The War Of 1812 Essays Examples

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American History War of 1812

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48973688



There was another group of Americans who felt that all of America, including British Canada, should have been conquered during the Revolutionary War and then ceded to the Americans, so they felt the War of 1812, which began with Americans attempting to conquer Canada, should not have had to take place at all.

Finally, New England residents openly opposed the war, and did not support anything connected with it. They would not offer funds for the war, and they would not allow their militia to fight in the war. They were angry about the economy, but they were also angry because they felt they had been mislead by the government, and the war was really being fought to gain territory in Canada, which they did not agree with. Ultimately, the war ended in 1814, but much of American did not support or condone the…… [Read More]

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Wars of the Barbary Pirates

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67602952



The book is constructed on two main theses, the first revolving around the relevance of the Barbary wars in the freeing of the American population and in its formation as stable and confident people. The second thesis focuses on the Tripolitan war played in the formation of the modern American Navy. However the general history courses place little emphasis on the wars against the Barbary States, the naval forces commemorate them and recognize the role they played in the formation of the modern U.S. Marine. A third specification which could be made relative to the book is that, however not implicit, it also presents the historical conflict between the American and Islamic forces, relating as such to a contemporaneous matter, which is not as new as one could think.

"Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines" is written in a columnist form, creating the idea of a newspaper article. This not only makes it easier to read, but it could also suggest the connection between the past and present events; it could pin point the effects that past events have upon the present and it could also relate to…… [Read More]

Resources:
Gregory Fremont-Barnes, "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines," Osprey Pub Co, November 2006

Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Random House, http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9781846030307, last accessed on October 1, 2008
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War Years War Thirty Years

Words: 2047 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35858911

questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114867845.

Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.

Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.

Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.

Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.

Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and German Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and German Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.

1. European Ideologies: A Survey of 20th Century Political Ideas ed. Gross, Feliks, (New York: Philosophical Library, 1948), 800, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8947365.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973?Richard Cavendish, "The Diet of Augsburg: February 2nd, 1555," History Today, February 2005,…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Berger, Stefan. "The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich." The Historian 70, no. 3 (2008): 575+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5029265192.

Bossy, John. Peace in the Post-Reformation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107354120.
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War Hawks Represent a Generic

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27471395

Form this point-of-view (Goodman) the war hawks are considered to this day the catalysts of the 1812 war, despite the circumstances and the eventual need for world consideration.

Overall it can be concluded that the war hawks represent a rather controversial presence in the history of the United States. While some argue that they are in fact responsible for a painful war against Britain that could have been averted, other view them as important characters in shaping the honor and prestige of the United States in the decades to come.

Bibliography

Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .

Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186

Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives, 1812 ." The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 367-390

Muhall, Jill K. The War of 1812 . Huntington Beach: Shell Education, n.d.

Miriam Greenblatt, John Stewart Bowman. War of 1812. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

Risjord, Norman K. "1812: Conservatives, War…… [Read More]

Sources:
Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .

Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186
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War of Tripoli as a

Words: 3129 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78635994

Lear and Comodore Barron, the commander of the American fleet in the Mediterranean agreed in 1805 that Ahmad was no longer useful to the American cause. As a result, Lear met with Muhammad D'Ghies, Tripoli's Minister for foreign affairs, and eventually reached an agreement. War prisoners would be mutually exchanged, and America had to pay a sum of $60, 000 to Tripoli. However, this sum was considerably smaller than what the Pasha had asked for in 1804. Legendary Commodore Charles Morris wrote, "On the 3rd of June, a peace was concluded with Tripoli by Colonel Lear, who had been authorized by the President to negotiate."

One of the most important consequences of the war was its power to produce some of the earliest American war heroes. In the absence of news correspondents, and the far-reaching means the press has today, the accounts of the war were given by the people directly involved in it. Letters and dispatches were sent to American newspapers who often published them in their entirety. It is hard to imagine that there were no photographs, no video footage of the war. This was, in fact, the only connection between the American public, and the war going…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Allison, Robert J. Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero, 1779-1820. (University of Massachusetts Press, 2007)

Cray Jr., Robert E. "Remembering Richard Somers: Naval Martyrdom in the Tripolitan War."
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What Were the Main Causes and Consequences of the War 1812

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17913849

War of 1812

A mere thirty years after the end of the Revolutionary War -- which saw the American colonies separate from and defeat the British empire -- the fledgling United States found itself once again face-to-face with the world's greatest military power in a struggle to secure for the new nation, a mark of international status. The War of 1812 began with a "secret vote on June 4th, in which House members endorsed going to war 79-49…and a Senate vote on June 17 favoring war 19 to 13" (Langguth, A.J. 2006). How though had the U.S. arrived at this precarious position and what would the confrontation invariably mean for American interests going forward?

Causes of War

America's "second war of independence" (Langguth, A.J. 2006) had three primary causes: the impressment of American sailors, the British trade and embargo and blockade of U.S. ports, and the "incitement of Native American's to violence against Americans" (History.com. 2011), particularly in the Northwest Territories and into Canada.

The impressment of U.S. sailors by the British, "the practice of forcibly inducting men into military service" (U.S. History.com. N.D.) had occurred intermittently since the end of the revolutionary war and had not been stopped even…… [Read More]

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War That Forged a Nation

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39004976



The third theater of operations, besides the naval and Canadian one, was focused on the British push towards the capital city. Although successfully burning out Washington, the British were discouraged by the strong hold of Fort McHenry and the battle of New Orleans, in which they were defeated by Major General Andrew Jackson. As the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December 1814, news of this came to the American and British forces almost two months after the signing, putting also an official end to the war. As with Baltimore's fight, the defense of Fort McHenry, the author reminds the reader of another important information on the significance of this war. The battle of Baltimore later inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" which later became the national anthem of the United States.

As the author goes on with the war narrative, he introduces various descriptions of some of the most significant leaders of that period. He does a great job in mixing events and people dispersed in a large space as the North American continent as well as over a period of almost 10 years. What seem to miss in many parts of the book…… [Read More]

References:
Borneman, Walter. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. Harper Perennial, 2005
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War vs Peace War and

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50172725

That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.

By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.

As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States has not been invaded for almost 200 years, not since the year 1812, but it has invaded other countries, again and again" (24). Since this is the case, America has had to manipulate events and describe them as acts of terror, when in reality they are nothing more than acts…… [Read More]

Sources:
Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,

2007. Print.
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Causes and Outcomes of War

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54142514

Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this can be considered
an outcome of the war.
The war of 1812 had numerous causes, the most important that were
economic in nature. The United States, in order to maintain its economic
vitality, was forced to go to war, especially after the failed attempts to
avoid war through the embargo.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html.
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Causes of the Civil War

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8520980

Civil War and Sectionalism

Even after the creation of the United States of America in 1776, sectionalism guided economic and political realities throughout the union. The United States developed regional economies, regional philosophies, and regional politics. Slavery, its economics and its politics, was the most contentious issue that divided the nation along northern and southern lines, and would eventually cause the Civil War. As early as the 1790s, the northern states abolished slavery within their borders while the Southern states held on strong to the institution. Sectionalism would become the key cause of the Civil War, the bloody manifestation of sectionalist issues within the United States.

Early signs of sectionalism became evident as early as the War of 1812. The New England states still held strong economic ties with Great Britain, so those states generally opposed the war for financial reasons. Clearly, the economies of the north and south were evolving differently. The largely agricultural south and the increasingly industrial north wholly depended on each other, but competed over the ideology of slavery. Slavery became an economic as well as a politically contentious issue at the root of sectionalism in the United States.

The South's political power also diminished with…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
'The Causes." The American Civil War. .

"Pre-Civil War (1820-1860)." SparkNotes. .
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Barbary Terror America's 1815 War Against the

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12282765

Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa

During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa by historian Frederick Leiner demonstrates that not only was America's victory salutary for the sailors it freed from bondage but the military action was also critical in establishing American legitimacy as a world power.

Leiner attempts to bring a little-known aspect of America's…… [Read More]

References:
Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North

Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
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Anglo Chinese War the Historical

Words: 4723 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37346346



More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."

New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.

Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any consideration of battles, tactics, or technology, but rather view these topics within their much larger political and social contexts, in order to see how overarching political and social considerations evidence themselves in the actual practice of war.

Not to be too blunt about it, but the historiographical approach offered by…… [Read More]

Sources:
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-

1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
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Mexican War 1846-1848

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8922272

Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

The Great Territorial Loss

From the perspective of the United States, the Mexican-American War, together with the Louisiana Purchase, represented important land acquisitions as part of the country's relentless expansion westward. In this regard, Kurth (1999) reports that, "There were grand achievements in this national project of continental expansion, especially the southwestern annexations, which were achieved through U.S. military victory in the Mexican-American War. In this case, the United States took advantage of the fact that Britain and France were disrupted by serious internal turmoil."

With Britain and France otherwise occupied with their more immediate domestic issues, the U.S. was free to pursue its expansionist Manifest Destiny plans for the Western regions of the country, including most especially California and its vast resources and temperate weather.

From the perspective of the Mexicans, though, the invasion by the United States was a heavy-handed blow by an international bully that had provoked a war just to acquire land. The U.S. invasion of Mexico in 1846 resulted in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that secured an enormous amount of territory from Mexico, including Texas, New Mexico, and California, for the United States.

Not surprisingly, this humiliating defeat has been…… [Read More]

References:
Coward, John M. "Dispatches from the Mexican War," Journalism History 26 (2000, Spring) 1:

39.
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Civil Liberties During War Losses

Words: 6502 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92725275

However, during war it becomes all too easy to look for convenient ways to disregard even the most important laws.

The first, and most dramatic, effect of war is to increase the general fearfulness of a population. Fear and anxiety rocket way up during wartime, and are fueled by all the myriad effects of such conflicts. But another, less-well-understood reaction to war on the part of a both the individual and the nation (and, again, this is not a phenomenon that is in any way unique to the United States) is a marked increase in binary thinking. Humans are programmed to think in oppositionally defined, polar pairs and this is something that we do all the time.

But during fear-producing times, this tendency is greatly exacerbated. In peacetime, people are likely to find it easier to consider nuances and shades of meaning, but during armed conflict, no such nuance can be tolerated. War underscores and heightens the human biological inclination to see everything in terms of black and white. We see the "other" during war not only as the enemy but as people who are so different from us, It is as if there is visceral recognition of the relationships…… [Read More]

Resources:
Alien and Sedition Acts,  http://www.ushistory.org/us/19e.asp . Accessed 3 December 2009.

James Bovard, 2003, October. Wilson's Crusade and Bush's Crusade. http://www.fff.org/freedom/fd0310c.asp. Accessed 3 December 2009.
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Barbary Wars

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48806632

Barbary Wars

Frank Lambert's The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World is a look into a time when the United States was insignificant on the world stage; a time when the U.S. didn't even have a navy. The book literally begins with the tale of an American merchant ship named Betsey, which was captured by a band of Barbary pirates in November of 1784. The Crew, commanded by Captain James Erwin, were taken prisoner and held captive in the Moroccan port of Sale on the Atlantic coast. The newly independent United States of America was unable to act against this heinous act of piracy due to the fact that it had no navy. All naval ships authorized during the course of the Revolution had been sold off to help pay the expenses of the war. In 1784, the United States had no navy to speak of, and it's ships were at the mercy of anyone they encountered. And the British, who's powerful fleet once protected their American colonists, now sought to impede the trade of the independent United States of America. Americans had sought to create a "free trade" zone throughout the Atlantic, including the Mediterranean, but ran…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Print.
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Medical Care Influenced by Civil War and

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69215069

Medical Care Influenced by Civil War and Crimean Italian Unification Wars that Immediately Preceded the U.S. Civil War

The objective of this study is to examine how medical care influenced the Civil War and Crimean Italian Unification Wars that Immediately Preceded the U.S. Civil War. The work of Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Pearce (2002) reports that the Napoleonic wars at the start of the19th century "introduced some important developments in the military medicine. Most significant was the work of the military surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey, who with courage, skill and determination, evolved a system to immediate treatment in the field." (Pearce, 2002, p.89)

Reports on Medicine During the Crimean War

Pearce states that Larrey wrote in his 'Memories de Dhirurgie Militaire et Campagnes as follows:

"…at Aboukir there were 1900 wounded, and many amputations were performed in the field of battle amid a shower of bullets." (2002, p.88)

Pearce reports that Larrey "instituted early evacuation of the wounded by means of 'ambulances volantes' reported as "light, two-wheeled well-sprung vehicles, each drawn by two horses, although of course, Ambroise Pare had used carts and wagons n 1552 to evacuate the wounded after the retreat from Metz."(Pearce, 2002, p.88) Larrey, who was…… [Read More]

Sources:
Adams GW. Doctors in Blue. The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War. Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Freemon, Frank R. Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care During the American Civil War. Madison [N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1998.
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American Revolutionary War Tactics Prior

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52512556

156.

Ibid, pg. 157.

"General Nathanael Greene." Historic Valley Forge. 2006. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/served/greene.html.

"Brigadier General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox." The American Revolution

Homepage. 2004. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://americanrevwar.homestead.

A com/files/marion.htm.

Ibid, Internet.

10 Cheaney, Janie B. "Daniel Morgan." 1998. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://jrshelby.com/kimocowp/morgan.htm.

11 "The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783." American Military History, Chapter 4. U.S.

Army Military History. 2001. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.history.army.mil/books/amh/amh-04.htm.

12 Ibid, Internet.

13 Ibid, Internet.

14 Ibid, Internet.

15 Ibid, Internet.

16 Ibid, Internet.

Works Cited

Bicheno, High. Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolutionary War. UK: Harper Collins, 2003.

Brigadier General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox." The American Revolution

Homepage. 2004. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/marion.htm.

Cheaney, Janie B. "Daniel Morgan." 1998. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://jrshelby.com/kimocowp/morgan.htm.

Heathcote, Charles W. "General Nathanael Greene." Historic Valley Forge. 2006.

Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/served/greene.html.

McAllister, J.T. The Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War. Westminster, MD:

Heritage Books, 1990.

Moran, Donald N. "Why Did They Do That? 18th Century Military Tactics."

Sons of Liberty Chapter. 1997. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.revolutionarywararchives.org/tactics.html.

Norris, Thomas J. "Warfare Tactics…… [Read More]

References:
Bicheno, High. Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolutionary War. UK: Harper Collins, 2003.

Brigadier General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox." The American Revolution
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Civil War Even One Hundred

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15883951

Before this tariff was passed, Calhoun and worked hard in the federal government to increase its military power, and was instrumental in bringing the United States into the War of 1812 (ThinkQuest). When he began to see the disparity between the states, however, his attitude began to shift towards advocating state power.

The Tariff of Abominations was a major indicator of this increasing disparity (Trumbore). It imposed tariffs on imported goods, especially from Britain, which led to higher prices for goods in the largely agricultural and therefore non-industrial South (Trumbore). In addition, British importers were left with a huge loss in profit, making them less able to buy the cotton and other agricultural products with which the South provided them costing Southerners even more money (Foreign Affairs).

As the Tariff of Abominations and other issues of disparity in state power grew in prominence, the idea of the compact theory grew more and more important. Not everyone agreed with this interpretation of the nation's formation; some believed that the Constitution provided for a strong central government to reign over the states (Cole et al., 87). Increasingly, though, Calhoun and others saw the government as a compact between the states, able to…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Cole, Bruce; Drake, Frederick, and Lynn Nelson. State's Rights and American Federalism. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999

John C. Calhoun: He Started the Civil War." Weider History Network. Retreived 8 February 2009.  http://www.historynet.com/john-c-calhoun-he-started-the-civil-war.htm 
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Military War

Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74569156

growth and development of the United States military from its origination to its present status in the 21st century. It will specifically examine the fostering of both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. Moreover, these two branches -- which will serve as case studies for the overall development tendencies of the military in general -- will get deconstructed in the context of the martial encounters that were most seminal for them: The Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and World War I and World War II, respectively.

this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications knowledge of America itself.

B.U.S. Naval History

The American Revolutionary War

The War of 1812 and the establishment of the U.S. Naval Academy

C.U.S. Air Force History

1947 Third branch of the armed forces and World War I

World War II

D. Conclusion

The history of the Navy and Air Force parallels increasing levels of sophistication in U.S. technology and knowledge.

2. These branches demonstrated their worth in respective wars.

3. As a result, there are formal academies to aid in their…… [Read More]

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Army as a Profession of Arms After 10 Years of War

Words: 1789 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34059480

Profession of Arms After 10 Years of War

The Pentagon put out a one-page explanation of the Profession of Arms (POA) in 2011 that points out the "significant impacts" the last nine and a half years have had on the "Army, its Soldiers, Families and Civilians" (Pentagon). This missive pointed out that many of the impacts the wars (in Iraq and Afghanistan) are "well documented and are being addressed. There remain, however, other consequences that we seek to understand" and within those consequences the Pentagon wants to "take a hard look" at how soldiers have changed as "individuals, as professionals and as a profession" (Pentagon).

The level of responsibility of today's Army soldiers is "like no other profession" due to the fact that soldiers are entrusted to "…apply lethal force ethically and only when necessary" and obviously this is an extremely difficult task given the "…chaotic and deadly machinations of war" (Pentagon). The support that the Army and its soldiers receive from the American people is "tremendous" and the Army is "forever grateful" and will never take the support "for granted."

General Martin E. Dempsey, Commanding General, U.S. Army: Army White Paper

General Dempsey writes in this 2010 White Paper…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
The Profession of Arms / An Army White Paper. "I am an expert and I am a professional."

U.S. Army / CG TRADOC Approved. Retrieved September 21, 2011, from:
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Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30854973

Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .

In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the planet were starting their own march toward globalization and struggling to understand just what that meant. Unfortunately for America, it was taking a different, almost celebratory path that included showcasing how its views in regards to freedom and democracy were the right and proper military might, and that it was…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Levine, D. And Levine, R. (2006). Deterrence in the Cold War and the War on Terror. National Science Foundation Grant publication. Retrievable from  http://www.dklevine.com/papers/inimical.pdf .

Tirman, J. (2006). The War on Terror and the Cold War: They're not the same. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Retrievable from http://web.mit.edu/cis/acw.html.

US History (n.d). Berlin Wall. Viewable at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1867.html.
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French Russian War

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51724863

Russian Soldier

Napoleon

French/Russian War

As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.

No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight the fires of imperial Europe with the very fires that have angered the nation, then I must. Better that France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Poland, Hungary, and my other conquests are to be subjected under the banner of one leader, rather than the divided and most unsavory flags of separate rulers.…… [Read More]

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Mexican-American War Took Place Between

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7121935

The idea that Americans had the right to expand became known as Manifest Destiny that first appeared in print in 1845, but had been popular for decades prior. The idea was that American's "manifest desitiny [was] to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our multiplying millions." In other words, God granted Americans the right to move West and take whatever land possible. This was echoed in President Polk's Innagural Address in 1844, in which he put forth the idea that America was destined to expand democratic institutions, and that this was a moral right. "It is confidently believed that our system may be safely extended to the utmost bounds of our territorial limits, and that as it shall be extended to bonds of our Union, so far from being weakened, will become stronger" (Manifest Destiny, 2005).

Pressure built so much and there were so many Americans in Texas that in December of 1845, Texas became the 28th State of the Union, fully annexed by the United States. Mexico did not recognize this, still believing that Texas was a rebellious republic. Internally, despite U.S. offers of purchasing Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California, Mexico was so…… [Read More]

References:
The U.S.-Mexican War. (2004, March). Retrieved from dmwv.org:  http://www.dmwv.org/mexwar/mexwar1.htm 

Manifest Destiny. (2005, March). Retrieved from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h337.html
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Growth of a Nation

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73185245

War of 1812, the nation settled into a sense of smugness that would be known as the Era of Good Feelings. The Era of Good Feelings was a term coined by a Boston-area newspaper in 1817, during newly elected President James Monroe's fifteen-state tour (Miller Center, n.d.). In its post-war intoxication, America would overlook some of its most pressing problems during the Era of Good Feelings. Monroe capitalized on the public's perception that all was well in the United States. Even more important for the strength of the Monroe presidency was the fact that the President's party became the only viable one after the demise of the Federalists. This meant that Monroe felt well empowered as president during the Era of Good feelings, which lasted until about 1825. Whether the period between the end of the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine elicited "good feelings" depended largely on one's views regarding key issues like slavery and westward expansion.

The reasons why the Monroe Presidency included the Era of Good Feelings included economic growth and prosperity, national security, and political stability. As Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl (n.d.) point out, "the foundations for a continental-scale economy were laid," especially as railroads,…… [Read More]

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British Marinesduring the Amer Revolution

Words: 3305 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65852547

In regard to the naval force of the British, these frictions affected in particular the effective number of the marines that made up the fleet, despite the fact that the threat of the American uprising was looming and that the British strategists were well aware of the fact that the English power relied mostly on the naval forces. Therefore, once this aspect of the military force was weakened, the eventual failure of the naval operations was obvious. The internal situation in the Empire also led to a lack of consideration for the treatment of the sailors who had constantly rebelled against the negligence and the mistreatment they had been throughout the years subject to. (Trevelyan, 1962) Even more, following the actual clash with the American revolutionaries, the state of the navy was, according to Trevelyan, "a deplorable one (as) its ships were being evicted from the Mediterranean Sea, where the Spanish has allied themselves with its enemies."(Trevelyan, 1962)

The outbreak of the Revolution was marked by the incidents that took place in the Boston Harbor, the so called "Tea Party." (Jenkins, 1997) in fact, it was the last sign of the colonists' revolt against the continuous financial pressures the British…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boatner, Mark M. (1966) Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: D. McKay & Co.

Gardner, Allen. (1913) a naval history of the American Revolution. Boston, Houghton. Retrieved 30 May 2007. http://www.americanrevolution.org/nav1.html
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Trace the Events That Led Up to

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66928749

Trace the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.

Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).

In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any other nation in the world (193). But according to Chapter 7, when Napoleon became "emperor" of France he set his sights on gaining power in the New World (specifically the lands that were west of the Mississippi).

A secret deal between Napoleon and the Spanish (Treaty of San Ildefonso of…… [Read More]

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American History From the Origins of the

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27815762

American History from the Origins of the Revolution to the Close of War of 1812

In the 16th century, America, in its development as a new nation, had been colonized by the British government, and for a decade, Americans had shown little resistance against the British colonizers. However, a decade after their conquest, the British forces and government in America had met resistance from the people, and these acts of resistance were triggered by a number of events and policies that further illustrated the growing inequality and injustices of the British to the Americans. As the American Revolution became successful, and America had finally achieved independence, the War of 1812 broke out, pitting the country once again against the British forces. The War of 1812 had also encountered problems that had happened before and during the development of the said war. These conflicts and major problems are essential to the study of American history because these major problems show a relationship on how America had emerged from a colonial to a free nation, and how it further expanded and developed to become a 'superpower' nation of the world. Economic, political, and social-civic problems have been the primary themes of the…… [Read More]

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Republicans and Federalists Differences the

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85927240

The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-

Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. By 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing war with Britain) made the Federalist Party's true intentions suspect and laid it open to charges that it had no polices of its own and was not willing to defend the country's interests (Federalist party, n.d.).

The Role of the War of 1812 and for Madison's Presidency

National pride and…… [Read More]

Sources:
Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding:  http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html 

Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm
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Battle of the Aleutians a Cold Wake Up Call

Words: 12983 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45023850

Termed "the forgotten battle," the Battle for the Aleutians represented the only instance during World War II when the Japanese occupied American soil and the campaign exacted a significant toll of American lives and treasure. The Aleutians became strategically significant during World War II for the Japanese as well as the United States, but the American preparations in anticipation of this attack were woefully inadequate. Despite a U.S. naval base was being established at Dutch Harbor in 1942, the Japanese bombed the base and later occupied Attu, Kiska, and Agattu islands. Although a U.S. counterattack from bases on Adak and Amchitka retook these islands in 1943, several thousand of American lives were lost in the process and many more were injured. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the primary and secondary juried and scholarly literature concerning the Battle of the Aleutians to develop an informed answer to the study's guiding research question: "How might the American response to the Japanese invasion and occupation be directly linked to the chain of events in the Pacific, and did the 'forgotten battle' mobilize Americans more than historians have admitted?" The research will show that if…… [Read More]

References:
'Aleutian Islands,' 2012, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

'Battle of the Aleutian Islands,' (n..d). History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics / battle-of-the-aleutian-islands.
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Trainbands Those That Were Early

Words: 3396 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84177957

Free grazers were the ones that utilized this land in order to feed their cattle throughout the way to the cattle markets which were located in Kansas. Many of the settlers were inspired to bring some kind of settlement to this area by the government which in no time started making aggressions among the grazers and settlers. The grazers were not fond of them at all due to them taking away the grasslands and then putting up fences made of barbwire which in return restricted where the cattle would be able to roam. Therefore, the grazers would cut graze and fence upon the terrestrial of the colonist. These actions would then guide to a person shooting another individual for some crime they did. Since there was no state to rule, the ruling was taken up by local vigilante crowds.

Section 3

At the set of the revolutionary War the Army had been serving the nation ever since the creation of George Washington's Continental Army which was on 14 June 1775. During this time, the Army was considered to be some kind of distinguished military force that would take part in America's major conflicts and at the same time, get involved…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Allan R. Millett, Peter Maslowski, and William B. Feis. For the Common Defense. New York: Free Press, 2012.

Ash, Stephen V. When the Yankees Came: Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861-1865. New York: Univ. Of North Carolina Press, 1999.
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Navies in American Revolution for Hundreds of

Words: 4742 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12678935

Navies in American Revolution

For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, British maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the Bourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like Britain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep harbors and security from aggressive neighbors that Germany, France and Russia lacked. This allowed them to concentrate on trade and commerce, and to develop powerful mercantile classes that won a share of power in government.[footnoteRef:1] Britain and Holland were the "first supreme maritime powers of the modern age," succeeded by…… [Read More]

References:
Syrett, David. The Royal Navy in American Waters, 1775-1783. Scolar Press, 1989.

Syrett, David, "Home Waters or America? The Dilemma of British Naval Strategy in 1778." The Northern Mariner, Vol 77, No 4. (Nov) 1991. 365-77.

Tilley, John. The British Navy and the American Revolution, University of South Carolina Press, 1987.
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Slavery Is a Dark Stain

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38197560

The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.

In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. While the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been more staunch abolitionists, but for the most part the ACS feared that freed slaves would incite rebellions and not integrate well into mainstream American society. The ACS was a highly controversial organization that was opposed by both pro- and anti-slavery elements.

Slave revolts and rebellions were an integral part of…… [Read More]

Sources:
Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/anti-slavery_movement/acs.htm.

Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html.
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National Guard - America's Militia

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46361881

In 1903, groundbreaking national defense legislation hiked up the role of the United States National Guard as a reserve force for the U.S. Army. In fact, all this legislation did was render legitimate the purpose of the Guard as it was used since 1776. In World War I, which the U.S. entered in 1917, the National Guard made up an incredible 40% of the U.S. combat divisions in France; in World War II, National Guard units were among the first to deploy overseas and the first to fight.

In essence, the Guard has long been the backbone of the United States military, but only in 1903, finally, did it get at least Congressional recognition and appropriation for its roles in all major United States conflicts.

The purpose of the Ohio National Guard was particularly notable during the War of 1812. After receiving statehood in 1803, Ohio continued the law creating a body of "state troops" with each significant village or county providing its own local unit. "The military readiness of these local militia units varied greatly as did their uniform and armament. The monthly militia muster was supposed to train the members in close order drill and marksmanship, but in…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ohio National Guard. 2004. A brief history.

Snook, David. 2004. History of the Iowa National Guard. Iowa National Guard.
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Barbary Pirates and U S Navy as Early

Words: 1576 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11705941

Barbary Pirates and U.S. Navy

As early as the American Revolution, the establishment of an official U.S. navy was a matter of debate for the newly formed Continental Congress. Supporters of the idea of a naval service argued that the United States needed sea power to defend the coast and make it easier to seek support from foreign countries by becoming part of the international seafaring group. Detractors pointed out that, at the time, Great Britain's Royal Navy was the preeminent naval power, and the new country had neither the funds nor expertise to match British naval might (Palmer 2004). Of course, once the war was over and the United States began to assert itself into world trade affairs the issue of protecting American merchant ships became an important part of international commerce. This actually came to a head in the area near present day Libya, the southwest Mediterranean with the two wars between the United States and the Barbary States of North Africa. The central issue was the Barbary pirates demand of tribute from American vessels sailing in the Mediterranean, leading to the famous phrase first used during the XYZ Affair with France, then echoed when dealing with the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Oren, M. "The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815." Columbia News. November 16, 2005. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/05/11/michaelOren.html (accessed November 2010).

Palmer, M. "The Navy: The Continental Period: 1775-1890." Naval Historial Center. July 16, 2004. http://www.history.navy.mil/history/history2.htm (accessed November 2010).

Toll, I. Si Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006.
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U S History Background Report the

Words: 2002 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72968630

The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the opportunity of waging the war in Vietnam

It was difficult to identify the enemy as Viet Cong merged with locals and only ambushed often at night. American terror campaigns hit their target, but failed to make the North Vietnamese surrender. A small portion of America considered their government as evil as even Walter Cronkite a CBS newscaster raised concern on the effectiveness of pursuing the war

In January 1973, President Nixon signed a truce that officially ended the resentments. Communist forces overran the south from the north in 1975 unifying the nation in the process. Adjoining Laos and Cambodia also became communalist dictatorships and at home, the Vietnamese veterans that returned had difficulties in readjusting. For the United States, the scars of Vietnam remain, and the legacy of bitterness separated the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
W. Faragher. Workers and farmers, big business & imperialism. Chapter 20

W. Farager. The civil rights movement 1945-1966. Chapter 28
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History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power

Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093

History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. But oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise naval power for commercial purpose and for creating monopoly. [1: Charles King, The Black Sea: A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 3.]

Naval Power in East Asia

One important and big navy we see in East Asia during 16th century is China. China being a developed and huge state…… [Read More]

Sources:
Conclusion

The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.
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Slavery and Capitalism in Nineteenth

Words: 2009 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11240996

The slaveholder was the "father" who needed to take care of his slaves spiritual and material needs, and to protect him or her.

Early in the nineteenth century, slaveholders began to view their slaves as property that needed protecting. Conditions improved slightly and slaves were given better food, clothing and housing. This was not done out of kindness, but because of a need to protect their property. Eventually laws were passed in southern states that limited the physical punishment that slaveholders could inflict upon slaves, and set the age at which slaves could be separated from their mothers.

Slavery needed to be protected from capitalism and democracy because these forces were inherently in opposition to slavery. Democracy declared all men equal before the law, but Paternalism provided the basis for a justification by saying these were not men, but some inferior being that needed to be ruled by whites. Slavery could develop and prosper in capitalistic America because the South was not a capitalistic society. It was a separate economy with very little wage labor.

Northerners - Anti-slavery but not Abolitionists

White northerners of all classes were opposed to slavery, but were overwhelmingly not abolitionists. Only about one percent of…… [Read More]

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American Expansion American Territorial Expansion The Louisiana

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48885937

American Expansion

American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase

American territorial expansion was the top priority of Washington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil War years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.

The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country into a future war. It was vital, however, to stop Spain's moving up the West coast, and thus Jefferson made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. (Jefferson, 1) France, who had claim on the Louisiana Territories from their southern port of New Orleans, decided to make the deal in order to…… [Read More]

Resources:
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. < http://www.bartleby.com/43/25.html >.
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Control of Rr During Civil

Words: 5091 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3751971

(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)

Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.

Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.

There are countless examples of the alterations that these controls had over the war logistics as well as the advantage it afforded the government to control the rail systems.

A in 1864, Major General William T. Sherman waged an offensive campaign with an army of 100,000 men and 35,000 animals (see map 1). His supply line consisted…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.

Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
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Battles of Gettysburg and Antietam

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82986125

However, Lee won out, and the solid line attacked. It was a fatal decision as Union forces literally mowed down Confederate troops by the thousands.

One historian later concluded, "Apparently it never occurred to him that the position [the Union line on Cemetery Ridge] could not be taken" (Wert 101). While the numbers vary, most people agree the South lost between 3,900 to 4,500 men, while the Union lost about 3,155 during the three days of battle. Clearly, not nearly as many men died at Gettysburg as did at Antietam. The turning point did not rely on the number of men killed or wounded in battle. Ultimately, it depended on the momentum of the army and its leader. Lee made some mistakes on the battlefield, such as demanding a long, united line. It cost him thousands of men, the battle, and ultimately the war. The South turned toward home after Gettysburg, and never again made it that far north in any of their campaigns. They were defeated; it just took time for the Union forces to sink the final nail in the South's coffin.

Finally, the most compelling reason that Gettysburg was the turning point in the war is the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Editors. "Antietam National Battlefield." National Park Service. 2007. 2 May 2007. http://www.nps.gov/anti/battle.htm

Kinsel, Amy J. "9 From Turning Point to Peace Memorial: a Cultural Legacy." The Gettysburg Nobody Knows. Ed. Gabor S. Boritt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 203-222.
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Curriculum Middle School Social Studies

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70236905

S. What would have occurred if the West had become a nation for the Native Americans and the East for the settlers?

Mexican-American War. Have students develop a timeline of Mexico from pre-Spanish explorations to present time.

Civil War: Students read a story from the website http://www.civilwarliterature.com/#Primary%20Emphasisand do a book report.

Industrial Revolution: Each student researches something that was invented during this time. How did this invention change the general population? What if had not been invented?

Immigration: Students should research their earlier generations and when they came over the U.S. They can put together a journal or family tree.

Women's Movement: Debate whether women should have been free through Constitution or waited until 19th Amendment.

WWI: Read poems about WWI and then write a short poem of one's own.

Roaring Twenties: Discuss the music, fashions, dance, etc. Of this time period.

How was it different than from before the war during Victorian Times?

Depression: Look at the photographs that were done by famous photographers at this time. How is a photo "worth a 1,000 words?

WWII: Interview someone who served in the military or was living in the U.S. during this time. How did it change his or her…… [Read More]

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Independent United States Shed Colonial Past Begin

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57872193

independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically

Political and Economic Unity

In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save revolt. Economically, of course, the colonies initially functioned as a mere extension of the British authority which they operated under. The popular practices of mercantilism fueled the triangle trade which benefitted Britain as much as the colonies (particularly those existent in the New England area), while even the sale of…… [Read More]

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North America Assessing the Drivers

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78607970



Political/cultural climate

The prosperity of the North American continent arguably depended in large part on the Protestant work ethic found in both the United States and Canada. In general, too, both nations are 'free trade' nations, although there have been some missteps that had a dampening effect. The raising of tariffs in the U.S. In the 1920s and 1930s constitutes one such misstep. Some contend that doing so caused, or at last aggravated, the Great Depression. In turn, coping with the Depression prevented North America's early intervention in Germany, and so was indirectly responsible for World War II (Lind 1994, p. 16+). Those same analysts see a willingness to "police the world and promote global free trade" as essential to the economy of North America, which is, when all the opinions are laid to rest, founded on global trading of its still-abundant natural resources and endowments.

References

Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Nivola, P.S. (2002, Spring). Energy independence or…… [Read More]

References:
Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the War of 1812, which was considered positive, but he married a mulatto, Julia Chinn, which was a negative. Despite this, Van Buren and Johnson were elected to office. John Tyler, who became president upon the death of Harrison, soon began "dating" when his paralyzed wife died during his term, courting the beautiful Julia…… [Read More]

Sources:
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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American History Prior 1877 Signed Start

Words: 1764 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29208802

American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.

"Unimportant" American Events

In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the War of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The War of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public land through credits as a result of the fact that farmers were no longer able to pay off their loans. Andrew Jackson's 1829 Spoils system provided Americans with an outrageous perspective in regard to political attitudes.

I. Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"

From the moment when it was published by an…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267

"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
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Marbury v Madison Was a Case Between

Words: 1510 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84488844

Marbury v. Madison was a case between William Marbury and James Madison in 1803, which sparked one of the most important decisions made in American history. The case itself has actually enabled the Supreme Court to declare an act of law unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison also further established the idea of judicial review within the United States, allowing the courts some power in nullifying the decisions of one branch of government. It allowed for the U.S. form of "checks and balances" in the government.

Battle of Saratoga

The battle that took place in Saratoga at 1777 was a major patriotic victory during the American Revolutionary War. Commander John Burgoyne surrendered in October 17, 1777, after having been surrounded by General Horatio Gates. This was not only a British defeat, but it also indicated the general setbacks for the Iroquois leaders who sided with the British army. The Iroquois Confederacy was divided, losing most of their people to a war that they were supposedly neutral over.

3. The Second Great Awakening

Evangelization grew once more in 1800, creating the Second Great Awakening. By 1801, a revival of religious fervor took place, in which evangelist ministers held a camp meeting that lasted…… [Read More]

Resources:
FALSE

15. Thomas Jefferson and other Republicans believed that the "Revolution" of 1800 had:

a. Saved the country from Federalist tyranny.
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Andrew Jackson Has the Dubious

Words: 2794 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31282165

.. The philanthropist will rejoice that the remnant of that ill-fated race has at length been placed beyond the reach of injury or oppression.

Jackson was also moved by his early years as a frontier layer, traveling from court to court as an attorney or anything really was fraught with danger and many sleepless nights holding a vigil for one's safety from Indians.

What he specifically did with this information and this dogmatic belief system was legislate and arm himself for the sole purpose of removing the Indians from land the white man wanted.

According to several experts on Jackson's life the whole of his life was spent dealing with the Indian question. He sought through actions and legislation to free the land from Indian rights to it. So that the white man could progress according to the long held plan of civilization. He came to terms with any desire to educate and protect the Indian, in the same manner he came to terms with his personal empathy for the militiamen, it was a matter of duty for the Indians to relinquish the land and if they did not he would remove them from it. He sought not to do…… [Read More]

References:
Andrew Jackson Biography" www.whitehouse.govnd.

Buchanan, John. Jackson's Way: Andrew Jackson and the People of the Western Waters. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
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Seminoles of Florida by James

Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82320611

These united Seminoles were able to retain their power, but with considerable losses. During Newnan's three-week campaign, Seminole settlements, crops, cattle, horses and other livestock were taken or destroyed. The Seminoles have to rebuild their lives. Meanwhile, to survive, the Seminoles and the runaway slaves traded weapons with the British throughout the early 1800s and supported this European country during the War of 1812.

The American government sent Andrew Jackson to Florida with his army of 3,000 troops. He successfully attacked the Seminoles and left many dead and dying behind in their destroyed villages. The United States seized control of Florida. When the settlers came in, they invaded Tallahassee, a Seminole settlement. The governor asked the Seminole to move and the Seminole refused. In 1823, the governor to offered to sign a treaty with the Seminoles, called the Treaty of Moultrie Creek. It required the Seminoles to give up their land and move south and to agree to discontinue hiding runaway slaves. The Seminole were then given a reservation of four million acres of land in the area south of present-day Ocala. However, unlike other Native American tribes, the Seminoles refused to go onto the reservations. They therefore fought again,…… [Read More]

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French Amer Rev Extra

Words: 2391 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65254923

There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great Britain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.

The most challenging British action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When Britain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The British Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on British ships. When American tried to negotiate with Britain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine the defeat of Britain and, if that were to go over well, they could then begin their attack on America.

The United States Congress became incensed over French minister Talleyrand's attempt to extort a "present" from the United States in exchange for more sincere negotiations on the shipping issues. The…… [Read More]

References:
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French

Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International