The War Of 1812 Essays (Examples)

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American History War of 1812

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48973688



There was another group of Americans who felt that all of America, including British Canada, should have been conquered during the Revolutionary War and then ceded to the Americans, so they felt the War of 1812, which began with Americans attempting to conquer Canada, should not have had to take place at all.

Finally, New England residents openly opposed the war, and did not support anything connected with it. They would not offer funds for the war, and they would not allow their militia to fight in the war. They were angry about the economy, but they were also angry because they felt they had been mislead by the government, and the war was really being fought to gain territory in Canada, which they did not agree with. Ultimately, the war ended in 1814, but much of American did not support or condone the…… [Read More]

In addition, before the war, British naval power was the superior naval power in the world, and the French, after a defeat at British hands, stopped trading with Britain, and asked most other European countries to stop, as well. Thus, the majority of Great Britain's trade was with the United States before the war, and there were few other avenues open to the U.S., with European ports blockaded. So, when the British blockaded American ports, there was nowhere else to trade, and trade fell even more than it had before the war.

There was another group of Americans who felt that all of America, including British Canada, should have been conquered during the Revolutionary War and then ceded to the Americans, so they felt the War of 1812, which began with Americans attempting to conquer Canada, should not have had to take place at all.

Finally, New England residents openly opposed the war, and did not support anything connected with it. They would not offer funds for the war, and they would not allow their militia to fight in the war. They were angry about the economy, but they were also angry because they felt they had been mislead by the government, and the war was really being fought to gain territory in Canada, which they did not agree with. Ultimately, the war ended in 1814, but much of American did not support or condone the war.
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Wars of the Barbary Pirates

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67602952



The book is constructed on two main theses, the first revolving around the relevance of the Barbary wars in the freeing of the American population and in its formation as stable and confident people. The second thesis focuses on the Tripolitan war played in the formation of the modern American Navy. However the general history courses place little emphasis on the wars against the Barbary States, the naval forces commemorate them and recognize the role they played in the formation of the modern U.S. Marine. A third specification which could be made relative to the book is that, however not implicit, it also presents the historical conflict between the American and Islamic forces, relating as such to a contemporaneous matter, which is not as new as one could think.

"Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines" is written in…… [Read More]

References:

Gregory Fremont-Barnes, "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines," Osprey Pub Co, November 2006

Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Random House, http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9781846030307, last accessed on October 1, 2008
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War Years War Thirty Years

Words: 2047 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35858911

questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114867845.

Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.

Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.

Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.

Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.

Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and German Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years'…… [Read More]

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573?Peter H. Wilson, "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question .," History Today, August 2009, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.
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War Hawks Represent a Generic

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27471395

Form this point-of-view (Goodman) the war hawks are considered to this day the catalysts of the 1812 war, despite the circumstances and the eventual need for world consideration.

Overall it can be concluded that the war hawks represent a rather controversial presence in the history of the United States. While some argue that they are in fact responsible for a painful war against Britain that could have been averted, other view them as important characters in shaping the honor and prestige of the United States in the decades to come.… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .

Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186

Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives, 1812 ." The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 367-390

Muhall, Jill K. The War of 1812 . Huntington Beach: Shell Education, n.d.
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War of Tripoli as a

Words: 3129 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78635994

Lear and Comodore Barron, the commander of the American fleet in the Mediterranean agreed in 1805 that Ahmad was no longer useful to the American cause. As a result, Lear met with Muhammad D'Ghies, Tripoli's Minister for foreign affairs, and eventually reached an agreement. War prisoners would be mutually exchanged, and America had to pay a sum of $60, 000 to Tripoli. However, this sum was considerably smaller than what the Pasha had asked for in 1804. Legendary Commodore Charles Morris wrote, "On the 3rd of June, a peace was concluded with Tripoli by Colonel Lear, who had been authorized by the President to negotiate."

One of the most important consequences of the war was its power to produce some of the earliest American war heroes. In the absence of news correspondents, and the far-reaching means the press has today, the accounts of the war were given by the people…… [Read More]

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What Were the Main Causes and Consequences of the War 1812

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17913849

War of 1812

A mere thirty years after the end of the Revolutionary War -- which saw the American colonies separate from and defeat the British empire -- the fledgling United States found itself once again face-to-face with the world's greatest military power in a struggle to secure for the new nation, a mark of international status. The War of 1812 began with a "secret vote on June 4th, in which House members endorsed going to war 79-49…and a Senate vote on June 17 favoring war 19 to 13" (Langguth, A.J. 2006). How though had the U.S. arrived at this precarious position and what would the confrontation invariably mean for American interests going forward?

Causes of War

America's "second war of independence" (Langguth, A.J. 2006) had three primary causes: the impressment of American sailors, the British trade and embargo and blockade of U.S. ports, and the "incitement of Native American's…… [Read More]

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War That Forged a Nation

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39004976



The third theater of operations, besides the naval and Canadian one, was focused on the British push towards the capital city. Although successfully burning out Washington, the British were discouraged by the strong hold of Fort McHenry and the battle of New Orleans, in which they were defeated by Major General Andrew Jackson. As the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December 1814, news of this came to the American and British forces almost two months after the signing, putting also an official end to the war. As with Baltimore's fight, the defense of Fort McHenry, the author reminds the reader of another important information on the significance of this war. The battle of Baltimore later inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" which later became the national anthem of the United States.

As the author goes on with the war narrative, he introduces various descriptions…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borneman, Walter. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. Harper Perennial, 2005
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War vs Peace War and

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50172725

That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.

By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.

As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,

2007. Print.

McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.

Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.
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Causes and Outcomes of War

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54142514

Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this…… [Read More]

References

Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html.

Harney, Major W. (1989). The Causes of the War of 1812. Retrieved 4 March
2007 from
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/HWW.htm.
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Causes of the Civil War

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8520980

Civil War and Sectionalism

Even after the creation of the United States of America in 1776, sectionalism guided economic and political realities throughout the union. The United States developed regional economies, regional philosophies, and regional politics. Slavery, its economics and its politics, was the most contentious issue that divided the nation along northern and southern lines, and would eventually cause the Civil War. As early as the 1790s, the northern states abolished slavery within their borders while the Southern states held on strong to the institution. Sectionalism would become the key cause of the Civil War, the bloody manifestation of sectionalist issues within the United States.

Early signs of sectionalism became evident as early as the War of 1812. The New England states still held strong economic ties with Great Britain, so those states generally opposed the war for financial reasons. Clearly, the economies of the north and south were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'The Causes." The American Civil War. .

"Pre-Civil War (1820-1860)." SparkNotes. .
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Barbary Terror America's 1815 War Against the

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12282765

Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa

During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North

Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
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Anglo Chinese War the Historical

Words: 4723 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37346346



More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."

New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.

Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-

1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.

Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,

Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
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Mexican War 1846-1848

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8922272

Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

The Great Territorial Loss

From the perspective of the United States, the Mexican-American War, together with the Louisiana Purchase, represented important land acquisitions as part of the country's relentless expansion westward. In this regard, Kurth (1999) reports that, "There were grand achievements in this national project of continental expansion, especially the southwestern annexations, which were achieved through U.S. military victory in the Mexican-American War. In this case, the United States took advantage of the fact that Britain and France were disrupted by serious internal turmoil."

With Britain and France otherwise occupied with their more immediate domestic issues, the U.S. was free to pursue its expansionist Manifest Destiny plans for the Western regions of the country, including most especially California and its vast resources and temperate weather.

From the perspective of the Mexicans, though, the invasion by the United States was a heavy-handed blow by an international bully…… [Read More]

References

Coward, John M. "Dispatches from the Mexican War," Journalism History 26 (2000, Spring) 1:

39.

Huston, James L. "Southerners against Secession: The Arguments of the Constitutional

Unionists in 1850-51," Civil War History 46 (2000, December) 4: 280-291.
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Barbary Wars

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48806632

Barbary Wars

Frank Lambert's The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World is a look into a time when the United States was insignificant on the world stage; a time when the U.S. didn't even have a navy. The book literally begins with the tale of an American merchant ship named Betsey, which was captured by a band of Barbary pirates in November of 1784. The Crew, commanded by Captain James Erwin, were taken prisoner and held captive in the Moroccan port of Sale on the Atlantic coast. The newly independent United States of America was unable to act against this heinous act of piracy due to the fact that it had no navy. All naval ships authorized during the course of the Revolution had been sold off to help pay the expenses of the war. In 1784, the United States had no navy to speak of, and it's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Print.
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Civil War Even One Hundred

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15883951

Before this tariff was passed, Calhoun and worked hard in the federal government to increase its military power, and was instrumental in bringing the United States into the War of 1812 (ThinkQuest). When he began to see the disparity between the states, however, his attitude began to shift towards advocating state power.

The Tariff of Abominations was a major indicator of this increasing disparity (Trumbore). It imposed tariffs on imported goods, especially from Britain, which led to higher prices for goods in the largely agricultural and therefore non-industrial South (Trumbore). In addition, British importers were left with a huge loss in profit, making them less able to buy the cotton and other agricultural products with which the South provided them costing Southerners even more money (Foreign Affairs).

As the Tariff of Abominations and other issues of disparity in state power grew in prominence, the idea of the compact theory grew…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, Bruce; Drake, Frederick, and Lynn Nelson. State's Rights and American Federalism. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999

John C. Calhoun: He Started the Civil War." Weider History Network. Retreived 8 February 2009.  http://www.historynet.com/john-c-calhoun-he-started-the-civil-war.htm 

John C. Calhoun: Southern Leader." Library ThinkQuest. Retrieved 8 February 2009. http://library.thinkquest.org/3055/graphics/people/calhoun.html

Tariff of 1828." Foreign Affairs, the J.Q. Adams Administration. Retrieved 8 February 2009. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h268.html
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Military War

Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74569156

growth and development of the United States military from its origination to its present status in the 21st century. It will specifically examine the fostering of both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. Moreover, these two branches -- which will serve as case studies for the overall development tendencies of the military in general -- will get deconstructed in the context of the martial encounters that were most seminal for them: The Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and World War I and World War II, respectively.

this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications knowledge of America itself.

B.U.S. Naval History

The American Revolutionary War

The War of 1812 and the establishment of the U.S. Naval Academy

C.U.S. Air Force History

1947 Third branch of the…… [Read More]

References

Deeben, J.P. (2012). Stoking the fires: The impressments of Seaman Charles Davis by the U.S. Navy. Prologue Magazine. Retrieved from  http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2012/summer/1812-impressment.html  This is an excellent source which helps to contextualize the sentiment that contributed to the War of 1812, It not only covers the events of that time period at a macro level, but also includes a number of salient personal details as well. This source emphasizes the importance of the Navy in this war.

Dzurec, D. (2013). Prisoners of war and American self-image during the American Revolution. War in History. 20(4), 430-451. This source provides an explanation for much of the anti-British sentiment during the Revolutionary War. It principle does so by discussing the experience of those captured by the British in this encounter.

National Archives. (2010). Teaching with documents." www.archives.gov. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/369th-infantry / This source provisions a decent overview of World War I. It does so largely through a consideration of the involvement of African-American troops. These troops were necessary to implement in combat situations for the simple fact that the U.S. did not have enough men without their addition. It illustrates some of the wider social implications of this war and its effect both within and outside of the military.

United States Naval Academy (2015). A brief history of USNA. www.usna.edu Retrieved from http://www.usna.edu/USNAHistory / This source provides a fairly detailed history of the development of the United States Naval Academy. As such, it provides an overview of the history of the navy as well. By emphasizing the level of development that the academy underwent since its inception, this source indicates the sort of improvement that characterizes the military in general through the years.
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Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30854973

Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .

In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Diamond, L. (n.d.). Winning the new cold war on terrorism. Hoover Institute. Stanford University. Retrievable from http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/papers/coldWarOnTerrorism.pdf.

Levine, D. And Levine, R. (2006). Deterrence in the Cold War and the War on Terror. National Science Foundation Grant publication. Retrievable from  http://www.dklevine.com/papers/inimical.pdf .

Tirman, J. (2006). The War on Terror and the Cold War: They're not the same. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Retrievable from http://web.mit.edu/cis/acw.html.

US History (n.d). Berlin Wall. Viewable at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1867.html.
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French Russian War

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51724863

Russian Soldier

Napoleon

French/Russian War

As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.

No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…… [Read More]

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Truth About War and Peace

Words: 1882 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75422020

Life's Subjections: Changes To The Ways Of Life Found In Tolstoy's War And Peace

War and Peace is a truly epic novel in that details a number of important themes as well as major events in the lives of its characters. In this respect it actually uncovers some of the most major events that are bound to take place throughout a person's life -- birth, death, marriage, divorce, war and peace. What makes this particular novel so compelling is the fact that it largely depicts these life altering events through the fates of a couple of aristocratic Russian families during the time in which the usurper Napoleon Bonaparte is wreaking havoc on the European continent in the early part of the 19th century. As such, there is a certain romantic quality to this tale and to the life-altering events it depicts of people who in some cases are noble personages…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Close, Adam. "Sancho Panza: Wise Fool." The Modern Language Review. 68(2), 344-357. Print. 1973.

Knowles, Alexander. Count Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy, The Critical Heritage. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Books. Print. 1997.

Southgate, Beverly. "Tolstoy and Ethical History: Another look at War and Peace." Rethinking History. 13(2), 235-250. 2009. Print.

Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. www.archive.org. Web. 1805.
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Mexican-American War Took Place Between

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7121935

The idea that Americans had the right to expand became known as Manifest Destiny that first appeared in print in 1845, but had been popular for decades prior. The idea was that American's "manifest desitiny [was] to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our multiplying millions." In other words, God granted Americans the right to move West and take whatever land possible. This was echoed in President Polk's Innagural Address in 1844, in which he put forth the idea that America was destined to expand democratic institutions, and that this was a moral right. "It is confidently believed that our system may be safely extended to the utmost bounds of our territorial limits, and that as it shall be extended to bonds of our Union, so far from being weakened, will become stronger" (Manifest Destiny, 2005).

Pressure built so much and there were so many…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The U.S.-Mexican War. (2004, March). Retrieved from dmwv.org:  http://www.dmwv.org/mexwar/mexwar1.htm 

Manifest Destiny. (2005, March). Retrieved from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h337.html

Eisenhower, J. (2000). So Far From God: The U.S. War With Mexico, 1846-48. New York: Random House.

Feldman, R. (2004). The Mexican-American War. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.
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Growth of a Nation

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73185245

War of 1812, the nation settled into a sense of smugness that would be known as the Era of Good Feelings. The Era of Good Feelings was a term coined by a Boston-area newspaper in 1817, during newly elected President James Monroe's fifteen-state tour (Miller Center, n.d.). In its post-war intoxication, America would overlook some of its most pressing problems during the Era of Good Feelings. Monroe capitalized on the public's perception that all was well in the United States. Even more important for the strength of the Monroe presidency was the fact that the President's party became the only viable one after the demise of the Federalists. This meant that Monroe felt well empowered as president during the Era of Good feelings, which lasted until about 1825. Whether the period between the end of the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine elicited "good feelings" depended largely on one's…… [Read More]

References

Kennedy, Cohen, Piehl (n.d.) The Brief American Pageant.

Miller Center (n.d.). American President: Life in Brief. Retrieved online: http://millercenter.org/president/monroe/essays/biography/1

"The Era of Good Feelings and the Two-Party System," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ushistory.org/us/23a.asp
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British Marinesduring the Amer Revolution

Words: 3305 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65852547

In regard to the naval force of the British, these frictions affected in particular the effective number of the marines that made up the fleet, despite the fact that the threat of the American uprising was looming and that the British strategists were well aware of the fact that the English power relied mostly on the naval forces. Therefore, once this aspect of the military force was weakened, the eventual failure of the naval operations was obvious. The internal situation in the Empire also led to a lack of consideration for the treatment of the sailors who had constantly rebelled against the negligence and the mistreatment they had been throughout the years subject to. (Trevelyan, 1962) Even more, following the actual clash with the American revolutionaries, the state of the navy was, according to Trevelyan, "a deplorable one (as) its ships were being evicted from the Mediterranean Sea, where the…… [Read More]

References

Boatner, Mark M. (1966) Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: D. McKay & Co.

Gardner, Allen. (1913) a naval history of the American Revolution. Boston, Houghton. Retrieved 30 May 2007. http://www.americanrevolution.org/nav1.html

Halsall, Paul. Thomas Paine's Common Sense. Penguin: New York, 1982. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 30 May 2007  http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/singlehtml.htm 

Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
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Trace the Events That Led Up to

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66928749

Trace the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.

Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).

In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…… [Read More]

The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.

What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).

In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.
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American History From the Origins of the

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27815762

American History from the Origins of the Revolution to the Close of War of 1812

In the 16th century, America, in its development as a new nation, had been colonized by the British government, and for a decade, Americans had shown little resistance against the British colonizers. However, a decade after their conquest, the British forces and government in America had met resistance from the people, and these acts of resistance were triggered by a number of events and policies that further illustrated the growing inequality and injustices of the British to the Americans. As the American Revolution became successful, and America had finally achieved independence, the War of 1812 broke out, pitting the country once again against the British forces. The War of 1812 had also encountered problems that had happened before and during the development of the said war. These conflicts and major problems are essential to the…… [Read More]

Reference

An Outline of American History." An online book published by the U.S. Department of State International Information Program. Available: http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/history/toc.htm.
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Republicans and Federalists Differences the

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85927240

The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-

Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. By 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding:  http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html 

Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm

Democratic-Republican party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Law Library - American Law and Legal Information: http://law.jrank.org/pages/6058/Democratic-Republican-Party.html

Federalist party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/history/federalist-party-aaw-01/
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Battle of the Aleutians a Cold Wake Up Call

Words: 12983 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45023850

Termed "the forgotten battle," the Battle for the Aleutians represented the only instance during World War II when the Japanese occupied American soil and the campaign exacted a significant toll of American lives and treasure. The Aleutians became strategically significant during World War II for the Japanese as well as the United States, but the American preparations in anticipation of this attack were woefully inadequate. Despite a U.S. naval base was being established at Dutch Harbor in 1942, the Japanese bombed the base and later occupied Attu, Kiska, and Agattu islands. Although a U.S. counterattack from bases on Adak and Amchitka retook these islands in 1943, several thousand of American lives were lost in the process and many more were injured. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the primary and secondary juried and scholarly literature concerning the Battle of the Aleutians to…… [Read More]

References

'Aleutian Islands,' 2012, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

'Battle of the Aleutian Islands,' (n..d). History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics / battle-of-the-aleutian-islands.

Breslin, CB 1994, June 18, 'World War II in the Aleutians: The Fundamentals of a Joint

Campaign,' Newport, RI: Naval War College.
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Trainbands Those That Were Early

Words: 3396 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84177957

Free grazers were the ones that utilized this land in order to feed their cattle throughout the way to the cattle markets which were located in Kansas. Many of the settlers were inspired to bring some kind of settlement to this area by the government which in no time started making aggressions among the grazers and settlers. The grazers were not fond of them at all due to them taking away the grasslands and then putting up fences made of barbwire which in return restricted where the cattle would be able to roam. Therefore, the grazers would cut graze and fence upon the terrestrial of the colonist. These actions would then guide to a person shooting another individual for some crime they did. Since there was no state to rule, the ruling was taken up by local vigilante crowds.

Section 3

At the set of the revolutionary War the Army…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allan R. Millett, Peter Maslowski, and William B. Feis. For the Common Defense. New York: Free Press, 2012.

Ash, Stephen V. When the Yankees Came: Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861-1865. New York: Univ. Of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Mark Clodfelter. The Limits of Air Power: The American Bombing of North Vietnam. New York: Univ. Of Nebraska Press,, 2006.

Piehler, John Whiteclay Chambers & G. Kurt. Major Problems in American Military History. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.
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Navies in American Revolution for Hundreds of

Words: 4742 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12678935

Navies in American Revolution

For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, British maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the Bourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like Britain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.

Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.

Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.

Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
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Slavery Is a Dark Stain

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38197560

The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.

In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. While the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/anti-slavery_movement/acs.htm.

Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html.

Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period." African-American Odyssey. Online at  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart2.html .

History of Slavery in the United States." Wikipedia.com. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States.
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National Guard - America's Militia

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46361881

In 1903, groundbreaking national defense legislation hiked up the role of the United States National Guard as a reserve force for the U.S. Army. In fact, all this legislation did was render legitimate the purpose of the Guard as it was used since 1776. In World War I, which the U.S. entered in 1917, the National Guard made up an incredible 40% of the U.S. combat divisions in France; in World War II, National Guard units were among the first to deploy overseas and the first to fight.

In essence, the Guard has long been the backbone of the United States military, but only in 1903, finally, did it get at least Congressional recognition and appropriation for its roles in all major United States conflicts.

The purpose of the Ohio National Guard was particularly notable during the War of 1812. After receiving statehood in 1803, Ohio continued the law creating…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ohio National Guard. 2004. A brief history.

Snook, David. 2004. History of the Iowa National Guard. Iowa National Guard.

NGB. 2004. About The National Guard. The National Guard Board.

Baker, Bonnie. 1999. The Origins of the Posse Comitatus. Air and Space Power Chronicles, Nov. 1, 1999.
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Barbary Pirates and U S Navy as Early

Words: 1576 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11705941

Barbary Pirates and U.S. Navy

As early as the American Revolution, the establishment of an official U.S. navy was a matter of debate for the newly formed Continental Congress. Supporters of the idea of a naval service argued that the United States needed sea power to defend the coast and make it easier to seek support from foreign countries by becoming part of the international seafaring group. Detractors pointed out that, at the time, Great Britain's Royal Navy was the preeminent naval power, and the new country had neither the funds nor expertise to match British naval might (Palmer 2004). Of course, once the war was over and the United States began to assert itself into world trade affairs the issue of protecting American merchant ships became an important part of international commerce. This actually came to a head in the area near present day Libya, the southwest Mediterranean with…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Clark, G.N. "The Barbary Corsairs in the Seventheenth Century." Cambridge Historical Journal 8, no. 1 (1944): 22-35.

Davis, R. "British Slaves on the Barbaray Coast." BBC- British History in Depth. October 15, 2010.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/white_slaves_01.shtml#two  (accessed November 2010).

Folayan, K. "Tripoli and the War with the U.S.A." The Journal of African History 13, no. 2 (1972): 261-70.

Fremont-Barnes, G. The Wrs of the Barbary Pirates. New York: Osprey Publications, 2006.
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U S History Background Report the

Words: 2002 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72968630

The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the opportunity of waging the war in Vietnam

It was difficult to identify the enemy as Viet Cong merged with locals and only ambushed often at night. American terror campaigns hit their target, but failed to make the North Vietnamese surrender. A small portion of America considered their government as evil as even Walter Cronkite a CBS newscaster raised concern on the effectiveness of pursuing the war

In January 1973, President Nixon signed a truce that officially ended the resentments. Communist forces…… [Read More]

References

W. Faragher. Workers and farmers, big business & imperialism. Chapter 20

W. Farager. The civil rights movement 1945-1966. Chapter 28

W. Farager. The Vietnam War.

W. Farager. Progressivism 1900-1917. Chapter 21
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History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power

Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093

History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. But oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]

BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]

Conclusion

The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.

Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.

Endnotes
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Slavery and Capitalism in Nineteenth

Words: 2009 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11240996

The slaveholder was the "father" who needed to take care of his slaves spiritual and material needs, and to protect him or her.

Early in the nineteenth century, slaveholders began to view their slaves as property that needed protecting. Conditions improved slightly and slaves were given better food, clothing and housing. This was not done out of kindness, but because of a need to protect their property. Eventually laws were passed in southern states that limited the physical punishment that slaveholders could inflict upon slaves, and set the age at which slaves could be separated from their mothers.

Slavery needed to be protected from capitalism and democracy because these forces were inherently in opposition to slavery. Democracy declared all men equal before the law, but Paternalism provided the basis for a justification by saying these were not men, but some inferior being that needed to be ruled by whites. Slavery…… [Read More]

White northerners of all classes were opposed to slavery, but were overwhelmingly not abolitionists. Only about one percent of the white population would have called for an end to slavery by 1850. In the 1840s, the term anti-slavery came to mean opposition to expansion of slavery, but not abolition in states where it already existed.

White northern workers viewed slaves as a threat. How could they sell their services for wages when slaves worked for free? Equating them with slaves also diminished their social standing. White capitalists were opposed to slavery because they saw that the capital resources devoted to slavery could be better used elsewhere. Northerners of all classes wanted the western states to be Free because they needed the support of the west in expanding the power of the federal government, something that would not happen if the western states became Slave states.

Most northerners realized that the South would never give up slavery willingly. They knew that unless the South would accept an arrangement to pay for slaves (which would have been very costly), it would take armed conflict to remove slavery, and they were unwilling to resort to that. They just did not want to pay the costs necessary to end slavery. The North also had a vested interest in continuing slavery in the South. The cotton plantations provided ample amounts of cheap cotton for northern mills. Without slavery, this might not have been available, and northern industrialists would have had to look elsewhere for more costly alternatives. Northern wage earners also feared that the end of slavery in the South would mean a large influx of southern blacks to northern cities (which did eventually happen), providing competition for jobs and lowering wages. Farmers also were opposed to ending slavery. They did not want to compete with blacks for free land. So, while northerners did not want to see slavery expanded any further, they also did not want it to go away.
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American Expansion American Territorial Expansion The Louisiana

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48885937

American Expansion

American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase

American territorial expansion was the top priority of Washington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil War years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.

The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…… [Read More]

Work Cited

1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. < http://www.bartleby.com/43/25.html >.

"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
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Control of Rr During Civil

Words: 5091 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3751971

(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)

Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.

Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.

There are countless examples of the alterations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.

Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.

Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp
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Battles of Gettysburg and Antietam

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82986125

However, Lee won out, and the solid line attacked. It was a fatal decision as Union forces literally mowed down Confederate troops by the thousands.

One historian later concluded, "Apparently it never occurred to him that the position [the Union line on Cemetery Ridge] could not be taken" (Wert 101). While the numbers vary, most people agree the South lost between 3,900 to 4,500 men, while the Union lost about 3,155 during the three days of battle. Clearly, not nearly as many men died at Gettysburg as did at Antietam. The turning point did not rely on the number of men killed or wounded in battle. Ultimately, it depended on the momentum of the army and its leader. Lee made some mistakes on the battlefield, such as demanding a long, united line. It cost him thousands of men, the battle, and ultimately the war. The South turned toward home after…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Antietam National Battlefield." National Park Service. 2007. 2 May 2007. http://www.nps.gov/anti/battle.htm

Kinsel, Amy J. "9 From Turning Point to Peace Memorial: a Cultural Legacy." The Gettysburg Nobody Knows. Ed. Gabor S. Boritt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 203-222.

McPherson, James M. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Nofi, Albert a. The Gettysburg Campaign, June-July 1863. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Publishing, 1997.
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Curriculum Middle School Social Studies

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70236905

S. What would have occurred if the West had become a nation for the Native Americans and the East for the settlers?

Mexican-American War. Have students develop a timeline of Mexico from pre-Spanish explorations to present time.

Civil War: Students read a story from the website http://www.civilwarliterature.com/#Primary%20Emphasisand do a book report.

Industrial Revolution: Each student researches something that was invented during this time. How did this invention change the general population? What if had not been invented?

Immigration: Students should research their earlier generations and when they came over the U.S. They can put together a journal or family tree.

Women's Movement: Debate whether women should have been free through Constitution or waited until 19th Amendment.

WWI: Read poems about WWI and then write a short poem of one's own.

Roaring Twenties: Discuss the music, fashions, dance, etc. Of this time period.

How was it different than from before the…… [Read More]

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Independent United States Shed Colonial Past Begin

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57872193

independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically

Political and Economic Unity

In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…… [Read More]

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North America Assessing the Drivers

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78607970



Political/cultural climate

The prosperity of the North American continent arguably depended in large part on the Protestant work ethic found in both the United States and Canada. In general, too, both nations are 'free trade' nations, although there have been some missteps that had a dampening effect. The raising of tariffs in the U.S. In the 1920s and 1930s constitutes one such misstep. Some contend that doing so caused, or at last aggravated, the Great Depression. In turn, coping with the Depression prevented North America's early intervention in Germany, and so was indirectly responsible for World War II (Lind 1994, p. 16+). Those same analysts see a willingness to "police the world and promote global free trade" as essential to the economy of North America, which is, when all the opinions are laid to rest, founded on global trading of its still-abundant natural resources and endowments.… [Read More]

References

Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Nivola, P.S. (2002, Spring). Energy independence or interdependence? Integrating the North American energy market. Brookings Review, 20, 24+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

The Erie Canal. (2000-2005). Retrieved June 9, 2005 from database online,  http://www.eriecanal.org/ .
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the War of 1812,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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American History Prior 1877 Signed Start

Words: 1764 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29208802

American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.

"Unimportant" American Events

In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the War of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The War of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267

"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf

"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website:  http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html 

"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
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Marbury v Madison Was a Case Between

Words: 1510 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84488844

Marbury v. Madison was a case between William Marbury and James Madison in 1803, which sparked one of the most important decisions made in American history. The case itself has actually enabled the Supreme Court to declare an act of law unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison also further established the idea of judicial review within the United States, allowing the courts some power in nullifying the decisions of one branch of government. It allowed for the U.S. form of "checks and balances" in the government.

Battle of Saratoga

The battle that took place in Saratoga at 1777 was a major patriotic victory during the American Revolutionary War. Commander John Burgoyne surrendered in October 17, 1777, after having been surrounded by General Horatio Gates. This was not only a British defeat, but it also indicated the general setbacks for the Iroquois leaders who sided with the British army. The Iroquois Confederacy was…… [Read More]

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Seminoles of Florida by James

Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82320611

These united Seminoles were able to retain their power, but with considerable losses. During Newnan's three-week campaign, Seminole settlements, crops, cattle, horses and other livestock were taken or destroyed. The Seminoles have to rebuild their lives. Meanwhile, to survive, the Seminoles and the runaway slaves traded weapons with the British throughout the early 1800s and supported this European country during the War of 1812.

The American government sent Andrew Jackson to Florida with his army of 3,000 troops. He successfully attacked the Seminoles and left many dead and dying behind in their destroyed villages. The United States seized control of Florida. When the settlers came in, they invaded Tallahassee, a Seminole settlement. The governor asked the Seminole to move and the Seminole refused. In 1823, the governor to offered to sign a treaty with the Seminoles, called the Treaty of Moultrie Creek. It required the Seminoles to give up their…… [Read More]

According to Covington, many changes have taken place for the Seminole Indians since 1858, when less than 300 remained on the peninsula just since the federal government did not have the money nor men to remove them to Indian Territory. Presently, less that 1,500 Seminoles and Miccosukees live in Florida, including those living away from the three larger federal reservations. For many it is indeed a changing life, with more comfortable housing, food purchased at the supermarket, color television sets, the latest fashions in clothing, and late model cars. To some older Seminoles, however, remaining on the reservation guarantees them the good life; it will be the younger Seminoles whose choices decide the future of the tribe. If they no longer have the desire to use their language or if they believe hat life outside the reservation is better, the Seminole land will greatly alter. Yet of all the tribes in the United States, it has been these Seminoles of Florida that have been the most reluctant to adjust themselves to the white world, and they still have reservations to which they can retreat from it.

This was the most interesting aspect of this book, therefore, that this tribe continued to fight against the white domination and against all odds. The Seminoles have been one of the very few sovereign nations that never surrendered nor signed a formal treaty with the U.S. Rather than be controlled by foreign invaders, these tribes moved into the dangerous Florida Everglades and told everyone "to come and get them" if they wanted. The U.S. government tried on several occasions giving up and realizing that the Seminoles would not assimilate themselves into a system that by any standards were patently unfair and racist. There was something in their culture that made them more resistant to external change and having the ability to retain their Native American ways.

This book may have been written for individuals who study the Seminoles in a professional basis, but it was a very interesting book and well written. There were parts that were too detailed that I passed over, but it was almost like a novel where I continued reading to see how it would actually end.
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French Amer Rev Extra

Words: 2391 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65254923

There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great Britain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.

The most challenging British action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When Britain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The British Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on British ships. When American tried to negotiate with Britain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French

Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International

History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
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American History as it Relates to the

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2477589

American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.

THE IMPACT OF…… [Read More]

References

Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.

Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.

Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.

Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
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Domestic Uniformity in the U S Between 1815-1830

Words: 859 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82481461

Domestic Uniformity in the U.S. Between 1815-1830

In the glorious aftermath of a triumphant revolution newly independent Americans were intent on freeing themselves fully from the control of European interests. To attain this liberation, the first Americans were charged with a task of enormous difficulty: harnessing the tremendous natural resources of their new land and using them to construct a great nation. Immense forests filled with raw timber stood waiting to be transformed into homes and vast tracts of open land lay ready for the farmer's plow. For decades after independence was wrested from British hands the first Americans worked to transform potential into reality, and soon a rising player on the international stage had emerged. Whereas centuries of autocratic oppression had dulled the creative sensibilities of European designers and manufacturers, their American counterparts were now free to explore their creative whims and soon they began producing works of skilled…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guay, L. "Peace and Conflict: The War of 1812." Historica. (2006): n. page. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. < http://www.histori.ca/peace/page.do?pageID=336 >.

Maier, P, M.R Smith, A Keyssar, and D.J. Kevles. Ed. Inventing America. 2nd. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, 2005. 295-306. Print.

Monroe, J. "President James Monroe's Seventh Annual Message to Congress." United States Congress, Washington D.C.. December 12th, 1823. In Person. .
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Lies My Teacher Told Me

Words: 2788 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54939093

This is a classic example
to support Loewen's thesis of biased textbooks, inaccurate textbooks, and
textbooks that eschew controversy. In general, according to Loewen,
textbooks avoid the problems of the recent past, must to his dismay. This
will only lead to improper education of American students and thus the
Vietnam War serves as a solid example of his contentions.
I believe that most of Loewen's claims are substantiated, except that
he does have some left wing tendencies which appear to be a result of his
own biases rather than historical accuracies. He considers the "system" to
be at fault for American poor, and even somewhat criticizes those who
believe people are responsible for their own economic standing. Whether or
not he is correct is not the issue. The issue is that it appears that his
own socio-economic opinions have infiltrated his study and interpretation
of American history. It is undeterminable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homepage of James Loewen. 25 Feb. 2007. .

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History
Textbook Got Wrong. New York, NY: Touchstone, 1995.
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Treaty of Ghent

Words: 1323 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48374845

Treaty of Ghent on the United States as well as how it affected the economy.

Ghent Treaty

The Treaty of Ghent in 1815 set the path for the answer to the Canadian-American territorial disputes. Analysis of this treaty determines that a treaty is successful if it can not only end wars but also take care of other issues as well.

The Treaty of Ghent is evidence that the long-term national interests of the concerned parties are the most important factor in the success of any peace treaty. Before the war both the United States and Great Britain had mutual grievances that were the major cause for war in 1812, but as time elapsed the two nations realized they had a profound interest in peace so the treaty was signed to end the issues that provoked the conflict.

The United States, before the war broke out was trying to focus on…… [Read More]

References

1997 Winner: National Peace Essay Contest: Education: United States

Institute of Peace, available at http://www.usip.org/ed/npec/winningessays/97winner.html, accessed on: October 18, 2003.

Effects of the Embargo Act and War of 1812, available at http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_M aster_Historians_Vol_III/embargoac_ba.html, accessed on: October 18, 2003.

Mackinac, United States (U.S. Physical Geography) - 1Up Info
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US President James Buchanan

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42931265

U.S. President James Buchanan

James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States (James Buchanan, n.d.), was born on April 23, 1791 in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania (BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868), n.d.). He moved when he was five to Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He was born into an affluent merchant family. He went to school at the Old Stone Academy prior to going to Dickinson College in 1807. He then learned law and was admitted to the bar in 1812. He began his career as a lawyer prior to combination the military to fight in the War of 1812. He was then selected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and then to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1832, he was chosen by Andrew Jackson to be the Minister to Russia. He came back home to be a U.S. Senator in from 1834-35. In 1845, he was selected Secretary of State under President James K.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868)." Bio Guide Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.

"James Buchanan." Answers, 2011. Web. 29 April 2011.

"James Buchanan." Tulane, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.

Kelly, Martin. About.com, 2011. "James Buchanan - Fifteenth President of the United States."
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Jeffersonian & Jacksonian Democracies Jeffersonian

Words: 2641 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20468292

.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.

In defining HOW and WHY, and UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the White House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." Historian 62.1 (1999):

Eldersveld, Samuel J.; & Walton, Hanes. Political Parties in American Society. Boston: Bedford/

St. Martin's,
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American History Between the Years

Words: 2433 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51687593



As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.

The Missouri Compromise

In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html.

Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.

Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.

Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
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Billy Budd -- a Tale

Words: 2844 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35654305

Frequent interception of American ships to impress American citizens was a major cause of the War of 1812. ("Impressments." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 10 Aug. 2005, (http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0825052.html)

The enforced and arbitrary nature of the fate of impressment, and Budd's fate of facing the code of military law, which was different from the life he was accustomed to, did not understand, and had not agreed to, was thus the result of Billy being forced to obey a social contract in an environment that necessitated individuals obey without question to fight an armed enemy. This differing social contract is not necessarily 'worse' than life upon a non-military ship. The problem is not necessarily the innocent civilian Billy is good and that the military men are bad, but that two orders of individualism and the collective good are clashing on a ship -- it is through impressment that this has occurred, not because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbour, James. "All My Books Are Botches': Melville's Struggle with The Whale." Writing the American Classics. Ed. James Barbour and Tom Quirk. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Franklin, Bruce H. "Billy Budd and Capital Punishment." From American Literature. June 1997.

Impressment." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Fact Monster.

Pearson Education, publishing as Fact Monster.
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Marshall Smelser the Democratic Republic 1801-1815

Words: 797 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33650485

Democratic Republic

The author of The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815 is historian Marshall Smelser. In this text, author Smelser covers a decade and a half of American history. This book describes the administrations of both President Thomas Jefferson and nearly the entire administration of President James Madison. It also covers all major historical events of the era in ways that are easily accessible, even to those who are not well-educated in American history. Marshall Smelser focuses both the actual historical events themselves, but also in how these historical events related to the creation and implementation of diplomacy between the United States and other countries.

Many historians and authors of historical texts are guilty of being, at the very least, subconsciously biased in favor or against the object of their writing. More often than not, these biases are quite obvious. However, most historians do not admit that they have these biases, if…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815. New York: Harper & Row. 1968.

Print.
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Embargo Act

Words: 1901 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48684806

Forty-one years ago, President Kennedy had the occasion to honor Nobel Prize winners at the White House in late April. When giving the toast, he proclaimed: "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House...with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone." Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence was our third President and considered the greatest President in United States history. However, the Embargo Act of 1807-1809 caused him to leave office resented by many Americans. Many of these people believe him to have violated the individual liberty of American citizens that he had championed throughout his career. A successful study of his motives in initiating the embargo and its eventual manifestation is essential to understanding Jefferson and the early history of American trade and foreign policy.

Jefferson was a classical liberal and…… [Read More]

Columbia Encyclopedia: Embargo Act of 1807

Reginald Horsman. The Causes of the War of 1812; University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962.

Louis Martin Sears. Jefferson and the Embargo; Duke University Press, 1927
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American Society Between 1800 and

Words: 1495 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77881316



The Temperance movement was initiated by ministers and doctors claiming alcohol consumption would decrease physical and psychological health. In response, those that associated and approved of the Temperance movement tried to ban the making of whiskey. Critics of the Temperance movement during the time period, as well as modern researchers, viewed Temperance as a form of social control and as a political symbol. The Temperance movement was one of the most popular pre-Civil War social reform tactics, and made individuals question the political right to influence social change. The Temperance movement set a precedence in American society as "the moral people, in this case the abstainers, [attempt] to correct the behavior of the immoral people, in this case the drinkers" (Gusfield 2). Social movements and social reform are still critical in the present time, involving a claimed "moral" side vs. An "immoral" side. The Temperance movement changed American society as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gusfield, J. Symbolic crusade: status politics and the American Temperance Movement. 2nd ed.

United States: Illini Books, 1986.

Hackett, L. "Industrialization: The First Phase." Industrial Revolution, History World

International, 1992. 6 Jun 2011. <  http://history-world.org/Industrial%20Intro.htm >
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U S Transportation Revolution 1815-1830

Words: 2760 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76709594

TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION IN THE UNITED STATES BETWEEN 1815 AND 1830?

This paper argues that, even prior to the advent of the railroads, a transportation revolution had taken place in the United States in the early nineteenth century. It argues that two developments were most important: steamboat navigation and the construction of the great canals. In particular, the building of the Erie Canal constituted a revolution in its own right. It was on account of the transportation revolution of the 1815-30 period that the American economy was decisively transformed in a capitalist direction.

In 1800, the United States did not lack a transport infrastructure, but it was a very poor one. With the exception of cities and towns located on the Atlantic coastline or along navigable waterways, there was literally no means of transporting agricultural produce and manufactured items to or from market centers other than country roads. These roads were…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boyer, Paul S. et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin, [YEAR?]

Cornog, Evan. The Birth of Empire: De Witt Clinton and the American Experience 1769-1828. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Frost, James Arthur. Life on the Upper Susquehanna 1783-1860. New York: King's Crown Press, 1951.

Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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Freedom of the Press and

Words: 5379 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31422897

Authors Donald Lively and Russell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.

"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."

The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007

There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…… [Read More]

References

Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper

Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION..., retrieved March 1, 2010.

Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television

From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
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America Reinstitute a Draft Once

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24388860

Of course, there are many other factors that contributed to Vietnam, but such a simplistic argument that drafts prevent or cause wars is similar to the equally logically fallacious argument used by people who wish to instate the peacetime draft.

Freedom from national compulsion, including compulsion to serve was one of the reasons our nation was founded. One of the causes of the war of 1812 was the forced conscription or impressment of American seamen into the British army -- but the British were not above impressing their own citizens, when needed, into military service, something the Americans abhorred. "The Napoleonic Wars increased English need for sea power and led to the impressment of a large number of deserters, criminals, and British subjects who had become naturalized Americans" ("Impressment," Columbia Encyclopedia, 2008). America was resistant to a professional federal force in general (hence the need for the amendments allowing semi-or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1863 Draft Riots." Mr. Lincoln and New York. Lincoln Institute. 2002. http://www.mrlincolnandnewyork.org/inside.asp?ID=91&subjectID=4

Background of Selective Service." About.com: U.S. Military History.  http://usmilitary.about.com/od/deploymentsconflicts/l/bldrafthistory.htm 

Impressment." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th Edition. 27 Apr 2008. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-impressm.html

Vennochi, Joan. "A military draft might awaken us.' The Boston Globe. June 22, 2006. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/06/22/a_military_draft_might_awaken_us
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Latinos in Military From the

Words: 954 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55079274

For instance, the September 1917 celebration of Mexican Independence, was marketed as a Red Cross fundraising event, and the celebration of Cinco De Mayo was postponed for the duration of the War. (Mac Donald 150).

During World War II, the ranks of Latinos in the U.S. Armed Forces swelled to more than 400,000, a higher percentage than any other minority. Puerto Ricans had the second largest number of wartime casualties after the Hawaiians (Rodgriguez 40). There were approximately 65,000 Puerto Rican troops, including 200 who served in the Women's Army Corps. Discrimination continued in this war, as well. The Department of Defense classified non-black Hispanics as Caucasians and black or dark skinned Hispanics as African-Americans, as a result official statistics recognizing Hispanic contributions in World War II are not available. Do to the lack of documentation, Hispanics' contributions are rarely found in history books.

During WWII, Mexican-Americans had the highest…… [Read More]

References

Fontana Bernard L. Pictorial Images of Spanish North America Journal of the Southwest.(2000) 42.4

Hispanics. U.S. Military website. 8 December 2007. http://www.prb.org/Articles/2007/HispanicsUSMilitary.aspx

Mac Donald, Jason. Marginalising the Marginalised in Wartime: African-Americans and Mexican-Americans in Austin, Texas, during the World War I Era. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. (2006) 32.1.

Rodgriguez, Clara E.: Puerto Ricans: Born in the U.S.A. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Approval of the Constitution of

Words: 2574 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53645579



DUAL FEDERALISM PHASE

The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.

In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed…… [Read More]

References

Michael Mcguire. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review. Volume: 61. Issue: 6. 2001. American Society for Public Administration.

Stever, James a. The Growth and Decline of Executive-Centered Intergovernmental Management. Publius: The Journal of Federalism Vol. 23. 1993. pp. 71-84.

Stoker, Gerry, and Karen Mossberger. Urban Regime Theory in Comparative Perspective. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy Vol. 12. 1992. pp. 195-212.

Stone, Clarence. Regime Politics. University Press of Kansas. 1989. pp. 218.
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Real America Interestingly Enough One of the

Words: 4206 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53156105

Real America?

Interestingly enough, one of the themes in the post-modernism period of American history has been the reexamination of the "real America," particularly the moral, ethical and sexual changes that have evolved since the turn of the century. This has not been a new theme, nor has it been relegated to non-fiction. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding the role fiction took by examining high and low life in society. Edith Wharton, for instance, found tremendous hypocrisy within the ranks of the Eastern elite in terms of morality and sexuality and in Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser portrayed a country girl who moved to the big city of Chicago to become a "kept woman," relinquishing her American morals for the pleasures of the flesh. Similarly, even in the stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway there are notions and reexaminations of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bales, R. (2001). Social Interaction Systmes: Theory and Measurment. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Berthrong, J. (2004). Love, Lust and Sex- A Christian Perspective. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 24(2), 3-22.

Gosine, M. (2010). Whatever Happened to the Real America. Boston: Pearson.

Smith, J. (1996, March). The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, not Apologies. Retrieved July 2011, from Cathlic Education Research Center: http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0004.html
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Gun Control in the 21st

Words: 5200 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51492225

Hence, while ratifying the U.S. Constitution, the Virginia convention passed a resolution specifying: "That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defense of a free state;"

It is, therefore, clear that the central issue that led to the adoption of the Second Amendment, as part of the Bill of Rights -- ratified in 1791, was the concern that the powers granted in the U.S. Constitution to the Congress over the militia and a national army may be used to abrogate state sovereignty and power, rather than a desire to recognize the right for bearing arms by individual citizens. Nowhere in the background and history of the introduction of the Second Amendment in the U.S. Constitution do we find the issue of personal use of weapons, for purposes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Economic Costs of Gun Violence." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Updated 4/17/07. October 31, 2007. http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/factsheets/pdf/economic_costs.pdf

Firearm Facts." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Updated 4/18/07. October 31, 2007. http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/factsheets/pdf/firearm_facts.pdf

An interview with John R. Lott, Jr." University of Chicago Website. 2000. October 31, 2007.  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/493636.html 

The Second Amendment." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 2007. October 31, 2007. http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/issues/?page=second
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Milton Friedman and the Rise

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83234609

This led to the rise in monetarism and the tax cuts promoted by President Reagan, the fiscal conservatism of the Volker-Greenspan Federal Reserve System, and the economic prosperity of the 1980s and 1990s (Ross, 1998).

Currently, monetarism and the importance of monetary policy in determining economic growth and stability are widely accepted. However, it is important to note that Friedman himself has cautioned against assigning to monetary policy a larger role than it can actually perform (Friedman (a), p. 99). While admittedly, changes in money supply can affect employment and output in the short run, Friedman advised against an over reliance on the supply of money as a mechanism to stimulate investment, employment and demand to avoid unacceptable levels of inflation. Instead, he advocates, that these economic objectives are better achieved through allowing the free market to operate freely.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biz/ed. "Milton Friedman - Theories." Accessed April 26, 2005:

http://bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy/library/economists/friedmanth.htm

Friedman, M. A Program for Monetary Stability. New York: Fordham University Press,

Friedman, M. "The Role of Monetary Policy." The Optimum Quantity of Money and Other Essays. University of Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1976.
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Thoughts on Book Readings

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97292282

American Culture)

Thoughts on Book Readings

All of the readings included in Beyond Borders: Thinking Critically about Global Issues help us appreciate American culture and U.S. history from several diverse perspectives. The book urges us all to reach beyond comfortable representations of the United States -- who we are, what our role has been in shaping the world, and how we have exercised power through our actions and interactions with others across the globe -- and embrace more complex truths. In short, we should challenge traditional interpretations.

History Lessons: How Textbooks from Around the World Portray U.S. History by Dana Lindaman and Kyle Ward helps expose how many American texts are biased in portrayals of the United States' role in world history. By examining the historical record of American history in English translated foreign texts, it is clear that other countries challenge the American depiction of itself in major events…… [Read More]

References

Romanowski, Michael H. "Excluding Ethical Issues From U.S. History Textbooks: 911 And The War On Terror." American Secondary Education 37.2 (2009): 26-48. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.

Shaffer, Robert. "History Lessons: How Textbooks From Around The World Portray U.S. History By Dana Lindaman And Kyle Ward." Peace & Change 32.1 (2007): 114-117. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.

Williams, William Appleman. "Empire as A Way of Life." Nation 231.4 (1980): 104-119. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.
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Diversity in the Armed Forces

Words: 3758 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66561070

Military Diversity

Diversity in the Armed forces

For over three decades, military diversity has been a very complex topic within the defense units or national security departments for many nations. This arises when it comes to matters of conceptual and practical leadership, as well as the managerial implications. It represents one of the most essential, but challenging topics for the human resource management departments that leaders within the armed forces have been facing for over three to four decades. One of the greatest diversity challenges for the traditional military has been within the fields of development, employment, and recruitment, with regards to keeping their institutional norms, attitudes, beliefs, and values. This scenario has caused a continuous revision of the human resource policies, philosophies, practices and programs conducted by the armed forces. As a result, many researchers on the military activities recommend that the armed forces should be a reflection of…… [Read More]

References

Andrew, T. (2013).Advisory board to suggest military is heavy on reserves. Army Times,

9(4), 45-57.

Charles, M. (1988).Institutional and occupational trends in armed forces.The Military and Diversity, 76; 15-26.

Henning, S. (1994). New perspectives on the military profession: The I/O model and esprit de corps Re-evaluated. Armed Forces & Society, 20(4), 99-117.
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Compromise of 1850 Three Views

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43738350

Seward provides evidence of this when he comments that the Constitution confers rights to the people of the states, not to the actual states. Finally,

Calhoun was as decorated a statesman as there was in 1850: former Vice President, Secretary of War and a present-day Senator from South Carolina. His history also included fighting for the rights of southern states to maintain slaves and for fomenting the Nullification Crisis of 1832. It was equally no surprise that his speech rejected the Compromise and the grounds he offered. Essentially, Calhoun's speech was an emotional ploy to the North to understand that without slavery the south could not exist and without the admission of additional slave states, the south could not be an equal partner in the union.

Calhoun's constitutional justification for rejecting the compromise was that the representational republicanism set forth in the Constitution required a semblance of balance of representation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lodge, Henry Cabot. Daniel Webster. 1883.

Latimer, Margaret Kinard. "South Carolina -- a Protagonist of the War of 1812," American

Historical Review 61 (1956),: 914 -- 929,

Seward, William. Works of William H. Seward Vol. I, (New York: Redfield, 1853) 417.
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Stephen Decatur American Naval Hero

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20904726

Decatur's death was unpleasant and unfortunate. Allegedly over a matter of honor, it actually was not. There was no specific issue of right and wrong, but there was the perceived issue of status and career. There is no doubt that Decatur could have done more had death not silenced him. This is often the case with great men who do great things against the will of others.

This book is fascinating and interesting, and Allison (2005) makes a strong argument and presents a clear thesis. The evidence that he has for who Stephen Decatur was and what he contributed to the country and the Navy is a great tribute to a man who most people have either forgotten or had not even heard about. I agree with the authors conclusions in that Decatur did appear to be a great man. Whether he was killed as a matter of honor as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allison, Robert J. (2005). Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero, 1979-1820. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.
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Tecumseh and the Shawnee Prophet Tenskwatawa The

Words: 1324 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66026507

Tecumseh and the Shawnee Prophet

Tenskwatawa "The prophet" and Tecumseh

Tenskwatawa was born in 1778 at Old Piqua near present day Springfield, Ohio. His father was an important Shawnee chief. Lauliwasikau was one of eight children, and he protected his younger brother Tecumseh and acted as his protector. Lauliwaskiau would eventually be known as Tenskwatawa.

In 1783, at the treaty of Paris, promises of the British were broken and they made no effort to protect Indian lands in Ohio. Tribesmen had fought in this war but had no part in the treaty making. White frontiersmen started flocking to southern Ohio, only to be refused by the tribal leaders refusing to acknowledge the government's claims and oppose new settlements north of the river.

From 1784-1789 a few chiefs met with government officials and signed a series of questionable treaties taking away Indian control of lands in Southern and Eastern Ohio, but…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not available, SHAWNEE PROPHET., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 01-01-2002.
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America and British Traditions in

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72643045

So alike yet distinct did these early writers create, that they are now required reading in British schools (Duquette).

In terms of religion, American culture emulated Britain less than many of the early settler were reactionary against British conservatism. Several of the original 13 Colonies were established by English, Irish, and Scottish settlers who were fleeing religious persecution. By 1787, in fact, the United States became one of the first countries to place a freedom of religion code into law, even if it was only at the Federal level (Gaustad).

Thankfully, America has a taste for more exotic foods and cuisine than the British, but if we think of many of the celebrated Holidays, they either derive from or are part of the British tradition. Thanksgiving, for instance, is now a traditional American holiday evolving from the Pilgrim's plight during the first winter of their landing. Christmas, Easter, and Lent…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ciment, J., ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. New York: Sharpe Reference, 2005.

Duquette, E. Loyal Subjects: Bonds of Nation, Race and Allegiance in 19th Century America. Trenton, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Gaustad, E. Proclaim Liberty Througout All the Land: A History of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Gienow-Hecht, J. "A European Considers the Influence of American Culture." 1 Febuary 2006. America.gov - Engaging the World. .
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Republic 1787-1848 Racial Economic and

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90235398



Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American War and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.

Texas and the West itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,

1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
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Panic of 1819

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77961569

Panic of 1819

The United States' First Financial Crisis

The "Panic of 1819," as it is commonly referred to in the literature, was considered the first financial crisis in the United States. To this day, many of the factors attributed to the cause of the crisis are hotly debated among scholars. The case is especially interesting however because of the contemporary financial crisis that originated in 2008 and is still plaguing the population today. Many, if not all, the factors associated with the financial crises seem remarkably similar. Therefore, it is prudent to study the history of such events in order to better understand the current events that are unfolding before our eyes. This paper will provide a brief analysis of some of the factors that were involved in the Panic of 1819 -- America's very first financial crisis.

Background

The United States experienced rapid population growth during the years…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gordon, N. "Panic of 1819." American Business. March 1, 2011. http://american-business.org/2641-panic-of-1819.html (accessed March 30, 2012).

Perkins, E. "Langdon Cheves and the Panic of 1819: A Reassessment." The Journal of Economic History, 1984: 465-461.

Rothbard, M. The Panic of 1819: Reactions and Policies. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007.
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Mississippi Has Had a Long

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99836286

Then, in 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. With approximately 80,000 Mississippians serving in the Confederate Army, the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9th, 1865, ending the Civil War, were dramatic events for the state ("Chronological History"). These events changed the state politically and socially.

In 1868, Mississippi's first bi-racial constitutional convention was formed. Deemed the 'Black and Tan' Convention, the new constitution drafted guaranteed the rights of ex-slaves as well as punished ex-Confederate soldiers. Voters in the state reject the Constitution. The next year, a modified version, not punishing ex-Confederate soldiers, is ratified. This paves the way for readmittance to the Union, on February 23rd, 1870 ("Chronological History"). The 20th century continued with many advancements and challenges for the state.

At the beginning of the century, the boll weevil made its appearance and, in 1907, most of Mississippi's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aubrey, R. A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Convention Board, 1971.

Chronological History of Mississippi. 2009. State Handbook & Guide Resources. December 3, 2009 .

Lowry, R. & McCardle, W. A History of Mississippi: From the Discovery of the Great River by Hernando Desoto. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2007.

Nationwide to Reopen 500 Katrina Cases. 20 Apr 2007. Routers. December 3, 2009 .
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American System Henry Clay Gave His Famous

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68304687

American System

Henry Clay gave his famous speech in support of the American System to the House of Representatives in 1824, although Alexander Hamilton had used the same term decades before. It rested "on the idea of harmonizing all the segments of the economy for their mutual benefit and of doing so by active support from an intervening national government" (Baxter 27). Clay's conversion to this policy was surprising since Hamilton had been a member of the Federalist Party while Henry Clay was supposedly a Democratic Republican and a Jeffersonian, opposed to Federal plans for government aid to industry, a national bank, protective tariffs and federal funding for highways, canals, railroads and other internal improvements. After the War of 1812, however, the first political party system had come to an end and the Federalists were discredited by their opposition to the war and threats of secession in New England. During…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Baxter, Maurice G. Henry Clay and the American System. University Press of Kentucky, 2004.

Hounshell, David A. From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
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Judgment in Managerial Decision Making

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11843591

A year later, Soviet's premier in collaboration with Cuba installed nuclear missiles on the Cuban island, a few miles from the U.S. This decision triggered the Missile Crisis in Cuba and many global leaders feared the possibility of a nuclear war (Blight & Kornbluh, 2007).

Focalism / focusing illusion played a part in this failure

As evidenced above, Kennedy's reign offers potent examples of the psychological theory about flawed focusing illusion (group decision-making). Because the group culture overruled the internal agreement, members became unrealistic. In this case, the products of focusing illusions played a part in the failure of the invasion. President Kennedy's poor decision-making practices led to insufficient solutions to the issues of the invasion. Because the president and his advisors limited their discussions to few alternative courses of action, they disregarded further consideration of alternatives, which could have been worthy to the course. The team ignored all viable…… [Read More]

References

Blight, J.G., & Kornbluh, P. (2007). Politics of illusion: The Bay of Pigs invasion reexamined. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Pub.

Craughwell, T.J., & Phelps, M.W. (2008). Failures of the presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and war in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press.

Higgins, T. (2009). The perfect failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of Pigs. New York: Norton