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S. domestic support for agricultural products and (2) its export guarantee credits for the same type of products. Practically, Brazil questioned the support offered by U.S. To its agricultural producers, the instruments used for this support and all additional programmes and support, such as Production Flexibility Contract payments. Moreover, the latin american country considered that the export guarantee credits offered by U.S. To its agricultural producers were more favourable than those available on the market in the same period of time. A panel disscussion has been requested in November 2007 and Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, the European Communities, India, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, South Africa, Chinese, Taipei, Thailand and Turket reserved their third-party rights. The case is still under dispute.
Chang, P.L. 2004. The Politics of WTO Enforcement Mechanism. School of Economics and Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, Working Paper 259756.
Davey, W.J. 2005. The WTO Dispute…
Chang, P.L. 2004. The Politics of WTO Enforcement Mechanism. School of Economics and Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, Working Paper 259756.
Davey, W.J. 2005. The WTO Dispute Settlement System: How Have Developing Countries Fared? Illinois Public Law and Legal Theory Research Papers Series, Working Paper No. 05-17, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=862804
Fergusson, I.F. 2007. The World Trade Organization: Background Issues. CRS Report for Congress, http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/98-928.pdf
WTO, Accessed Sep 2008, www.wto.org
orld Trade Organization (TO) is an international body headquartered in Geneva that promotes world trade and enforces trade laws and regulations. The TO is the successor organization to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
, and started functioning on January 1, 1995. It has 146 member countries with 30 more countries having applied for membership. ("TO in Brief" -- Fact File) hile GATT's role was restricted to regulating trade in merchandise goods, TO has a much more expanded role that includes trade in services, and protection for intellectual property rights. Unlike GATT, it also has the powers for settling trade disputes between countries; its decisions are binding and may even supercede a sovereign country's own laws. ("orld Trade Organization" Encarta; Greenhouse, para-"hat is TO?")
TO and its predecessor GATT were established to promote world trade by lowering tariffs and trade barriers since it is believed by many economists…
Greenhouse, Steven. "The WTO and the Politics of Global Trade." Article in Encarta Yearbook, 2000.
"Top 12 Reasons to Oppose the WTO." Global Exchange Website. 2003. November 16, 2003
'World Trade Organization." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD Rom Version, 2003
'World Trade Organization: In Brief." Official Website of the World Trade Organization. 2003. November 16, 2003
World Trade Organization (WTO)) can facilitate trading opportunities of your two chosen countries
The WTO through the GATT tries to help nations continue trade. This is done through 'The Doha ound' where the latest round of trade negotiations that seeks to redefine the international trading system with lower trade barriers and revised trade rules. It covers about twenty areas of trade. Also called the Doha Development Agenda it is focused on developing countries. This is an ideal activity for countries to see that their trade requirements and negotiations get under way. Launched at Doha, Qatar, in November 2001 the mandate sets up processes for the negotiations for specific industries and also services including the intellectual property. (WTO, 2012c) The second function is to eliminate tariffs, including the 'reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest…
Alon, Ilan. (2003) "Chinese Economic Transition and International Marketing Strategy."
Praeger: Westport, CT.
Boyer, Robert; Charron, Elsie; Jurgens, Ulrich; Tolliday, Steven. (1998) "Between Imitation
and Innovation: The Transfer and Hybridization of Productive Models in the International Automobile Industry." Oxford University Press: Oxford.
WTO Final Project
The WTO agreements provide for MFN treatment with an intention of multilateralizing as well as liberalizing trade via the enhancement and promotion of service and trade equality between the World Trade Organization (WTO) member states. To be more specific, the MFN principle means that “under the WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners” (WTO, 2019). Thus, as WTO further suggests, no special favors should be advanced to anyone that are not accessible to other WTO members. The said favors in this case could include, but they are not limited to, lower customs duty rate for certain products. It should, however, be noted that the intention highlighted above no longer appears operational due to, in part, the incorporation of factors that conflict with the original purpose of the provision of the MFN treatment in WTO agreements. It is important to note that the burden of…
Addo, K. (2014). Core Labor Standards and International Trade: Lessons from the Regional Context. New York, NY: Springer.
Closa, C., Casini, L. & Sender, O. (2016). Comparative Regional Integration: Governance and Legal Models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohn, T.H. (2008). Global Political Economy: Theory and Practice. Belmont, CA: Pearson Longman.
McKinney, J.A. & Gardner, H.S. (Eds.). (2008). Economic Integration in the Americas. New York, NY: Routledge.
Trost, F. (2008). Reconciling Trade Agreements with the Most Favored nation Principle in WTO-GATT. MqBJL, 5, 43-72.
World Trade Organization - WTO (2019). Principles of the Trading System. Retrieved from https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact2_e.htm
World Trade Organization (WTO). Specifically, it will summarize the mission statement of the WTO, and identify stakeholders and their respective position regarding the organization's future evolution. The charge has been made that the WTO enables multinational corporations to be intrusive to certain segments of societies. Evaluate whether the charge is valid and support your position with relative documentation and reasoning. What is the foreseeable future for the next ten years?
THE WOLD TADE OGANIZATION
What is the World Trade Organization? This multi-national group has more than 140 members, which account for over 97% of world trade. At this time, there are about 30 others discussing membership. The entire membership makes decisions, most usually by consensus. The WTO can use majority voting, but majority voting has never been used in the WTO, and was "extremely rare under the WTO's predecessor, GATT" (WTO.org). The main office is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and…
Author not Available. "What is the WTO?" WorldTradeOrganization.org. 2003. 9 March 2003. http://www.wto.org /english/thewto_e/whatis_e/whatis_e.htm
Hoekman, Bernard M., and Michel M. Kostecki. The Political Economy of the World Trading System: From GATT to WTO. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Lovett, William A., Alfred E. Eckes, and Richard L. Brinkman. U.S. Trade Policy: History, Theory, and the WTO. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999.
McGillivray, Fiona. "Democratizing the World Trade Organization." Hoover Institution. 2000. 10 March 2003. http://www-hoover.stanford.edu/publications/epp/105/105b.html
China and the World Trade Organization
On December 11, 2001, China officially became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), opening the country's doors to change and a new economy.
One year after china's entry into the WTO, the country reported great success, showing better-than-expected economic growth and fulfillment of its WTO commitments, despite the shaky world economy.
The excellent performance of the Chinese economy was clearly demonstrated by its 8% growth rate for gross domestic product and the significant growth in trade and inflow of foreign direct investment.
As a result of its inception into the WTO, financial experts forecast that China will become the fifth trading country with an import-export volume worth U.S.$600 billion and one of the most attractive areas for foreign direct investment, which exceeded U.S.$50 billion in 2002 alone.
This paper discusses China's inception into the WTO and address the question of whether or…
Adhikari, R, Yongzheng Yang. (September 2002). What Will WTO Membership Mean for China and Its Trading Partners? Finance and Development Magazine, Volume 39, Number 3.
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs. (March 22, 2002). China's WTO Membership. Retrieved from the Internet on 3/25/03 at http://www.dfat.gov.au/trade/negotiations/accession/wto_china.html.
Baker, Gerald. (January 11, 2000). Clinton pushes for China-WTO deal. World Tibet Network News.
Becker, Jasper. (2002). The Chinese. Oxford University Press.
accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001, China's laws regarding intellectual property rights were largely weak and ineffective, even though there were some laws on the books that were designed to protect these rights. Much of this ineffectiveness is attributed to the state-controlled economy that was in place that made observation and respect for domestic and international intellectual property rights dispensable. In its efforts to accede to the World Trade Organization and in response to pressure from the international community in general and the United States and European Union in particular, China has undertaken a number of significant reforms of its domestic and international regulatory framework that have been intended to harmonize its laws with those of the international community. While some observers continue to maintain that these efforts fall short of complete reform, most authorities agree that China has made significant strides in its efforts to make meaningful…
Aman, A.C., Jr. (1997). Administrative law for a new century. In M. Taggart (ed.), The province of administrative law. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
An, B. (2009). Intellectual property rights in information and communications technology standardization: High-profile disputes and potential for collaboration between the United
States and China. Texas International Law Journal, 45(1), 175-177.
Bhalla, S.S. (2008). Economic development and the role of currency undervaluation. The Cato
WTO and Developing World
World Trade Organization currently does not have a clear definition of a developing country. For this paper, we need to know what a developing country is in order to see if accession to WTO actually improves their economic situation and to see if they are treated fairly by the organization and its wealthier members. But we need to understand that since there is no clear definition of a developing country in WTO, we will use the general definition by the World Bank which states that a developing country is "a low- or middle-income country & #8230;in which most people have a lower standard of living with access to fewer goods and services than do most people in high income countries." (Nass et al. 2004, p. 221) Interestingly WTO allows member countries to decide for themselves if they would want to be categorized as a developing nation…
The Economist (2000): A Survey of China: Now Comes the Hard Part, 8-14 April.
Hertel, T.W., W. Martin, K. Yanagishima and B. Dimaranan, (1996): Liberalizing Manufactures Trade in a Changing World [email protected], in W. Martin and A. Winters (eds.), The Uruguay Round and the Developing Economies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 7, 183-215.
Hertel, T.W., T.L. Walmsley and K. Itakura (2001): "Dynamic Effects of the "New Age" Free Trade Agreement between Japan and Singapore," Journal of Economic Integration, December, 16(4), 446-448.
Huang, Y. (2002): Selling China: Foreign Direct Investment During the Reform Era, Cambridge University Press.
There are significantly more trade agreements in the world than I would have predicted. A list of final agreements between the United States and individual countries indicates that the United States alone has trade agreements with nations ranging from Argentina to Zimbabwe, and an impressive number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, ussia, Mongolia, Korea, Jordan, and Ghana (Foreign Agricultural Service). Other countries have similarly large numbers of agreements (Government of Alberta). Trade agreements in the future are likely to become more prominent, given the increasing pressures of globalization. As such, countries with reciprocal trade agreements are likely to be more economically viable than those that tend to isolate themselves from trade in an increasingly interdependent world.
International politics are linked closely to international trade. Often, it is difficult to distinguish whether politics or trade takes the lead in global affairs. As an example, many Western countries…
Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Trade Agreements. FAS Online. Last modified: Wednesday, May 12, 2004. 04 June 2004. http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/agreements.html
Government of Alberta. Free Trade Agreements: Free Trade Agreements and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 04 June 2004. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/psc8323?opendocument
U.S. Canada Partnership for Growth. The Lumber Tariff Dispute - Let's Work it Out. 04 June 2004. http://www.partnershipforgrowth.org
Discuss international trade issues and how they impact starting a business in Denmark and how it pursues doing business with other countries
Denmark has been following bilateral trade policy based on free trade. This has helped it penetrate major markets while keeping the balance between import and exports. Denmark has been successful in the policy and has a lot of products exported to the U.S. And these include pharmaceutical products, nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; electrical machinery and equipment, and Denmark also imports from the U.S. The World Bank economic indicators for Denmark for the year 2010 show that the current purchasing power per capita -- PPP is at $40,290. (Panjiva, 2012)
Denmark has expanded its trade relations recently with Canada. They both have identical business strategies. Both are based on the agri-food export sectors. The knowledge industries and the agricultural sector and modern concepts like…
Canada International. (2012) "Canada & Denmark trade" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/denmark-danemark/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_denmark-danemark.aspx?lang=eng&view=d
Ebay.com. (2012a) "International trading policy" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://pages.ebay.com/help/policies/international-trading.html
Ebay.com. (2012b) "Welcome to the new ebay" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://announcements.ebay.com/2012/10/welcome-to-the-new-ebay/
EconomyWatch. (2010) "Denmark Export, Import and Trade"
hile most European nations state if a product has GMO technology it must be labeled, in America, consumers are accustomed to using GMOs with impunity, unaware if GMOs are present or not in the products they purchase -- and eat. The Europe Union has maintained "a voluntary eco-labeling program" in an effort to allow consumers to make informed choices ("Eco-labeling," hat's wrong, 2009). However, the U.S. commercial agricultural interests opposed even this policy, arguing that there is no evidence of a lack of safety attached to GMOs. American agricultural interests argued that the simple labeling of GMOs was anti-free trade and discriminatory, because it created the implication that a safe, usually American-produced product was possibly unsafe. "The issues were never resolved and the TO committees finally adopted a neutral report" ("Eco-labeling," hat's wrong, 2009).
The need to resolve difficult controversies regarding the free flow of trade between different nations is…
"Greenhouse Gases Controversy." What's wrong with the WTO? August 7, 2009.
http://www.wto.org /english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact1_e.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
China's 2001 accession to the World Trade Organization has been regarded one of the country's most significant moves as far as its integration with the global economy is concerned. According to the author of the article I analyze in this text, one of the most significant consequences of the said accession "was the transformation of China's financial sector." From the onset, the author of this article correctly points out that over the years; the need for an overhaul of the Chinese financial sector was rather obvious. This is more so the case given the inefficient way in which loans were being extended by lenders. Indeed, the only way China could save its financial system from imminent collapse or stalling was through the opening up of its banking sector. In the words of the author, "immediately upon accession to the WTO, China's banking sector began to open to foreign banks." HSBC…
A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.
The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range…
Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at www.oecd.org.
The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at http://www.iisd.org/trade/handbook/7_2.htm
Cini, Michelle (2007) European Union Politics. 2007. Oxford University Press. Online Google Scholar Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZf1839nw0gC&dq=European+Union:+Organizational+impact+on+market+and+trade&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Organizational Review of European Union
Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford. But in some instances, if a particular nation has received bad press regarding its labor practices, mandatory labeling as an imported good might act as an additional invisible trade barrier. Also, if a nation is being subject to a particularly damaging round of international publicity regarding other aspects of its international policy, this may lead to a boycott of the nation's goods, and thus invisible tariffs can be constructed through simply the apparently innocuous policy of labeling nation's country of origin, in the supposed interest of consumer information.
Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy
orking Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade…
Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy
Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade sets new highs as import barriers are lowered."
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
It stated that the future negotiations will "try to achieve substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support" (Beghin, oland-Holst and Van Der Mensbrugghe, 2002).
6. Possible future developments
All in all, the topic on the international trade of agricultural products remains opened for further discussions; and the most likely outcome is an increase in the efforts made by the World Trade Organization to resolve the disputes and complaints of the participants in the meaning of reducing and even eliminating export subsidies, while in the same time easing the access to the markets in the high income countries.
Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue
Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha ound: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and ural Development,…
Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue
Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha Round: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/03bp42.pdfon March 9, 2008
Beghin, J.C., Roland-Holst, D., Van Der Mensbrugghe, D., 2002, Global Agriculture and the Doha Round: What Are the Implications for the North and South?, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/02wp308.pdfon March 9, 2008
Schmitz, a., Koo, W., Moss, C., 2003, International Agricultural Trade Disputes: Case Studies in North America, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?
Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.
President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…
Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm . Accessed April,
Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
trade in Mexico. The writer explores the nation's dependency on the U.S. And presents plans to reduce that dependency and increase other options. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the world continues to globalize many of the previous boundaries that were experienced have been removed. This means advancements in technology, communication, manufacturing and other areas. Mexico is frequently accused of being too dependent on the United States. With the globalizing moves forward there have been many new horizons for the country of Mexico to explore regarding trade. educing its dependence on the United States and expanding its interdependence with other nations will provide Mexico with bargaining power when it comes to its dealings with the states in the future.
Within the last decade the trade abilities and clout in Mexico has improved significantly. Whereas Mexico used to be almost exclusively dependent on the U.S., the more…
____ (1999). Attacking free trade growing pains., La Prensa de San Antonio, 02-28-1999, pp 2A.
____(2001). EU DIPLOMAT SEES MEXICAN DEMOCRACY OPENING INTERNATIONAL TRADE DOORS., Infolatina, 01-03-2001.
____able (1995). Fact sheets: Canada.(includes a country profile). Vol. 6, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 03-06-1995, pp 165(7).
____(2000). MEXICO BECOMES TRADE GIANT, SAYS WTO., Infolatina, 04-16-2000
Trade Agreements and Negotiations on International Trade
Trade is important to countries all around the world. International trade opens up job opportunities and also leads to development of economic activity in every region of the trading country. The trading countries must also ensure that traders, whether self-employed entrepreneur, corporate executive or pensioner must bear the responsibility of making sure that goods and services are transported efficiently to global markets. The best way to advance in international trade is to work on two aspects namely, the Trade Commissioner Service, and also foster productive ways of negotiating and administering trade agreements and rules.
International Trade is defined as follows:
The law relating to the exchange of goods and services between nations. Legal issues can relate to tariffs and government restrictions on export and import, as well as the contracts between the trading partners." [LawyerLocator - Glossary of Terms]
International Economic Data Bank - UN Trade Data, available at http://iedb.anu.edu.au/iedb/datainfo/UNtradedata.htm, accessed on: October 31, 2003
International Trade, available at http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/trade/menu-en.asp , accessed on: October 31, 2003
International Trade Research, available at http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/majoract.htm , accessed on: October 31, 2003
ITC - Products - Market Development Section - Artisanal Products Home Page, available at http://www.intracen.org/mds/sectors/artisanal/welcome.htm , accessed on: October 31, 2003
S. with the land from which these manufacturing warehouses and factories were to be built. Inevitably, with the establishment of manufacturing companies in China, it had slowly developed and became known as one of the primary producers of technological products and merchandise -- that is, mass production of technological merchandise. China was pitted against its other Asian neighbors, especially Korea, when it comes to manufacturing (since Japan was known as the cradle of technological invention and innovation and not so much for manufacturing technological products and materials.
The third phase involves the integration of China into the world market. With the U.S. As its primary investor, China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the onset of the 21st century. The country continued its role as provider of foodstuffs to America, especially agricultural products such as edible meat, vegetables, oil seeds, sugar, cocoa, nuts, and tobacco substitutes…
China in the WTO: An interview with Amb. Charlene Barshefsky." (March 2000). Asia Source Web site. Available at http://www.asiasource.org/news/at_mp_02.cfm?newsid=13811.
McMillion, C. (March 2000). "The U.S., China, and WTO: More false promises, debt, and unnecessary instability." Washington, DC: MBG Information Services.
Shambaugh, D. (April 2001). "No easy way forward with China." The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/03/opinion/03SHAM.html .
Worden, R., a. Savada, and R. Dolan. (July 1987). "China: a country study." Library of Congress, Federal Research Division.
Commerce and Its Demographics
The diffusion of ideas and technological impacts that have taken place globally.
Globalization as a phenomenon of economic and cultural connectivity has been growing for centuries, but the current form is of a fundamentally different order (Smith and Doyle 2002). The speed of communication, the complexity and size of the networks involved and the huge volume of trade, interaction and risks involved make up the current and peculiar form. The diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies that occurs within is more than internationalization, universalization, modernization and westernization. Anthony Giddens (1990 as qtd in Smith and Doyle) described today's globalization as "the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." It has changed the way geography has been traditionally understood and how localness has been experienced. The new…
1. Diao X and Somwaru A. (1996). Dynamic Gains and Losses from Trade Reform: an Intertemporal General Equilibrium Model of the United States and MERCOSUR. University of Minnesota Economic Development Center Bulletin. St. Paul Minneapolis Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics: University of Minnesota.
2. Electric Communities (1995). Commerce and Society in Cyberspace. http://www.crockford.com/ec/commerce_society.html
3. Held, D et al. (1999). Global Transformations. http://www.polity.co.uk/global/executiv.htm
4. Killon, MU. (2005). Chinese Regionalism and the 2004 ASEAN -- China Accord: the WTO and Legalized Trade Distortion. http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/it/papers/0501/0501003.pdf
Emergency management is also a vital part to the planning for a disaster. Training will have to be conducted at periodic intervals to maintain the preparedness of the emergency response team and to evaluate the condition and the operational difficulties if any that may arise due to the equipment being used. The procedures will have to be critiqued and constantly evaluated to determine if a better, safer or more efficient method can be used in the procedure. A clean up task force will also have to be set up to help clean and restore the area to as near as possible, its pre-disaster state. Sufficient funds will have to be allocated to keep the emergency response team properly outfitted. An emergency fund may also be required to be set up to take care of the clean up activities that may be required. This fund would have to be very liquid…
Sykes, L., Richards, P., Kim W-Y., Armitage, J., Jacob, K., & Lerner-Lam, Art. (2001) Seismograms recorded by LCSN Station PAL (Palisades, NY) New York, Columbia University. Retrieved February 18, 2008 at http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_wtc.html
TRADE. (2008). The Training Resources and Data Exchange Washington, D.C., FEMA. Retrieved February 18, 2008, at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/nfa/trade/index.shtm
LLIS. (2008) Lessons Learned Information Shared Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from https://www.llis.dhs.gov/index.do
RKB. (2008) Responder Knowledge Base. Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from https://www.rkb.us
The text identifies one practical reason that this is the case, indicating that "One of the particularly threatening aspects of this compression of time is that people can now cross continents in periods of time shorter than the incubation periods of most diseases. This means that, in some cases, travelers can depart from their point of origin, arrive at their destination, and begin infecting people without even knowing that they are sick." (3) This means that an epidemic can be spread from multiple "ground zero" locations before it is even clear that the condition in question has come to reflect so significant a threat of proliferation. To the practical interests of preventing the disease's further spread, this denotes a real and substantial challenge to public health and safety administrators in the developed world. Quite to this point, the text reveals that the United States has experienced a greater level of…
regional international institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, World Trade Organization, a financial institution. Select countries apply traditional international trade theories, absolute advantage, comparative advantage, factor endowment, enhance participation international trade.
International Trade Participation
The interaction between countries is a complex process that is strongly influenced by economic, political, and cultural factors. The need for this interaction is based on the resources that can be provided with smaller efforts by some countries to countries that need them. The need for resources has determined countries to involve in military, economic, and biological wars, or to involve in influence relationships where several countries support a larger community that can polarize greater power in the attempt to counteract the influence of other powerful countries. This is the case of the European Union that was developed in order to join the efforts of European countries so that they could balance the power…
1. Comparative Advantage (2014). Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/comparativeadvantage.asp .
2. Regional Trade Agreements (2011). OECD. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.oecd.org/document/62/0,3746,en_2649_36442957_31839102_1_1_1_1,00.html .
3. Role of the World Trade Organization (2012). ICT. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/section.1651.html.
Global Organization Analysis
The World Trade Organization, or WTO, has a strong role in promoting international trade (World, 2014). It not only supervises that trade, but also works to make trade more liberal for all countries (World, 2014). Since trade is an excellent way to keep the economies of various countries moving forward and growing, it would make logical sense that the WTO would be encouraging trade in many different capacities. The WTO was created in 1995 and offers a framework whereby countries can formalize and negotiate trade agreements with one another (World, 2014). There is also a process for dispute resolution so there is less risk to the countries who decide to trade with one another (World, 2014). Participating countries have to agree to the WTO requirements and regulations, and the current focus of the WTO is to bring in more developing countries and get them trading so they…
African Development Bank Group. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.afdb.org/en/
Daniel, F.J. & Hughes, K. (2014). U.S. To take India to WTO over solar power policy. LiveMint. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Politics/XAtX6hSM4SamEyHHRfYDeI/U.S.-set-for-trade-enforcement-action-linked-to-India.html
World Trade Organization (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.wto.org
WTO Trade Dispute Resolution: Turkey Cotton Case
In the case at hand, we would discuss the trade and economic policies of Turkey. In the case that would be discussed, India is the complainant and Turkey is the respondent. The case was presented to and the World Trade Organization was approached by India on 13 February 2012. The case pertains to India's complaint against Turkey for adopting protectionist policies with regards to the import of cotton to the country. India approached the WTO and requested for consultations with Turkey with regards to some specific safeguard measures that was imposed by Turkey on imports of cotton yarn with the exception for sewing thread from India.
Turkey had started this protectionist and definitive safeguard measures on cotton import to that country from 15 July 2008 and it was meant to be implemented for a period of three years. India complained that Turkey had…
Overall, fair trade is a great way to make sure that countries work together and help one another focus on developing and moving forward. Not all fair trade is fair, but most of the options given to people who want to see fair trade are better than what they would receive if they were not part of any particular fair trade agreements. People who are interested in fair trade and the Czech epublic's role in that trade have to consider that individuals and countries both have to play a role in whether trade is fair or whether there are problems with it that go deeper than WTO regulations. While the WTO is not the only organization that has anything to do with trade on an international level, it is certainly the most recognized. Because of the current strength of the Czech epublic and its ties to numerous other countries, the…
Czech Republic to join Schengen. (2006). The Prague Post.
Garrett, S.A. (1996). Conscience and power: an examination of dirty hands and political leadership. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hochman, Ji-i. (1998). Historical dictionary of the Czech State. NY: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Rich, E.E., Wilson, C.H., & Postan, M.M. (1977). The Cambridge economic history of Europe: The economic organization of early modern Europe. NY: Cambridge University Press.
UNNNG HEAD: Microeconomics
All the countries in the world are dependent on each other nowadays. Countries need natural resources that are not present in their homeland or they may also be in need of some finished goods that they don't produce. This interdependency gives a beginning to trade between countries. The notion of international trade has become quite common nowadays as all the countries are participating in it. In addition to fulfilling the requirements of the country, international trade also increases overall efficiency of the production of a good. As some countries have the resources to produce certain goods at a lower cost than other countries. So, that cost efficient country can be given the chance to produce that good for other countries as well so that the overall cost of that product falls. The decision of international trade is undertaken by economies keeping either comparative or…
Andersen, L. And Babula, R. (2008). The link between openness and long-run economic growth. Journal of International Commerce and Economics, 1 pp. 1 -- 20.
Lipsey, R. And Harbury, C. (1994). First principles of economics. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press.
Skipton, C. (2008). Trade Openness, Investment, and Long-Run Economic Growth. [e-book] Tampa: University of Tampa. p. 2. http://chuckskipton.com/uploads/SKIPTON_Openness_and_Investment_Ver_1E.pdf [Accessed: 25 Sep 2013].
Sun, P. And Heshmati, A. (2010). International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China. [e-book] Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. pp. 7-11. http://ftp.iza.org/dp5151.pdf [Accessed: 25 Sep 2013].
Intenational Tade Between Bahain and Saudi Aabia
This is a pape on Tade between Bahain and Saudi Aabia, focusing on how it affects thei intenational tade elations with special attention to OPEC, GCC and the Qata dispute. It uses 22 souces in MLA fomat.
Both Saudi Aabia and Bahain ae membes of the Gulf Coopeation Council along with Qata, UAE, Kuwait and Oman. Unde the GCC Ageement, pefeential taiffs apply among the membe states. Since independence in 1971, Bahain has essentially pusued a libeal tade and investment policy, and has integated its economy closely with those of othe counties in the egion, though the Unified Economic Ageement of the Gulf Coopeation Council (GCC).
Tade and economic gowth in Bahain is stongly affected by vaiations in intenational enegy pices. Real GDP gowth, as a esult, was slowe duing the 1990s compaed with the pevious decade, aveaging aound 3.6% annually since 1994.…
2. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE: BAHRAIN ECONOMIC POLICY AND TRADE PRACTICES. FEBRUARY 1994.
4. http://www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp139_e.htm
Intra-Industry International Trade: Benefits and Costs
Trade is brought about by specialization. People specialize in those goods and services that they can produce effectively, and since they cannot survive on only these, exchange their surplus production for other items that they need, but do not produce. There are mainly two types of trade in this regard; international and domestic. The domestic form of trade refers to the exchange of trade items (services and goods) within a country's borders. International trade, on the other hand, can be defined as "the exchange of goods and services among residents of different countries" (Chacholiades, 2006). International trade can take either of two forms; intra-industry or inter-industry forms of trade. Inter-industry trade is trade between industries, whereas intra-industry trade takes place within industries. Intra-industry trade, therefore, refers to the importation and exportation of same-industry items of trade (Gandolfo, 1998).
International trade has been on…
Boyes, W.J. & Melvin, M. (2007). Microeconomics (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Chacholiades, M. (2006). The Pure Theory of International Trade. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
FAO. (2000). International Trade: Some Basic Theories and Concepts (Module 2). The Food and Agricultural Organization. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x7352e/x7352e02.htm
Gandolfo, G. (1998). International Trade Theory and Policy. Rome: Springer.
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
WO and Canada
conference in Havana in 1948 adopted a complex charter for an international body to preside over issues of trade called the International rade organization (IO). U.S. Congress never signed the IO charter so it was never ratified but GA not requiring U.S. ratification continued to exist. By default GA became the international body dealing with trade. GA had three main objectives:
o help trade flow as freely as possible,
o achieve further liberalization gradually through negotiation,
And to set up an impartial means of settling disputes.
For 47 years GA helped establish a prosperous multilateral trading system. But by the 1980s an overhaul was due. he Uruguay Round brought about that overhaul. It was the largest trade negotiation ever. he Uruguay Round has produced the most fundamental reform of the world trading system since the establishment of the GA in 1947. he establishment of the WO in…
TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) RULES ON UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES: ANTI-DUMPING AND SUBSIDIES)
The Commerce Department has reported the Bush administration is "still opposed to any weakening of World Trade Organization rules on antidumping and countervailing duty trade measures," and will not renegotiate the rules at the World Trade Organization's conference in Doha, Qatar.Faryar Shirzad, assistant secretary of commerce for import administration, said the Bush administration is opposed to the provision meant to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on the use of antidumping and countervailing duty measures. Shirzad said, "we think it's premature, given the complexity of the Uruguay Round agreements in those areas, to launch negotiations." http://www.txfb.org/TexasAgriculture/2001/111601agricurrents.htm
Canada should collect reports and evidences, which could prove that their trade and business is been affected by the unfair practices of trade and therefore, the WTO who is the responsible body, should take action against such practices and should provide the people with effective trade environment. It has also been noted, "Calculating the extent of dumping on a product is not enough. Anti-dumping measures can only be applied if the dumping is hurting the industry in the importing country. Therefore, a detailed investigation has to be conducted according to specified rules first. The investigation must evaluate all relevant economic factors that have a bearing on the state of the industry in question. If the investigation shows dumping is taking place and domestic industry is being hurt,
Business communications are official and face-to-face meetings are always preferred to indirect communications.
At the specific level of negotiations, it is important to note that, during negotiations, only the seniors in the team will speak. The negotiation process is slow and advancements are made in an unhurried rhythm. The Chinese people are non-confrontational individuals and they will avoid saying "No." They will, instead, promise to think about the proposition, see about it and so on.
In China, the negotiations do not focus on specific and measurable goals, but their emphasis falls on assessing the negotiation partner and seeing whether the relationship can be further developed. Since the Chinese are calculated people, decision making will often take a lot of time, until the locals are convinced of their future actions. The American counterparts are advised to always remain calm, or they will lose "face" and irremediably damage the relationship. The foreigners…
Feenstra, R.C., Hanson, G.H., (2003). Ownership and control in outsourcing to China: estimating the property-rights theory of the firm. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hira, R., Hira, a. (2008), Outsourcing America: the true cost of shipping jobs overseas and what can be done about it. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
(2011). World report 2012: China. Human Rights Report. http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/world-report-2012-china accessed on September 25, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- China. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html accessed on September 25, 2012
Thirdly, an advantage of the TO treaty is that it protects individual privacy when it comes to the "processing and dissemination of personal data and the protection of confidentiality of individual records and accounts" (www.wto.org). That issue came up because consumer advocate Ralph Nader was quoted as saying, "Particularly in the area of Internet privacy protections, the TO is forcing governments to forego sovereign privacy protections deemed to be overly restrictive to international trade" (www.wto.org). The TO's answer to that the trade deal signed by 123 nations "has had nothing whatever to do with internet privacy" and indeed a safeguard is built into the General Exceptions in Article XIV regarding processing and dissemination of personal data, as mentioned at the top of this paragraph.
The fourth advantage of international trade under the auspices of the TO is that deals signed cannot force any country to move towards the privatization…
Organics Unlimited. (2009). FreshPlaza: Global Fresh Produce and Banana News / EU
Proposal to end Banana Trade Dispute. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from http://www.freshplaza.com/news_detail.asp?id=38939 .
World Trade Organization. (2005). The Uruguay Round / GATS Fact and Fiction.
Retrieved June 13, 2009, from http://www.wto.org .
S. inflation in check, even during economic boom times.
The debate about increasing protectionism in the U.S. boils down to a clash of cultural values. In the natural course of international trade, there will be those who suffer and those who benefit. International markets are amoral. Trade is conducted between nations with the intent of raising the standard of living for both, but this is on aggregate, not universally. As a result, jobs losses in some sectors, particularly those where the U.S. does not have comparative advantage, are inevitable. To enact protectionist measures to stem those job losses will have three negative impacts.
The first is retaliatory trade measures. Tariffs and other protectionist measures tend to go hand in hand. If a country protects its industries, nations that trade with that country will do the same. This is the classic Smoot-Hawley scenario. To protect American jobs during the…
No author. (2009). Top ten countries with which the U.S. trades. Census.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/dst/current/balance.html
No author. (2007). David Ricardo and comparative advantage. NetMBA.com. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/comparative-advantage/
US Department of State. (no date). Protectionism in the interwar period. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/id/17606.htm
Evenett, S. (2009). The G20's assault on world trade. VOX. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4008
Mercantilism as a philosophy may be dead, but special interests that lead to trade controls are alive and well (Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life, 2003). Trade controls that affect price and indirectly quantity include tariffs, subsidies, arbitrary customs-valuation and special fees (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include quotas, voluntary export restrictions, "buy local" legislation, arbitrary standards, licensing arrangements, foreign-exchange controls, administrative delays and requirements to take goods in exchange for selling (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).
Finally, businesses must also consider trade organizations and regional economic integration when deciding where to conduct business. The World Trade Organization promotes trade liberalization and mediates trade disputes and enforcing agreements (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Major regional trading groups include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Community and…
Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426.
Kokko, a., Matha, T., and Gustavsson, P. (2006). Regional integration and trade diversion in Europe. http://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/eijswp/0231.html
Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life (2003, September 19). National Review. http://www.policynetwork.net/main/article.php?article_id=584
The majoity of tade baies have been developed ove yeas, and ae theefoe deeply ingained in the business wold of the counties concened. This is anothe facto in the collapse of the Wold Tade negotiations.
An encouaging sign is that measues ae aleady in place to accommodate developing counties in the Wold Tade Oganization system. One of these measues is Special and Diffeential Teatment. This means that developing counties ae teated diffeently fom developed counties in ode to help them with compliance and othe issues. One of the most impotant examples is that developing counties ae povided with pefeential maket access though schemes such as the Genealized System of Pefeences. Futhemoe, developing counties eceive time concessions and technical aid in implementing WTO Ageements.
Accoding to the above, the main poblem in the lack of focus seen in the Wold Tade negotiations is a basic lack of mutual undestanding of the…
references. Furthermore, developing countries receive time concessions and technical aid in implementing WTO Agreements.
According to the above, the main problem in the lack of focus seen in the World Trade negotiations is a basic lack of mutual understanding of the need to focus on the most important purpose of World Trade and globalization. Indeed, globalization can mean the upliftment of millions of poor in the world. Developed countries however need to understand the need for new paradigms in business. In conducting WTO conferences then, it is perhaps best that the focus should be cultivating this new awareness rather than focusing on the issues directly. The negotiations failed because there is a lack of mutual understanding between developed and developing countries. One could see this as a mental barrier to an understanding of the need for change. Developed countries are aware of the need for more ecologically sound practices in business. They are also aware of the need for poverty reduction. In World Trade negotiations, this awareness can be used as a platform for cultivating an awareness of the need for change in trade barriers and subsidy policies. The root of the problem is therefore not the issues themselves, but the understanding of the importance that these issues hold for all concerned. Developed countries should also understand that new policies will be to the advantage not only of developing countries, but also to the developed world and on a wider scale to future generations.
For the sake of the world's future, it is vital to find ways in which to reconcile the need to create more wealth for the wealthy and to create means of living for the poor. If delegates from the developed world can remove their mental barriers, they can perhaps also remove the trade and subsidy barriers that are currently keeping poor countries from alleviating their economic crises on a permanent, long-term scale.
Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. Developing Countries and the WTO. 2007. http://www.dti.gov.uk/europeandtrade/developing-countries/index.html
Since Chinese exports to the United States were six times greater than America's exports to China in 2006, it was a clear reflection of America's most imbalanced trading relationship. The debate on whether or not the United States should trade with China began in the early 1990s when America's economy was much healthier and Chinese exports to the United States were smaller. In the recent years, this debate has risen to include concerns on whether China's trade policies are resulting in the transference and loss of many U.S. jobs.
Reasons hy the U.S. Should Not Trade with China:
Given the concern by policymakers and the entire American public, the United States should not trade with China because of various reasons which have a huge impact on the American population. These reasons include:
As mentioned earlier, this is one of the reasons why the United States should not trade…
Morrison, Wayne M. "China-U.S. Trade Issues." Federation of American Scientists. Federation of American Scientists, 1 July 2005. Web. 13 May 2011. .
Scott, Robert E. "Costly Trade With China: Millions of U.S. Jobs Displaced with Net Job Loss in Every State." Economic Policy Institute: Research and Ideas for Shared Prosperity. Economic Policy Institute, 9 Oct. 2007. Web. 13 May 2011. .
Trumbull, Mark. "How Much Does U.S.-China Trade Hurt American Workers? Slowly, a Clearer Picture." The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 10 May 2011. Web. 13 May 2011. .
nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure defined and continually recreated by the nature and mechanisms of international trade between the two nations. This paper examines the nature of the trade relations between the United States and Mexico in the light of several classical economics theories and models as well as in respect to recent developments in the wake of the 1992 signing of the NAFTA accord and the last decade's worth of increasing globalization.
Economic Theories and Models
We begin by discussing and summarizing some of the…
Danaher, K. & Burbach, R. (eds.) (2000). Globalize this!: The battle against The World Trade Organization. Los Angeles: Community Archives Publications.
Esty, D. (1994). Greening the GATT: Trade, environment, and the future. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.
Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. hen nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. orse, such regulations stifle innovation. hen regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily.…
Eide, W. & Kracht, U. (2009). Official responses to the world food crisis in light of the human right to food. WorldHunger.org. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/08/hrf/wb_eide.htm
Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically modified foods: Harmful or helpful? CSA Illumina. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/review.pdf
Bello, W. (2008). How the World Bank, IMF and WTO destroyed African agriculture. WorldHunger.org. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/08/editorials/bello_afag.htm
The orld Hunger organization (www.worldhunger.org) assertsthat there is a bias in international trade rules that favor developed nations. hy? Developed nations control the orld Trade Organization, according to the orld Hunger organization; and as to export items like pharmaceuticals, developed countries have shown "reluctance" to allow developing countries "to produce or import low cost generic drugs for major illnesses, such as AIDS" (www.worldhunger.org).
Another example of this alleged unfairness can be viewed in light of the U.S. Sugar Tariffs and Brazil. In the ashington Post (Jeter, 2003) it is explained that though the U.S. extols the greatness of free trade, it does not always live up to that rhetoric. The U.S. imposes a tariff of 244% on sugar imports "...above a small quote of duty free sugar imports" (Jeter, 2003). "hile Brazil has both plentiful and fertile land and available workers, the 244% tariff that the U.S. Government levies on…
Jeter, John. "Brazilians Soured by U.S. Sugar Tariffs." Washington Post 10 September 2003. Retrieved March 3, 2009, at http://www.washingtonpost.com .
Nogues, Julio J. "Unequal Exchange: Developing Countries in the International Trade
Negotiations." Murphy Institute Conference (2002). Retrieved March 4, 2009, at http://www.ctrc.sice.oas.org/geograph/south/nogues.pdf.
Office of the United States Trade Representative. "The Benefits of Trade for Developing
In the real world, most markets are far from fully competitive, labor-productivity within a country varies over time and full employment is just a dream in most capitalist economies. (Suranovic 1997)
Given the list of such 'unrealistic' assumptions made in the model, it is easy for us to dismiss the results of comparative advantage altogether or to accept it with a large dose of skepticism. But would such dismissal be justified? It is prudent to remember that almost all economic theories operate under a large number of 'unrealistic' assumptions that do not apply to the much more complex real world. In fact, we deliberately simplify the variables in economics in order to be able to construct models and to carry out analysis. Such simplification does not make all economic analysis redundant. It should also be remembered that comparative advantage and international trade would work to the benefit of all individuals…
David Ricardo and Comparative Advantage." (2004). Net MBA.com. Internet Center for Management and Business Administration. Retrieved on November 17, 2004 at http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/comparative-advantage/
Suranovic, Steven. (1997) "The Theory of Comparative Advantage - Overview." International Trade Theory and Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2004 at http://internationalecon.com/v1.0/ch40/40c000.html
Colonel Robert Torrens (1780-1864) was a British army officer and owner of the Globe newspaper
David Ricardo (1772-1823): British economist and businessman who was a great proponent of 'free trade.' which both are able to produce the Polish-American mathematician who helped to develop the theory of hydrogen bomb
The same effect can occur for import industry. The prices of imported goods and commodities depend on how much the export market sells the commodities.
Applying the Situations in International Trade
As an administrative assistant, it is important to watch the international trading and market to gather enough information as to when it is ideal to invest or buy office goods and commodities for the company. An administrative assistant who has the responsibility to maintain proper conditions in an office environment always involves himself in buying of products for his company's use. Thus, applying knowledge in the current situations in international trade can benefit the company in terms of financial resources.
Trade Advantages and Disadvantages
etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm
The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.
etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2
Trade Advantages and Disadvantages
Retrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm
The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.
Retrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2
Country Study: China
International trade and finance
China Economic Issues with Trade
Suggestions for improving trading practices
COUNTY STUDY: CHINA
COUNTY STUDY: CHINA
COUNTY STUDY: CHINA
China, officially the People's epublic of China (PC), is considered to be a sovereign state located in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population that has over 1.35 billion. The People epublic of China is a single-party state which is supervised by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing (Naughton, 2012). It handles a regions that is over some 22 provinces, five of them are autonomous districts, four are direct-regulated cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two typically self-governing special administrative districts (Macau and Hong Kong ). (Snyder, 2011)The PC People epublic of China likewise makes the claim that Taiwan -- which is mostly controlled by the epublic of…
Lin, Cai and Li, The China Miracle. (2003, September 26). Retrieved from Chinese University Press: http://books.google.com/books?id=_OEwbLZ2vYwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Lin,+Cai+and+Li,+The+China+Miracle,+Chinese+University+Press,+2003&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8CRCUqmkFaTx2QX01oGwDg&ved=0CDEQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Penn World Tables. (2013, September 7). Long run time series of comparable main economic aggregates for many countries in the world. https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/.
World bank World Development Indicators. (2013, September). Time series of economic and social indicators for every country in the world (annual frequency). http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx .
Assem Reda, A.H. (2012). Exploring egypt-china bilateral trade: Dynamics and prospects. Journal of Economic Studies, 39(3), 314-326.
China Trade Policy
China's agricultural trade policies are driven by its need to feed its massive population. The country has quotas that average 15.8%, with 5.8% of products being duty free and 1087 total tariff lines. These duties sit in line with EU levels, above U.S. levels and below developing world levels. China aims to reduce its agricultural tariff below 15% in the coming years. China supported India's stance on special safeguard mechanisms at the Doha Round, effectively scuttling the deal.
China's manufacturing tariffs are also above developed world levels but below developing world levels. China's tariffs vary significantly on a country-by-country basis; for example 45.4% of non-agricultural trade with the U.S. is duty free. China has become more aggressive with respect to its trade policies in recent years, but generally works within the confines of the TO dispute resolution mechanism..
China has long worked to lower agricultural…
Ackerman, K. (1998). State trading enterprises in world agricultural trade. USDA. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/wrs984/wrs984h.pdf
Wang, J. & Lim, C. (2009). China and the Doha Round. North-South Institute. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.nsi-ins.ca/english/pdf/China.pdf
Hudson, J. (2010). Dispute raises concerns over China's rare-earth dominance. Atlantic Wire. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.theatlanticwire.com/opinions/view/opinion/Dispute-Raises-Concerns-Over-Chinas-Rare-Earth-Dominance-5151
Lynn, J. (2010). U.S. accuses China of blocking Doha trade talks. Reuters. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-49607220100624
New Trade Theory
Since the end of the Cold War, the world has been undergoing a major transformation. This is because of globalization and advances in technology are making countries more interdependent upon one another. The basic idea is to reduce trade barriers and increase the total amounts of competition. Over the course of time, this will increase productivity and specialization (which will help to improve the standard of living in specific regions). However, the recent economic implosion from 2007 to 2009, are illustrating how all economic theories are filled with flaws. (Taylor, 2008, pp. 1 -- 11)
As a result, a host of new theories are being introduced to address these issues. In some cases, this involves taking old ideas and combining them with new techniques. While at other times, these views are building off of the mistakes of the past to create the best economic philosophy. To fully…
Gonzalez, M. (2011). Is Porter's Diamond Applicable. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (6), 17 -- 30.
Greenway, R. (2007). Firm Heterogeneity. The Economic Journal, 117, F134 -- F161.
Jones, R. (1994). America's High Tech Industries. Journal of the Economics of Business, 1 (1), 151 -- 157.
Rob, R. (2003). Foreign Direct Investment. Review of Economic Studies 70, 629 -- 648.
Global Organizations -- IMF
At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, that created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Western capitalist nations sought to avoid a repetition of the events that led to the Great Depression and Second World War by establishing a stable international economic order that was not bound by the rigidity of the pre-1914 gold standard system. The interwar period of 1919-39 was one of economic and politic chaos, featuring deflationary devaluations, closed trading blocs, massive unemployment and the failure of the revived gold standard in 1925-31, which were key factors in the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in 1933 and the fascist takeover of Japan that began in 1931. President Woodrow Wilson had been an early advocate of free trade and had warned against the nationalism and autarky in economic policies that became the norm in the 1920s and 1930s. Secretary of…
Bordo, M.D. "The Bretton Woods International Monetary System: A Historical Overview." pp. 3-108.
Boughton, J.M. 2001. Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund, 1979-1989. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Boughton, J.M. (2004). The IMF and the Force of History: Ten Events and Ten Ideas that Have Shaped the Institution. IMF Working Paper No. 04/75.
Kahler, M. (1990). The United States and the International Monetary Fund: Declining Influence or Declining Interest? Eds. Karns, M.P. And K.A. Mingst. The United States and Multilateral Institutions. Routledge, pp. 91-115.
economy continues to struggle, many areas of the nation continue to struggle as well. Non-profit and governmental organizations are faced with cutbacks, fewer donations and general lack of assistance that they may have been accustomed to in the past.
Add to this the globalization process and the increasing need for assistance by these organizations and it is easy to understand why it has become critical to manage them as efficiently as possible. The strategic management of non-profit organizations as well as governmental organizations must be as efficient and capable as possible for the organization to be able to continue operating.
Several elements are needed for the strategic management of such organization including team work, financial planning and goals. This paper will discuss and detail the importance of strategic management in these areas as well as suggest future paths for success.
Strategic Management in a Nonprofit and Governmental Organization.
Relationships Between Organizational Characteristics And Strategic Planning Processes In Nonprofit Organizations.
Strategic management case writing: suggestions after 20 years of experience.
Strategic planning in third-sector organizations.
Transforming the Balanced Scorecard from Performance Measurement to Strategic Management: Part I.
The focus of the U.N. later this year in their global summit in Copenhagen will focus on the role of women in emerging economies and the contribution their businesses make. To illustrate how strongly the UN sees their mission about helping underprivileged nations, UN undersecretary -general for humanitarian affairs, Jan Egeland called developed nations "stingy" when it came to their contributions to 3rd world nations' welfare (Sharma, 2005). The bottom line is that these organizations are all focused more on the humanitarian missions they cooperate on and less on selfish strategies for gain.
Graham Bird & Dane owlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.
Capling, a., & Higgott, . (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What ole for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.
Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The…
Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.
Capling, a., & Higgott, R. (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What Role for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.
Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The Encouraging Truth About Foreign Aid. Challenge, 48(4), 11-25.
The Uruguay round would designate that the TO, through its primary role as a mediator, negotiator, and monitor of international trade policies and disputes, serves by design as a gatekeeper of international trade, offering the structural conditions and assembled authority to exact a legitimate level of authority over its member nations.
A good example of how the TO has strengthened the international governing community's ability to provide oversights for its member nations comes from the 1994 rounds of negotiation in Uruguay which essentially defined and forged the TO from the shadows of the GATT. In a consideration, for instance, of the newly afforded power to engage in the process of dispute settlement, we can see that the TO would have an expansive impact on the power of those who had already acted under the propositions of the GATT. The declaration produced by this round of talks would proceed by stating…
AdBrands. (2008). Wal-Mart Stores (U.S.). AdBrands.net.
Beierle, T. (2002). . From Uruguay to Doha: Agricultural Trade Negotiations at the World Trade Organization University of Connecticut: Discussion Papers.
Collins, J.C. (2007). Supply Chain. Accounting Software Research. Online at http://www.asaresearch.com/ecommerce/supplychain.htm .
Doha WTO Ministerial. (2006). Ministerial Declaration. The World Trade Organization.
Farmers are stated to have become "risk takers, created new markets, developed rural industries and migrated to urban areas. Farmers were no longer slaves to the state..." (1996)
Dorn notes the statement of Jianying Zha (1994:202) in the book "China Pop" that:
The economic reforms has created new opportunities, new dreams, and to some extent, a new atmosphere and mindsets. The old control system has weakened in many areas, especially the spheres of economy and lifestyle. There is a growing sense of increased space for personal freedom."
Dorn states that the optimism of Zha would certain be shared by anyone who has: "...seen the vibrancy of the market, the dynamism of the people, and the rapid growth of urban areas..." (1996) Dorn states: "Commercial life in China is evolving naturally as people flee the countryside for improved living conditions and the chance to strike it rich in the growing nonstate…
Daniel T. Griswold, CATO Institute, (2005)"Trading Tyranny for Freedon: How Open Markets Till the Soil for Democracy."
Dorn, James a. (1996) Trade and Human Rights: The Case of China. The Cato Journal Vol. 16 No.1. Spring-Summer 1996 Online available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n1-5.html
Fewsmith, Joseph (2007) the Political Implications of China's Growing Middle Class. China Leadership Monitor. No. 21 the Hoover Institution. Online available at http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/8535722.html
Gresser, Edward (2006) Trading in Myth - Blueprint Magazine 9 February 9, 2006. Progressive Policy Institute. Online available at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=108&subsecID=206&contentID=253726
4 billion of 78.9% with the rebound of energy prices in the first quarter.
Expansion of machinery and equipment exports was up $4.6 billion or 23.9$, industrial goods exports were up $3.6 billion, or 22.9%, forest up $1.0 billion, or 11.9% and consumer goods up $0.2 billion, or 5.9%. Agricultural exports only slightly with automotive exports falling by $0.5 billion, or 1.9%.
SWOT ANALYSIS for CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE (Table 1.0)
The trade environment is stable in Canada and should remain so if there are no major disturbances on the world economical, environmental or security front to interrupt the status quo. Since 1999 Canada's trade has grown, decreased slightly and stabilized. In light of the growth being experienced by China and the fact that China is one of Canada's largest trade partners, sharing the spot with Japan, international trade should remain strong in Canada for the foreseeable future.
Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.
The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…
Dollar, D. And Kraay, A. (2001). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty." Development Research Group: The World Bank. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://econ.worldbank.org/files/2207_wps2615.pdf
Moore, Richard K. (1999). "Achieving a Livable, Peaceful World." Part I - Corporate rule and global ruin. Introduction. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://cyberjournal.org/cj/rkm/alpw/p1.intro.html
Nordstrom, H. And Vaughan, S. (1999) "Trade and Environment." Special Study: World Trade Organization. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf
'The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf
NAFTA and its affects on the Mexican foreign trade. The writer explores what NAFTA is and how it operates then outlines the way it impacts the Mexican foreign trade. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
NAFTA's Impact on Foreign Trade with Mexico
The North American Free Trade Agreement was put together in 1993 and provides agreed upon resolutions for its members when it comes to free trade boundaries and rules. The NAFTA allows its members to regulate things such as tariffs, import and export regulations and other issues that come up in the course of trade business between the nations. NAFTA had a positive impact on Mexico's free trade industry because it strengthened an already strong relationship between the United States and Mexico.
Several years before the NAFTA agreement went into place Mexico began working on its economic reforms to improve its trade business both locally and…
Bulmer, Victor; Craske, Nikki, Serrano, Monica. Mexico and the North American Free Trade Agreement: who will benefit?
Glick, Leslie, Alan. Understanding the North American Free Trade Agreement: legal and business consequences of NAFTA
Governing Law and Forum Selection
Boilerplate Language in International Contracts
USA-Brazil Trade: ules of Trade
Other Important Agreement and Laws Governing U.S. and Brazilian Trade
Comparison of Arbitration in South Carolina and Brazil
Conflicts arising out of contracts between international trading parties are on the increase with the rise and increase in international business and international trade. The courts that would hear and decide matters related to business conflicts between trading partners would look to the express terms of the contract as well as the applicable law within which the contracts have been formed and agreed upon by the two parties belonging to two different countries when one party considers the other party's actions to be a breach of the contract. The legal contract and the contents of the contract would be the basis on which courts would decide in arbitration cases and in cases…
Ahmadi, Maryam, and Leila Ahmadi. 'Intellectual Property Rights Of Nanobiotechnology In Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS)'. j bionanosci 6.1 (2012): 56-64. Web.
Bacc-ga.chambermaster.com,. 'News - Brazilian-American Chamber Of Commerce Of The Southeast (BACC-SE)'. N.p., 2015. Web. 3 Nov. 2015.
Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, Hanafiah Harvey, and Scott W. Hegerty. 'Brazil -- "U.S. Commodity Trade And The J-Curve'. Applied Economics 46.1 (2013): 1-13. Web.
Berger, Klaus Peter. Private Dispute Resolution In International Business. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006. Print.
This development approach, by the European Union, is similar to the Bretton Woods institutions' 'Washington consensus', which was developed in the latter half of the 1980s, following "several severe balance of payments crises of developing countries" (Nienhaus, 2002, p. 55). The European Union does not favor indiscriminate opening of markets, but rather it looks for more liberal trade arrangements with developing countries and the European Union solely. This policy has been repeatedly criticized by the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and World Bank.
The basic philosophy behind this position is that market forces are better able to foster economic development, compared to state intervention. If a developing country has prices which reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services, as well as indicate comparative advantages, these countries will be able to attract foreign investment. This investment will result in a transfer of both capital and technology. As Nienhaus…
Darby., J. (2009). French antipathy to Turkey's EU candidacy. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 30(3). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Academic Search Compete database.
European Union. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9033265
Hunter, R. & Ryan, L. (2009). Poland, the European Union, and the Euro. Global Economy Journal, 9(2). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Business Source Complete database.
Maastricht Treaty. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9001460
In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…
9-203. Attachment and Enforceability of Security Interest; Proceeds: Formal Requisites.
Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/9/9-203.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Bailey, Sue. PM defensive over election threat. Retrieved at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2005/11/03/1291616-cp.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Banking: An overview. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/banking.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
185). Components for these products may be manufactured and put together in branches in various countries throughout the world. Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong were involved in the earliest types of production sharing, which included assembling electronic components manufactured in other countries. Production sharing, one World Bank study determined, currently contributes to approximately 30% of manufacturers' total global trade. Foreign affiliates' international exports approach over 7% of global GDP, approximately $2 trillion.
The World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into being in 1995, the only worldwide international organization that deals with rules of trade between countries, maintains their goal to be to assist producers and manufacturers of services; goods; exporters; importers in carry out business. ("What..., 2006, para. 1) "One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second…
Andrews, R., Biggs M., & Seidel, et al. M. (Eds.). (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations.
New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/50/1950.html& ;
Barrera, A. (2004). "Who Benefits from Outsourcing?" Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3115.
Substitute strategy or substitution strategy was put in place by Brazil’s government following the 1930’s Great Depression because of the disastrous turn of events in its economy. With coffee being its main exporter at the time, Brazil had to change its economy. It did so during this time by creating an import substation strategy where the government would invest a massive amount of money and targeted key industries. Along with the investments and focus in other areas, Brazil’s government also safeguarded against competition using high tariff walls.
The article notes that the strategy worked for four decades. Brazil saw a 7% growth from 1950 to 1980. The strategy also led to the creation of a diversified and large industrial sector. However, in the 1980’s inflation soared, and disaster came once again. Along with high inflation, investment fell due to the fear of foreign investors in Brazil’s economy. As a…
The presence of a border, however, allows for that market to become closed. Nations that can feed themselves will continue to do so even if there is unmet demand elsewhere, because ultimately food is more important to survival than money. The value of money for survival, after all, is dependent on the ability to exchange that money for the means of survival. During the food price run-up in the spring of 2008 many nations restricted trade in key foodstuffs, a trend that is likely to escalate in the face of rapidly increasing demand.
In Monsanto's 2009 Annual Report the company points out that a farmer today must feed 130 people, whereas 30 years ago a farmer only fed 25 people. The company's mission, therefore, is predicated on increasing the yield of agricultural land in order to help meet the needs of a growing population. Innovation is at the core…
Monsanto 2009 Annual Report. Retrieved July 16, 2010 from http://www.monsanto.com/investors/financial_reports/annual_report/2009/letter_to_shareowners.asp
Streitfield, D. (2008). A global need for grain that farms can't fill. New York Times. March 9, 2008.