Violence in Public Schools
The recent violence on school grounds (including elementary, middle school and high school violence) has created a climate of fear in American public schools, and the literature presented in this review relates to that fear and to the difficulty schools face in determining what students might be capable of mass killings on campus. Television coverage of school shootings leave the impression that there is more violence on school campuses than there really is, but the threat is real, students are being killed, and the background into how and why these murders take place is a main point of this paper. Moreover, the acts of violence at schools create perceptions that may or may not be valid, and that issue is part of this literature review as well.
Perceptions of School Violence
Why do Americans have the perception that schools are places where violence takes place on a regular basis -- when that is not truly the case? A scholarly article in the peer-reviewed journal The Clearing House points to the fact that when there are highly publicized acts of brutal violence at schools, because of the bold, up-close-and-personal video reports on television sets across the nations, the rare acts of violence stick in the minds of Americans. The article explains that there are upwards of 55 million students attending public schools in the United States today, including from kindergarten through 12th grade (Algozzine, et al., 2011), and obviously not all schools are places where killings take place. And moreover, "…reports of school crime and violence" from administrators, students, and teachers "…differ in severity and in nature from what is perceived" by the greater society (Algozzine, 91). The salient point this paper presents is that Americans perceive that schools (per se) are not safe, Algozzine explains (91).
The authors research existing studies of administrators, teachers, and students, to tap into their perceptions of exactly how much violence they witness or personally experience in public schools. A credible survey by several authors (Sprague, Smith, and Steiber, 2002) points out that principals in public schools "…perceived schools to be safe" (Algozzine, 92). Administrators reported that up to 80% of their problems (discipline referrals) result from "…ineffective classroom management on the part of teachers" (Algozzine, 92).
As for teachers, a recent study (Smith and Smith, 2006) reflects that their "…perceptions of violence…influenced their decision to leave" and go to schools…… [Read More]
Violence and Risk Assessment and Serial Homicide
The objective of this study is to examine violence risk assessment and the type of tools and their effectiveness for determining violent reoffenders. Lurigio and Harris (2009) reports in the work entitled "Mental Illness, Violence, and Risk Assessment: An Evidence-Based Review" that the link that has been presumed "between violence and mental illness has long been an ongoing subject of investigation." (2009) The question is posed as to whether those who are mentally ill are more likely "than those without mental illness to commit violent crimes?" (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) As well the question is asked whether mental and criminal justice professionals accurately assess the likelihood of violence?" (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) It is reported that mentally ill individuals with illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder have been historically shunned due to "in part because of the stereotype that they are dangerous." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009)
I. Swanson (1994)
Over the past twenty years, there have been quite a few epidemiological studies that have conducted an examination of the relationship that exists between mental illness and violence. It was found in Swanson 1994 that individuals with mental illness were "more than twice as likely to be involved in assaultive acts as people with no such illness. However, the study found that this difference could be explained mostly by the presence of co-occurring substance use disorders." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009)
II. Co-occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders
The findings state specifically that individuals with "substance use disorders were more than twice as likely to be involved in assaultive acts that people with only mental illness, and those with both mental illness and substance use disorders were the most likely group to be involved in assaultive acts." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) In fact, study findings demonstrated that severe mental illness alone "was unrelated to violence. However, people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders were more likely to report violent acts than people with substance use disorders alone." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) Also increasing the risk of violence among individuals with mental illness were contextual factors, clinical factors and historical factors. In yet another study, findings state that individuals…… [Read More]
The industry knowingly takes advantage of this recent cultural shift in parent-child relationships. And finally, the industry knows that children and youngsters are more likely to be influenced by violent movies, TV shows, and games and are more likely to get addicted to violent imagery, becoming potential customers for future media products and games that glorify violence (Mean world syndrome, 2009). It is fair, therefore, to say that bombardment of children with media violence by the entertainment industry constitutes child exploitation.
Considering the severity of the problem, it is time to call for greater regulation of violence in media by the government and community organizations. Some people are wary of such calls. Americans love freedom of speech and libertarian laws. They do not always welcome government intervention in business and societal issues. Intervention in this case, however, is necessary. "If the goal of public policy is to protect the welfare of children and adolescents, then there can be no doubt that public policy related to media violence is necessary even if the effects are small," Kirsh (2006) explains. "For instance, if after watching a violent television show that has a viewership of 1 million youth a mere 0.5% of those youth become increasingly prone to aggression, then 5,000 children and adolescents could be adversely affected" (p. 298). Regulatory policies are also likely to encourage parents to be more active in regulating their children's viewing habits. And by making it hard for media content producers to market violent imagery to children, regulations may encourage them to redirect their resources for producing more child-friendly movies, TV shows, and video games. In short, regulation of violence in media has a potential to make significant positive changes.
It should be noted that some people oppose further regulation of violence in media because of the complexity of the issue. Some of them point out that there is no clear definition of "violence in media." Does it include accidents and disasters? How about psychological torment? Critics also argue that eliminating violent movies, TV shows, and games "on the basis of violence alone would also rule out important films like Saving Private Ryan (1998), Schindler's List (1993), or Hotel Rwanda (2004) -- not to…… [Read More]
Legitimate Force and Illegitimate Violence
The people today are living in a new-fangled, unmatched and exceptional age of terrorism. The pioneer of modern sociology, Max Weber, defined state as "a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory" (as qtd. In Whitehead 2007). He puts emphasis on the point that a state can only exist in a meaningful manner if it has the power to use violence as a sole source of the right. He considers that "the right to use physical force is ascribed to other institutions or to individuals only to the extent to which the state permits it" (as qtd. In Whitehead 2007). However, sociologists before Marx have linked the monopoly of violence with the indispensable task of the state in the wake of its daily manifestations that are several in numbers (Whitehead 2007).
Throughout their work, Marx and Engels have regarded force as a critical function of the state. However, they also emphasize that it is an ideological function of the state to use force and violence as an active part. It is not to be monopolized by the ruling elites in power who have the command over the state apparatus. They also consider violence or a threat of it as the tool of the state to handle and maintain the influence and organization of the things under the power of the state. This threat, if historically seen, was also evident in the olden times when it was used as "an instrument of class rule regardless of the apparent mode of government within the state machine" (Whitehead 2007).
The phenomenon of globalization in today's era has also transformed the role of the states in modifying the use of force. Although the existence and power of the states is necessary, the genuineness of their argument regarding the regulation of the use of force is progressing both trans-nationally and internationally. In addition to this, the number of private actors has extended tremendously. This increase in their presence and authority to control the use of force has conked out the trend of the states' claim of monopoly (Leander 2004).
1. Legitimate Force and Illegitimate Violence
There are two keystones of state legitimacy that are widespread in a contemporary state; the power over violence and antagonistic behaviors…… [Read More]
Violence in Schools: Qualitative Research Article
Unlike the numerically-driven nature of quantitative research, qualitative research focuses on understanding a specific phenomenon in a deeper fashion through a case study approach, either through participant research, interviews, or some other form of study in the field. "Qualitative research is aimed at gaining a deep understanding of a specific organization or event, rather than a surface description of a large sample of a population…. Qualitative research does not introduce treatments or manipulate variables, or impose the researcher's operational definitions of variables on the participants. Rather, it lets the meaning emerge from the participants. It is more flexible in that it can adjust to the setting. Concepts, data collection tools, and data collection methods can be adjusted as the research progresses" (Qualitative research, n.d, PPA 696). To understand the sensitive, often fraught issue of violence in schools, taking a qualitative approach can be useful to gain information about different, individualized responses to school violence.
Violence in schools has become highly publicized in the media in the wake of the recent shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School. The most famous school shooting until then was one which took place at Columbine High School. In the article "Early Responses to School Violence: A Qualitative Analysis of Students' and Parents' Immediate Reactions to the Shootings at Columbine High School" Hawkins (et al. 2004) presents the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews "conducted two weeks after the incident with 4 Columbine High School students and 7 parents who were directly and indirectly affected" to examine " both similarities and variability in immediate emotional, cognitive, and social responses to the mass violence" (Hawkins et al. 2004: 197). A number of features make this research qualitative. First of all, it is highly specific. Only individuals who were victims at this specific school shooting were analyzed: they were not compared with other victims of school shootings or with the reactions of other individuals who had witnessed similar situations of mass violence. There was no hypothesis or preconceived postulate the researchers were attempting to…… [Read More]
A long list of possibly violent images can be tabulated, as well as their frequency and duration on the screen.
What other things would you need to consider in order to make sure that exposure to media violence was the cause of aggressive behavior and not some other factor? In other words, what variables would have to be controlled?
The ideal way to control for other variables would be to sanction the population sample. If funding and ethical considerations allowed, the participants could spend a series of time watching select media clips in an isolated environment. The only way to determine whether media, and nothing else, caused an increase in aggressive behavior then the participants should not be able to watch any other media, and ideally not even be able to leave the controlled environment for the duration of the study.
Relate your example to the scientific method.
We begin with the hypothesis that media violence predicts aggressive behavior. We narrow down the variables and define terms, and begin to determine what population sample we would like to investigate. We perform a review of literature and explore the theoretical perspectives underlying the research. Then, we test the hypothesis by executing the research.… [Read More]
Violence Against Children
The structure of violence as related to children directly correlates to their perceived socio-demographic risk. Several factors directly relate to the likelihood that a child will be subjected to violence at some point during their lives. Social, economic, demographic and physical factors all have a dramatic impact a child's development, either positive or negative and these factors also influence whether or not a child is more or less likely to be subjected to violence. Children living in high risk environments typically serviced by human service agencies, including poverty stricken areas and foster care living arrangements, are among the children that are at increased risk for violence and abuse. Children subjected to violence are much more likely to subsequently exhibit violent behavior later in life as well. Health care providers, educators, foster parents, families and community members all have an impact on a child's development. It is the responsibility of these individuals and human services professionals to identify patterns leading to abuse and to teach children and parents to cope with the stressors that increase the likelihood that violence will occur. This idea is explored at great length below.
The structure of violence is two-fold in this country; it is either directed against or committed by children. Though this paper focuses on violence that occurs against children, it is important to not that children are also committing more acts of violence themselves. Many youths face social obstacles that include "familial dysfunction, poverty, drug abuse, lack of adequate education and healthcare and violent behavior, all of which may contribute to their own reliance on criminal behavior" (Mears, 2004). To become "contributing members of society," these factors must be addressed by families, communities and policy makers in order to improve the likelihood for a more positive outcome for children (Mears, 2004).
Violence against children is on…… [Read More]
The same students who sponsor night walks to check the lighting and grounds to increase safety will hold the door open for a stranger entering their residence hall. Despite frequent warnings, students - and even faculty, administrators, and other campus personnel - act less judiciously than they would elsewhere." (Siegel 1994). Seaman (2005) agrees, saying, "Typically, there is a social encounter in which a certain amount of kissing or other sexually intimate touching is consensual, but at some point, the girl indicates that she would like t terminate that sexual encounter but the other party continues...the fact that alcohol is often involved only compromises the perpetrator's impulse control and he overpowers her."
The Role of Alcohol in Violence on College Campuses:
When one examines the data of violence, on college campuses, the one contributing element shared most commonly by all forms other than premeditated attacks on random individuals (Siegel 1994) is alcohol consumption. Despite the fact that most college underclassmen are not of legal drinking age, "...t would be unrealistic to imagine very strictly enforcing the drinking age on many campuses... realistically, unless you ban alcohol completely, students who really want to drink will manage to get alcohol" (Siegel 1994).
Strictly speaking, college campus violence does not include violent encounters that take place off campus, but many authorities consider violence that occurs between college students in off-campus situations are considered within the framework of violence on college campuses (Siegel 1994). Typically, intoxication-related violence is likely to be male-on-male, initiated in or around college bars or fraternity parties (Seaman 2005).
Fraternities also feature another form of violence associated with alcohol consumption on college campuses, in the form of forced excessive (sometimes fatal) alcohol consumption during fraternity pledge hazing. Unlike the other forms of campus violence, most serious incidents or deaths associated with fraternity hazing are accidental.
Nevertheless, especially when death results, they should be included in any discussion of college campus violence because they occur more often than the premeditated mass murders on campus that receive so much more media attention.
Violence is a fact of life, both in society at large as well as on college campuses.
Generally, college campuses are less susceptible to many of the random acts of violence, such as muggings, physical attacks from complete strangers, armed robbery, gang violence, or drive by shootings that come to mind in…… [Read More]
We are using four different schools for our data, but as the data are being obtained from one community (therefore one unit of measurement for both the study and comparison group). We are unable to randomly assign the children to either the experimental or control group, therefore all of our participants do not have the same chance of being in the control or experimental group. Our data will also not be blinded, although identifying information on standardized testing scores, absenteeism, suspension and expulsion will not be available to the research designer.
The design for this type of group would be diagrammed as follows:
The central idea behind this design is that the null case would not expect the treatment group (in this case our community) to differ at greater than chance levels. This allows consideration of a treatment effect when the post-test data of the treatment group varies from the control group regression line. The limitation is that one must always be aware that elements outside of the treatment may be the cause of treatment shift from the regression line, and careful attention to internal validity interference is important.
Threats to Internal Validity
By its nature, quasi-experimental design is weak in its ability to control threats to internal validity, but usually effective in controlling threats to external validity. Since our research is being done in a commonly encountered situation, it is likely to have wide applicability to similar settings if the threats to internal validity to be controlled. Possible threats to internal validity include:
Historical elements - are there elements within the community or within the individual which will effect the change in the variable? In this case, it is not possible to be sure that each population experienced the same events and come to the study with a similar background and experience.
Statistical regression - Do the subjects come from same or similar backgrounds? Both groups have been evaluated for socioeconomic status similarity, but are there other elements in the population that can confound the data?
Maturation - if changes are noted…… [Read More]
Violence in America
The purpose of this paper is to research violence in America in relation to Education and to make a determination of 'who' is responsible for the growing violence, if in fact it is growing.
The United States Crime Index Rates per 100,000 climbed from 1,887.2 in the year of 1960 to 5,897 in 1991 in which year the crime rate was at its highest. According to the report: "Crime in the untied States accounts for more death, injuries and loss of property than all Natural Disasters combined. During the early 1980's a wave of violence involving youth swept the across the United States. Between the years of 1980 to 1984 youth violence grew by 99% and violence among adults declined. Between 1980 and 1994 arrests of juveniles rose by 94%.
Varied and sundry consideration as to the precise strategy that might be effective in curbing violence among youth has been contemplated. Some strategies focus toward prevention of the violence ever occurring to begin with and others focus toward reducing the behaviors that are connected to the violence. Accordingly there exists three prominent types strategy of intervention methods according to experts. The three interventions categorically used in dealing with violence among youth are as follows:
1) Individual-based intervention
2) Neighborhood-based intervention; and
3) Gun and police intervention
All three of these methods have been shown to bring about reductions in violence as well as the antisocial behaviors connected with violence. The intervention used with "neighborhood based intervention' is inclusive of "comprehensive" strategies as well as "school-based programs."
(Brash 2004) "Comprehensive strategies are those that make provision of extensive services to youth in the intent to improve the social and economic factors within the neighborhood. The parents of the youth are provided assistance as well. However, due to their complex nature the comprehensive strategies are not easily implemented and neither are they easily evaluated.
I. Violence Defined:
Generally violence is defined as an action or series of…… [Read More]
Violence in schools has been at the forefront of media attention for some time now. One of the main reasons for this is the apparently increasing incidents of violence against and among children. Media attention and the sociological issues stirred up by the situation regarding violence have prompted several studies around violence in schools, especially when directed by children and teachers against children. Violence against teachers, on the other hand, has not received similar research attention. This is therefore the focus of an article by Espelage et al. (2013), with the title "Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a national Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda."
The introduction of the article begins by acknowledging existing focus points for studying violence in schools. It explains its research focus by claiming that not much has been done to study the phenomenon of violence against teachers within the school context. The thesis of the article is therefore to provide solid grounds for researching the phenomenon, while also creating policies and procedures for handling it. In order to accomplish this, the body of the work begins by defining school violence. The basic concepts within this definition is that violence can be physical or non-physical and that it takes place within complex social situations. Existing, if limited, literature has revealed some of the basic causes and effects of violence against teachers, including emotional impacts for teachers and social impacts for school. Interactional and social-ecological theories are examined to determine predictors of violence. In terms of prevention techniques, suggestions are made for students and teachers at various levels, including leadership and community-level interventions. The final part of the article contains recommendations for research and policy to help address the problem of violence against teachers.
The article concludes by offering several suggestions, including increasing funding and support for education and…… [Read More]
Sexual Violence: Hidden Truths
The articles that students were asked to review were concerned with sexual violence around the world. These articles illustrated and elaborated upon many instances of sexually-based violence in domestic or civilian life, as well as within the context of war. There were many shocking elements to the contents of the articles. One of the greatest shocks that readers may have come across in reading and analyzing these articles is the proliferation of sexual violence against men and boys. Sexual violence is normatively associated with females -- women and girls. Though people may not be completely literate and aware of the various kinds of sexually-based violent acts that are performed around the world upon women, the average person is more likely to be aware of violence against women and not against men. The information in the articles clearly demonstrates that there is a great lack of education regarding sexually-based violence around the world, against all sexes and genders, and not just the ones that get promoted the most by the media.
The articles discuss in moderate detail how sexual violence is used within the context of war, or within the military. Some people may be aware of how rape is used as a strategy during war. This practice is typically associated with women and girls as the victims, as well as this association with respect to the topic of human trafficking. People have been conditioned, primarily by the media, to associate human trafficking, prostitution, and victims of rape with women and girls, when these articles make it clear that this is a human issue, and not simply a female issue. I think because the media plays such an important and influential role in the associations between sexual violence and sexual exploitation, that it should be the same tool to re-educate people regarding the realities of this issue.
Prior to reading these articles, I was aware of violence such as bride burning, stoning, honor killing, human trafficking, and rape. These were not personal interests of mine, but topics that I had to research…… [Read More]
and, in Colorado this past February, a prison guard at Englewood was discovered smuggling in tobacco and cigarette papers for bribes from inmates. He had received over $5,000 during the smuggling scheme.
Inmate vs. Inmate
A little over a month ago, prisoners at Chino prison in California rioted due to extreme overcrowding. About 200 inmates were injured, 25% of those seriously. The riot went on for 11 hours. Authorities believe the riot was prompted by tensions between black and Hispanic prisoners. No prison security guards were injured. Chino prison is built to handle 3000 men; it is currently populated by 5,900. And the California system is not that much different from any other state. Judges are ordering the release of thousands of inmates to reduce the overcrowding (NY Times, 2009).
There are many examples of prisoners hanging themselves in their cells for one reason or another. Studies have found that, per capita, prison suicide rates are about 50% higher than in the general population. Recent studies have shown that there are many more times the attempted suicides than there are suicides however. Tartaro and Ruddell (2006) found that the ratio of attempts to suicides is approximately 20:1. The point of this is that most inmates attempt suicide or self-mutilation due to their "life circumstances." The massive overcrowding in our prison system causes increased stress, depression, and thoughts of harming themselves.
Inmate on Officer Violence
Inmates can be very successful in gaining "power" over guards in various ways unrelated to violence: using the court process to enforce their rights and bring officers to task for violations, manufacturing weapons (guards don't carry any), at times utilizing unprovoked violence as a weapon of fear, and coercing other inmates to form gangs and thus compete with guards for control of the prison population. As opposed to direct violence, which brings only punishment and extended jail terms, inmates often gain the upper hand more subtly.
Alleviating the Violence
The number one method put forth by experts to alleviate the violence and increase safety is to reduce the overcrowding and provide a better living environment for inmates so they don't feel like cattle. Living conditions in prison are everything. Hearty, good, nutritious meals that inmates can look forward to go a long way towards alleviating negative feelings and activities. Third, allowing the inmates to work inside the…… [Read More]
Professional sports operates at a higher level than college sports, but these athletes are more likely to face legal action. Dale Hackbart of the Denver Broncos attempted to block Charles Clark of the Cincinnati Bengals during an interception by throwing himself on the ground in front of Hackbart. Hackbart, out of frustration, hit Clark with his right forearm on the back of the neck. The force of the blow was so powerful both men fell to the ground. Three of Clark's vertebrae were broken in the assault.
The United States District Court for the District of Colorado interpreted the incident as an "involuntary reflex," stating,"The violence of professional football is carefully orchestrated. Both offensive and defensive players must be extremely aggressive in their actions, and they must play with reckless abandonment of self-protective instincts." They also pointed out that the only disciplinary actions available in the game were penalties and game expulsion, and that players carry an assumption of risk when they play. In addition, fouls were often missed during the game, since it was played in a noisy, emotionally fueled environment and referees could not see everything each player did. Lastly, it would be pointless to try to apply injury tort law to this case, since charging each player with a duty of care would be impossible. In the end, they concluded that the Bengals were not responsible.
The plaintiff, of course, appealed the decision. The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals had a different point-of-view, stating that there were specific rules in football that prohibited such behavior during play. These rules were put into place to avoid having players intentionally hurt each other. Because of this, football players should be held responsible for injuring an opponent if they are acting with a reckless disregard for safety. They overturned the original decision and the plaintiff was awarded damages.
So what can these incidents teach us about sport law? As with any other area of law, the decisions made by judge and jury can often vary depending on the region, the level of play, and the type of injury sustained. Players who have a history of inappropriate or violent behavior may find themselves in more of a bind than those who are first time offenders. In order to stay on the right side of the law, players must not let their emotions get the better of them;…… [Read More]
Violence Against Women
Social Welfare Congressional Legislation Violence against Women Act Bill # S.47
Problem Examination: The reason why this Bill/policy is essential? Why must the Mayor Pay attention?
The reason why the mayor should care is because whilst incredible development continues to be made since the Violence against Women Act (VAWA) had been initially passed; domestic abuse, sexual attacks, as well as harassment are nonetheless substantial issues facing women, family members, as well as neighborhoods. Domestic abuse leads to three deaths each day to women, as well as one out of four women have encountered serious abuse by a close companion. One out of five women as well as One out of Seventy one males happen to be raped in their lives. The brand new VAWA bill finalized into law from President Barack Obama will keep efficient programs; help to make focused expansions to deal with the requirements of specifically vulnerable communities, and assist stop abuse in forthcoming generations.
Key Conditions with regard to the S. 47 within VAWA
• The legislation deals with higher levels of relationship abuse as well as sexual attacks in university grounds by demanding universities and colleges to deliver info to pupils with regards to domestic abuse, relationship abuse, sexual attacks, as well as harassment and notify students and employees regarding the volume of these offences that take place on and close to university grounds. Colleges may also be needed to make and share guidelines explaining the defenses, sources, and solutions accessible to sufferers to assist them easily carry on their education and learning.
• Scientists approximate that for each woman murdered within a domestic abuse homicide, nine more are practically killed. The legislation combines screening for murder risks all through current VAWA packages and demands states to create objectives as well as activities to decrease domestic abuse homicides.
• Native American women endure amid the highest levels of domestic abuse. The legislation shuts holes in legal system as well as acknowledges the authority of tribes to take legal action against domestic abuse offences towards Indian as well as non-Indian criminals.
• Based on research, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual as well as Transgender (LGBT) sufferers of domestic abuse have problems obtaining crucial solutions like refuge. This legislation safeguards LGBT sufferers from discrimination as well as offers agencies new resources and ability to access sources to…… [Read More]
Violence in the Community
The objective of the research reported in this study is to examine violence in the communication and specifically violence in Philadelphia, PA 19403 and surrounding suburbs.
The Metropolitan Philadelphia Indicators Project -- Youth: Suburban Children at Risk (2007) reports that it has been held traditionally that children who grow up in suburban areas or outside of the city "are shielded from the harsh social environments that many inner-city children must confront…" however, this is not the case as most suburban youths have a quite different experience. It is reported that the Brookings Institution stated in 2006 "for the first time in U.S. history, the number of suburban poor people now exceeds the number of urban poor, by at least a million persons." (Metropolitan Philadelphia Indicators Project, 2007)
Identification of Community
The area at focus in this study is Norristown a neighborhood in the Philadelphia, PA area.
Demographic and Epidemiological Data
The total population of Norristown, PA 19403 is stated at 42, 370 in 2010 and Norristown is reported to cover 23.29 square miles. 51% of Norristown residents are male and the median age in Norristown is stated at 39.20 years of age.
Figure 1 -- Population Growth and Population Statistics
2010 Population Growth and Population Statistics
N / A
Population Change Since 1990
Population Change Since 2000
Forecasted Population Change by 2014
Source: CLR Choice (2010)
In a report on the highest level of education attained for Norristown, PA residents it is stated that approximately 8% of residents did not complete high school while approximately 30% of Norristown resident did complete high school and approximately 17% attended college. Norristown residents who completed…… [Read More]
Violence in Popular Culture
The revenge motivation for violence can be seen in many films and novels, but one of the most clear-cut examples of this motivation -- as well as one of the most violent -- are Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill films. In this two-part movie, a former assassin (Uma Thurman) tracks down her former boss and her remaining colleagues, killing each of them one by one because they had tried to kill her some years prior. She also gains a daughter through her dispatching of her former boss and lover, but she does not need to kill him to accomplish this. Nor does she have any real reason to kill the other female assassins with whom she used to work; had she simply dropped out of sight, she would not have been in any danger. Yet the character's motivation throughout the film is nothing more -- or less -- then a desire for absolute and utter vengeance against the man who tried to take her life. This film shows how powerful a force the desire for revenge can be.
Violence can also occur ritualistically, as is seen among the cultures on Papua New Guinea (Stewart & Strathern 2002). A different sort of ritualistic violence occurs in Dan Brown's Da Vinci Code, which though wildly inaccurate in many of its details is quite pointedly correct in describing the self-inflicted pain that the albino monk working on behalf of an ultra-religious sect endures (Brown 2003). Such violence direct inwards can often be a signal of individual issues with violence, and this is certainly the case with this character in both the novel and film versions of Brown's story. This violence is of a type somewhat different than those explored in Violence: theory and Ethnography, but its roots are largely the same -- indoctrination in violent beliefs and a perception of harm, both physical and metaphysical, for refraining from certain acts of violence themselves -- drive many people's behavior.
A third instance of violence in film can be seen in the Coen brother's classic movie Millers Crossing, which involves acts of both individual and collective violence. Throughout the film, there are several motivations for the various acts of violence that are committed, but they all essentially boil down to one -- greed. This greed is sometimes manifested as lust,…… [Read More]
Indeed, this explains why it is necessary to achieve a more open discourse on the implications of violence with specific and tangible reference to women and how they are impacted. Proper psychological profiling of those with aggressive tendencies toward women or irrational behaviors relating to women should be factored into the type of sentencing and post sentence attention that individuals are given. Without receiving proper attention from legal, penal or social service agencies designed to address the problems of criminal violence, individuals like Stirpe are unlikely to be deterred from their aggressive proclivities.
To the point, violence against woman has been subject to a significantly raised degree of popular and legal scrutiny given its social pravelance and yet it remains unclear how the legal system can address such individuals as Stirpe, who have served their time but are likely to still represent a threat of violence.
Burgmann, T. (2009). Accused Killed 4 to Steal Their IDs, get rich, trial Told. The Canadian Press:
The article by Burgmann (2009), released by the Canadian Press, provides a troubling story in which an individual capable of grotesque violence and deception was nonetheless able to manipulate a series of victims within his personal orbit. Kembo is accused of murdering four women with whom he had developed intimate personal relationships. Preemptively constructing a plot in which he systematically murdered his wife, business partner, girlfriend and step-daughter and used their identities and life insurance policies for personal enrichment, Kembo was clearly capable of an extreme degree of violence which exclusively exploited and victimized women. Consistent with the findings provided by Marriner, it provides something of an anecdotal reference to some larger patterns or system failures which may be considered as associated.
Research in the evaluation of Marriner's article denotes that there is a precedent, albeit an abstract one, for Kembo's behavior. Namely, most research driven thusly tends to illustrate that the correlation between male gender behaviors and violence against intimates is socially constructed. The problem of such violence, this research demonstrates, is directly tied to a culture with inherently patriarchal tendency. That Kembo's victims were all women but that his motives appeared to be non-sexual indicates…… [Read More]
Violence in Hockey Today
There is no shortage of opinions regarding whether or not violence in hockey should be curbed. Certainly the NHL, the fans and the players would all like to see incidents such as the Bertuzzi-Moore fiasco eliminated from the game. Some fans would go further, but that approach may not be realistic. All physical, contact sports will be inherently aggressive. That aggression will naturally boil over from time to time. Players need to be able to vent their pent-up aggression in ways that are not detrimental to the well-being of other players, and for the most part fights and hits achieve that end.
The ultraviolent incidents, however, can be addressed by eliminating some of the most violent aspects of hockey. The Canadian cultural trait of disrespect towards referees was noted by Pascall (2000), and he also noted that minor league players take strong behavioural cues from professional players. It stands to reason that part of the path to eliminating the most violent incidents in hockey is to instill greater respect for the rule of law.
The code exists not because players inherently want to be vigilantes, but rather because lax rule enforcement and legal protection of violent offenders forced the players to fend for themselves. The NHL can change this through stricter enforcement of key penalties. The league may need to change its approach to discipline. Typically, the league takes a consequential approach to punishment. If no major injury occurs, suspensions are minimal. Only when a player is severely injured does the league take any serious action. A more deontological approach would instill a more consistent application of the rule of law. This in turn would build respect for the referees. They already take this approach, but the penalties they are able to mete out are often insufficient.
There is an assumption amongst some observers that the NHL fan base demands violence (Greenstein, 2007). But that is only true to some extent, and is far from the case in Canada. Canadian fans tend to appreciate all aspects of the game…… [Read More]
There are a variety of theoretical explanations that have been put forward to explain female abuse and violent crimes against women. These include feminist and gender theories and extend to theories of genetic pathology.
However, in the criminological literature a distinction is made between two categories of explanation. On the one hand, there are theories that tend to focus on individual pathology and forms of deviance that can lead to these crimes. On the other hand, the more socially inclined theorists tend to focus on the common patterns between individuals and the social milieu and its influences. The promoters of social control and other socially based theories argue that social factors rather then individual differences are the most suitable explanatory factors for these crimes. Social control theories argue, for example, that, the importance of social factors over and above individual stability" Juvenile recidivism: criminal propensity, social control and social learning theories" (Delfabbro, Paul, 2004).
Social learning theory on the other hand tends to combine these two aspects of the social and the individual causative factors for deviant and criminal behavior. As Bandura (1977) states, "...Social learning theory, in contrast to theories of criminal propensity and social control theory, include both individual and social factors" (Delfabbro, Paul).
A second aspect that is important is that social behavior is dependent on rewards and the perception of rewards. These rewards or the perception thereof are in turn determined by the essential criterion of learning history as well as attitude that have developed in terms of antisocial norms and other social factors. These can include the way that the individual is rewarded from family and peers. (Delfabbro, Paul)
Essentially, social learning theory is a theory that is used to explain, among others, the origins of aggressive behavior in society. In terms of this theoretical perspective, the view that forms of aggression are innate to the individual is contrasted with the view that these aggressive tendencies have…… [Read More]