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Violence in Titus Andronicus and Macbeth
One of the remarkable characteristics of Shakespeare's plays, particularly his tragedies, is that they are frequently incredibly violent. In many of his plays, this violence is seen abhorrent, with characters not only suffering societal consequences for their violent actions, but also experiencing deep regret and remorse for their violent actions. In fact, in many of his plays, Shakespeare's violent characters are impacted more by their own attitudes about the things that they have done than they are by any outside influences. However, not all of Shakespeare's plays feature the same approach to violence; some of them actually seem to embrace violence for the sake of violence, without placing any moral weight on violent actions. It becomes difficult to reconcile some of Shakespeare's later works, which focus on the immorality associated with violence, with the casual use of violence in his earlier works. To explore…
Foakes, R.A. Shakespeare and Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
Kermode, Frank. "Macbeth." The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1974. 1307-1311. Print.
Kermode, Frank. "Titus Andronicus." The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans.
Violence in Public Schools
The recent violence on school grounds (including elementary, middle school and high school violence) has created a climate of fear in American public schools, and the literature presented in this review relates to that fear and to the difficulty schools face in determining what students might be capable of mass killings on campus. Television coverage of school shootings leave the impression that there is more violence on school campuses than there really is, but the threat is real, students are being killed, and the background into how and why these murders take place is a main point of this paper. Moreover, the acts of violence at schools create perceptions that may or may not be valid, and that issue is part of this literature review as well.
Perceptions of School Violence
Why do Americans have the perception that schools are places where violence takes place on…
Algozzine, Bob, and McGee, Jennifer R. (2011). Reported Occurrence and Perceptions of Violence in Middle and High Schools. The Clearing House, 84(3), 91-97.
Benbenishty, Rami, and Astor, Ron Avi. (2005). School Violence in Context: Culture,
Neighborhood, Family, School, and Gender. New York: Oxford University
America took the notion of liberty and placed it in an economical framework, composed by Adam Smith in ealth of Nations. Smith anticipated Marx by nearly a century when he focused on the nature of man and society in what amounted to a purely economical outlook. He views the violence that men do to one another and to themselves as stemming from an economical cause. The savage nations (hunters and gatherers) he states "are so miserably poor, that, from mere want, they are frequently reduced, or at least think themselves reduced, to the necessity sometimes of directly destroying, and sometimes of abandoning their infants, their old people, and those afflicted with lingering diseases, to perish with hunger, or to be devoured by wild beasts" (Smith 1x). The cause of violence, according to Smith, is want. For the Old orld Church it was sin. For Rousseau and the Romantic/Enlightenment thinkers it…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. UK: Oxford World's
Classics, 2009. Print.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty and Other Essays. UK: Oxford World's Classics, 2008.
Violence and Risk Assessment and Serial Homicide
The objective of this study is to examine violence risk assessment and the type of tools and their effectiveness for determining violent reoffenders. Lurigio and Harris (2009) reports in the work entitled "Mental Illness, Violence, and Risk Assessment: An Evidence-ased Review" that the link that has been presumed "between violence and mental illness has long been an ongoing subject of investigation." (2009) The question is posed as to whether those who are mentally ill are more likely "than those without mental illness to commit violent crimes?" (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) As well the question is asked whether mental and criminal justice professionals accurately assess the likelihood of violence?" (Lurigio and Harris, 2009) It is reported that mentally ill individuals with illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder have been historically shunned due to "in part because of the stereotype that they are…
DeFronzo, J. And Pronchnow, J. (2004) Violent Cultural Factors and Serial Homicide by Males. Psychol Rep 2004 Feb;94(1):104-8.
Knoll, James (2006) Serial Murder: A Forensic Psychiatric Perspective. Psychiatric Times. March 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.upstate.edu/psych/education/fellowships/pdf/serial_murder.pdf
Lurigion, Arthur J. And Harris, Andrew J. (2006) Mental Illness, Violence, and Risk assessment: An Evidence-Based Review. Victims and Offenders, 4:341-347, 2009. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Monohan, John and Steadman, Henry J. (2006) Violence Risk assessment: A Quarter of a Century of Research.
The industry knowingly takes advantage of this recent cultural shift in parent-child relationships. And finally, the industry knows that children and youngsters are more likely to be influenced by violent movies, TV shows, and games and are more likely to get addicted to violent imagery, becoming potential customers for future media products and games that glorify violence (Mean world syndrome, 2009). It is fair, therefore, to say that bombardment of children with media violence by the entertainment industry constitutes child exploitation.
Considering the severity of the problem, it is time to call for greater regulation of violence in media by the government and community organizations. Some people are wary of such calls. Americans love freedom of speech and libertarian laws. They do not always welcome government intervention in business and societal issues. Intervention in this case, however, is necessary. "If the goal of public policy is to protect the welfare…
Grossman, D. (1999). Stop teaching our kids to kill: A call to action against TV, movie & video game violence. New York: Crown Publishers.
Hoerrner, M., & Hoerrner, K. (2010) Violent video games might be to blame for violent behavior, in Kiesbye, S. (ed.) Is media violence a problem? (pp. 39-46) Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Kiesbye, S. (ed.) (2010). Is media violence a problem? Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Kirsh, S.J. (2006). Children, adolescents, and media violence: A critical look at the research. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Legitimate Force and Illegitimate Violence
The people today are living in a new-fangled, unmatched and exceptional age of terrorism. The pioneer of modern sociology, Max Weber, defined state as "a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory" (as qtd. In Whitehead 2007). He puts emphasis on the point that a state can only exist in a meaningful manner if it has the power to use violence as a sole source of the right. He considers that "the right to use physical force is ascribed to other institutions or to individuals only to the extent to which the state permits it" (as qtd. In Whitehead 2007). However, sociologists before Marx have linked the monopoly of violence with the indispensable task of the state in the wake of its daily manifestations that are several in numbers (Whitehead 2007).
Coronil, F., & Skurski, J 2006, States of Violence. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. Retrieved March 01, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/booksid=Ftne6Ezh5aAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=state
Jensen, F. (n.d.), Revisiting the Monopoly on the Legitimate Use of Force. In Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).Print.
Leander, A 2004, Globalisation and the State Monopoly on the Legitimate Use of Force. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Om_SDU/Institutter/Statskundskab/Skriftserie/04ANL7%20pdf.pdf
Violence in Schools: Qualitative esearch Article
Unlike the numerically-driven nature of quantitative research, qualitative research focuses on understanding a specific phenomenon in a deeper fashion through a case study approach, either through participant research, interviews, or some other form of study in the field. "Qualitative research is aimed at gaining a deep understanding of a specific organization or event, rather than a surface description of a large sample of a population…. Qualitative research does not introduce treatments or manipulate variables, or impose the researcher's operational definitions of variables on the participants. ather, it lets the meaning emerge from the participants. It is more flexible in that it can adjust to the setting. Concepts, data collection tools, and data collection methods can be adjusted as the research progresses" (Qualitative research, n.d, PPA 696). To understand the sensitive, often fraught issue of violence in schools, taking a qualitative approach can be useful…
Hawkins, Nikki A. (et al. 2004). Early responses to school violence: A qualitative analysis of students' and parents' immediate reactions to the shootings at Columbine High School.
Journal of Emotional Abuse. 4 (3/4) 197-223. Retrieved at:
Qualitative research. (n.d). PPA 696: Research Methods. Retrieved at:
A long list of possibly violent images can be tabulated, as well as their frequency and duration on the screen.
What other things would you need to consider in order to make sure that exposure to media violence was the cause of aggressive behavior and not some other factor? In other words, what variables would have to be controlled?
The ideal way to control for other variables would be to sanction the population sample. If funding and ethical considerations allowed, the participants could spend a series of time watching select media clips in an isolated environment. The only way to determine whether media, and nothing else, caused an increase in aggressive behavior then the participants should not be able to watch any other media, and ideally not even be able to leave the controlled environment for the duration of the study.
elate your example to the scientific method.
Positive Behavior Support." University of South Florida. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://myweb.usf.edu/~aheindel/PBSsection3b.html
Violence Against Children
The structure of violence as related to children directly correlates to their perceived socio-demographic risk. Several factors directly relate to the likelihood that a child will be subjected to violence at some point during their lives. Social, economic, demographic and physical factors all have a dramatic impact a child's development, either positive or negative and these factors also influence whether or not a child is more or less likely to be subjected to violence. Children living in high risk environments typically serviced by human service agencies, including poverty stricken areas and foster care living arrangements, are among the children that are at increased risk for violence and abuse. Children subjected to violence are much more likely to subsequently exhibit violent behavior later in life as well. Health care providers, educators, foster parents, families and community members all have an impact on a child's development. It is the…
Altschuler, David M. & Brash, Rachel. (2004). "Adolescent and Teenage Offenders Confronting the Challenges and Opportunities of Reentry." Sage Publications: Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, vol. 2, no.1
Anderson Moore, Kristin. S. Vandivere, & J. Ehrle. June 2000. "Socio-demographic Risk and Child Well-Being." Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Number B-19. Available: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309566
Carter L.S. Weithorn LA., Behrman RE. (1999). "Domestic Violence and Children: Analysis and Recommendations." The Future of Children 9(3): 4020, 1999 Winter.
Child Trends. (1999). Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children. Washington D.C.: Child Trends.
The same students who sponsor night walks to check the lighting and grounds to increase safety will hold the door open for a stranger entering their residence hall. Despite frequent warnings, students - and even faculty, administrators, and other campus personnel - act less judiciously than they would elsewhere." (Siegel 1994). Seaman (2005) agrees, saying, "Typically, there is a social encounter in which a certain amount of kissing or other sexually intimate touching is consensual, but at some point, the girl indicates that she would like t terminate that sexual encounter but the other party continues...the fact that alcohol is often involved only compromises the perpetrator's impulse control and he overpowers her."
The Role of Alcohol in Violence on College Campuses:
hen one examines the data of violence, on college campuses, the one contributing element shared most commonly by all forms other than premeditated attacks on random individuals (Siegel 1994)…
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead: NY.
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
We are using four different schools for our data, but as the data are being obtained from one community (therefore one unit of measurement for both the study and comparison group). We are unable to randomly assign the children to either the experimental or control group, therefore all of our participants do not have the same chance of being in the control or experimental group. Our data will also not be blinded, although identifying information on standardized testing scores, absenteeism, suspension and expulsion will not be available to the research designer.
The design for this type of group would be diagrammed as follows:
The central idea behind this design is that the null case would not expect the treatment group (in this case our community) to differ at greater than chance levels. This allows consideration of a treatment effect when the post-test data of the treatment group varies from the…
Aber JL, Brown JL, Jones SM. (2003) Developmental Trajectories toward Violence in Middle Childhood: Course, Demographic Differences, and Response to School-Based Intervention. Developmental Psychology, 2, 324-348.
Clayton RR, Catarello AM, Johnstone BM, (1996) the Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-Year Follow-Up Results. Preventive Medicine, 3; 307-318
Greenberg, M.T., Kusche, C.A., Cook, E.T., & Quamma, J.P. (1995).
Promoting emotional competence in school-aged deaf children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 117-136.
Violence in America
The purpose of this paper is to research violence in America in relation to Education and to make a determination of 'who' is responsible for the growing violence, if in fact it is growing.
The United States Crime Index Rates per 100,000 climbed from 1,887.2 in the year of 1960 to 5,897 in 1991 in which year the crime rate was at its highest. According to the report: "Crime in the untied States accounts for more death, injuries and loss of property than all Natural Disasters combined. During the early 1980's a wave of violence involving youth swept the across the United States. etween the years of 1980 to 1984 youth violence grew by 99% and violence among adults declined. etween 1980 and 1994 arrests of juveniles rose by 94%.
Varied and sundry consideration as to the precise strategy that might be effective in curbing violence…
United States: Uniform crime Report - State Statistics from 1960 to 2000 [Online] located at: http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/
Davis, Ronald M.D. (2000) Effect of Television Violence on Children: Congressional Testimony; 9/13/2000 09-13-2000 http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.as p?DOCID=1P1:99130121& num=15& ao=& login=1& ctrlInfo=Round9c%3AProd2%3ALogIn%3ALogIn
1999 National Report Series: Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Violence After School
Violence in schools has been at the forefront of media attention for some time now. One of the main reasons for this is the apparently increasing incidents of violence against and among children. Media attention and the sociological issues stirred up by the situation regarding violence have prompted several studies around violence in schools, especially when directed by children and teachers against children. Violence against teachers, on the other hand, has not received similar research attention. This is therefore the focus of an article by Espelage et al. (2013), with the title "Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a national Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda."
The introduction of the article begins by acknowledging existing focus points for studying violence in schools. It explains its research focus by claiming that not much has been done to study the phenomenon of violence against teachers within the school context. The…
and, in Colorado this past February, a prison guard at Englewood was discovered smuggling in tobacco and cigarette papers for bribes from inmates. He had received over $5,000 during the smuggling scheme.
Inmate vs. Inmate
A little over a month ago, prisoners at Chino prison in California rioted due to extreme overcrowding. About 200 inmates were injured, 25% of those seriously. The riot went on for 11 hours. Authorities believe the riot was prompted by tensions between black and Hispanic prisoners. No prison security guards were injured. Chino prison is built to handle 3000 men; it is currently populated by 5,900. And the California system is not that much different from any other state. Judges are ordering the release of thousands of inmates to reduce the overcrowding (NY Times, 2009).
There are many examples of prisoners hanging themselves in their cells for one reason or another. Studies have found…
Bureau News. (2009, June 23). Prison rape commission: 60,000 inmates sexually abused every year. Retrieved September 15, 2009, from Taragana.com: http://blog.taragana.com/n/prison-rape-commission-60000-inmates-sexually-abused-every-year-89595/
Human Rights Watch. (2004, May 13). Prisoner abuse: How different are U.S. prisons? Retrieved September 15, 2009, from Human Rights Watch: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2004/05/13/prisoner-abuse-how-different-are-us-prisons
Nolan, P. (2009, August 21). The truth behind prison violence. Retrieved September 15, 2009, from Justice Fellowship: http://www.justicefellowship.org/what-is-restorative-justice/justice-fellowship-resources/12283-the-truth-behind-prison-violence
NY Times. (2009, August 10). The Chino prison riot. Retrieved September 15, 2009, from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/opinion/11tue2.html
Sexual Violence: Hidden Truths
The articles that students were asked to review were concerned with sexual violence around the world. These articles illustrated and elaborated upon many instances of sexually-based violence in domestic or civilian life, as well as within the context of war. There were many shocking elements to the contents of the articles. One of the greatest shocks that readers may have come across in reading and analyzing these articles is the proliferation of sexual violence against men and boys. Sexual violence is normatively associated with females -- women and girls. Though people may not be completely literate and aware of the various kinds of sexually-based violent acts that are performed around the world upon women, the average person is more likely to be aware of violence against women and not against men. The information in the articles clearly demonstrates that there is a great lack of…
Professional sports operates at a higher level than college sports, but these athletes are more likely to face legal action. Dale Hackbart of the Denver Broncos attempted to block Charles Clark of the Cincinnati Bengals during an interception by throwing himself on the ground in front of Hackbart. Hackbart, out of frustration, hit Clark with his right forearm on the back of the neck. The force of the blow was so powerful both men fell to the ground. Three of Clark's vertebrae were broken in the assault.
The United States District Court for the District of Colorado interpreted the incident as an "involuntary reflex," stating,"The violence of professional football is carefully orchestrated. Both offensive and defensive players must be extremely aggressive in their actions, and they must play with reckless abandonment of self-protective instincts." They also pointed out that the only disciplinary actions available in the game were penalties…
ROSS BERNSTEIN AND MARTY MCSORLEY. THECODE:THE UNWRITTEN RULES OF FIGHTING AND RETALIATION IN THE NHL, 4
Ibid, p. 206
Hackbart v. Cincinnati Bengals, Inc., 435 F. Supp. 352, 355 (D. Co. 1977), rev'd 601 F.2d 516 (10th Cir. 1979), cert. denied 444 U.S. 931 (1979) (last visited Tuesday July 19, 2011).
Violence in the Community
The objective of the research reported in this study is to examine violence in the communication and specifically violence in Philadelphia, PA 19403 and surrounding suburbs.
The Metropolitan Philadelphia Indicators Project -- Youth: Suburban Children at isk (2007) reports that it has been held traditionally that children who grow up in suburban areas or outside of the city "are shielded from the harsh social environments that many inner-city children must confront…" however, this is not the case as most suburban youths have a quite different experience. It is reported that the Brookings Institution stated in 2006 "for the first time in U.S. history, the number of suburban poor people now exceeds the number of urban poor, by at least a million persons." (Metropolitan Philadelphia Indicators Project, 2007)
Identification of Community
The area at focus in this study is Norristown a neighborhood in the Philadelphia, PA area.…
American FactFinder U.S. States Census Bureau.
Cheney, R.; Wiebe, DJ; Errico, P.; and Richmond, TS (2012) Firearms and Violence: Issues for Elder Health and Well-Being in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Penn State University. Retrieved from: http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/ficap/research/docs/Cheney%20-%20Firearms%20and%20Violence%20Issues%20for%20Elder%20Health%20and%20Well-Being%20in%20SE%20PA.pdf
Downs, J.; Brenowitz, S.; and King, L. (1997) Comparing the Risks from City to Suburbs. Philadelphia Inquirer. 28 Sept, 1997. Retrieved from: http://inquirer.philly.com/packages/crime/html/092897.asp
Norristown, PA 19403 (2010) Demographics / Household Makeup and Size. Retrieved from: http://www.clrsearch.com/19403_Demographics/Household-Makeup-and-Size
Violence in Popular Culture
The revenge motivation for violence can be seen in many films and novels, but one of the most clear-cut examples of this motivation -- as well as one of the most violent -- are Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill films. In this two-part movie, a former assassin (Uma Thurman) tracks down her former boss and her remaining colleagues, killing each of them one by one because they had tried to kill her some years prior. She also gains a daughter through her dispatching of her former boss and lover, but she does not need to kill him to accomplish this. Nor does she have any real reason to kill the other female assassins with whom she used to work; had she simply dropped out of sight, she would not have been in any danger. Yet the character's motivation throughout the film is nothing more -- or less…
Brown, Dan. (2003). The Da Vinci Code. New York: Random House.
Coen, J. & Coen, E. (1990). Miller's Crossing. Twentieth Century Fox.
Stewart, P. & Strathern, A. (2002). Violence: Theory and Ethnography. London: Continuum.
Tarantino, Q. (2003). Kill Bill. The Fourth Film Production Company.
Violence in Hockey Today
There is no shortage of opinions regarding whether or not violence in hockey should be curbed. Certainly the NHL, the fans and the players would all like to see incidents such as the Bertuzzi-Moore fiasco eliminated from the game. Some fans would go further, but that approach may not be realistic. All physical, contact sports will be inherently aggressive. That aggression will naturally boil over from time to time. Players need to be able to vent their pent-up aggression in ways that are not detrimental to the well-being of other players, and for the most part fights and hits achieve that end.
The ultraviolent incidents, however, can be addressed by eliminating some of the most violent aspects of hockey. The Canadian cultural trait of disrespect towards referees was noted by Pascall (2000), and he also noted that minor league players take strong behavioural cues from professional…
Pascall, Bernie & White, Sharon. (2000). Violence in Hockey. British Columbia Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Agriculture. Retrieved October 28, 2008 at http://www.tsa.gov.bc.ca/sport/docs/sportsafe/bernie_pascall_report.pdf
Fitzpatrick, Jamie. (2004). Cultivating Todd Bertuzzi. About.com. Retrieved October 28, 2008 at http://proicehockey.about.com/cs/columnists/a/hockey_violence.htm
Brennan, Christine. (2004) Latest Violence Calls Future of NHL into Question. USA Today. Retrieved October 28, 2008 at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/columnist/brennan/2004-03-10-brennan_x.htm
Rutter, Adam. (2004). The Good Ol' Hockey Game? Violence in Hockey. Canadian Content. Retrieved October 28, 2008 at http://www.canadiancontent.net/commtr/the-ol-hockey-game-violence-hockey-_677.html
Using Social Media to Build Out Support Systems
Violence prevention programs focus on curtailing forms of violence in society, such as child abuse, domestic violence and sexual assault. These programs often emphasize personal responsibility, information about what constitutes violence (it is often the case that offenders do not even realize they are being abusive), why long-term solutions are better than quick-fixes, and how to engage in respectful rather than abusive communication (Alternative Paths, 2020). This paper will discuss this topic, explain it from the theoretical perspective of strain theory, describe the present literature, and make recommendations based on the problems with violence prevention programs from a strain theory perspective and what can be done to solve those issues.
Violence Prevention Programs
Violence prevention programs are programs designed to address the needs of the community afflicted with violence issues, such as child abuse, sexual assault or domestic violence. For the…
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Intimate partner violence, as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2017) points out, has got to do with “physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse.” As the organization further points out, intimate partner violence affects not only heterosexual partners, but also gay couples. It is important to note that although there have been instances where women are the aggressors; the greatest burden of intimate partner violence is borne by women, whereby their male partners are the aggressors.
In essence, according to the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (2012), “half of men in batterer intervention programs appear to abuse alcohol and drugs…” and “half of the women in treatment for substance abuse have been battered.” This indicates that there is a clear relationship between IPV and substance abuse. For abusers, substance abuse tends to disrupt thinking processes (and…
Augusta-Scott, T, Scott, K, & Tutty, L.M. (Eds.). (2017). Innovations and Interventions to ADDRESS INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE – Research and Practice. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2017). Intimate Partner Violence. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/index.html
National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (2012). Substance Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence. Retrieved from http://vawnet.org/material/substance-abuse-and-intimate-partner-violence
2016 Most Violent Prison
Correctional facilities have the responsibility of holding convicts and ensuring that their character has transformed by the time they leave the correctional facilities. However, these correctional facilities often face several challenges in undertaking this responsibility. One of the major challenges in correctional facilities is controlling the violence of inmates both against each other and against police officers. The case study of 2016 Most violent prison demonstrates how prisons cope and manage the problem of inmate violence.
Sergeant Baldwin and his staff use various techniques to maintain order and prevent violence in correctional facilities. First, they use lockups for inmates when they turn violent, which ensures that they cannot interact because they are in their cells. Secondly, the officers get the inmates out in the open air in small groups ensuring that they can manage any violence when it erupts within the facilities. Thirdly, the officers are…
Brewer-Smyth, K., Burgess, A. W., & Shults, J. (2014). Physical and sexual abuse, salivary cortisol, and neurologic correlates of violent criminal behavior in female prison inmates. Biological Psychiatry, 55(1), 21-31.
Delisi, M., Caudill, J. W., Trulson, C. R., Marquart, J. W., Vaughn, M. G., & Beaver, K. M. (2010). Angry Inmates Are Violent Inmates: A Poisson Regression Approach to Youthful Offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 10(5), 419-439.
Life Mystery (2017). Documentary - The Most Violent Prison 2016 Maximum Security. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKHQ1nCQXec
As they repeatedly say, especially Graff, they are doing what they have to do, and although there may have been other tactics that would have worked, there was no way of knowing whether or not the human race could be saved without violent action against the buggers. The buggers themselves, though they do not really appear as character until the very end of the novel, in the dream they send to Ender on the new world, are actually stuck in the same bind as the humans. hat the human experienced as violence in the First and Second invasions was not actually violence to the buggers -- they had no idea that they were killing sentient beings. They had tried to communicate with the humans, but because the two species communicate so differently, this was impossible. Violence became necessary for them to ensure their own survival, and although eventually they succeed…
Card, Orson. Ender's Game. New York: Tor, 1991.
Gustavo Gutierrez did just that in Latin America, employing Marxist analysis to interpret the Jesus' teachings in the Gospel. Gutierrez founded Liberation Theology, which is, essentially, the twentieth century take on Violence and the Cross. Christ is viewed less as Redeemer and more as Liberator.
Evans discusses this same interpretation in black theology, which is, essentially, a continuation of Liberation Theology: "In spite of the ravages of their kidnapping and the disorientation that they endured, African slaves retained an outlook on their experience that continually reaffirmed their worth as individuals and as a people…The Jesus whom they encountered as they were exposed to the Bible was a caring and liberating friend who shared their sorrows and burdens" (12). Yet, in black theology, Jesus does not bring grace through suffering that can perfect one's nature and lead one's soul to Heaven (as classical theology insists); in black theology, Jesus is the…
Evans, James H. We Have Been Believers: An African-American Systematic Theology.
Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1992. Print.
Migliore, Daniel. Faith Seeking Understanding: an Introduction to Christian Theology.
Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991. Print.
Violence and Victims
Journal: "Violence and Victims" by Springer Publishing Company
Violence and Victims is a social work journal that informs "clinical decisions, legal actions and public policy" (Springer Publishing, 2011). It is a peer-reviewed journal that includes subject matter on "theory, research, policy, and clinical practice in the area of interpersonal violence and victimization" across a myriad of professional disciplines to the likes of medicine, law, sociology, psychology and social work (Springer Publishing, 2011). Some important topics, issues and questions that are discussed include subjects like how to assess a violent offender, how to counsel victims of violence, among other topics.
The editors of this journal include a myriad of different doctors from all over the United States. The editor-in-chief is from the University of Washington of the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, while others that are associate editors and on the editorial and advisory board are various individuals…
Lilly, Michelle M., Graham-Bermann, Sandra A., &, Initials. (2010). Intimate partner violence and ptsd: the moderating role of emotion-focused coping. Violence and Victims, 25(5), Retrieved from http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/springer/vav/2010/00000025/00000005/art00003
Springer Publishing, Initials. (2011). Violence and victims. Retrieved from http://www.springerpub.com/product/08866708
Garcia Marquez explores the isolation, solitude, and melancholia experienced by the Macondo community, as a metaphor for a parallel isolation, solitude, and essential disconnectedness from the world as experienced by Colombia, and Latin America as a whole. Moreover, as in the life of that Latin American nation, non-reflective violence occurs again and again. Suppression of memory further isolates Macondo until eventually, Macondo creates a society (i.e., a reality) based (oxymoronically) on pure fantasy. Here, Garcia Marquez powerfully suggests how suppression of collective memory: of violence; invasion; challenges to collective identity; outside exploitation, and all else that serves to explain, for better worse, the history of a group, only deepens and increases inevitable disconnectedness within that place and its people.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Gregory Rabassa
Trans.). New York: Avon, 1971.
One Hundred Years of Solitude." Sparknotes. Retrieved May 11, 2005, at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/solitude.htm.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Gregory Rabassa
Trans.). New York: Avon, 1971.
One Hundred Years of Solitude." Sparknotes. Retrieved May 11, 2005, at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/solitude.htm .
Restorina, Maria R. "Gabriel Garcia Marquez and His Approach to History in One Hundred Years of Solitude." Retrieved May 11, 2005, from: www.loyno.edu/history/journal/1994-5/Estorino.htm
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annu Rev Psychol, 53, 27-51.
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.
Dill, K.E., & Dill, J.C. (1998). Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 407-428.
Funk, J.B., Buchman, D.D., & Germann, J.N. (2000). Preference for Violent Electronic Games, Self-Concept, and Gender Differences in Young Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 233-241.
Violence on College Campuses
Virginia Tech could probably have avoided the terrible massacre of 2007 had its officials taken more timely and effective action with Seung Hui Cho. He had a very long record of mental illness dating back to middle school, including fantasies of violence and murder, and he had received psychiatric treatment in the past. His behavior at Virginia Tech was so disturbing to students and faculty that a court ordered him to undergo a psychiatric evaluation in 2005, although he refused all counseling. University officials did not discuss his case with each other or even with his parents for fear of violating state and federal confidentiality laws, although their interpretation of these was mostly incorrect. Even though medical and psychiatric records are confidential by law, there is an exception for students like Cho who are deemed a danger to themselves and others. Not only did he receive…
Burlin, S. And J. Gammage (2007). "Laws Limit Schools Even After Alarms," Philadelphia Inquirer, April 19, 2007.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech, April 16, 2007 (2007). Report of the Review Panel Presented to Governor Kaine, Commonwealth of Virginia.
McMurray, J. (2008). "Colleges Are Watching Troubled Students," Associated Press, March 28, 2008.
The definition of violence is one that might best be described as it is at Dictionary.com; i.e.; a violent act or proceeding. There are other definitions to be sure, however, the definition used herein is the one that most constitutes the premise of the question is violence socially constructed? Since the question, in this specific space, directly refers to whether I agree, or disagree, with the view that violence is socially constructed, I would have to say that I most vehemently agree that it is.
One need only look as far as the local newspaper to discern that America (as an example) is a very violent country. Constant reports of innocent (and not so innocent) bloodshed is broadcast on the nightly news, reports of murders, slayings, and violence in all its forms are abundant in nature. America is a nation of violence and its leaders adhere to that culture…
Aluf, B. (2011) Understanding history won't help us make peace, Foreign Policy, Issue 184, p. 70
Barron, P. & Sharpe, J.; (2008) Local conflict in post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding variations in violence levels and forms through local newspapers, Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 395 -- 423
Barron, P.; Kaiser, K.; Pradhan, M.; ( 2004) Local conflict in Indonesia: Measuring incidence and identifying patterns, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3384. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Diehl, P.F. & Lepgold, J.;( 2003) Regional conflict management, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
This idea appears repeatedly. hen Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:
Billy didn't want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).
However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn't try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind's fate.
At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human…
Brifonski and Mendelson (Eds). Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.8. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1978.
Riley, Carolyn (Editor); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.1. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1973.
Riley, Carolyn and Barbara Harte (Editors); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.2. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1974.
Vit, Marek. "The Themes of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five." Kurt Vonnegut Corner. http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/4953/themes.html.
Violence in the Family, Violence Against Children is a Cycle
To have a rational understanding of the cycle of violence and abuse that occurs within families as a result of past sexual abuse and present drug abuse upon the heads of the family, one must seek explanations for such bad parental behavior without excusing the negative behavior on the part of the adults themselves. If no causes of violence can be determined, and only legal vengeance is enacted against the perpetrators of abuse, then merely punishment will occur and the cycle of violence and hatred will never end. It is better to redress such crimes, moreover, with an eye to reforming the family, rather than in a spirit of retributive justice.
An example of this can be seen in the child psychologist Torey Hayden's book One Child. In her text, the author and teacher chronicle the abuse of one of…
Hayde, Torey. One Child. Avon, 1980
Kruger, (February 7, 2003). "DCF Policy Shift." St. Petersburg Times. Front Page.
Violence in Video Games
Unlike movies, video games are not regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is ironic because there are a wealth of studies indicating children do not distinguish between fantasy and reality in a gaming environment (Ferguson, 2011). Simply put, the more time children, adolescents and teenagers spend playing a video game the more they see their reality as the gaming environment (Boyle, McLeod, ojas, 2008) (Hartmann, Vorderer, 2010). To argue that games are not as powerful of an influence on children is ridiculous, yet ironically the FCC regulates who can see a movie by its content alone and has refused to take action on games (Soh, Tan, 2008). In June, 2011 the Supreme Court struck down a California law that fined retailers $1,000 for each occurrence or infraction of selling or renting violent games to anyone under the age of 18 (Lemmens, Valkenburg, Peter, 2011).…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Boyle, M., McLeod, D., & Rojas, H.. (2008). The Role of Ego Enhancement and Perceived Message Exposure in Third-Person Judgments Concerning Violent Video Games. The American Behavioral Scientist, 52(2), 165.
Beth Snyder Bulik (2008, May). Despite recession, video-game industry shows massive growth. Advertising Age, 79(20), 6.
Cliff Cheetham (2008, April). Marketing strategies in the gaming community.
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) which was previously called the National Crime Survey (NCS), has been collecting data on personal and household victimization since 1973. It is the primary source of information on the characteristics of criminal victimization and on the number and types of crimes not reported to law enforcement authorities. It provides the largest national forum for victims to describe the impact of crime and characteristics of violent offenders. It is different from the NIBS in that it is from the victims point-of-view rather than just cut and dried crime statistics.
The biggest obstacles is that in order to identify crimes, they are broken down into identifiable crimes which may not cover the actual crime. In cases where multiple crimes are committed, someone has to determine the more serious crime(s) and that may not be the most damaging crime. For example, in the case of a home…
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. National Incidence-Based Reporting. Retrieved from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/NIBRS/ .
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. National Crime Victimization Survey. Retrieved from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/NCVS/ .
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
After all, when Marcellus is raped, the audience has witnessed the murder of two college students by Marcellus' hit men, and knows that Marcellus had a former ally thrown off of a roof for an unknown reason. In addition, it is because of Marcellus' orders that Vincent, whom the audience has grown to like, is killed at Butch's house. Marcellus is clearly not a good man, and yet, nothing in the movie suggests that he deserves to be raped by Zed and Maynard. It was significant that Tarantino chose Marcellus, the most criminal person in the movie, as the rape victim. It was even more significant that Tarantino chose Butch, the person with the most motive to see Marcellus injured, as Marcellus' rescuer. ather than dehumanizing people, the violence in the movie humanizes the monstrous Marcellus, both by depicting him as a victim and by showing him getting revenge. By…
Scorsese, Martin. Taxi Driver. Los Angeles: Bill/Phillips, 1976.
Scott, Ridley. Thelma & Louise. Los Angeles: Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer, 1991.
Tarantino, Quentin. Pulp Fiction. Los Angeles: A Band Apart, 1994.
Winner, Michael. Deathwish. Universal City, CA: Dino De Laurentiis Company, 1974.
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
The document states this in this wording (United Nations):
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children.
Thus under the leadership of the United Nations, many different groups have joined forces to improve the quality of lives of children around the world.
Many people have defended the Chinese culture and…
Garvin, G. "Tiger mom Amy Chua roars with new controversial book about 'America's elite'." 2 February 2014. Miami Herald Books. Online. 15 April 2014.
Intlekofter, K. "Discipline or abuse?" 3 December 2012. John Hopkins Magazine. Online. 15 April 2014.
Jiali, G. "Child abuse in a culture of non-interference." 7 June 2012. China.org.cn. Online. 14 April 2014.
Pedro, B. "Study debunks 'tiger mom'- myth: children worse grades, are more depressed and more alienated from their parents." 12 May 2013. The Economy of Meaning. Online. 15 April 2014.
Violence in Plato: The Euthyphro
In the dialogue of the Euthyphro, Plato depicts an exchange between the titular young, aristocratic man who has decided to turn his father in for manslaughter and the Greek philosopher Socrates. According to Euthyphro, his father left a slave in a ditch to die when the slave was accused of killing another slave, causing the slave to die of exposure. Euthyphro defends his actions as pious while Socrates reacts with incredulity. This suggests that although the primary impetus of the dialogue is a condemnation of impious actions, Plato does not give much weight to the violent death of the slave. Euthyphro is portrayed as ignorant because he cannot come up with an acceptable definition of piety to Socrates and little regard is given to the death of the slave which prompted the drama to take place. Violence (or anti-violence) is not the primary preoccupation of…
Thus, as Kurtz approached his death, he came upon the realization of this possibility -- a possibility that came true upon his 'defeat' (death). This realization was embodied in his exclamation, "The horror! The horror!" As he neared his death. Explicit violence was, evidently, just a "mask" that colonizers used to cover up their fears of the potential power and control of the natives over them (colonizers).
In the same vein, violence was also portrayed in Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," although this was expressed implicitly through the inherent tendency of Africans to view women as the weaker and inferior sex. Okonkwo's behavior towards his wives and daughters showed this animosity between sexes in African culture. However, it was also implicitly shown in the novel how, despite their apparent submissiveness, the women in Okonkwo's life and in the Mbanta tribe showed strength of character and control over males more than the…
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books.
Conrad, J. E-text of "Heart of Darkness." Available at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=ConDark.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all .
Women and men are two parts of the human race. Men are important to society just as women are. However, because of the social structure of many cultures and society, men appear as the dominant, superior sex. This leads to the belief that men must control women, dominate them in order to be seen as 'real men'. Katz explore in his novel the need to remove such belief systems and create gender equality to end violence against women and create a balanced society.
Domestic violence is an issue many people face on a daily basis. However, in Katz book, The Macho Paradox, chapter 1 opens the discussion of domestic abuse seen as a common event in the American landscape. "...found that two-thirds of American men say that domestic violence is very or fairly common in the U.S., and in a 2005 national survey...92% of respondents said that family violence is…
violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.
Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…
Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml .
Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.
Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/releases/media_violence.html.
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
Violence in American Schools
(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed…
NBC News. (2007). Worst U.S. shooting ever kills 33 on Va. campus. NBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/18134671/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/worst-us-shooting-ever-kills-va-campus/ . 2013 June 25.
Shen, A. (2012). A Timeline of Mass Shooting in the U.S. since Columbine. Think Progress, Web, Available from: http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/12/14/1337221/a-timeline-of-mass-shootings-in-the-us-since-columbine/?mobile=nc . 2013 June 25.
Toppo, G. (2009). 10 years later, the real story behind Columbine. USA Today, Web, Available from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-04-13-columbine-myths_N.htm?POE=click-refer . 2013 June 25.
However, unlike Lady Macbeth, Macbeth knows that once violence has been undertaken, there is no going back: "Wake Duncan with thy knocking! I would thou couldst!" (II.2). After her initial resolve, Lady Macbeth becomes miserable and eventually insane with guilt: "Nought's had, all's spent, / Where our desire is got without content" (III.2). Once he has murdered Duncan, Macbeth knows he must defend his grip on power with more bloodshed, and he kills his old friend Banquo without remorse.
The contrast between the two figures during Duncan's murder shows the contrast between male and female views of power: Lady Macbeth, shielded from war and the real workings of power, has a romantic view of what being queen might be like. Macbeth is a soldier and despite his ambition has a more sober view of bloodshed, a sober view that is warranted, given the misery that results from his impulsive…
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
Addiction to Violence in Sports
Violence is a part of human nature. Violence is a natural part of existence. Human beings have some of the greatest tendencies and great potential for abuse of violence as a means of communication or action. Each person is capable of violence, but that possibility does not mean that that person overall is violent. There are a number of ways in which humans beings can exercise their urges for violence in healthy and productive ways. Participating in sports and sporting events is one such activity where humans can demonstrate violent behavior(s) within specific parameters (game rules) and there be no grave consequences. By the very nature of sports, successful and exceptional players demonstrate at least a moderate level of violence as part of their participation; the violence displayed need not be upon opposing players, though that is a facile example. Violence is sports can…
Hardcastle, J. (n.d.) Sports Violence. Available from: www.cyber-spy.com/ebooks/ebooks/Sports-Violence-(ebook).pdf. 2012 July 17.
James, M., & McArdle, D. (2004) Player violence, or violent players?: Vicarious liability for sports participants. The Tort Law Review, 12(3), 1 -- 12.
Jewell, T., Moti, A., Coates, D. (2011) Chapter 2: A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports. Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests: Economics, History and Policy, Sports Economics, Management and Policy 4. Jewell, R.T. (ed) Springer Science+Business Media, LLC: TX.
excess of five million U.S. healthcare employees from numerous professions execute a wide selection of responsibilities. They're subjected to numerous safe practices risks, such as violence. Current records point out that hospital personnel are at high-risk for encountering violence at work. A number of reports say that violence normally takes place during periods of higher activity as well as communication and interaction with individuals, for example at meals and throughout visiting hours along with patient transport. Attacks can happen whenever services are rejected, whenever a client is involuntarily accepted, or whenever a healthcare employee tries to set limitations on consuming, drinking, or even tobacco or alcohol consumption (USDOL, 2001).
isks for Workplace Violence
Patient risks consist of those intoxicated by alcohol and drugs, prior reputation of violence, psychological diseases for example schizophrenia, gang member, use of firearms, and city youthful male of lesser socioeconomic position.
Environmental risks such as…
Allen, P. (2009). Violence in the Emergency Department: Tools & Strategies to Create a Violence-Free ED. Springer Publishing Company.
Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) (2010). Emergency Department Violence Surveillance Study.
Janocha, J.A. And Smith, R.T. (2010). Workplace safety and health in the health care and social assistance industry, 2003-2007. Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/sh20100825ar01p1.htm
NIOSH. (2002). Violence: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals. April 2002. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/2002-101.pdf
Children and Violence
Exposure to domestic violence can have negative effects on children that may result in short-term or long-term complications in the child's life. Taking timely and appropriate measures help limit the negative effects such experiences may have on children. Young kids living in families experiencing domestic violence are a disempowered lot. They develop limited emotional literacy and verbal skills. Further, the environment occasioned by domestic violence is that of intimidation and secrecy. The caregivers are also less emotionally available to the children. Together, such factors restrict the children's opportunity and capacity to make their opinions heard. To help the children, their preferences should be considered and a healthy environment that ensures the maintenance of the daily routine of children is maintained in the temporary shelters. They should be continually supported and support structures established in every area that the children are. Discussed in this paper are the consequences…
Brown, R., & Luppi, F. (2010). Domestic Violence and Children. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 1-12.
Carpenter, G. L, & Stacks, A.M.(2009). Developmental effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in early childhood: Are view of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(8),831-839.
Ehrensaft, M.K., Cohen, P., Brown, J.,Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J.G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 741.
Epstein, C. & Keep, G. (1995). What children tell Children about domestic violence. In A. Saunders, C. Epstein, G. Keep & T. Debbonaire (Eds.), It hurts me too: Children's experiences of domestic violence and refuge life. Bristol: WAFE/Child-line/NISW.
ather than the all-or-nothing strong social constructivist extremes described above, a more balanced view is presented by Kuper and Kuper who suggest that it is the meaning of violence that is social constructed rather than violence itself. According to these authorities, "Public debates, as well as criminal trial defences, revolve around the use, meaning and consequences of violent actions. Often the subjective meanings of violence, and the social and political contexts within which violence arises, are contested and contestable. The meanings of violence are socially constructed" (emphasis added) (Kuper & Kuper 2004, p. 1048).
While these socially constructed explanations are clearly important to understanding violence, including how it can affect those involved and what may cause it, they do not come face-to-face with the issue of whether violence per se would continue to exist in a world without humans around to create the social constructions that strong social constructivists…
Burstyn, J.N., Bender, G. & Casella, R. et al. 2001 Preventing Violence in Schools: A Challenge
to American Democracy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Fish, S. 1995 Professional Correctness: Literary Studies and Political Change. New York:
Goldman, a.I. 2002 Pathways to Knowledge: Private and Public. New York: Oxford
violence: a study of narrative meaning" by Rachel Louise Shaw has as its basic premise the comparison of fictional violence, as experienced in film, with violence as experienced in real life. As a pathway between the two experiences, the concept of narrative is used to investigate how individuals make sense of these experiences. As such, it was the purpose of the study to determine how individuals experience the narrative of violence in film and how this element of film could be justified in terms of life experience. In addition, the purpose was to compare this aspect with violence as experienced in real life, and how narrative plays a role in both. To clarify this aspect, the article begins by comparing violence in real life, which can be a devastating experience, with violence in film, which is considered to be entertaining; this is then also what identifies the overarching research question…
.....media contribute to violence?
Some research has shown that the media contributes to the emergence and exhibition of violent behavior in young people, or at least the desensitization to violence. The American Psychological Association summarizes the body of literature and claims that at the very least, extensive exposure to violent imagery can desensitize a child to violence ("Television and Video Violence," n.d.). Other research may reveal a more causal relationship between exposure to violence in the media and violent behavior. For example, a meta-analysis of 15 different studies has shown "evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior," (Kaplan, 2012). This does not mean that all people who are exposed to media violence will exhibit violent behavior or aggression, but that care must be taken when children are…
Clashes between tribes were almost continual, but an actual Civil ar escalated to the capital in Mogadishu in 1990, causing the world press to flee and media attention given to the area. Certainly, from the 1980s on, the willingness of the Somalis to rebel may be explained by the general conditions of poverty in the area.
From 1950 to the early 80s the economy was fairly stable, but then began a downward spiral. Urban workers had no jobs, rural families had no markets, and discontent was becoming endemic. As domestic food production failed, Somalia was forced to rely on foreign aid and importation to subsist. Even with that influx, infant mortality and life expectancy remain flat, worse in some sectors of the country. This may be best expressed in using the overall paradigm of structural violence in the conflicts coming from clan rivalry and the competition for the bare essentials…
Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace, and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167-91.
Gurr, T. (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kivimaki, T. (2001, June). Explaining Violence in Somalia. Retrieved April 2011, from Conflict Transformation Service: http://www.conflicttransform.net/Somalia%20report.pdf
Walker, I., & Smith, H. (2001). Relative Deprivation: Specification, Development and Integration. New York: Cambridge University Press.
2. I agree wholeheartedly with the author. Random acts of kindness do make the world and our society a better place. We need to become more aware of the connections between people. We do need to smile more, treat others with deep respect, and recognize the impact our actions have on other people. Instead of walking around angry all day, we need to develop a positive frame of mind and speak and act with kindness.
Universal health care would reflect a deep change in our culture. We have become so focused on our independence that we forgot the value of sharing and caring. Our selfishness and greed has led to a situation in which most Americans cannot afford adequate healthcare. Yet Americans are afraid of making small sacrifices that could benefit our society such as paying slightly more taxes to fund a truly universal system…
violence against non-combatant populations to increase the psychological effects of warfare has been a mainstay of human aggression for millennia. As Russian revolutionist eon Tolstoy once said: "kill one, intimidate one thousand." In the modern world, the idea of terrorism has moved from the overt spark that caused World War I to the events of September 11, 2001. Just after 9am Eastern Standard Time, most of the world watched in horror as the global media replayed the events surrounding four passenger planes that were high jacked in the United States. Two of these aircraft were flown into New York's Twin Towers, one into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the final one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Even though the damage was confined to the physical and geographic area of the United States, the image and aftermath of the attacks were global. American conservative columnist George Will, never a…
Looking at the photographs or reviewing the footage, of the Twin Towers is highly emotional and symbolic; likely exactly the point of using them as targets. The Twin Towers represented not just New York or America, but capitalism, international business, the human spirit in almost defying gravity and using human ingenuity to build something grand. However, grand though it may have been, just like December 7, 1945 and Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the very soul of modernity was ripped away, making individuals feel vulnerable, unsafe, and quite frankly -- terrified in a hostile world.
Whatever motives the al-Qaida sect might have had are less important than the capability of adapting to such an evil and nefarious purpose. This of course, is the great conundrum that 9/11 reminds us: we are a species capable of the most ardent dichotomies imagined. Even examining only the 20th century, we find that humans have produced some of the most beautiful works of art imaginable: the sublime works of T.S. Eliot, the controversial yet intriguing works of Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky, the disturbingly emotional Salvador Dali, and architectural masterpieces that dwarf anything built, and more technological advances than can be adequately chronicled here. Then, we have also had the Holocaust, Stalin's Purges, the excesses of Pol Pot and Idi Amin; vast populations starved, displaced, and several disease vectors that have wiped out significant populations. From the perspective of an extraterrestrial anthropologist, we would seem a confusing species at best; a clear dichotomy of values, morals, and actions.
Yet the images of 9/11 also remind us that while a dichotomy exists, it is that very capacity for evil that allows us to rise above and produce good. New York City is certainly a different place than it was on September 10, 2011; and the world has grown even closer since the attacks -- partially due to technology, but also due to a true desire and vision that when all external trappings are gone, the kernel of the individual is indeed the human spirit.
Attraction to Violence in the Media
Violence on Films and in Television
Filmmakers Technique to Grab the Audience
Violence Made to Swindle the Viewers
Making Violence Funny
It is clear that one of the worthy changes in the social environment today is the advent and fullness of television. In this new setting, television, radio, videos, movies, computer networks and video games, have presumed central roles in people's day-to-day lives. Rather it be good or bad, it seems that the mass media are having some kind of a huge impact on people's standards, beliefs, and behavior. Regrettably, the consequences of one specific element of the mass media exposure has for the most part damaging effects on those that are watching' and others' health. There is much Research evidence that has been accumulating over a lot of ears that being exposed to violence on television and in video games does…
Bishop, R. A P.J., 2006. Violence. Theory, Culture & Society. Theory, Culture and Society, 23(3), pp. pp.377-385..
BJ., B., 2007. Moderating role of. Journal . Pers. Soc.Psychol, 23(4), p. 950 -- 60.
Bushman BJ, H.L., 2008. Effects of televised violence on aggression.In Handbook of Children and the Media. In: Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 223 -- 54.
Bushman, B. A A.C., 2001. Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts vs. media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(7), pp. pp.477-489..
Gun Violence in the United States
According to the Gun Violence Archive, which keeps track of gun-related violence in the United States, 2016 has had 53,602 known incidents, resulting in 13,854 deaths and 28,505 injuries. There have been 363 mass shooting incidents in 2016. In 2015, there were 372 mass shootings killing a total of 475 people and wounding 1,870, according to the Mass Shooting Tracker ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Defensive use accounts for 1683 of all gun-related incidents in 2016, and 1,988 gun incidents in 2016 were classified as being accidental (Gun Violence Archive, 2016).
In 2015 alone, there were 64 school shootings. Some of those incidents did not involve casualties, but the numbers still prove alarming, revealing the extent of the problem ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Even more mass shootings take place in ordinary businesses --…
Barry, C.L., Mcginty, E.E. Vernick, J.S. & Webster, D.W. (2015). Two years after Newtown -- public opinion on gun policy revisited. Preventative Medicine 79,pp. 55-58.
Barzilay, Julie and Mohney, Gillian, 2016. "Why the CDC Hasn't Launched a Comprehensive Gun Study in 15 Years."
DeFilippis, E. & Hughes, D. (2015). The Myth Behind Defensive Gun Ownership. Retrieved online: http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/defensive-gun-ownership-myth-114262#.VLhsjS42d6I
"Firearm Access is a Risk Factor for Suicide," (n.d.). Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved online: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/means-matter/risk/
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.
Two of the schools in the current study have active GSA's which may account for the acceptance of LGBT students at these schools.
Procedures for anonymous reporting (Fear of retaliation)
As stated above, fear of retaliation was the major barrier to reporting according to the findings in this study. It is recommended that school develop safe, anonymous reporting procedures such as that described above. In addition, students must feel that retaliation will be addressed and every attempt will be made to protect the student from retaliation, both inside the school and outside the school. Perpetrators must be informed that retaliation will carry serious consequences and that administrators will follow through. Students must be told that any discussion of disciplinary actions discussed among students will cause further disciplinary actions to be instituted.
The schools involved in the current study are known as being very gay-friendly. Two of…