from
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Language Diversity

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50628534

Language Diversity

Crawford begins the article by highlighting problems associated with second language instruction in American classrooms. According to the statistics cited most approaches used in these classrooms are inadequate to provide students with the necessary skills to communicate in the target language outside of the classroom. The reason for this is a lack of focus on communication skills, combined with an inflated focus on form rather than function. Despite efforts to improve upon this by methods such as the total immersion approach and the audiolingual method, results are still shown to be poor. Chomsky, Krashen and Cummins's theories are shown to have revolutionized language acquisition theories, and thus also language teaching methods. Furthermore Crawford shows that a child's inherent feelings about his or her own culture, and consequently about the culture represented by the target language, have a significant impact upon second language learning. It is then suggested that…… [Read More]

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Language Diversity and Education

Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46023537

Language Diversity and Education by Carlos J. Ovando, the author makes the point that the language diversity present in the United States has significant implications for all teachers and all students. He emphasizes the importance of both a person's first language and the dominant language in a culture. He notes the complexity of learning a second language: in addition to the cognitive mastery of vocabulary and grammar involved, fluency in a language involves discourse (structure of paragraphs and larger chunks of written language); appropriateness (adjusting language to the social setting); paralinguistics (body language, gestures, volume, pitch, etc.); and pragmatics (cultural norms involving language, subtle conversation skills). Even though ESL students may seem to be learning English rapidly, those language skills may be largely social and inadequate t the cognitive demands made on it in a classroom.

Ovando gave examples of true dialects in the United States -- creoles, or combinations…… [Read More]

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Language and Literacy Every Workplace Without Exception

Words: 1463 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6884949

Language and Literacy

Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…… [Read More]

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Language Teaching and Learning Methods

Words: 3071 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98946947

Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.

In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative

Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].

Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].

Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
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Language Learning Model

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30535107

native language is learnt successfully and naturally by children, without any difficulty (Rui, Van and Jin, 204). Children of all cultures acquire native languages at some point in life, in a suitable linguistic environment having adequate language output and input. However, many children learning second languages reveal that they face difficulties with second language that didn't occur while learning first languages. They are perplexed regarding their inability to understand or accurately and fluently use second languages, despite striving for years to learn them. It is often speculated whether second or target language learners can duplicate how they learnt their first language. Thus, a contrastive study of second and first language learning is of great significance to those who teach, and learn, second languages (Rui, Van and Jin, 204).

Contrastive analysis

The main idea of contrastive analysis was construction of structural 'images' of two languages, followed by direct comparison between them…… [Read More]

1. The Greenbergian approach

The first employs the universal grammar concept that could describe classes of every language. Universal properties were asserted as innate, meaning, for instance, that children are capable of quickly constructing grammars. The second, Greenbergian approach (1966), seeks regularities in language differences and in principles and constraints underlying these differences (Hawkins, 1983: 6; Ermira, 2013; Powell, 1998).

Transfer
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Language Teaching and Learning in

Words: 1321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27270341



As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.

Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.

Principles and features of task-based language teaching.

Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.

Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Breen, M., 2005. Learner contributions to task design.. Chicago: Penguin.

Candlin, C.N., 1984. Syllabus design as a critical process, ELT Documents. Cambridge: Pergamon & the British Council.
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Language Proficiency and Content Understanding

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18461851

Seamless Bridge

As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a…… [Read More]

References

AdLit. (n.d.). Building Trust with Families. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells/

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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Education Language Acquisition and Learning

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78735701

Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.

Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in…… [Read More]

References

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English Language Learners. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Krashen, S. (2010). On language acquisition. Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug

"Nebraska: ELL Resources," (n.d.). Colorin Colorado. Retrieved online: http://www.colorincolorado.org/ell-basics/resources-state/nebraska
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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]

References

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.

Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.

Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
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Language and Social Grouping Language Is Used

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98470219

Language and Social Grouping

Language is used differently in different geographic groups, ethnic, age, gender, and socioeconomic groups (Williams, 2010). Geographic groups use the same languages in different dialects that belong to the particular geographic regions. Within each language are many different dialects that have been formed with different geographic locations and cultures.

Shared words, experiences, cultures, and expressions are ethnic and shared elements of the social fabric. Language of a common gender and age is a common part of that shared experience. Age of individuals accounts for place and shared experience in society. The style of language used reflects someone's age. Individuals within the same age, gender, and geographic location would use language different from other groups with different ages, gender, and geographic locations.

Language reflects education and socioeconomic status. Individuals in different industries and positions communicate differently than individuals from other industries. The level of education also determines…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eble, C. (n.d.). Sociolinguisitics Basics. Retrieved from Do You Speak American:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/sociolinguistics/sociolinguistics/ 

Karr, L.J. (2010, Nov 29). How Do We Understand Language Variations. Retrieved from Bright Hub Education: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/studying-a-language/63557-understanding-language-variation/

Williams, G. (2010, Nov 8). How Does Language Reflect and Influence Social Grouping? Retrieved from Suite 101: http://suite101.com/article/how-does-language-reflect-and-influence-social-grouping-a306336
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Language and Comprehension Are Both

Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99663052

Ketch asserts that it is through this natural process that students comprehend and become critical thinkers. Likewise, Pinnell seems to share similar beliefs about natural processes and educators allowing children to explore these processes. The author asserts that

"Concentration on skills draws attention away from the normal and self-reinforcing uses of language, and instruction often unnecessarily makes a natural everyday activity seem foreign and stilted. Language studies suggest that efforts should be redirected to take advantage of nature's most powerful incentive for developing facility with language -- the child's intention to communicate meaning to other people, the use of language for a variety of purposes (Pinnell."

Both of these assertions support the importance of oral language. Ketch encourages this by explaining the importance on conversation is developing critical thinking skills. Likewise Pinnell enforces this by explaining the importance of language use among children.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was…… [Read More]

References

Ketch, a (2005). Conversation: The comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher, 59(1) 8-13.

Pinnell, G.S. (1975. Language in primary classrooms. Theory into Practice, 14(5), 318-327.
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Language and Memory Issues the

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54281025



Stages of Language Production:

While there is not necessarily a consensus among researchers as to the precise nature of human language production, one widely accepted view is the information processing approach (obinson-iegler, 422). In that framework, language production generally occurs in four specific stages: (1) conceptualization, (2) planning, (3) articulation, and (4) self-monitoring.

In that regard, the conceptualization stage refers to the internal process whereby the individual develops the desire to communicate a specific thought to others (obinson-iegler, 422). The planning stage consists of the decisions pertaining to how the thoughts to be communicated are organized into a linguistic plan within the framework of the language in which the individual hopes to communicate. The articulation stage involves the actual expression of the thoughts formulated in the conceptualization stage through the linguistic plan developed in the planning stage (obinson-iegler, 422).

Finally, the self-monitoring stage consists of the individual's purposeful awareness of…… [Read More]

References

Robinson-Riegler, G., and Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:

Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition. New Jersey: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.
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Language Skills During Communication While Highlighting Receptive

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90348523

Language Skills

During communication, while highlighting receptive skills learners may require to make verbal or non-verbal responses. For assessment of these receptive skills, learners need to respond to a written or a spoken text. Formal and informal feedback can also be used to provide information about the learners. Different listening materials are utilized by scholars in the course-line of learning; some materials contain all aspects of real spoken language hence they are authentic.

Recorded tapes, poems and songs, are authentic texts that can be used during learning. One of the complete texts that can be used during the learning process is a story. Stories involve emotions, ideas and hopes that shape the human life. A pleasant story is "Getting to the Wedding." [footnoteRef:2] It is a story that involves a boy trying to get home after school so that he can make it to a wedding. After he gets home,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinda, D. Patterns of the Story Teller. Mumbai: Pearson Education India, 2007.

Frey, O. Teaching and Learning L2 Grammar. London: GRIN Verlag, 2010.

Jack, C.,Hull, J.,Proctor, S. New Interchange;English For International Communication. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Spratt, M.,Pulveres, A., Williams, M. The TKT Course Modules 1,2,and 3. New York: Cambridge University, 2011.
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Language and What it Does

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44072447

Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.

Fast forward to 2012. n ristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of ristotle's plot formula.

s to the irony in proposed ristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In…… [Read More]

As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy (who is fascinated with these enormous birds with the longest wingspan of any bird in North America) investigate -- at the urging of his son -- the reasons some recently released California Condors are seriously ill and dying.

It turns out the father is a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), a group that refuses to accept the empirical science that shows Condors are poisoned when eating the carcasses of deer and other critters that have been shot with lead bullets. The father's investigation ironically points to his own organization as helping to kill Condors and he can't bear to tell his son, who is already heartbroken that some Condors are dying. This Oedipus-like irony could be considered Aristotelian. it's a father-son plot drenched in angst, descriptively genuine, written with the literary weapons of the future of hope colliding with history.

In conclusion, this not about a "Free Willy" plot. It is about a battlefield between the emerging conservation-minded generation now in middle school and those who are in benign denial as they kill natural world species. The details involve a restless adolescent revolution; thoughtlessness, greed, and adult resistance to good conservation are crushing the natural world. The brilliant, creative genius of a young boy -- who figures out a way to entertain the public (against the will of his parents) with a video that depicts not the toxic resistance of NRA members but the joy of a youthful future -- fits like a glove into the rough draft of a screenwriter searching for fresh themes in a world chocking on old themes.
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Language and Religion

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84384420

Language and Religion

I visited the Anglican Church in my community, who congregates every Sunday at 10am. To gain access, I telephoned the Secretary of the church, who explained to me that services were open to any members of the public. She indicated that I would be most welcome and she sounded very friendly as well. She invited me to also speak to the Reverend and gave me his number. I followed her advice and telephoned the Reverend with my request and the reasons for wanting to attend the assembly. Like the Secretary, the Reverend was extremely friendly and open to my request. He asked a few questions about my research as well, and seemed interested in what I had to say. He struck me as a very warm person who truly believed in what he was doing. So, the following Sunday, as decided, I woke up early, dressed according…… [Read More]

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Language of News Reporting in

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72791834

Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.

Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…… [Read More]

Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).

Conclusion

In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the
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Language as Mirror and Prism

Words: 3716 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81997091

Apparently this view has much in its favor.

When we compare modern English with some of those Indian languages which are most concrete in their formative expression, the contrast is striking. When we say "The eye is the organ of sight, the Indian may not be able to form the expression the eye, but may have to define that the eye of a person or of an animal is meant. Neither may the Indian be able to generalize readily the abstract idea of an eye as the representative of the whole class of objects... (p. 64).

It does not seem to occur to Boas anywhere in the Handbook that such a way of talking about the world might not arise because the mind of the American Indians that he is writing about is "primitive" but rather because he or she is seeing the world in a very different way.

Boas…… [Read More]

References

Boas, F. (1911). The handbook of American Indian languages. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Boston: MIT Press.

Lewis, H. (2001). Boas, Darwin, Science and Anthropology. Current Anthropology 42(3): 381-406

Whorf, B.L. (1941). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language in Language, culture, and personality, essays in memory of Edward Sapir. (L. Spier, ed.) Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund.
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Second Ghetto From the First

Words: 2146 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67932276

" ith this onslaught of blacks into their communities, there was an "exodus of Jews" (apparently no pun intended vis-a-vis the book Exodus about the Jews seeking a homeland) which created a "vacuum" that was immediately filled by a "housing-starved black population."

On page 415-16, Hirsch writes that the "real tragedy surrounding the emergence of the modern ghetto" is not that it has been "inherited" but that it has been "renewed and strengthened... with government sanction and support."

Finally, on page 416, Hirsch gets down to the bare bones, bottom line social dynamic of the problem that has been allowed to fester in Chicago (at least up to 1983 when he published this essay). hen, he writes, the racial lines began to "harden" after the post-II influx of blacks into the second ghetto, "it was apparent that white hostility was of paramount importance in shaping the pattern of black settlement."…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hirsch, Arnold R. (1983). "From the First Ghetto to the Second Ghetto," in Making the Second

Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960, Arnold R. Hirsch, 412-419, Cambridge:
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Language of Choice Theory and

Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95037421

Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010).

g. What is the role of cognitions or thoughts?

According to Glasser, thoughts are just one aspect of "Total Behavior," which includes "acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). All human behavior is Total Behavior, and all human behavior is chosen. However, acting and thinking are the only two components of behavior a person can directly control. Therefore, a patient must indirectly control their feelings and physiology by directly controlling their thoughts and behaviors (Glasser & Glasser, 2010).

IV. What specific techniques are used in this theory?

Choice theory is based primarily on "Seven Caring Habits" and "Ten Axioms" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Seven Caring Habits are: "supporting, encouraging, listening, accepting, trusting, respecting, and negotiating differences" with creativity (the William Glasser…… [Read More]

References

Erwin, J. (2004). The Classroom of Choice: Giving Students What They Need and Getting What You Want. . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Glasser, W., & Glasser, C. (2010). The Language of Choice Theory. HarperCollins ebook.

The William Glasser Institute. (2010). Teaching the World Choice Theory. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from the William Glasser Institute: http://www.wglasser.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=92&Itemid=221
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Language Department Thinking Critically About

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63729647

Put us in the air and we can't do anything should anything happen to the plane. We, as humans, cannot fly on our own.

A: Chapter eight also talks about assessing intelligence and there are many ways to do so. Intelligence, however, doesn't just refer to more analytical type of thinking. In the article "Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled?" authors Matthew, Zeidner and oberts (2012) discuss how emotional intelligence is a fairly new construct in differential psychology. There are many proponents of this construct and they have made powerful arguments for emotional intelligence's importance in both basic and applied psychology (2012).

Emotional intelligence is a bit different than what we might normally think of as intelligence. It is a collection of aptitudes, skills and competencies for dealing with emotions and emotional encounters (Matthew et al. 2012). Perhaps one of the reasons emotional intelligence isn't considered much -- or when it…… [Read More]

References

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M. & Roberts, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled? Japanese psychological research,54(2), 105-127.

Myers, G. (2012). Psychology in everyday life. Worth Publishers.
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Language and Cognition Is Relatively

Words: 3138 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82941920

Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.

ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…… [Read More]

References

Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.

A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878

Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.
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Speaking in the Target Language Is the

Words: 3146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76841042

speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?

Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.

As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…… [Read More]

References

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.

Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43 -- 59). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183 -- 196.
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Do You Think Animals Meet the Definition of Using Language

Words: 841 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60654014

feature of language and why?

The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…… [Read More]

References

Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from:

 http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/factors.htm 

Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from:  http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test4materials/secondlangacquisition.htm 

What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/grammar-what.htm
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Acquisition of Language Is a

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60998297



Reardless or whther the second language learner is a child or an adult there must be a concerted effort put for the to understand the cultural context of the second language. This responsibility lies with instructors and students. The instructor has te responsibility to teach certain cultural nuances ad habits and the learner has the responsibility of having an open mind so that the culture can be acquired. Failure to do so make it extremely difficult for an individual to acquire a second language. The impact of second language acquisition is that it serves as a conduit between the first culture and the language of the second culture. Once cultural context is understood the individual understands how to use the language and how to understand pothers when they use the language. This ability to communicate is often an aspect of language acquisition that is difficult to understand because the rules…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowlin, Carla Mackenzie Culture and language: communication barriers for Hispanic immigrants working in the U.S. And their Anglo-managers. Appalachian State University, 2006. Print

Citron, James L. "Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity." Hispania 78.1: (1995) 105-113. Print

Hidasi .Judit The Impact of Culture on Second Language Acquisition.  http://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2006/exfile/HIDASI.pdf 

Ilieva, R. . "Exploring culture in texts designed for use in adult ESL Classrooms." TESL Canada Journal, 17.2 (2000):50-63.Print
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Teaching Foreign Language to Infants

Words: 2828 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58652257



Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).

One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Colin. (1993).Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Bialystok, Ellen. (1991). Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge University Press.

Bilingual. 2004.WordIQ.com. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual

Davis, Laura and Keyser, Janis. Parenting Experts: Bilingual Family Pros and Cons. ParentsPlace.com
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Importance of Foreign Language Education in High School

Words: 2711 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35822617

Foreign Language Education in High School

The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clark, Leon E. "Other-Wise: The case for understanding foreign cultures in a unipolar world." Social Education, Vol. 64, Issue 7, 2000.

Garrett, Nina. "Meeting national needs: the challenge to language learning in higher education.

Change, 1 May 2002

Gramberg, Anne-Katrin. "German for business and economics." The Clearing House, 1 July 2001.
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Official Language for the United States

Words: 1484 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99207071

United States make English its Official Language?

The calls for English to be adopted as United States' official language have been prevalent since 1919 when President Theodore Roosevelt stated that the country has room for only one language i.e. The English language. The advocacy for English-only in the United States has been fueled by attempts to develop a unique American nationality. Actually, President Roosevelt advocated for English to be adopted as the official language of the United States because of the explicit and unqualified link between language and citizenship. However, since the beginning of this advocacy the issue on whether the United States should make English its official language has attracted various arguments and counter-arguments between supporters and opponents. The determination of a suitable position regarding the issue requires an evaluation of arguments by both sides.

Advocacy for English as America's Official Language

In contrast to popular belief, the United…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brice, Brandon. "Why English Should Be the Official Language of the United States." Washington Times Communities. The Washington Times, LLC., 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. .

Fabian, Jordan. "No, It's Not Necessary to Make English the Official Language." Online Posting. ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 June 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. .

Jackson, Raynard. "Should English Be Our America's Official Language or Not?" Online Posting. Charisma News - Informing Believers with News from a Spirit-filled Perspective. Charisma Media, 7 July 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. .

Miller, Eric C. "Should English Be the U.S. Official Language? -- Eric C. Miller -- Aeon." Aeon Magazine. Aeon Media Ltd., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. .
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Human Language

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65319029

properties of human language (displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural, transmission, discreteness, duality) discuss how human language differs from animal communication.

Unlike animal language, human language can possess the property of displacement. Displacement "allows the users of language to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment." (21) A human need not cry out in pain in the moment, but one can describe the silent pain one felt later on, displacing the experience into the future rather than when it was actually experienced. 'Let me tell you what a day I had,' is a very human, displaced expression. There is also a less arbitrary nature to human language, because human language is contextual. For instance, for although same beast would be a dog in England or a perro in Spain, yet the same dog would still give the same barking sound in both lands, if it were the same…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Yule, George. "The Study of Language." Second edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996
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Dialects Language -- the Social

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72225842

Also, student's vocabulary and formality of speech can and will differ in different social contexts, from school to home to the playground, as indeed does all human speech, as even teachers adopt a greater degree of formality speaking to the principal, to students, and also in their own homes.

hy teach standard speech at all? hat to do when certain patterns of speech, such as Black English, have different grammatical variations than standard written English? One approach is to stress contextual aspects of speech in education. (Chaika, 1994, p.299) It cannot be denied that job applicants and people are validated and valued differently, depending on how their speech coheres to Standard ritten English. Even dialect speakers are evaluated on a valuation gradient, as speakers with certain desirable accents, like a British accent for example, might be esteemed more than speakers with a traditionally Black or Spanish accent, unfairly. (Chaika, 1994,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adger, Carolyn Temple. (Mar 1997) "Dialect Education: Not only for Oakland." Vol. 20. No. 2. ERIC Database. Retrieved 2 Oct 2005  http://www.cal.org /ericcll/news/199703/9703Dialect.html

Chaika, Elaine. (1994) Language -- The Social Mirror: Teaching Methods. Third Edition. New York: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Wolfram, W., Christian, D., & Adger, C. (1996) Dialects in schools and communities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
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Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

Words: 1884 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86392313

Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:

Grammar Translation Method

The Audio-lingual Method

The Direct Method

The Silent Way

The Communicative Approach

Cognitive code learning

The Natural Approach

Behaviorist approach

Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach

The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.

Grammar Translation Method

This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.

The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…… [Read More]

References

Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr

Communicative language teaching. Sil International.

A www.sil.org

Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
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Standards-Based Curriculum for English Language

Words: 1551 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51554388

(Farah and idge, 2009)

The successful shift from textbook, memory-based curriculum to a standards-based curriculum is therefore dependent on three things: the development of national standards and goals for curriculum; the development of corresponding assessment tools; and the re-education of teachers towards the objective of altering teachers' attitudes and views of their role in the education system. ather than simply drilling memorized facts, words or phrases into a student's consciousness-as is the case with a memory-based curriculum-teachers in a standards based, student-centered curriculum are responsible for helping students to apply such knowledge to practical situations for social success, over and above academic success.

eferences

English as a Second Language. (2010). etrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/

English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. etrieved December 30,

2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html

Farah, S., & idge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum…… [Read More]

References

English as a Second Language. (2010). Retrieved December 30, 2010, from   http://www.rong-chang.com/  

English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. Retrieved December 30,

2010, from   http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html  

Farah, S., & Ridge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum Development in the UAE. Dubai
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Perceptions of Interlink Language Center

Words: 1381 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69964423

These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).

In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…… [Read More]

References

Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2

knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.

Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT

Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
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Brain Mechanisms in Early Language

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60581008

Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.

Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]

References

Kuhl, Patricia K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713-727. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038

Lightbrown, Patsy M. & Spada, Nina. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press.
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Age and Learning a New Language What

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 182326

Age and Learning a New Language

hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.

The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age

"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).

hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cenoz, Jasone. (2003). "The Effect of Age on Foreign Language Acquisition in Formal

Contexts. In Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language, M. Mayo, and M.

Lecumberri, Eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Cummins, Jim, and Davison, Chris. (2007). International Handbook of English Language
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Laufer Min Language Acquisition Literature

Words: 1695 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87480316

The groups were distinguished by those who participated in language acquisition activities employing enhanced reading with word-based activities and those who participated in what the researcher called 'narrow reading,' which occurred without this supplementary instruction. The two groups were asked to retain the same scope of fifty selected vocabulary words. Min would find that those in the former group, denoted as the "RV" group, performed significantly better than those in the "NR" group. In interpretation, Min tells that "the results show that the RV group demonstrated significantly more knowledge about the target vocabulary than the NR group on the acquisition and retention tests. The researcher concludes that reading plus focused vocabulary exercises are more effective and efficient than the narrow reading approach in enhancing target vocabulary acquisition and retention among EFL secondary students." (Min, p. 75)

Min would go on to suggest that the value in this study rests in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411

Min, H.T. (2008). EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading Plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading. Language Learning, 58(1), 73-115.
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Learning a Language Gaining Fluency in a

Words: 1741 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37044938

Learning a language: Gaining fluency in a language to be free

The acquisition of language is never a culturally neutral process. When someone learns his or her first or even a second language, that individual also acquires a status in the eyes of the world, based upon how that language is perceived. The race of the speaker, his or her perceived level of education, gender, and race all interact with the stereotypes that exist in the gazer's mind. In Christine Marin's essay "Spanish Lessons," Marin chronicles how her unsteadiness in Spanish did not initially bother her, given the fact that she grew up in a society that prized whiteness. Gradually, as she grew older and her attitude towards her heritage changed, her lack of fluency in her native tongue became a burden. Similarly, Malcolm X was forced to grapple with his complex relationship with the English language. On one hand,…… [Read More]

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Computer Assisted Language Learning

Words: 5289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14954613

Computer Assisted Language Learning or CALL, relates to the creation, use, and study of software that is specifically designed to allow for the use of a computer in the teaching and learning of a new language (Jarvis, 2013). Most commonly this is done for people learning English, but it can, theoretically, be used for any language learning process. There are a wide range of communication and information technologies that are embraced by CALL, as well, because approaches and applications that address teaching and learning of foreign languages are changing (Davies, 2002). The drill and practice methods that were so common in the 1960s and 1970s have been amended to provide a more interactive environment and a better opportunity for people to learn what they need to know in order to speak, read, and write another language more easily and more fluently (Jarvis, 2013).

The philosophy that CALL currently employs has…… [Read More]

References

Bax, S. (2003). CALL -- past, present and future. System, 31: 13-28.

Bush, M.D. (2008). Computer-assisted language learning: From vision to reality? CALICO Journal 25(3): 443-470.

Chambers, A., & Bax, S. (2006). Making CALL work: Toward normalisation. System, 34: 465-479.

Chapelle, C. (2000). Computer applications in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Ways to Improve Language

Words: 3384 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18828215

Grammar Error Correction

Grammar Correction Best Practices

The art and science of grammar correction has seismic implications on native and new speakers to English alike. The ability to communicate in a clear and cohesive fashion, both verbally and in writing, whilst using the proper syntax, punctuation, sentence structure and spelling is vital for the message to be clear. Further, it is seen as a sign of intelligence or lack thereof for someone to use the obviously wrong words and sentence structure while communicating in writing or via speech. hile grammar and languages teachers are perhaps fighting a losing battle right now given the fairly sloppy nature of many people including supposed language professionals like writers and journalists, there are indeed some verifiable and known best practices that can and should be used to help combat the grammar failures that pervade the sphere of communication in the United States as well…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, Alice Y.W. "An Algorithmic Approach To Error Correction: An Empirical

Study." Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2006): 131-147. Education Research

Complete. Web. 31 July 2014.

Chodorow, Martin, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault. "The Utility of Article And
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Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second

Words: 3701 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93159084

Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:

Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).

In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adamson, H.D. (1993). Academic competence: Theory and classroom practice. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.

Bernhardt, E.B. (2001). Progress and procrastination in second language reading research. Retrieved January 29, 2003 at http://language.stanford.edu/conferencepapers/AAALBernhardt01.doc

Carrell, P.L. (1983a). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication. 2, 25-34.

Carrell, P.L. (1983b). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning. 33, 183-207.
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Chinese as a Foreign Language

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68701269

The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.

Many…… [Read More]

references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.

Instrumentation/Materials

A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).

Research design

The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
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Foreign Language Learning Strategies

Words: 2081 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86895418

Foreign Language Learning trategies

This is a paper that outlines the strategies that can be used in the classroom by learners in learning foreign language. It has 6 sources.

Implementation of a foreign language learning strategy may be employed by students independently, and these strategies need to be ones that focus on principles such as motivation, gender, age group, etc., in order to have the effect intended.

Learning a second language is an interesting practice for those who are keen and interested in it. Those who indulge in language learning when they do not really need to often find it easier to do so, and this is because of the fact that they are not pressurized to get things right. They may find the process of error and correction more fun than those who feel compelled to learn a language. This is true for most foreign students who settle in…… [Read More]

Sources:

Spencer, Shelley. Five-Minute Lesson Fillers. The Internet TESL Journal. 2003.   http://iteslj.org/ Techniques/Spencer-5MinuteFillers.html 

Van der Werff, Joep. Using Pictures from Magazines. The Internet TESL Journal. 2003.
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Formulaic Language in the Year

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80963136

acial or ethnically-based teasing and peer pressure has long been associated with academic achievement, as Tyson et al. point out in his 2005 report studying the behaviors of blacks and whites during high school. While Tyson et al. also suggests that "school structures" are somewhat to blame for "stigmas" of "acting white" or "acting high and mighty" (582), he maintains that that teasing and peer pressure and also important components.

Because of the profound social implications of interactions between formulaic speaking and non-formulaic speaking students, teachers in the third year classroom need to be aware of students' interpretation of the formulaic speaking students, monitoring the communication between the groups. In addition to being aware of the situation, teachers should use the problem to educate students about stereotypes and teasing in addition to encouraging formulaic speaking students to express themselves in the language of instruction. Thus, third year students' use of…… [Read More]

References

Hamilton, Kendra. (2005). The Dialect Dilemma. Black Issues in Higher Education. 22

O'Neil and Gish. (2008). Customer did not provide the rest of the citation.

Pearson, David P., Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Kamil, Michael L. (2007). Theory and Research into Practice: Vocabulary Assessment: What We Know and What We Need to Learn. Reading Research Quarterly. 42 (2), 282-296.

Perez, Samuel a. (2000). Using Ebonics or Black English as a Bridge to Teaching
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Dual Language With the Abundance

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76825614



The graph on figure 2 of Collier and Thomas' article (p. 8) also attests to the efficacy of two way immersion classes, perhaps even more so than the first graph. This is primarily due to the fact that there is a greater disparity in the average test scores for students who were enrolled in these classes, versus those that are not. Furthermore, since the learning of English is the principle objective for dual language learners, this graph attests to the value in students enrolling in two way immersion courses in which they learn both Spanish and English.

Another fact that this second graph alludes to, and which is noted in comparison efforts with the first graph, is that there is a relationship between achievement in Spanish and achievement in English. This is particularly true for non-native English speakers. Learning basic fundamental aspects of their own language naturally correlates to a…… [Read More]

References

Collier, V.P, Thomas, W.P. (2004). "The astounding effectiveness of dual education for all." NABE Journal of Research and Practice. 2:1.
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Proposal for a Marketing Plan for a New English Language School in China

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35128838

Marketing Plan Proposal

English as a Second Language (ESL) School in China

Mission Statement -- Striving to provide accessible, high-quality, and affordable ESL education to individuals in China, with an aim to prepare students for education and work opportunities both within China and abroad.

Team Members -- The school will be staffed by a principal, a vice-principal, a public relations consultant, as well as several teachers. Al staff will be recruited from within China and abroad, providing individuals from all over the world the opportunity to take on one to two-year work terms in China.

Market Summary -- The ESL school market has been growing steadily in the past couple of decades. It is expected that due to globalization and China's increasing presence on the international business scene, ESL schools in China will demonstrate high levels of success. These present market conditions along with the high-quality education at affordable prices…… [Read More]

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American Sign Language

Words: 1635 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10253866

sign language in public settings for people who are deaf.

Writing notes as a way to communicate with people who are deaf is convenient, for people with normal hearing, and recommended, by people with normal hearing. In the world of hearing people, recommendations for using note writing as a way to communicate with people who are deaf is common.

Communication at work. Employers are advised to supplement their communication with employees who are deaf by writing notes. For example, Equal Access Communication, an advocacy organization suggests that supervisors may wish to keep a white board or a chalk board by the work area of an employee who is deaf. The supervisor is reminded to keep the writing simple and concise, first establishing the subject to be discussed and then providing an explanation. Further, the supervisor is reminded that the person who is deaf may experience difficulties understanding idioms or double…… [Read More]

References

Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H.B., and Thompson, R. (n.d.). Bimodal bilingualism: Code-blending between spoken English and American Sign Language, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and University of California, San Diego. Retrieval http://emmoreylab.sdsu.edu/pdf-bilingual/bilingual1.pdf

Teplin, E. (2008, August 26). Representing deaf and hard of hearing people: Legal requirements & practical suggestions. The Hennepin Lawyer. Retrieved http://hennepin.timerlakepublishing.com/article.asp?article=1246

Internet sources accessed http://www.signofthetimes.us/Medical.htm

http://www.ashoka.org/goudenove_francois
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Cultural Sensitivity Language Based Amoja Three Rivers'

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55929908

Cultural Sensitivity Language Based Amoja Three ivers' "Cultural Etiquette," Lynette Clemetson's "The acial Politics Speaking Well," observations experience, write a draft essay dealing issues cultural sensitivity language.

Prejudices and the politics of 'speaking well'

"Ethnocentrism," as defined in Amoja Three ivers' essay "Cultural Etiquette" is "a tendency to view alien groups or cultures in terms of one's own" and "the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own group and culture, accompanied by a feeling of contempt for other groups and cultures." Because how we speak feels so natural to us, there is a tendency to assume that people who cannot speak our language must be less intelligent -- or people who look differently from us cannot be masters of English. This is a common form of linguistic ethnocentrism. We assume that a recent immigrant is not intelligent because he or she is just learning the language -- even though…… [Read More]

References

Clemetson, Lynette. (2007). On the politics of speaking well. The New York Times.

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/04/weekinreview/04clemetson.html?_r=0

Rivers, Amoja Three. (1996). Cultural etiquette. Communities. Retrieved:

http://communities.ic.org/articles/1024/Cultural_Etiquette
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Communication and Language for Teaching and Learning Math in English in Hong Kong

Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74992214

English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong

With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…… [Read More]

References

Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf

Poon, A.Y.K., Lau, C.M.Y. And Chu, D.H.W. (2013, March). Impact of the Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy on Learning: Some Preliminary Findings. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, Vol. 4, Iss.1. Retrieved from: http://infonomics-society.org/LICEJ/ImpactoftheFineTuningMediumofInstructionPolicyonLearningSomePreliminaryFindings.pdf

Tsui, A.B.M. (2008). Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong: One Country, Two Systems, Whose Language? Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Edited by James. W. Ollofson and Amy B.M. Tsui. Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Zeng, W. (2007). Medium of Instruction in Secondary Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong:
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Effects of Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students

Words: 3174 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74903495

Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students

J. Elizabeth Estevez

Educ2205I-Content Research Seminar

Mathematics is a powerful tool for interpreting the world. Research has shown that for children to learn how to use mathematics to organize, understand, compare, and interpret their experiences, mathematics must be connected to their lives. Such connections help students to make sense of mathematics and view it as relevant. There has, however, been controversy with regard to children from non-English backgrounds and the best ways to get them to make those connections. Questions are raised regarding how to instruct these children who are referred to as English language learners (ELL's). Should they initially be taught in their native language with gradual exposure to English in language classes, or should they be immersed in English as early as possible. Based upon ideas presented in research studies and my own ideas as a former bilingual teacher,…… [Read More]

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Inuktitut Inuit's Language in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada

Words: 3303 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41276203

Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada

The role of language in identity construction of the Inuit in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada), which nourishes the evolution of their ethno-territorial movement in the eastern Canadian Arctic, had been around since the 1970s. This paper is an analysis of the legal-political context of the Quebec State then enables the detachment of the cornerstones of its policy speech in general, and finally those with respect to the indigenous population, in particular to the Inuit language.

There are eight major Inuit communities: those of the LABADO, the UNGAVA, and the BAFFIN, of Iglulik, the CAIBOU, of Netsilik and Copper as well as the Inuit of the Western Arctic (which replaced MACKENZIE INUIT). There are five main dialects Inuit in Canada Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut and inuttut grouped under a single language, Inuktitut or Inuktitut. (McGrath 2007) At the last census, 70% of Inuit said they…… [Read More]

References

Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451653

Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742535961

Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit art: a history. McFarland. ISBN 0786407115

De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7
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Foreign Language as the Culture

Words: 4565 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45712302

For both teachers, however, Boxer and Cortes-Conde highlight moments where the teacher talk lends itself to greater student interaction. At these moments, the teachers often fostered group discussions by asking students about their own cultural norms. When teachers took on the role of information brokers, students resumed the role of passive learners. The authors argue that open dialogue is crucial to fostering pragmatic and sociocultural competence, and that teachers can create this open dialogue and a place of comfort and still encourage pragmatic awareness. (Hall & Verplaetse, 2000, p. 15)

Stressing among new and existing foreign language educators the importance of classroom interaction as well as cultural expression is essential, as the manner in which context is delivered, as apposed to content lectured upon creates foundational interest and potential independent motivation to learn. Curriculum, must be inclusive and collaborative to engender individual motivation, which is essential to foreign language learning,…… [Read More]

References

Atanda, R. "Do Gatekeeper Courses Expand Education Options?" Education Statistics Quarterly 1:1 Retrieved October 10, 2007 at  http://nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol_1/1_1/4-esq11-c.asp  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570

Belz, J.A. (2002). Social Dimensions of Telecollaborative Foreign Language Study. Language, Learning & Technology, 6(1), 60. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570

Christian, D., Pufahl, I., & Rhodes, N.C. (2005). Fostering Foreign Language Proficiency: What the U.S. Can Learn from Other Countries. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(3), 226.

Creswell, John (1997) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing From Among Five Traditions. New York: Sage Pulications.
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Learning Problems vs Language Problems

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93484975

Learning Problems vs Language Problems

The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.

The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]

References

Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf

Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff

An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process

(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from: http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf