Violence in Titus Andronicus and Macbeth
One of the remarkable characteristics of Shakespeare's plays, particularly his tragedies, is that they are frequently incredibly violent. In many of his plays, this violence is seen abhorrent, with characters not only suffering societal consequences for their violent actions, but also experiencing deep regret and remorse for their violent actions. In fact, in many of his plays, Shakespeare's violent characters are impacted more by their own attitudes about the things that they have done than they are by any outside influences. However, not all of Shakespeare's plays feature the same approach to violence; some of them actually seem to embrace violence for the sake of violence, without placing any moral weight on violent actions. It becomes difficult to reconcile some of Shakespeare's later works, which focus on the immorality associated with violence, with the casual use of violence in his earlier works. To explore the differences in Shakespeare's approach to violence throughout his tragedies, this paper will focus on Titus Andronicus and Macbeth. Titus Andronicus and Macbeth are two of Shakespeare's most violent tragedies, but their approaches to violence are so dissimilar that they seem to come from two very different moral backgrounds. In Titus Andronicus, Shakespeare represent violence as a socially acceptable means to achieve power and exact revenge, without any suggestion that a character who engages in violence for these means must be immoral. However, Shakespeare treats violence very differently in Macbeth, where the titular character's use of violence as a means of gaining power was considered so immoral that it led both Macbeth and his wife into madness. When one views these plays against the backdrop of Elizabethan culture, the differential approaches to violence begin to make sense. During Shakespeare's time, Queen Elizabeth managed to dampen some of the religious-base violence that had plagued England, but Elizabethan England was still a society subject to outbursts of religious violence, political violence, and significant interpersonal violence. While the moral attitude towards this violence offered condemnation to the perpetrators, it generally only did so if the perpetrators were unsuccessful. Earlier Shakespearean revenge tragedies, like Titus Andronicus, seem to embody this attitude. However, there appears to have been a shift in Shakespeare's approach towards violence, if not in all Elizabethan attitudes towards violence. "His…… [Read More]
Violence in Public Schools
The recent violence on school grounds (including elementary, middle school and high school violence) has created a climate of fear in American public schools, and the literature presented in this review relates to that fear and to the difficulty schools face in determining what students might be capable of mass killings on campus. Television coverage of school shootings leave the impression that there is more violence on school campuses than there really is, but the threat is real, students are being killed, and the background into how and why these murders take place is a main point of this paper. Moreover, the acts of violence at schools create perceptions that may or may not be valid, and that issue is part of this literature review as well.
Perceptions of School Violence
Why do Americans have the perception that schools are places where violence takes place on a regular basis -- when that is not truly the case? A scholarly article in the peer-reviewed journal The Clearing House points to the fact that when there are highly publicized acts of brutal violence at schools, because of the bold, up-close-and-personal video reports on television sets across the nations, the rare acts of violence stick in the minds of Americans. The article explains that there are upwards of 55 million students attending public schools in the United States today, including from kindergarten through 12th grade (Algozzine, et al., 2011), and obviously not all schools are places where killings take place. And moreover, "…reports of school crime and violence" from administrators, students, and teachers "…differ in severity and in nature from what is perceived" by the greater society (Algozzine, 91). The salient point this paper presents is that Americans perceive that schools (per se) are not safe, Algozzine explains (91).
The authors research existing studies of administrators, teachers, and students, to tap into their perceptions of exactly how much violence they witness or personally experience in public schools. A credible survey by several authors (Sprague, Smith, and Steiber, 2002) points out that principals in public schools "…perceived schools to be safe" (Algozzine, 92). Administrators reported that up to 80% of their problems (discipline referrals) result from "…ineffective classroom management on the part of teachers" (Algozzine, 92).…… [Read More]
America took the notion of liberty and placed it in an economical framework, composed by Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations. Smith anticipated Marx by nearly a century when he focused on the nature of man and society in what amounted to a purely economical outlook. He views the violence that men do to one another and to themselves as stemming from an economical cause. The savage nations (hunters and gatherers) he states "are so miserably poor, that, from mere want, they are frequently reduced, or at least think themselves reduced, to the necessity sometimes of directly destroying, and sometimes of abandoning their infants, their old people, and those afflicted with lingering diseases, to perish with hunger, or to be devoured by wild beasts" (Smith 1x). The cause of violence, according to Smith, is want. For the Old World Church it was sin. For Rousseau and the Romantic/Enlightenment thinkers it was the suppression of naturalistic liberty. Smith's solution to the problem of violence was to place an economic restraint upon liberty. This economic restraint would serve to replace the religious (or moral) restraint in America. Savagery would be eradicated because man's economic needs would be satisfied -- so long as it followed Smith's economic advice.
How has it worked? One could easily measure the level of violence committed by America in its pursuit of capital gains around the world -- from the destabilization of foreign nations to the violent putting down of workers' strikes in domestic struggles. Smith's advice has not eradicated the problem of violence. As violence against self was replaced by violence against Church in Europe, violence against those in the way of capital gains became the calling card of America. America's commitment to an economic solution to the problem of liberty and violence has led to a system of governance every bit as totalitarian as the Church's in the medieval world or as the Revolutionaries' in Paris. The only difference between theirs and America's is the God at the top of the system. The Church's God was Christ. The Revolutionaries' God was Liberty. America's God is the Dollar and it rules with…… [Read More]
Violence and Risk Assessment and Serial Homicide
The objective of this study is to examine violence risk assessment and the type of tools and their effectiveness for determining violent reoffenders. Lurigio and Harris (2009) reports in the work entitled "Mental Illness, Violence, and Risk Assessment: An Evidence-Based Review" that the link that has been presumed "between violence and mental illness has long been an ongoing subject of investigation." (2009) The question is posed as to whether those who are mentally ill are more likely "than those without mental illness to commit violent crimes?" (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) As well the question is asked whether mental and criminal justice professionals accurately assess the likelihood of violence?" (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) It is reported that mentally ill individuals with illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder have been historically shunned due to "in part because of the stereotype that they are dangerous." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009)
I. Swanson (1994)
Over the past twenty years, there have been quite a few epidemiological studies that have conducted an examination of the relationship that exists between mental illness and violence. It was found in Swanson 1994 that individuals with mental illness were "more than twice as likely to be involved in assaultive acts as people with no such illness. However, the study found that this difference could be explained mostly by the presence of co-occurring substance use disorders." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009)
II. Co-occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders
The findings state specifically that individuals with "substance use disorders were more than twice as likely to be involved in assaultive acts that people with only mental illness, and those with both mental illness and substance use disorders were the most likely group to be involved in assaultive acts." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) In fact, study findings demonstrated that severe mental illness alone "was unrelated to violence. However, people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders were more likely to report violent acts than people with substance use disorders alone." (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) Also increasing the risk of violence among individuals with mental illness were contextual factors, clinical factors and historical factors. In yet another study, findings state that individuals with mental illness with…… [Read More]
The industry knowingly takes advantage of this recent cultural shift in parent-child relationships. And finally, the industry knows that children and youngsters are more likely to be influenced by violent movies, TV shows, and games and are more likely to get addicted to violent imagery, becoming potential customers for future media products and games that glorify violence (Mean world syndrome, 2009). It is fair, therefore, to say that bombardment of children with media violence by the entertainment industry constitutes child exploitation.
Considering the severity of the problem, it is time to call for greater regulation of violence in media by the government and community organizations. Some people are wary of such calls. Americans love freedom of speech and libertarian laws. They do not always welcome government intervention in business and societal issues. Intervention in this case, however, is necessary. "If the goal of public policy is to protect the welfare of children and adolescents, then there can be no doubt that public policy related to media violence is necessary even if the effects are small," Kirsh (2006) explains. "For instance, if after watching a violent television show that has a viewership of 1 million youth a mere 0.5% of those youth become increasingly prone to aggression, then 5,000 children and adolescents could be adversely affected" (p. 298). Regulatory policies are also likely to encourage parents to be more active in regulating their children's viewing habits. And by making it hard for media content producers to market violent imagery to children, regulations may encourage them to redirect their resources for producing more child-friendly movies, TV shows, and video games. In short, regulation of violence in media has a potential to make significant positive changes.
It should be noted that some people oppose further regulation of violence in media because of the complexity of the issue. Some of them point out that there is no clear definition of "violence in media." Does it include accidents and disasters? How about psychological torment? Critics also argue that eliminating violent movies, TV shows, and games "on the basis of violence alone would also rule out important films like Saving Private Ryan (1998), Schindler's List (1993), or Hotel Rwanda…… [Read More]
Legitimate Force and Illegitimate Violence
The people today are living in a new-fangled, unmatched and exceptional age of terrorism. The pioneer of modern sociology, Max Weber, defined state as "a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory" (as qtd. In Whitehead 2007). He puts emphasis on the point that a state can only exist in a meaningful manner if it has the power to use violence as a sole source of the right. He considers that "the right to use physical force is ascribed to other institutions or to individuals only to the extent to which the state permits it" (as qtd. In Whitehead 2007). However, sociologists before Marx have linked the monopoly of violence with the indispensable task of the state in the wake of its daily manifestations that are several in numbers (Whitehead 2007).
Throughout their work, Marx and Engels have regarded force as a critical function of the state. However, they also emphasize that it is an ideological function of the state to use force and violence as an active part. It is not to be monopolized by the ruling elites in power who have the command over the state apparatus. They also consider violence or a threat of it as the tool of the state to handle and maintain the influence and organization of the things under the power of the state. This threat, if historically seen, was also evident in the olden times when it was used as "an instrument of class rule regardless of the apparent mode of government within the state machine" (Whitehead 2007).
The phenomenon of globalization in today's era has also transformed the role of the states in modifying the use of force. Although the existence and power of the states…… [Read More]
Violence in Schools: Qualitative Research Article
Unlike the numerically-driven nature of quantitative research, qualitative research focuses on understanding a specific phenomenon in a deeper fashion through a case study approach, either through participant research, interviews, or some other form of study in the field. "Qualitative research is aimed at gaining a deep understanding of a specific organization or event, rather than a surface description of a large sample of a population…. Qualitative research does not introduce treatments or manipulate variables, or impose the researcher's operational definitions of variables on the participants. Rather, it lets the meaning emerge from the participants. It is more flexible in that it can adjust to the setting. Concepts, data collection tools, and data collection methods can be adjusted as the research progresses" (Qualitative research, n.d, PPA 696). To understand the sensitive, often fraught issue of violence in schools, taking a qualitative approach can be useful to gain information about different, individualized responses to school violence.
Violence in schools has become highly publicized in the media in the wake of the recent shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School. The most famous school shooting until then was one which took place at Columbine High School. In the article "Early Responses to School Violence: A Qualitative Analysis of Students' and Parents' Immediate Reactions to the Shootings at Columbine High School" Hawkins (et al. 2004) presents the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews "conducted two weeks after the incident with 4 Columbine High School students and 7 parents who were directly and indirectly affected" to examine " both similarities and variability in immediate emotional, cognitive, and social responses to the mass violence" (Hawkins et al. 2004: 197). A number of features make this research qualitative. First of all, it is highly specific. Only individuals who were victims at this specific school shooting were analyzed: they were not compared with other victims of school shootings or with the reactions of other individuals who had witnessed similar situations of mass violence. There was no hypothesis or preconceived postulate the researchers were attempting to test. Rather, they were…… [Read More]
Violence Against Children
The structure of violence as related to children directly correlates to their perceived socio-demographic risk. Several factors directly relate to the likelihood that a child will be subjected to violence at some point during their lives. Social, economic, demographic and physical factors all have a dramatic impact a child's development, either positive or negative and these factors also influence whether or not a child is more or less likely to be subjected to violence. Children living in high risk environments typically serviced by human service agencies, including poverty stricken areas and foster care living arrangements, are among the children that are at increased risk for violence and abuse. Children subjected to violence are much more likely to subsequently exhibit violent behavior later in life as well. Health care providers, educators, foster parents, families and community members all have an impact on a child's development. It is the responsibility of these individuals and human services professionals to identify patterns leading to abuse and to teach children and parents to cope with the stressors that increase the likelihood that violence will occur. This idea is explored at great length below.
The structure of violence is two-fold in this country; it is either directed against or committed by children. Though this paper focuses on violence that occurs against children, it is important to not that children are also committing more acts of violence themselves. Many youths face social obstacles that include "familial dysfunction, poverty, drug abuse, lack of adequate education and healthcare and violent behavior, all of which may contribute to their own reliance on criminal behavior" (Mears, 2004). To become "contributing members of society," these factors must be addressed by families, communities and policy makers in order to improve the likelihood for a more positive outcome for children (Mears, 2004).
Violence against children is on the rise in the United States. The structure…… [Read More]
Violence and Victims
Journal: "Violence and Victims" by Springer Publishing Company
Violence and Victims is a social work journal that informs "clinical decisions, legal actions and public policy" (Springer Publishing, 2011). It is a peer-reviewed journal that includes subject matter on "theory, research, policy, and clinical practice in the area of interpersonal violence and victimization" across a myriad of professional disciplines to the likes of medicine, law, sociology, psychology and social work (Springer Publishing, 2011). Some important topics, issues and questions that are discussed include subjects like how to assess a violent offender, how to counsel victims of violence, among other topics.
The editors of this journal include a myriad of different doctors from all over the United States. The editor-in-chief is from the University of Washington of the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, while others that are associate editors and on the editorial and advisory board are various individuals with university and college affiliations in various subjects like psychiatry, psychology, medicine, criminal justice, among others. The journal that these editors are a part of is available both print and online, in order to educate as many professionals in the field about the subjects discussed.
If the readers of the journal or others who feel compelled to submit an article to the journal, then there are resources available on the journal's website that outline instructions for them including editorial contacts, permission requests, and guidelines. Publication criteria that is outlined on the website includes that there should be prepared in accordance with the American Psychological Association, that there should be abstract, the manuscript should be about 20-25 pages in length, along with other stipulations; though ultimately, the article should be submitted to the editorial contacts (Springer Publishing, 2011). The articles are targeted at other professionals in the field of psychology including those in law, medicine, sociology, social work, among other professions. This is a reasonable conclusion since the material discussed, as well as the manner and tone that the subject is discussed in, is at a higher level than average; thus, it seems the targeted readership of such a journal would be other professionals in the field that strive…… [Read More]
Sexual Violence: Hidden Truths
The articles that students were asked to review were concerned with sexual violence around the world. These articles illustrated and elaborated upon many instances of sexually-based violence in domestic or civilian life, as well as within the context of war. There were many shocking elements to the contents of the articles. One of the greatest shocks that readers may have come across in reading and analyzing these articles is the proliferation of sexual violence against men and boys. Sexual violence is normatively associated with females -- women and girls. Though people may not be completely literate and aware of the various kinds of sexually-based violent acts that are performed around the world upon women, the average person is more likely to be aware of violence against women and not against men. The information in the articles clearly demonstrates that there is a great lack of education regarding sexually-based violence around the world, against all sexes and genders, and not just the ones that get promoted the most by the media.
The articles discuss in moderate detail how sexual violence is used within the context of war, or within the military. Some people may be aware of how rape is used as a strategy during war. This practice is typically associated with women and girls as the victims, as well as this association with respect to the topic of human trafficking. People have been conditioned, primarily by the media, to associate human trafficking, prostitution, and victims of rape with women and girls, when these articles make it clear that this is a human issue, and not simply a female issue. I think because the media plays such an important and influential role in the associations between sexual violence and sexual exploitation, that it should be the same tool to re-educate people regarding the realities of this…… [Read More]
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
The effects of violent games on children have been reviewed extensively in the literature. For example, Dill and Dill (1998) suggested that exposure to violence in video games increases short-term aggressive behaviors due to identification with video-game characters particularly with aggressors in the game. In terms of gender, Funk and Colleagues (2000) noted that there were no gender difference with preference for violent video games as a higher preference for violent video games were observed in boys and girls. Recently, Sestir and Bartholow (2010) noted that the simulated experience with exposure to violent video games may increase aggressive feelings, thoughts and behaviors while decreasing prosocial behaviors and attitudes such as helping people in real-life situations. Bushman and Anderson (2002) conceptualized the General Aggression Model which illustrates the relationship between violent video games and aggression. Indeed, the authors noted that there are short-term and long-term effects of violent video games on aggression, with short-term effects leading to increased aggressive behavior over time, while long-term effects ultimately dictate that aggressive behaviors or attitudes are effective and appropriate with addressing issues related to conflict and anger (Anderson and Bushman, 2002).
Although the influence of violent-video games on aggressive behaviors is well established in the literature, the role culture plays in determining the level of aggression (whether short-term or long-term) exhibited from engaging in…… [Read More]
Violence Against Women
Social Welfare Congressional Legislation Violence against Women Act Bill # S.47
Problem Examination: The reason why this Bill/policy is essential? Why must the Mayor Pay attention?
The reason why the mayor should care is because whilst incredible development continues to be made since the Violence against Women Act (VAWA) had been initially passed; domestic abuse, sexual attacks, as well as harassment are nonetheless substantial issues facing women, family members, as well as neighborhoods. Domestic abuse leads to three deaths each day to women, as well as one out of four women have encountered serious abuse by a close companion. One out of five women as well as One out of Seventy one males happen to be raped in their lives. The brand new VAWA bill finalized into law from President Barack Obama will keep efficient programs; help to make focused expansions to deal with the requirements of specifically vulnerable communities, and assist stop abuse in forthcoming generations.
Key Conditions with regard to the S. 47 within VAWA
• The legislation deals with higher levels of relationship abuse as well as sexual attacks in university grounds by demanding universities and colleges to deliver info to pupils with regards to domestic abuse, relationship abuse, sexual attacks, as well as harassment and notify students and employees regarding the volume of these offences that take place on and close to university grounds. Colleges may also be needed to make and share guidelines explaining the defenses, sources, and solutions accessible to sufferers to assist them easily carry on their education and learning.
• Scientists approximate that for each woman murdered within a domestic abuse homicide, nine more are practically killed. The legislation combines screening for murder risks all through current VAWA packages and demands states to create objectives as well as activities to decrease domestic abuse homicides.
• Native American women endure…… [Read More]
Violence in the Community
The objective of the research reported in this study is to examine violence in the communication and specifically violence in Philadelphia, PA 19403 and surrounding suburbs.
The Metropolitan Philadelphia Indicators Project -- Youth: Suburban Children at Risk (2007) reports that it has been held traditionally that children who grow up in suburban areas or outside of the city "are shielded from the harsh social environments that many inner-city children must confront…" however, this is not the case as most suburban youths have a quite different experience. It is reported that the Brookings Institution stated in 2006 "for the first time in U.S. history, the number of suburban poor people now exceeds the number of urban poor, by at least a million persons." (Metropolitan Philadelphia Indicators Project, 2007)
Identification of Community
The area at focus in this study is Norristown a neighborhood in the Philadelphia, PA area.
Demographic and Epidemiological Data
The total population of Norristown, PA 19403 is stated at 42, 370 in 2010 and Norristown is reported to cover 23.29 square miles. 51% of Norristown residents are male and the median age in Norristown is stated at 39.20 years of age.
Figure 1 -- Population Growth and Population Statistics
2010 Population Growth and Population Statistics
N / A
Population Change Since 1990
Population Change Since 2000
Forecasted Population Change by 2014
Source: CLR Choice (2010)
In a report on the highest level of education attained for Norristown, PA residents it is stated that approximately 8% of residents did not complete high school while approximately 30% of Norristown resident did complete high school and approximately 17% attended college. Norristown residents who completed an Associate Degree are reported at approximately 8% and those completing a bachelor's degree at 30%.…… [Read More]
Violence on College Campuses
Virginia Tech could probably have avoided the terrible massacre of 2007 had its officials taken more timely and effective action with Seung Hui Cho. He had a very long record of mental illness dating back to middle school, including fantasies of violence and murder, and he had received psychiatric treatment in the past. His behavior at Virginia Tech was so disturbing to students and faculty that a court ordered him to undergo a psychiatric evaluation in 2005, although he refused all counseling. University officials did not discuss his case with each other or even with his parents for fear of violating state and federal confidentiality laws, although their interpretation of these was mostly incorrect. Even though medical and psychiatric records are confidential by law, there is an exception for students like Cho who are deemed a danger to themselves and others. Not only did he receive no psychiatric care, but he was also able to purchase two handguns in Virginia in violation of federal law. Since the tragedy at Virginia Tech, though, other universities have revised their policies and procedures so that they can identity potentially dangerous or mentally unstable students like Cho, and have them suspended, expelled or ordered into mandatory psychiatric treatment. This is exactly what colleges and universities should be doing, since the safety and security of the larger community must override privacy and confidentiality concerns in these cases.
The Massacre at Virginia Tech and the Failures of the University Administration
Seung Hui Cho fatally shot thirty-two students and faculty at Virginia Tech in 2007, and wounded seventeen before killing himself. He had a long history of mental illness dating back to middle school, and the university was aware of this, yet its officials also believed that federal and state privacy laws prevented them from discussing or disclosing this information. Cho had received psychiatric treatment for depression over the years, especially after he reacted to the 1999 shootings at Columbine with suicidal and homicidal writings, and he was on medication for a brief time. In Virginia he was able to buy two guns in violation of federal law because the state failed to report his history of mental health problems to the…… [Read More]
The definition of violence is one that might best be described as it is at Dictionary.com; i.e.; a violent act or proceeding. There are other definitions to be sure, however, the definition used herein is the one that most constitutes the premise of the question is violence socially constructed? Since the question, in this specific space, directly refers to whether I agree, or disagree, with the view that violence is socially constructed, I would have to say that I most vehemently agree that it is.
One need only look as far as the local newspaper to discern that America (as an example) is a very violent country. Constant reports of innocent (and not so innocent) bloodshed is broadcast on the nightly news, reports of murders, slayings, and violence in all its forms are abundant in nature. America is a nation of violence and its leaders adhere to that culture with the same tenacity as its citizens do; oftentimes placing its military forces in a leading position against countries and regimes deemed not viable. Such actions are constantly justified as America's duty. One recent expert wrote that a country's willingness to violence is primarily "bound up with cultural expectations, meanings and identities" (Gorringe, 2006, p. 118).
Another study determined that the substantial variations in conflict are found across regions, and these variations result in different kinds of impacts (Barron, Sharpe, 2008)L their study determined that there should be a fair amount of importance place on the role of local factors in driving conflicts and suggested that approaches to peace should be tailored to local conditions.
The Barron and Sharpe study bring to light an interesting point. If violence is based on social constructions, would that not also mean that a country such as Costa Rica, would be very violence prone?
One seldom hears of Costa Rica sending its troops into harms way in order to promote democracy (or any other ideal), yet the citizens of Costa Rica face a landscape that according to UNODC has most of the buildings in San Jose wrapped in barbed wire and "the number of private security guards per 100,000 inhabitants is the highest in Central America (UNDC, 2007, p. 82). The question that could be asked in this situation is whether a culture of violence actually translates into violence at a higher rate than a culture of…… [Read More]
A long list of possibly violent images can be tabulated, as well as their frequency and duration on the screen.
What other things would you need to consider in order to make sure that exposure to media violence was the cause of aggressive behavior and not some other factor? In other words, what variables would have to be controlled?
The ideal way to control for other variables would be to sanction the population sample. If funding and ethical considerations allowed, the participants could spend a series of time watching select media clips in an isolated environment. The only way to determine whether media, and nothing else, caused an increase in aggressive behavior then the participants should not be able to watch any other media, and ideally not even be able to leave the controlled environment for the duration of the study.
Relate your example to the scientific method.
We begin with the hypothesis that media violence predicts aggressive behavior. We narrow down the variables and define terms, and begin to determine what population sample we would like to investigate. We perform a review of literature and explore the theoretical perspectives underlying the research. Then, we test the hypothesis by executing the research.… [Read More]
As they repeatedly say, especially Graff, they are doing what they have to do, and although there may have been other tactics that would have worked, there was no way of knowing whether or not the human race could be saved without violent action against the buggers. The buggers themselves, though they do not really appear as character until the very end of the novel, in the dream they send to Ender on the new world, are actually stuck in the same bind as the humans. What the human experienced as violence in the First and Second invasions was not actually violence to the buggers -- they had no idea that they were killing sentient beings. They had tried to communicate with the humans, but because the two species communicate so differently, this was impossible. Violence became necessary for them to ensure their own survival, and although eventually they succeed in prolonging their species' viability by finding a way to communicate, this option is not available for most of the novel.
Other characters commit violence not because it is strictly necessary, but because of human psychology. Stilson is one of these characters; he uses violence as a way of taking and keeping power in the form of his group's admiration and obedience. Another character who is very similar to this -- and whose character arc is also very similar -- is Bonzo Madrid. Bonzo is violent because of his Spanish pride and really because of is insecurities. He is not a very good commander, and he knows it but he cannot admit. When Ender shows how much better and smarter he is than Bonzo, Bonzo can't handle it. It starts when Ender is put in his army and Bonzo loses a good soldier in the deal. Bonzo uses the incident to belittle Ender and makes his army stronger. This shows the group-strengthening dynamic that focused violence can have -- something it…… [Read More]
The same students who sponsor night walks to check the lighting and grounds to increase safety will hold the door open for a stranger entering their residence hall. Despite frequent warnings, students - and even faculty, administrators, and other campus personnel - act less judiciously than they would elsewhere." (Siegel 1994). Seaman (2005) agrees, saying, "Typically, there is a social encounter in which a certain amount of kissing or other sexually intimate touching is consensual, but at some point, the girl indicates that she would like t terminate that sexual encounter but the other party continues...the fact that alcohol is often involved only compromises the perpetrator's impulse control and he overpowers her."
The Role of Alcohol in Violence on College Campuses:
When one examines the data of violence, on college campuses, the one contributing element shared most commonly by all forms other than premeditated attacks on random individuals (Siegel 1994) is alcohol consumption. Despite the fact that most college underclassmen are not of legal drinking age, "...t would be unrealistic to imagine very strictly enforcing the drinking age on many campuses... realistically, unless you ban alcohol completely, students who really want to drink will manage to get alcohol" (Siegel 1994).
Strictly speaking, college campus violence does not include violent encounters that take place off campus, but many authorities consider violence that occurs between college students in off-campus situations are considered within the framework of violence on college campuses (Siegel 1994). Typically, intoxication-related violence is likely to be male-on-male, initiated in or around college bars or fraternity parties (Seaman 2005).
Fraternities also feature another form of violence associated with alcohol consumption on college campuses, in the form of forced excessive (sometimes fatal) alcohol consumption during fraternity pledge hazing. Unlike the other forms of campus violence, most serious incidents or deaths associated with fraternity hazing are accidental.
Nevertheless, especially when death results, they should be included in any discussion of college campus violence because they occur more often than the premeditated mass murders on campus that receive so much more media attention.
Violence is a fact of life, both in society at large as well as on college campuses.
Generally, college campuses are less susceptible…… [Read More]
Gustavo Gutierrez did just that in Latin America, employing Marxist analysis to interpret the Jesus' teachings in the Gospel. Gutierrez founded Liberation Theology, which is, essentially, the twentieth century take on Violence and the Cross. Christ is viewed less as Redeemer and more as Liberator.
Evans discusses this same interpretation in black theology, which is, essentially, a continuation of Liberation Theology: "In spite of the ravages of their kidnapping and the disorientation that they endured, African slaves retained an outlook on their experience that continually reaffirmed their worth as individuals and as a people…The Jesus whom they encountered as they were exposed to the Bible was a caring and liberating friend who shared their sorrows and burdens" (12). Yet, in black theology, Jesus does not bring grace through suffering that can perfect one's nature and lead one's soul to Heaven (as classical theology insists); in black theology, Jesus is the agent of social and economic change -- He is viewed as the hero of the downtrodden -- a figure of inspiration: something like Gandhi, a peaceful, non-violent revolutionary, exercising non-violent protest in the very teeth of violence. The spiritual side of the ancient ecclesiology is absent, as the Vatican stated in the 1980s with regard to Liberation Theology (before, of course, backtracking and acknowledging the fundamental good intentions at the heart of the movement).
Migliore, too, discusses the changes in theology. Violence and the Cross, of course, lead to the Resurrection -- but modern theologians cannot agree on just what the Resurrection should mean. According to Migliore, some take the viewpoint that the Resurrection is not something that happened to Jesus but something that happened "in the disciples." The traditional narrative, however, states that Jesus resurrected and ascended into heaven, while the disciples were visited by the Paraclete at Pentecost. States Migliore, "According to Rudolf Bultmann…the resurrection is a symbol of the rise of faith in the saving significance of the cross as proclaimed in the early Christian…… [Read More]
Violence in schools has been at the forefront of media attention for some time now. One of the main reasons for this is the apparently increasing incidents of violence against and among children. Media attention and the sociological issues stirred up by the situation regarding violence have prompted several studies around violence in schools, especially when directed by children and teachers against children. Violence against teachers, on the other hand, has not received similar research attention. This is therefore the focus of an article by Espelage et al. (2013), with the title "Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a national Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda."
The introduction of the article begins by acknowledging existing focus points for studying violence in schools. It explains its research focus by claiming that not much has been done to study the phenomenon of violence against teachers within the school context. The thesis of the article is therefore to provide solid grounds for researching the phenomenon, while also creating policies and procedures for handling it. In order to accomplish this, the body of the work begins by defining school violence. The basic concepts within this definition is that violence can be physical or non-physical and that it takes place within complex social situations. Existing, if limited, literature has revealed some of the basic causes and effects of violence against teachers, including emotional impacts for teachers and social impacts for school. Interactional and social-ecological theories are examined to determine predictors of violence. In terms of prevention techniques, suggestions are made for students and teachers at various levels, including leadership and community-level interventions. The final part of the article contains recommendations for research and policy to help address the problem of violence against teachers.
The article concludes by offering several suggestions, including increasing funding and support for education and…… [Read More]