"World Trade Organization Essays"

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World Trade Essay

Words: 441 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4025022

Trade Agreements

There are significantly more trade agreements in the world than I would have predicted. A list of final agreements between the United States and individual countries indicates that the United States alone has trade agreements with nations ranging from Argentina to Zimbabwe, and an impressive number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, Russia, Mongolia, Korea, Jordan, and Ghana (Foreign Agricultural Service). Other countries have similarly large numbers of agreements (Government of Alberta). Trade agreements in the future are likely to become more prominent, given the increasing pressures of globalization. As such, countries with reciprocal trade agreements are likely to be more economically viable than those that tend to isolate themselves from trade in an increasingly interdependent world.

International politics are linked closely to international trade. Often, it is difficult to distinguish whether politics or trade takes the lead in global affairs. As an example, many Western countries have long criticized China's human rights record, and political tension between China and the Western world have often surfaced, but political relations seem to be improving with the Western world as China moves its economy slowly toward a more capitalistic structure. In short, the Western world seems more accepting of China's political motives as long as trade occurs. In sharp contrast, political motivations have long stopped trade between the United…… [Read More]

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World Trade Discuss International Trade Issues and Essay

Words: 921 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6048240

World Trade

Discuss international trade issues and how they impact starting a business in Denmark and how it pursues doing business with other countries

Denmark has been following bilateral trade policy based on free trade. This has helped it penetrate major markets while keeping the balance between import and exports. Denmark has been successful in the policy and has a lot of products exported to the U.S. And these include pharmaceutical products, nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; electrical machinery and equipment, and Denmark also imports from the U.S. The World Bank economic indicators for Denmark for the year 2010 show that the current purchasing power per capita -- PPP is at $40,290. (Panjiva, 2012)

Denmark has expanded its trade relations recently with Canada. They both have identical business strategies. Both are based on the agri-food export sectors. The knowledge industries and the agricultural sector and modern concepts like renewable energy, and information and communication technologies are to be exchanged. Canada has exported over two hundred million dollar worth of fish and sea food, soya beans, medical products and pharmaceutical items. Canada imported one and a half billion dollar worth of wind turbines, oil and pharmaceutical and medical products. Denmark has invested C$511 million in 2011 into Canada. These were made by companies operating in Canada and concentrate on the construction industry, diary products and pharmaceuticals. Canada has invested $431 million in 2011 at Denmark focusing on software, transportation and electronics. (Canada International, 2012)

Denmark has also made a mark in Asia by entering the Asian markets. Denmark trade can be expanding with the country having come to an agreement with Indian auto manufacturers Maruti Suzuki and the company will export A-Star cars in Denmark that would help the Denmark import sector. The exports from Denmark mainly consist of animal and animal derivatives. The…… [Read More]

Canada International. (2012) "Canada & Denmark trade" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/denmark-danemark/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_denmark-danemark.aspx?lang=eng&view=d

Ebay.com. (2012a) "International trading policy" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://pages.ebay.com/help/policies/international-trading.html
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Role Does the World Trade Essay

Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81860107

While most European nations state if a product has GMO technology it must be labeled, in America, consumers are accustomed to using GMOs with impunity, unaware if GMOs are present or not in the products they purchase -- and eat. The Europe Union has maintained "a voluntary eco-labeling program" in an effort to allow consumers to make informed choices ("Eco-labeling," What's wrong, 2009). However, the U.S. commercial agricultural interests opposed even this policy, arguing that there is no evidence of a lack of safety attached to GMOs. American agricultural interests argued that the simple labeling of GMOs was anti-free trade and discriminatory, because it created the implication that a safe, usually American-produced product was possibly unsafe. "The issues were never resolved and the WTO committees finally adopted a neutral report" ("Eco-labeling," What's wrong, 2009).

The need to resolve difficult controversies regarding the free flow of trade between different nations is critical role of the WTO. The environment has been particularly contentious regarding its policies. One "controversy centered on 1998 revisions to Japan's 'Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy,' which tightened what had been less stringent fuel-efficiency standards for medium-weight automobiles," but which European and American automotive makers feared would be used more as a weapon to eliminate them from the Japanese marketplace than act as a truly green bill ("Greenhouse," What's wrong, 2009). The inability of certain trade disputes to be relegated within or even between specific borders on such issues as the environment necessitates an objective body such as the WTO. But whether the WTO should have a particular ideological slant against protectionism, or for environmentalism, and if its decisions unfairly favor certain nations with specific types of capitalist enforcement mechanisms ensures that the WTO will continue to be a contentious organization. Clearly, there is a need for an objective negotiating body between nations, but whether the WTO fulfills this need, or only helps international trade for some nations, and some types of businesses (such as large multinationals) remains an open question.

Works… [Read More]

"Greenhouse Gases Controversy." What's wrong with the WTO? August 7, 2009.

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China's 2001 Accession to the World Trade Essay

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57389045

China's 2001 accession to the World Trade Organization has been regarded one of the country's most significant moves as far as its integration with the global economy is concerned. According to the author of the article I analyze in this text, one of the most significant consequences of the said accession "was the transformation of China's financial sector." From the onset, the author of this article correctly points out that over the years; the need for an overhaul of the Chinese financial sector was rather obvious. This is more so the case given the inefficient way in which loans were being extended by lenders. Indeed, the only way China could save its financial system from imminent collapse or stalling was through the opening up of its banking sector. In the words of the author, "immediately upon accession to the WTO, China's banking sector began to open to foreign banks." HSBC saw this as an opportunity to enhance its presence in the Chinese market. As the author points out, based on its long history in the region, HSBC was best placed to exploit the opportunities the Chinese market presented.

The author in this case also correctly points out that the relevance of China as an investment destination cannot be overstated. To begin with, China is now regarded the second largest economy in the world after having surpassed Japan approximately three years ago. The Chinese economy has also been experiencing rapid growth -- growth that the author attributes to a government funded real-estate boom. It is important to note that given this fast pace of growth, there is a need for China to embrace policies that are more progressive and friendly to the prevailing changes. Other factors that make China an attractive investment destination most particularly for firms in the banking sector include but they are not limited to the country's vast population with a…… [Read More]

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Trade in the UAE Essay

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73428946

Trade between UAE and rest of the world

The level of trade has intensified between the United Arab Emirates and the rest of the world. Since the UAE have become members of the World Trade Organization in 1996 the country has become more involved in international trade. The success of UAE's trade activity is revealed also by the trade surplus of 470,939 million AED in 2012. This trade surplus can be attributed to shipments of oil and natural gas.

The most important exports partners for the UAE are Japan 15.4%, India 13.4%, Iran 10.7%, Thailand 5.5%, Singapore 5.5%, and South Korea 5.3%. The most exported commodities are represented by crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish and dates. The country's exports in 20134 reached $368.9 billion, ranking the UAE on the 18th place in comparison with the rest of the world countries.

The most important imports partners of UAE are India 17%, China 13.7%, U.S. 10.5%, Germany 5.1%, and Japan 4.2%. The most imported commodities are represented by Machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, and food (CIA, 2014). The country's imports in 2013 reached $249.6 billion, ranking the UAE on the 21st place in comparison with other world countries (Trading Economics, 2013). In addition to this, the UAE also imports pearls, precious metals and stones, base metals and articles, electronic equipment, and others.

The UAE balance of trade is likely to continue its ascending direction. The balance of trade is represented by the difference between the monetary value of UAE's exports and imports within the country's economy during certain periods of time. UAE's balance of trade reveals the fact that the value of exports is higher than the values of imports, determining trade surplus in the case of this country. The average balance of trade reported by the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates is of 176,980 million AED.

The trade activity of the UAE can also be observed by analyzing its current account situation. Current account is represented by the sum of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
2. UAE -- U.S. Economic Relationship (2009). Embassy of the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.uae-embassy.org/uae-us-relations/economic-diversification.

3. UAE Balance of Trade (2013). Trading Economics. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-arab-emirates/balance-of-trade.

4. Malek, C. (2014). UAE and Australia will Team up on Defense, Trade, Education. The National. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.thenational.ae/uae/uae-and-australia-will-team-up-on-defence-trade-education.
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World Trade Center Directed by Essay

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70370431

They turn to their spiritual side and introspection to help make some sense of their predicament and their lives. Above all, they realize they have everything in the world to live for, and they do not want to die. They realize they have made mistakes, and they want another chance to make things better if they survive.

At one point, Officer McLoughlin realizes he and his wife have issues to work on if he makes it out alive. He says, "Somewhere along the way, I guess we stopped looking at each other" ("World Trade Center"). The story shows that life (and love) is not perfect, but the alternative is much more unbearable to consider. These men do not want to die, and watching this makes the viewer look into their own life and see what needs to change. The message is meaningful and clear, time does not always stand still, and it passes all too soon. Life is precious, and it should be treasured, enjoyed, and shared with those we love and respect.

It is clear another message in the film revolves around personal transformation and development. As another reviewer notes, "WTC delivers the goods of spiritual uplift and transformation in the rescue scene with an unusual stylistic flourish: the camera rises up out of the ground with Jimeno, then keeps going, up into the air for an aerial view of the smouldering wreckage, and onward, up and away, through the earth's atmosphere" (Rich). This is clearly an image of being reborn and given a second chance in life, and that is one of the most enduring aspects of the film. This film shows that people can change, and that events can occur that make them look inside themselves and reevaluate their relationships and their own emotions. This is an emotional film, but it is uplifting, as well, just as uplifting as this image of rebirth and new beginnings.

In conclusion, this is a stirring film about one of the most tragic days in American history. However, it leaves the viewer feeling hopeful for the future. These two men survived, and they are much more aware of how truly precious life is. Everyone should take the same message away from this film. Out of tragedy, hope can grow, and tragedy should teach us that what we have is worth saving. Life and love are meant to be shared,…… [Read More]

Phillips, Michael. "Trade Center' Wraps Itself in the Flag." Chicago Tribune. 9 Aug. 2006.

Rich, B. Ruby. "Out of the Rubble." Sight and Sound. Oct. 2006. 29 Jan. 2007. http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/feature/49320/
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Trade Liberalization Essay

Words: 2732 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75554015

Trade Liberalization

In basic terms, trade liberalization has got to do with bringing down the various trade limitations existing between countries. It is important to note that in an attempt to protect their domestic industries, many countries from across the world have in the past erected numerous protectionist measures including but not limited to tariffs and quotas. This has amongst other things had the effect of stifling international trade. This text concerns itself with the impact of trade liberalization on developing economies.

The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries

Before commencing on the main discussion, it would be prudent to briefly define a number of key terms which I will be making use of in this text. These terms include trade liberalization, tariffs, subsidies, and quotas. To begin with, tariffs in the words of Lipsey and Harbury (1992, p.215) are "taxes levied by the government on imports of a particular good." As a protectionist measure, tariffs are in most cases used to increase the price of goods and services entering a given country thus making the said goods more expensive than those produced locally. It is however important to note that apart from being used as a protectionist measure, tariffs can also be used by governments as a source of revenue. As important tools especially when it comes to shaping trading policy, tariffs may in some instances have unintended consequences. It is for such a reason that formations like the World Trade Organization exist.

In the words of Stroup, Sobel, and Macpherson (2009 p.101), "a subsidy is a payment to either the buyer or seller of a good or service, usually on a per-unit basis." Subsidies as the authors further point out are meant to either enhance producers' profitability or ensure goods are affordable to buyers. Subsidies could come in various forms. Governmental subsidies according to Carbaugh (2011) could be in the form of cheap loans, tax concessions, or even outright cash disbursements. The author further points out that subsidies could be classified into two basic forms, i.e. export subsidies and domestic…… [Read More]

Arbache, J.S., Dickerson, A. And Green, F. 2004. Trade Liberalization and Wages in Developing Countries. The Economic Journal, 114(February), pp.F73-F96.

Carbaugh, R.J. 2011. International Economics. 13th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
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Trade Between China and the United States Essay

Words: 2499 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58181768

Trade Between China and the United States

This paper discusses some theories about international trade, and why countries trade with one another. The first trade theory that warrants discussion is specialization, something that Adam Smith touched on. He used the analogy of specific professional to illustrate this theory -- nations do what they are best at. A quick look at the relationship between the U.S. And China illustrates this quite well. The United States is a world leader in innovation. A company like Wal-Mart is a leader at designing logistics and inventory management systems. It has no particular expertise in producing goods. China, on the other hand, has developed considerable expertise in recent years with respect to production. Thus, the arrangement between Wal-Mart and China, more or less, is that China makes the goods and Wal-Mart will then get those goods to market and sell them. This plays to the strengths of both of these entities. Wal-Mart has opened retail operations in China, again because it feels that it is superior at logistics and merchandising.

Wal-Mart -- and by extent the United States -- has an absolute competitive advantage is logistics and retailing. There are few countries and companies that do it better, as Wal-Mart has demonstrated in a number of international expansions. China, by contrast, has emerged as the world's manufacturer of choice. In this instance, both countries are playing t their strengths and the combination is compelling as a major driver of world trade. Apple and China is a similar story -- American innovation, design and retailing combines with Chinese production to create value that few if any in the world can match. Even Apple's major contractor, Foxconn, is an example of international trade at work, with Taiwanese management and Chinese laborers. So these are generally all examples of specialization in trade where nations do the things that they are the best in the world at.

David Ricardo developed one of the most influential theories about international trade, known as the theory of comparative advantage…… [Read More]

No author (2013). Intro to African-American studies. eBlackStudies.org. Retrieved November 25, 2013 from http://eblackstudies.org/intro/chapter1.htm

Porter, M. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved November 25, 2013 from http://kkozak.wz.cz/Porter.pdf
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Organizational Review of European Union Essay

Words: 1306 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79962429

A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.

The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range of services. Moreover, the business sector of the EU has increased its competitiveness, which has resulted in the lowering of prices and has served to drive "innovation, entrepreneurship and growth." (OECD, 2007) Needed at this time according to the OECD is "a fresh impetus." (OECD, 2007) the energy markets require a tighter linking as well as opening up to competition, which would serve to lower prices and secure energy supplies.

The OECD relates that the adoption f the electricity direction in 2003 provided for customers to have choice in who supplies their energy. There has been identified in the energy markets what are termed to be "serious malfunctions" with "vertically integrated energy giants" having the capacity to "treat competitors unfairly and shut out potential entrants." (OECD, 2007) Additionally, market concentration in the energy markets is high and prices are able to fall under the control of "dominant firms." (OECD, 2007)

Enabling market integration in the EU are the euro and Financial Services Action Plan and in fact, the United States has been "overtaken...[by]...Europe...in some segments of global markets.…… [Read More]

Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at www.oecd.org.

The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at http://www.iisd.org/trade/handbook/7_2.htm
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Trade Issues in Economic Development Essay

Words: 2307 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40744461

The (international debt) crisis offers various faces to the observer according to the nature of the issues involved -- be they purely financial, political, economic and social, or structural -- and according to the role of the actors involved in these issues -- be they debtor countries, multilateral development agencies, creditor governments, or commercial banks." (Kaufman, "Banking And Currency Crises And Systemic Risk: Lessons From Recent Events")

World Banks

Trade requires capital. There are approximately two hundred financial institutions throughout the worldwide that account for more than eighty percent of the world's total international banking exposure. Of these, there are twenty banks that have exposure of more than ten billion dollars and seven of them are from the United States, four are from the United Kingdom, three are from West Germany, three are from France, two are from Japan, and there is one from Canada. "The borrowing countries still have much to do at the macroeconomic level to enforce reasonable demand-management policy and at the micro-level to achieve savings mobilization and better sectoral allocation in a context of lesser government controls. In turn, private and official creditors have a special responsibility to stand ready to assist genuine adjustments efforts with the needed long-term financing." (Boon-Chye, The Economics of International Debt Renegotiation: The Role of Bargaining and Information)

Of the remaining two hundred, the vast majority of them have exposure levels below the three billion dollar mark. But, this still implies that throughout the world, international banks have provided loans of more than six hundred billion dollars in the emerging and third world countries. "The banks knew, of course, they had lent money to Mexico, the Philippines, or Zaire through trade-related credits, interbank lines, and syndicated loans. They lacked, however, a clear knowledge of these countries' financial, economic, and social conditions and the actual use of the loan proceeds. Still less clear were the long-run prospects of the borrowing countries." (Bouchet, The Political Economy of International Debt: What, Who, How Much, and Why)

This measure encompasses all debt including international debt, gross disbursed and outstanding debts as well as short- and long-term loans owed to the industrialized nation creditors. "The current crisis of developing countries' external indebtedness reflects crisis of economic development, the international financial system, bank management, and economic thinking." (Bouchet, The Political Economy of International Debt: What, Who, How Much, and Why)


Globalization by most is considered…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Allen, Roy E., et al. (1999). Financial Crises and Recession in the Global Economy. 2nd ed. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Boon-Chye, Lee. (1993). The Economics of International Debt Renegotiation: The Role of Bargaining and Information. New York: Westview
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Trade Barriers Visible and Invisible Essay

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42068495

Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford. But in some instances, if a particular nation has received bad press regarding its labor practices, mandatory labeling as an imported good might act as an additional invisible trade barrier. Also, if a nation is being subject to a particularly damaging round of international publicity regarding other aspects of its international policy, this may lead to a boycott of the nation's goods, and thus invisible tariffs can be constructed through simply the apparently innocuous policy of labeling nation's country of origin, in the supposed interest of consumer information.

Works… [Read More]

Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy

Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
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Trade Liberalization Since the Early Essay

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87717088

The historical exchange rate between the real and the dollar is as follows (source: IndexMundi):

Inflation was very high in the early 90s, then was calmed under the pegged exchange rate regime. Since the real's collapse, inflation has remained relatively high in Brazil, but has been under control. In recent years, inflation is increasing as Brazil's economy is performing well. This puts downward pressure and the real and in turn has a negative impact on the country's export-driven businesses.

I believe that the exchange rate policy has helped Brazil since the currency crisis. The price stability in the 1990s was also important but the policy at that time limited foreign direct investment to the public entities that were being privatized. In more recent years, liberalizing of the currency regime has helped to spur strong economic growth. However, as that growth has grown too large, the country has been forced to implement more controls on the real. While this protects exporters, it hurts the GDP by reducing trade in general.

Works… [Read More]

Bristow, M. & Soliani, A. (2011). Brazil signals no change in rate policy after cutting to 11%. Business Week. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-12-02/brazil-signals-no-change-in-rate-policy-after-cutting-to-11-.html

EurActiv. (2010). Brazil urged to remove trade barriers in telecoms. EurActiv.com. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://www.euractiv.com/infosociety/brazil-urged-remove-trade-barriers-telecoms-news-498136
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Trade Theories to Enhance International Trade Essay

Words: 2044 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57380614

International Trade Theories

International trade may be classified as the trade of capital, goods, and services across international boundaries or areas. In many nations, such trade signifies a substantial share of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade continues to be present throughout a lot of significant research for trade history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), the fact remains that the over societal, economic and political importance for international trade continues to be increasing even further in recent decades (Samuelson, 2001).

Industrialization, modern and intricate transportation structures, globalization, the presence of multinational companies, and outsourcing are getting increased attention and thus having a significant effect on the international trade system. Growing international trade is vital towards the continuation and growth of globalization. Without international trade, nations could be restricted to the products or services created inside their own boundaries (Samuelson, 2001).

International trade is, in its theory and fundamentals, not the same as domestic trade because the incentive and also the behavior of businesses involved with a trade commitment don't change essentially or at the core irrespective of the trade being localized, across a border, across the seas or otherwise. The primary difference is the fact that international trade is usually more expensive than the costs normally associated with all domestic trades. This is because a trade across the boundary does typically inflict additional costs for example charges, time costs because of across the border delivery delays and charges connected with country variations for example language, the legislation or culture (Samuelson, 2001).

One more distinction between domestic and international trade is the fact that factors of production for example aspects like the capital and labor are usually more portable inside a country as opposed to across boundaries. Thus international trade is mainly limited to the exchange of products or services, and just, to a decreased…… [Read More]

Bhagwati J.A.Panagariya and T.N. Srinivasan (2004), "The Muddles Over Outsourcing." Journal of Economic Perspectives, November.

Broadman H.G. (2006), Africa's Silk Road. China and India's New Economic Frontier. The World Bank, Washington DC.
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Trade Show Industry in Germany Essay

Words: 31155 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38292092

Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.

The study is important for a second reason that international trade is becoming a cause for concern after the global recession. The economies of various countries have been affected after a decline in their purchasing power. It is said that economic recovery is possible through an increase in trade and opening up of markets (OECD, 2009). As a result, governments are trying to find new ways of stimulating trade in order to increase demand in the national economy and create more jobs to reduce unemployment. Trade shows can be an effective means of stimulating trade activity by bringing together buyers and sellers in a single location. This study will be useful for governments because it will help them to identify the economic, regulatory, legal, and logistical issues that need to be controlled to organize successful trade shows. By using the information in this study, they will be able to promote economic growth through increased local and international trade.

Study Components

This comparative study on the trade show industry in Germany and South Korea will follow a systematic analysis of the most significant aspects affecting the industry in each country. The study begins with a historical analysis of the evolution of trade from a local level to an international level. It will then discuss how trade shows evolved to facilitate the growing trade between countries. The study will then discuss the dynamics of the trade show industry in modern times including the political, legal, economic and regulatory issues that affect the industry. An analysis of the issues involved in organizing successful trade fairs will follow that will help the reader to understand how international trade shows should be conducted so that positive effects for the participants can be guaranteed. The study will address the issue of effective…… [Read More]

UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].

Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House

Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning