Stem Cell Research Essays Examples

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Stem Cells the Ethical Controversy

Words: 2407 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87608673



Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.

On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of fetal development that undoubtedly precede any form of consciousness. Therefore, the protection of the fetus during the so-called "grey area" where it is impossible to rule out consciousness and sentience of any kind is justifiable under objective moral principles.

It is not justifiable to apply those same types of moral…… [Read More]

Resources:
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

Boston: Little Brown, 2002
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Stem Cell Ethics Debating the Ethics of

Words: 1900 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10694307

Stem Cell Ethics

Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells

The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support an intermediate approach to stem cell research because it makes the most sense once the subtleties are understood.

Background

Stem Cells can be divided into several categories based on the technology used to generate them and the source from which the stem cells are derived (Ritz 5). Embryonic stem (ES)…… [Read More]

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Stem Cell Policies Scientific Breakthrough

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78401625



This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.

Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama

The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO (Executive Summary).

A new policy allowing research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem cells has the potential to lead to better understanding and treatment of many disabling diseases and conditions. Advances over the past decade in this promising scientific field have been encouraging, leading to broad agreement…… [Read More]

Sources:
AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/.

Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp.
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Stem Cell Are Commonly Known

Words: 495 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73370232

Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:

Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).

Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).

Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).

And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).

Works Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521

Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt

Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt

Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt

UK Human Embryonic Stem Cells First. August 2003. BBC News.. 7 October 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003… [Read More]

References:
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521

Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt
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Stem Cells Are a Hot Topic for

Words: 1341 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76797705

Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it is playing god in a dangerous way.

Some advocates of stem cell research will argue that any potential rights violation is worth it. "Stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine to replace diseased or damaged tissue..." (Fraer) Most medical problems are related to damage to the body, which means…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. < http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm>

Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
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Stem Cells Without a Doubt One of

Words: 2215 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2707824

Stem Cells

Without a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?

Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous shortage of donor organs), or to create tissues to treat various diseases and disorders.

The reason the discourse surrounding the topic of stem cells these cells is so controversial is due to the fact that the most promising source of stem cells is human fetal tissue. Of course, in order…… [Read More]

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Stem Cell Cience Must Be

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86882230



Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.

The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious freedom in the U.S. protects their right to hold those religious beliefs whether or not they make sense scientifically and logically. However, religious freedom also protects the rights of everybody else who may not share those religious definitions of what human life is or when it "begins."

Because the Bush…… [Read More]

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Stem Cell Stems Cells Are

Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906512



References

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.

Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/

Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell Research: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.

Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make up the body tissues

Blastocyst is a very early embryo, usually only 3-4 days old

Adult Stem cells are present in children as well as adults; they are also present in the animals; in this paper, however, we are mainly concerned with stem cells in humans

Scientists have demonstrated in…… [Read More]

References:
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
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Stem Cell Website Stem Cell

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11919197

However, we can immediately see that their purposes are distinct from one another.

From a design standpoint, one grievance with Sanford Burnham is the shortage of active links to immediately usable information. First and foremost, it is of note that in a page with several eye-catching graphics pertaining to particular site destinations (the Center for Nanomedicine, Sanford Burnham's blog) none of these photographs is used as an active link. This is a missed opportunity for site usability that may be perceived as being of marginal importance but in reality can have significant impact on how long a visitor remains on a site and how many pages said visitor is inclined to click-through. This is a shortcoming easily resolved but does impact the site's relative dynamism.

The importance of such a matter is highlighted in a comparison between the two sites, with Research America ultimately compiling a site that is a great deal more informative from a web usability standpoint. The main portal for Stem Cell Research on this site is flanked by clickable links to internal points within the site as well as to PDF documents rife with current information on matters such as state by state research initiatives on…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Research America: http://www.researchamerica.org/stemcell_issue?gclid=COuYj67at5sCFQuU7QodsmBAAg

Sanford Burnham:
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Stem Cells Since it Is

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80381147

The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)

Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).

Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such research generates such controversy. I believe that if scientists can use what is going to be thrown away to cure diseases, and to also figure out what can be done about isolating the genes and causes of those diseases, then the scientists should be allowed to do so. It is…… [Read More]

References:
Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make up the body tissues such as bone cells, blood cells, muscle, and skin cells. Although stem cells are present in every cell of the body even in an adult, they lose some of their ability to make a wider range of cells with age. Hence, the youngest stem…… [Read More]

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Stem Cells It Will Consider the Current

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94244861

stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.

The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as injury or worse by the Dickey amendment. Therefore specifically this particular congressional amendment prevents the use of HHS monies to create new embryonic stem cell lines (which may entail the destruction of embryos), however it does not prevent doing research using already created lines (Aylesworth, 2010).

Stem cell technique is…… [Read More]

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Use of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Patients

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79904362

Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's

Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges

was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").

Who is the leading authority on stem cell research?

There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously unknown innate sources of adult stem cells" (Gene Therapy, 2002). Krause is credited with contributing to the discovery of "recent revolutionary findings" that humans and other adult mammals process stem cells "…with the potential to differentiate into mature cells of the heart, liver, kidney, lungs, GI tract, skin, bone, muscle,…… [Read More]

Resources:
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from  http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .

Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
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Stem Cell Differentiation the Need to Restore

Words: 3613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42462808

Stem Cell Differentiation

The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement of cells and tissues, which can help in treating the diseases, related to the kidney and lung failure. Some of the diseases related to the failure of the lungs include Alzheimer's disease, heart diseases and diabetes. Considering the importance of stem differentiation in acting as a substitute for transplantation,…… [Read More]

References:
Stem Cells 26, 894-902.

Hay DC, Zhao D, Ross A, Mandalam R. Lebkowski J, Cui W. (2007). Direct Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Hepatocyte-Like Cells Exhibiting Functional Activities.

Cloning Stem Cells 9: 51-62.
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord Blood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in drug testing. The potential of the stem cells is an area that demands more research and testing to fully understand the untapped potential the stem cell. The information in this report does not contain a fraction of the information found on stem cells and could have been several more pages…… [Read More]

Sources:
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
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Moral Issues Relating to the Therapeutic Use of Embryonic Stem Cells in Humans

Words: 4386 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17989640

Therapeutic Use of Embryonic Stem Cells in Humans

Moral issues relating to the therapeutic use of embrionic stem cells in humans

Moral issues relating to the therapeutic use of embryonic stem cells in humans

The inception of the idea of research of stem cells became plausible in several decades, in the past. Additionally, the research caused an ensuing countless debates to accompany the issue. In considering the research on the stem cell, several issues accompany the debate. These issues are either ethical, which are about the potential moral effects the stem cells may bring. The second issue is of the legal aspect, which consider the regulation of the stem cell technologies by the government and the policy makers in the helping the public (Ostnor, 2008). The last issues are social in nature, influencing and involving the society as a whole.

Human embryonic stem cells are the current subject of heavy and intensive discussion; not only by the biologists who discovered the practice, but also the medical professions, media, ethicists, governments and politicians. The stem cells are relatively 'super cells' that have a significantly remarkable clinical potential to heal and repair the affected body tissue (Sullivan, Cowan & Eggan, 2007). The…… [Read More]

References:
Monroe, K.R., Miller, R.B., & Tobis, J.S. (2007). Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: The scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues. Berkeley, Calif: University of California

Press.