"The War Of 1812 Essays"

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American History War of 1812 Essay

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48973688

There was another group of Americans who felt that all of America, including British Canada, should have been conquered during the Revolutionary War and then ceded to the Americans, so they felt the War of 1812, which began with Americans attempting to conquer Canada, should not have had to take place at all.

Finally, New England residents openly opposed the war, and did not support anything connected with it. They would not offer funds for the war, and they would not allow their militia to fight in the war. They were angry about the economy, but they were also angry because they felt they had been mislead by the government, and the war was really being fought to gain territory in Canada, which they did not agree with. Ultimately, the war ended in 1814, but much of American did not support or condone the…… [Read More]

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Wars of the Barbary Pirates Essay

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67602952

The book is constructed on two main theses, the first revolving around the relevance of the Barbary wars in the freeing of the American population and in its formation as stable and confident people. The second thesis focuses on the Tripolitan war played in the formation of the modern American Navy. However the general history courses place little emphasis on the wars against the Barbary States, the naval forces commemorate them and recognize the role they played in the formation of the modern U.S. Marine. A third specification which could be made relative to the book is that, however not implicit, it also presents the historical conflict between the American and Islamic forces, relating as such to a contemporaneous matter, which is not as new as one could think.

"Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines" is written in a columnist form, creating the idea of a newspaper article. This not only makes it easier to read, but it could also suggest the connection between the past and present events; it could pin point the effects that past events have upon the present and it could also relate to the fact that if the American troops had not won the conflict, the world today would be different.… [Read More]

Gregory Fremont-Barnes, "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines," Osprey Pub Co, November 2006

Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Random House, http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9781846030307, last accessed on October 1, 2008
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War Years War Thirty Years Essay

Words: 2047 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35858911


Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.

Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.

Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.

Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.

Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and German Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and German Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.

1. European Ideologies: A Survey of 20th Century Political Ideas ed. Gross, Feliks, (New York: Philosophical Library, 1948), 800, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8947365.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973?Richard Cavendish, "The Diet of Augsburg: February 2nd, 1555," History Today, February 2005, 52, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973?Richard Cavendish, "The Diet of Augsburg: February 2nd, 1555," History Today, February 2005, 52, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973?Richard Cavendish, "The Diet of Augsburg: February 2nd, 1555," History Today, February 2005, 52, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008752973.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114868100?Paul Douglas Lockhart, Frederik II and the Protestant Cause: Denmark's Role in the Wars of Religion, 1559-1596 (Boston: Brill, 2004), 200, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114868100.

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573?Peter H. Wilson, "Who…… [Read More]

Berger, Stefan. "The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich." The Historian 70, no. 3 (2008): 575+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5029265192.

Bossy, John. Peace in the Post-Reformation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107354120.
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War Hawks Represent a Generic Essay

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27471395

Form this point-of-view (Goodman) the war hawks are considered to this day the catalysts of the 1812 war, despite the circumstances and the eventual need for world consideration.

Overall it can be concluded that the war hawks represent a rather controversial presence in the history of the United States. While some argue that they are in fact responsible for a painful war against Britain that could have been averted, other view them as important characters in shaping the honor and prestige of the United States in the decades to come.… [Read More]

Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .

Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186
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War of Tripoli as a Essay

Words: 3129 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78635994

Lear and Comodore Barron, the commander of the American fleet in the Mediterranean agreed in 1805 that Ahmad was no longer useful to the American cause. As a result, Lear met with Muhammad D'Ghies, Tripoli's Minister for foreign affairs, and eventually reached an agreement. War prisoners would be mutually exchanged, and America had to pay a sum of $60, 000 to Tripoli. However, this sum was considerably smaller than what the Pasha had asked for in 1804. Legendary Commodore Charles Morris wrote, "On the 3rd of June, a peace was concluded with Tripoli by Colonel Lear, who had been authorized by the President to negotiate."

One of the most important consequences of the war was its power to produce some of the earliest American war heroes. In the absence of news correspondents, and the far-reaching means the press has today, the accounts of the war were given by the people directly involved in it. Letters and dispatches were sent to American newspapers who often published them in their entirety. It is hard to imagine that there were no photographs, no video footage of the war. This was, in fact, the only connection between the American public, and the war going on in Northern Africa. However, Americans romanticized the war and its most prominent figures would become real American heroes whose stories even influenced contemporary popular culture.

Despite the fact that America had been humiliated by being force to pay tribute, the Federalists were opposing the war. Any analysis of the domestic response to a war, in this case, the First Barbary War, must include the points-of-view of both sides. On the one hand, Republicans supported Jefferson's decision to go to war, and praised the skills and might of the American navy. On the other hand, the Federalists criticized Jefferson's decision to go to war, and even his choice of words in the case of public addresses.

Republican editor James J. Wilson's article, a New Year's Report, published in the New Jersey newspaper, the True American, in January 1805 is clearly very supportive of President Jefferson's actions. Wilson openly declares his support, and praises America's progress in the war. He argues that the war is justified because America had been threatened and humiliated by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Allison, Robert J. Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero, 1779-1820. (University of Massachusetts Press, 2007)

Cray Jr., Robert E. "Remembering Richard Somers: Naval Martyrdom in the Tripolitan War."
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What Were the Main Causes and Consequences of the War 1812 Essay

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17913849

War of 1812

A mere thirty years after the end of the Revolutionary War -- which saw the American colonies separate from and defeat the British empire -- the fledgling United States found itself once again face-to-face with the world's greatest military power in a struggle to secure for the new nation, a mark of international status. The War of 1812 began with a "secret vote on June 4th, in which House members endorsed going to war 79-49…and a Senate vote on June 17 favoring war 19 to 13" (Langguth, A.J. 2006). How though had the U.S. arrived at this precarious position and what would the confrontation invariably mean for American interests going forward?

Causes of War

America's "second war of independence" (Langguth, A.J. 2006) had three primary causes: the impressment of American sailors, the British trade and embargo and blockade of U.S. ports, and the "incitement of Native American's to violence against Americans" (History.com. 2011), particularly in the Northwest Territories and into Canada.

The impressment of U.S. sailors by the British, "the practice of forcibly inducting men into military service" (U.S. History.com. N.D.) had occurred intermittently since the end of the revolutionary war and had not been stopped even with the signing of the Jay Treaty in 1795 (Langguth, A.J. 2006). The impressment issue however, was forced into the American consciousness on June 22, 1807 when an American frigate, the U.S.S. Chesapeake was fired upon, crippled, and boarded by sailors from the British ship, the Leopard; resulting in the seizure of four American sailors and an ignominious humbling for the young nation (Langguth, A.J. 2006). "At that moment, the nation's fury might have supported immediate war with Britain, but President Jefferson preferred to follow the lead of Washington and…… [Read More]

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War That Forged a Nation Essay

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39004976

The third theater of operations, besides the naval and Canadian one, was focused on the British push towards the capital city. Although successfully burning out Washington, the British were discouraged by the strong hold of Fort McHenry and the battle of New Orleans, in which they were defeated by Major General Andrew Jackson. As the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December 1814, news of this came to the American and British forces almost two months after the signing, putting also an official end to the war. As with Baltimore's fight, the defense of Fort McHenry, the author reminds the reader of another important information on the significance of this war. The battle of Baltimore later inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" which later became the national anthem of the United States.

As the author goes on with the war narrative, he introduces various descriptions of some of the most significant leaders of that period. He does a great job in mixing events and people dispersed in a large space as the North American continent as well as over a period of almost 10 years. What seem to miss in many parts of the book are the effects that these events and these people had on the communities and peoples of America or Canada. Nevertheless, the book is a very important tool to understand the causes but most of all the effects of the 1812 war. It also contains various maps of significant events of the war that make the book easier to read and understand, offering a visual understanding of the theater of operations.

Borneman's argument, that the 1812 war is the basis of American unity may sound inaccurate, as in popular history these events are not analyzed to the full extent. Yet this book has sufficient information to present this thesis as a valid one, taking into account only the fact that the United States was never after 1815 involved in war on its own territory (even with the Pearl Harbor events on 1941). Also, the Canadian border transformed from a conflict zone to a peaceful zone. It might also be argued that one of the reasons for which the United States became a solid nation…… [Read More]

Borneman, Walter. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. Harper Perennial, 2005
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War vs Peace War and Essay

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50172725

That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.

By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.

As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States has not been invaded for almost 200 years, not since the year 1812, but it has invaded other countries, again and again" (24). Since this is the case, America has had to manipulate events and describe them as acts of terror, when in reality they are nothing more than acts of sabotage by cabals within the American government. Several threads tie such disasters as 9/11 to operatives within the Israeli Mossad and the American CIA -- but no notice is given to such threads by the mainstream media, which is largely owned and operated by military-industrial-congressional-complex. Thus, Americans are manipulated and deceived about the nature of the "wars" they are fighting. As Zinn states, peace is the real enemy -- because in peacetime, neither the MIC nor the Israeli apartheid state can profit.

Works… [Read More]

Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,

2007. Print.
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Causes and Outcomes of War Essay

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54142514

Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this can be considered
an outcome of the war.
The war of 1812 had numerous causes, the most important that were
economic in nature. The United States, in order to maintain its economic
vitality, was forced to go to war, especially after the failed attempts to
avoid war through the embargo. The expansionist reasons for the war were
more of consequence to engage in war with Britain. Great Britain, because
of its war with Napoleon in Europe, looked to interrupt economic
interaction between the United States and continental Europe. The way
Great Britain went about this policy, by capturing American's, boarding
their ships, and taking vessels close to American shores means that there
was a definite lack of respect for the power, clout, and sovereignty of
their former colony and the new nation, the United States. Furthermore,
the United States was establishing itself as a commercial and naval power,
and this would be reinforced through the war. To Great Britain this was
unacceptable, and to America, for Great Britain to interfere so severely
with America's economic interests was a problem. Attempts to resolve the
conflict peacefully ended in failure as with the embargo, and thus set the
stage for the War of 1812. The outcome of the war was an actual stalemate,
however I believe it was a success for…… [Read More]

Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
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Causes of the Civil War Essay

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8520980

Civil War and Sectionalism

Even after the creation of the United States of America in 1776, sectionalism guided economic and political realities throughout the union. The United States developed regional economies, regional philosophies, and regional politics. Slavery, its economics and its politics, was the most contentious issue that divided the nation along northern and southern lines, and would eventually cause the Civil War. As early as the 1790s, the northern states abolished slavery within their borders while the Southern states held on strong to the institution. Sectionalism would become the key cause of the Civil War, the bloody manifestation of sectionalist issues within the United States.

Early signs of sectionalism became evident as early as the War of 1812. The New England states still held strong economic ties with Great Britain, so those states generally opposed the war for financial reasons. Clearly, the economies of the north and south were evolving differently. The largely agricultural south and the increasingly industrial north wholly depended on each other, but competed over the ideology of slavery. Slavery became an economic as well as a politically contentious issue at the root of sectionalism in the United States.

The South's political power also diminished with a considerable diminution of its population: in 1800 about half of the nation's population resided in the South, but by 1850, only a third of the American population resided there ("The Causes"). Sectionalism was fueled by the weakening of the south's political clout within the federal government. The southern states suspected a conspiracy against them, and feeling underrepresented in the Senate and in Congress, many of the southern states proposed voluntary nullification of federal laws. South Carolina in particular wanted to nullify the federal laws that did not serve the needs of the state. Opting out of federal laws was a clear sign…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
'The Causes." The American Civil War. .

"Pre-Civil War (1820-1860)." SparkNotes. .
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Barbary Terror America's 1815 War Against the Essay

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12282765

Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa

During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa by historian Frederick Leiner demonstrates that not only was America's victory salutary for the sailors it freed from bondage but the military action was also critical in establishing American legitimacy as a world power.

Leiner attempts to bring a little-known aspect of America's history to light, suggesting Madison's actions against the Barbary pirates were as equally as crucial in gaining respect for America on the world scene as penning the Constitution and winning the War of 1812. Leiner is a Baltimore-based lawyer and historian with a particular interest in naval history. He is also the author of Millions for Defense: The Subscription Warships of 1798.

Leiner tells his story as a narrative in an almost-novelistic form. He uses primary source documents to give credibility to his analysis and to continually stress the extraordinary nature of both Madison's boldness and above all the remarkable leadership of Commodore Stephen Decatur, who led the Navy to success. The crisis arose when Algerian pirates enslaved seven American sailors in 1812 from a New England-based rig in North Africa. They demanded one million dollars as a ransom, an astronomical fee during that era. For many years, America had attempted to use diplomacy like its European counterparts. This diplomacy was not only a failure, but many suspected the British of tacitly allowing Barbary slavery to continue, given that "British trade indirectly…… [Read More]

Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North

Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
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Anglo Chinese War the Historical Essay

Words: 4723 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37346346

More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."

New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.

Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any consideration of battles, tactics, or technology, but rather view these topics within their much larger political and social contexts, in order to see how overarching political and social considerations evidence themselves in the actual practice of war.

Not to be too blunt about it, but the historiographical approach offered by New Military History and "War and Society" historians is the most helpful when attempting to understand the causes and effects of the First Anglo-Chinese War, because as will be seen, the overwhelming British success can only be explained if one considers not only British naval and firepower dominance, but also the political and philosophical underpinnings of the Qing dynasty, as well as the Chinese perspective on British attempts to gain access to their market. In fact, one may go so far as to argue that the British success was not truly a result of their superior navy and weapons systems, but rather was brought about by combination…… [Read More]

Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-

1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
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Mexican War 1846-1848 Essay

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8922272

Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

The Great Territorial Loss

From the perspective of the United States, the Mexican-American War, together with the Louisiana Purchase, represented important land acquisitions as part of the country's relentless expansion westward. In this regard, Kurth (1999) reports that, "There were grand achievements in this national project of continental expansion, especially the southwestern annexations, which were achieved through U.S. military victory in the Mexican-American War. In this case, the United States took advantage of the fact that Britain and France were disrupted by serious internal turmoil."

With Britain and France otherwise occupied with their more immediate domestic issues, the U.S. was free to pursue its expansionist Manifest Destiny plans for the Western regions of the country, including most especially California and its vast resources and temperate weather.

From the perspective of the Mexicans, though, the invasion by the United States was a heavy-handed blow by an international bully that had provoked a war just to acquire land. The U.S. invasion of Mexico in 1846 resulted in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that secured an enormous amount of territory from Mexico, including Texas, New Mexico, and California, for the United States.

Not surprisingly, this humiliating defeat has been the source of longstanding bitterness against the United States by Mexico. The Mexican -- American War that was fought between the United States and Mexico is described by Reiter as being "a semi-exclusionary, moderately repressive regime fighting a long losing war."

Following Mexico's loss to the United States, Mexican president Antonio Lopez Santa Anna fled to Venezuela in exile.

The exiled president's end, though, was not as ignominious as the act indicates. In this regard, Reiter reports that, "Santa Anna resigned the presidency voluntarily, he did so while the war was ongoing (September 1847), and even after he resigned as president he kept his position as leader of Mexico's army."

Although the new Mexican president, Manuel Pena y Pena (who was appointed by Santa Anna) eventually relieved Santa Anna of his commander in chief position, and took refuge in Venezuela to avoid the impending court martial.

The Issue of Slavery

Having acquired enormous territories in the West by virtue of the peace treaty signed with Mexico following the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, the status…… [Read More]

Coward, John M. "Dispatches from the Mexican War," Journalism History 26 (2000, Spring) 1:

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Civil Liberties During War Losses Essay

Words: 6502 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92725275

However, during war it becomes all too easy to look for convenient ways to disregard even the most important laws.

The first, and most dramatic, effect of war is to increase the general fearfulness of a population. Fear and anxiety rocket way up during wartime, and are fueled by all the myriad effects of such conflicts. But another, less-well-understood reaction to war on the part of a both the individual and the nation (and, again, this is not a phenomenon that is in any way unique to the United States) is a marked increase in binary thinking. Humans are programmed to think in oppositionally defined, polar pairs and this is something that we do all the time.

But during fear-producing times, this tendency is greatly exacerbated. In peacetime, people are likely to find it easier to consider nuances and shades of meaning, but during armed conflict, no such nuance can be tolerated. War underscores and heightens the human biological inclination to see everything in terms of black and white. We see the "other" during war not only as the enemy but as people who are so different from us, It is as if there is visceral recognition of the relationships engendered in war. War brings into the clearest focus a classic binary pair, and that reinforces natural human thought patterns. Indeed, peace can in some sense be seen as being less natural than war.

Not only does war tend to throw the sanest individual into "us-versus-them" polar thinking, it makes the definition of "us" much narrower, and the definition of "them" much broader. During times of state-level violence, only the most powerful and most privileged citizens of a culture get to retain their legitimacy. What is more, everyone who doesn't fit into the newer, more exacting standards of "us" and more and more…… [Read More]

Alien and Sedition Acts, http://www.ushistory.org/us/19e.asp. Accessed 3 December 2009.

James Bovard, 2003, October. Wilson's Crusade and Bush's Crusade. http://www.fff.org/freedom/fd0310c.asp. Accessed 3 December 2009.
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Barbary Wars Essay

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48806632

Barbary Wars

Frank Lambert's The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World is a look into a time when the United States was insignificant on the world stage; a time when the U.S. didn't even have a navy. The book literally begins with the tale of an American merchant ship named Betsey, which was captured by a band of Barbary pirates in November of 1784. The Crew, commanded by Captain James Erwin, were taken prisoner and held captive in the Moroccan port of Sale on the Atlantic coast. The newly independent United States of America was unable to act against this heinous act of piracy due to the fact that it had no navy. All naval ships authorized during the course of the Revolution had been sold off to help pay the expenses of the war. In 1784, the United States had no navy to speak of, and it's ships were at the mercy of anyone they encountered. And the British, who's powerful fleet once protected their American colonists, now sought to impede the trade of the independent United States of America. Americans had sought to create a "free trade" zone throughout the Atlantic, including the Mediterranean, but ran into the might of the Europeans who believed in trade that was restricted and controlled. Controlled by the Europeans of course, Americans were not welcome.

With the capture of the Betsey, Lambert discussed how the Americans came to realize their vulnerability to the predations of unfriendly nations around the world. The pirates who held this ship, and eventually several more, demanded payment and the negotiation of a treaty which would recognize continued tribute payments in exchange for free passage. Even when the Americans chose to pay, the Articles of Confederation, which governed the United States at that time, gave no authority for the national government to raise the sums which were necessary to pay the numerous other bands of pirates infesting the waters of the Mediterranean. While the Americans would eventually be forced to pay individual smaller sums, the constant demand for more and more money was one of the factors Lambert asserted was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Print.
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Medical Care Influenced by Civil War and Essay

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69215069

Medical Care Influenced by Civil War and Crimean Italian Unification Wars that Immediately Preceded the U.S. Civil War

The objective of this study is to examine how medical care influenced the Civil War and Crimean Italian Unification Wars that Immediately Preceded the U.S. Civil War. The work of Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Pearce (2002) reports that the Napoleonic wars at the start of the19th century "introduced some important developments in the military medicine. Most significant was the work of the military surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey, who with courage, skill and determination, evolved a system to immediate treatment in the field." (Pearce, 2002, p.89)

Reports on Medicine During the Crimean War

Pearce states that Larrey wrote in his 'Memories de Dhirurgie Militaire et Campagnes as follows:

"…at Aboukir there were 1900 wounded, and many amputations were performed in the field of battle amid a shower of bullets." (2002, p.88)

Pearce reports that Larrey "instituted early evacuation of the wounded by means of 'ambulances volantes' reported as "light, two-wheeled well-sprung vehicles, each drawn by two horses, although of course, Ambroise Pare had used carts and wagons n 1552 to evacuate the wounded after the retreat from Metz."(Pearce, 2002, p.88) Larrey, who was surgeon-in-chief to the Imperial Guard, is reported to have nearly convinced Napoleon that military medicine "was an essential part of warfare." (Pearce, 2002, p.88)

It is reported that as the British army left Varna for the Crimea that 30,000 men were crammed into the inadequate transports to cross the Black Sea, while pack animals, tents, cooking equipment, hospital marquees, regimental medicine chests, bedding and stores all had to be abandoned." (Pearce, 2002, p.89) This was followed a week later by the battle of the Alma in which those who were wounded had not bedding, shelter, bandages or splints and as well, they suffered for lack of chloroform and morphia. Pearce reports that no anesthetics were used in amputations and those surgeons did their work by the light of the moon since they had no…… [Read More]

Adams GW. Doctors in Blue. The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War. Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Freemon, Frank R. Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care During the American Civil War. Madison [N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1998.
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American Revolutionary War Tactics Prior Essay

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52512556


Ibid, pg. 157.

"General Nathanael Greene." Historic Valley Forge. 2006. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/served/greene.html.

"Brigadier General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox." The American Revolution

Homepage. 2004. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://americanrevwar.homestead.

A com/files/marion.htm.

Ibid, Internet.

10 Cheaney, Janie B. "Daniel Morgan." 1998. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://jrshelby.com/kimocowp/morgan.htm.

11 "The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783." American Military History, Chapter 4. U.S.

Army Military History. 2001. Internet. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.history.army.mil/books/amh/amh-04.htm.

12 Ibid, Internet.

13 Ibid, Internet.

14 Ibid, Internet.

15 Ibid, Internet.

16 Ibid, Internet.

Works… [Read More]

Bicheno, High. Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolutionary War. UK: Harper Collins, 2003.

Brigadier General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox." The American Revolution
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Civil War Even One Hundred Essay

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15883951

Before this tariff was passed, Calhoun and worked hard in the federal government to increase its military power, and was instrumental in bringing the United States into the War of 1812 (ThinkQuest). When he began to see the disparity between the states, however, his attitude began to shift towards advocating state power.

The Tariff of Abominations was a major indicator of this increasing disparity (Trumbore). It imposed tariffs on imported goods, especially from Britain, which led to higher prices for goods in the largely agricultural and therefore non-industrial South (Trumbore). In addition, British importers were left with a huge loss in profit, making them less able to buy the cotton and other agricultural products with which the South provided them costing Southerners even more money (Foreign Affairs).

As the Tariff of Abominations and other issues of disparity in state power grew in prominence, the idea of the compact theory grew more and more important. Not everyone agreed with this interpretation of the nation's formation; some believed that the Constitution provided for a strong central government to reign over the states (Cole et al., 87). Increasingly, though, Calhoun and others saw the government as a compact between the states, able to be changed or terminated whenever the states wish (Cole, 98).

The compact theory of the United States government, strengthened by such factors as the Tariff of Abominations, eventually allowed Calhoun's rhetoric to reach a fevered pitch and inspire -- almost single-handedly, by some accounts -- the Civil War (Trumbore). Lincoln's impending election was seen as proof that the Republican power in the North was increasing even more at the cost of Southern Democratic issues, and Calhoun eventually pushed the country into war (Weider). Calhoun was a slave owner, and this might have played into his politics, but it was by no means the only reason he pushed for the Civil War (Weider).

The Civil War had a complex beginning, and was not merely a single-issue event as many theories seem to propose. It is hard to tell how integral the figure and speeches of John C. Calhoun was. But his rhetoric -- especially in response to the Tariff of Abominations and the compact theory of government -- were certainly instrumental in dividing…… [Read More]

Cole, Bruce; Drake, Frederick, and Lynn Nelson. State's Rights and American Federalism. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999

John C. Calhoun: He Started the Civil War." Weider History Network. Retreived 8 February 2009. http://www.historynet.com/john-c-calhoun-he-started-the-civil-war.htm
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Military War Essay

Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74569156

growth and development of the United States military from its origination to its present status in the 21st century. It will specifically examine the fostering of both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. Moreover, these two branches -- which will serve as case studies for the overall development tendencies of the military in general -- will get deconstructed in the context of the martial encounters that were most seminal for them: The Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and World War I and World War II, respectively.

this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications knowledge of America itself.

B.U.S. Naval History

The American Revolutionary War

The War of 1812 and the establishment of the U.S. Naval Academy

C.U.S. Air Force History

1947 Third branch of the armed forces and World War I

World War II

D. Conclusion

The history of the Navy and Air Force parallels increasing levels of sophistication in U.S. technology and knowledge.

2. These branches demonstrated their worth in respective wars.

3. As a result, there are formal academies to aid in their progress and modernization.


In many ways, the history of the U.S. military parallels that of the United States itself. The country was initiated in a martial conflict with England, and it was only with the support of a fledgling military force that the colonialists were able to win the Revolutionary War. Therefore, as the country developed and its processes became more sophisticated, so did those pertaining to the military. One of the most demonstrable ways in which this tendency is readily apparent is by tracing the history of the various branches of the U.S. armed forces. Specifically, this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications of knowledge of America itself.

U.S. Naval History

The history of the U.S. Navy begins with the American…… [Read More]