World Trade Organization Essays Examples

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World Trade

Words: 441 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4025022

Trade Agreements

There are significantly more trade agreements in the world than I would have predicted. A list of final agreements between the United States and individual countries indicates that the United States alone has trade agreements with nations ranging from Argentina to Zimbabwe, and an impressive number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, Russia, Mongolia, Korea, Jordan, and Ghana (Foreign Agricultural Service). Other countries have similarly large numbers of agreements (Government of Alberta). Trade agreements in the future are likely to become more prominent, given the increasing pressures of globalization. As such, countries with reciprocal trade agreements are likely to be more economically viable than those that tend to isolate themselves from trade in an increasingly interdependent world.

International politics are linked closely to international trade. Often, it is difficult to distinguish whether politics or trade takes the lead in global affairs. As an example, many Western countries have long criticized China's human rights record, and political tension between China and the Western world have often surfaced, but political relations seem to be improving with the Western world as China moves its economy slowly toward a more capitalistic structure. In short, the Western world seems more accepting of…… [Read More]

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World Trade Discuss International Trade Issues and

Words: 921 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6048240

World Trade

Discuss international trade issues and how they impact starting a business in Denmark and how it pursues doing business with other countries

Denmark has been following bilateral trade policy based on free trade. This has helped it penetrate major markets while keeping the balance between import and exports. Denmark has been successful in the policy and has a lot of products exported to the U.S. And these include pharmaceutical products, nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; electrical machinery and equipment, and Denmark also imports from the U.S. The World Bank economic indicators for Denmark for the year 2010 show that the current purchasing power per capita -- PPP is at $40,290. (Panjiva, 2012)

Denmark has expanded its trade relations recently with Canada. They both have identical business strategies. Both are based on the agri-food export sectors. The knowledge industries and the agricultural sector and modern concepts like renewable energy, and information and communication technologies are to be exchanged. Canada has exported over two hundred million dollar worth of fish and sea food, soya beans, medical products and pharmaceutical items. Canada imported one and a half billion dollar worth of wind turbines, oil and pharmaceutical and medical products.…… [Read More]

Canada International. (2012) "Canada & Denmark trade" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from (2012a) "International trading policy" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from
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Role Does the World Trade

Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81860107

While most European nations state if a product has GMO technology it must be labeled, in America, consumers are accustomed to using GMOs with impunity, unaware if GMOs are present or not in the products they purchase -- and eat. The Europe Union has maintained "a voluntary eco-labeling program" in an effort to allow consumers to make informed choices ("Eco-labeling," What's wrong, 2009). However, the U.S. commercial agricultural interests opposed even this policy, arguing that there is no evidence of a lack of safety attached to GMOs. American agricultural interests argued that the simple labeling of GMOs was anti-free trade and discriminatory, because it created the implication that a safe, usually American-produced product was possibly unsafe. "The issues were never resolved and the WTO committees finally adopted a neutral report" ("Eco-labeling," What's wrong, 2009).

The need to resolve difficult controversies regarding the free flow of trade between different nations is critical role of the WTO. The environment has been particularly contentious regarding its policies. One "controversy centered on 1998 revisions to Japan's 'Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy,' which tightened what had been less stringent fuel-efficiency standards for medium-weight automobiles," but which European and American automotive makers feared would…… [Read More]

"Greenhouse Gases Controversy." What's wrong with the WTO? August 7, 2009.
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China's 2001 Accession to the World Trade

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57389045

China's 2001 accession to the World Trade Organization has been regarded one of the country's most significant moves as far as its integration with the global economy is concerned. According to the author of the article I analyze in this text, one of the most significant consequences of the said accession "was the transformation of China's financial sector." From the onset, the author of this article correctly points out that over the years; the need for an overhaul of the Chinese financial sector was rather obvious. This is more so the case given the inefficient way in which loans were being extended by lenders. Indeed, the only way China could save its financial system from imminent collapse or stalling was through the opening up of its banking sector. In the words of the author, "immediately upon accession to the WTO, China's banking sector began to open to foreign banks." HSBC saw this as an opportunity to enhance its presence in the Chinese market. As the author points out, based on its long history in the region, HSBC was best placed to exploit the opportunities the Chinese market presented.

The author in this case also correctly points out that the relevance…… [Read More]

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Trade in the UAE

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73428946

Trade between UAE and rest of the world

The level of trade has intensified between the United Arab Emirates and the rest of the world. Since the UAE have become members of the World Trade Organization in 1996 the country has become more involved in international trade. The success of UAE's trade activity is revealed also by the trade surplus of 470,939 million AED in 2012. This trade surplus can be attributed to shipments of oil and natural gas.

The most important exports partners for the UAE are Japan 15.4%, India 13.4%, Iran 10.7%, Thailand 5.5%, Singapore 5.5%, and South Korea 5.3%. The most exported commodities are represented by crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish and dates. The country's exports in 20134 reached $368.9 billion, ranking the UAE on the 18th place in comparison with the rest of the world countries.

The most important imports partners of UAE are India 17%, China 13.7%, U.S. 10.5%, Germany 5.1%, and Japan 4.2%. The most imported commodities are represented by Machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, and food (CIA, 2014). The country's imports in 2013 reached $249.6 billion, ranking the UAE on the 21st place in comparison with other world countries (Trading…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
2. UAE -- U.S. Economic Relationship (2009). Embassy of the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from

3. UAE Balance of Trade (2013). Trading Economics. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from

4. Malek, C. (2014). UAE and Australia will Team up on Defense, Trade, Education. The National. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from
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World Trade Center Directed by

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70370431

They turn to their spiritual side and introspection to help make some sense of their predicament and their lives. Above all, they realize they have everything in the world to live for, and they do not want to die. They realize they have made mistakes, and they want another chance to make things better if they survive.

At one point, Officer McLoughlin realizes he and his wife have issues to work on if he makes it out alive. He says, "Somewhere along the way, I guess we stopped looking at each other" ("World Trade Center"). The story shows that life (and love) is not perfect, but the alternative is much more unbearable to consider. These men do not want to die, and watching this makes the viewer look into their own life and see what needs to change. The message is meaningful and clear, time does not always stand still, and it passes all too soon. Life is precious, and it should be treasured, enjoyed, and shared with those we love and respect.

It is clear another message in the film revolves around personal transformation and development. As another reviewer notes, "WTC delivers the goods of spiritual uplift and transformation…… [Read More]

Phillips, Michael. "Trade Center' Wraps Itself in the Flag." Chicago Tribune. 9 Aug. 2006.

Rich, B. Ruby. "Out of the Rubble." Sight and Sound. Oct. 2006. 29 Jan. 2007.
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Trade Liberalization

Words: 2732 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75554015

Trade Liberalization

In basic terms, trade liberalization has got to do with bringing down the various trade limitations existing between countries. It is important to note that in an attempt to protect their domestic industries, many countries from across the world have in the past erected numerous protectionist measures including but not limited to tariffs and quotas. This has amongst other things had the effect of stifling international trade. This text concerns itself with the impact of trade liberalization on developing economies.

The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries

Before commencing on the main discussion, it would be prudent to briefly define a number of key terms which I will be making use of in this text. These terms include trade liberalization, tariffs, subsidies, and quotas. To begin with, tariffs in the words of Lipsey and Harbury (1992, p.215) are "taxes levied by the government on imports of a particular good." As a protectionist measure, tariffs are in most cases used to increase the price of goods and services entering a given country thus making the said goods more expensive than those produced locally. It is however important to note that apart from being used as a protectionist measure,…… [Read More]

Arbache, J.S., Dickerson, A. And Green, F. 2004. Trade Liberalization and Wages in Developing Countries. The Economic Journal, 114(February), pp.F73-F96.

Carbaugh, R.J. 2011. International Economics. 13th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
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Trade Between China and the United States

Words: 2499 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58181768

Trade Between China and the United States

This paper discusses some theories about international trade, and why countries trade with one another. The first trade theory that warrants discussion is specialization, something that Adam Smith touched on. He used the analogy of specific professional to illustrate this theory -- nations do what they are best at. A quick look at the relationship between the U.S. And China illustrates this quite well. The United States is a world leader in innovation. A company like Wal-Mart is a leader at designing logistics and inventory management systems. It has no particular expertise in producing goods. China, on the other hand, has developed considerable expertise in recent years with respect to production. Thus, the arrangement between Wal-Mart and China, more or less, is that China makes the goods and Wal-Mart will then get those goods to market and sell them. This plays to the strengths of both of these entities. Wal-Mart has opened retail operations in China, again because it feels that it is superior at logistics and merchandising.

Wal-Mart -- and by extent the United States -- has an absolute competitive advantage is logistics and retailing. There are few countries and companies that…… [Read More]

No author (2013). Intro to African-American studies. Retrieved November 25, 2013 from 

Porter, M. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved November 25, 2013 from
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Organizational Review of European Union

Words: 1306 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79962429

A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.

The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range of services. Moreover, the business sector of the EU has increased its competitiveness, which has resulted in the lowering of prices and has served to drive "innovation, entrepreneurship and growth." (OECD, 2007) Needed at this time according to the OECD is "a fresh impetus." (OECD, 2007) the energy markets require…… [Read More]

Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at

The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at
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Trade Issues in Economic Development

Words: 2307 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40744461

The (international debt) crisis offers various faces to the observer according to the nature of the issues involved -- be they purely financial, political, economic and social, or structural -- and according to the role of the actors involved in these issues -- be they debtor countries, multilateral development agencies, creditor governments, or commercial banks." (Kaufman, "Banking And Currency Crises And Systemic Risk: Lessons From Recent Events")

World Banks

Trade requires capital. There are approximately two hundred financial institutions throughout the worldwide that account for more than eighty percent of the world's total international banking exposure. Of these, there are twenty banks that have exposure of more than ten billion dollars and seven of them are from the United States, four are from the United Kingdom, three are from West Germany, three are from France, two are from Japan, and there is one from Canada. "The borrowing countries still have much to do at the macroeconomic level to enforce reasonable demand-management policy and at the micro-level to achieve savings mobilization and better sectoral allocation in a context of lesser government controls. In turn, private and official creditors have a special responsibility to stand ready to assist genuine adjustments efforts with…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Allen, Roy E., et al. (1999). Financial Crises and Recession in the Global Economy. 2nd ed. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Boon-Chye, Lee. (1993). The Economics of International Debt Renegotiation: The Role of Bargaining and Information. New York: Westview
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Trade Barriers Visible and Invisible

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42068495

Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford. But in some instances, if a particular nation has received bad press regarding its labor practices, mandatory labeling as an imported good might act as an additional invisible trade barrier. Also, if a nation is being subject to a particularly damaging round of international publicity regarding other aspects of its international policy, this may lead to a boycott of the nation's goods, and thus invisible tariffs can be constructed through simply the apparently innocuous policy of labeling nation's country of origin, in the supposed interest of consumer information.

Works Cited

Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy

Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007.

Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade sets new highs as import barriers are lowered."

Business America.

May 1994. 7 Mar 2007.

Matsumoto, Shigeru. "Is Country of Origin Labeling a Secondary Trade Barrier?"

Department of Economics. Kansai University, Japan. April 4, 2005. 7 Mar 2007.

Polos, Steve. "Increased Globalization: Despite, not because of trade barriers."…… [Read More]

Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy

Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007.
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Trade Liberalization Since the Early

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87717088

The historical exchange rate between the real and the dollar is as follows (source: IndexMundi):

Inflation was very high in the early 90s, then was calmed under the pegged exchange rate regime. Since the real's collapse, inflation has remained relatively high in Brazil, but has been under control. In recent years, inflation is increasing as Brazil's economy is performing well. This puts downward pressure and the real and in turn has a negative impact on the country's export-driven businesses.

I believe that the exchange rate policy has helped Brazil since the currency crisis. The price stability in the 1990s was also important but the policy at that time limited foreign direct investment to the public entities that were being privatized. In more recent years, liberalizing of the currency regime has helped to spur strong economic growth. However, as that growth has grown too large, the country has been forced to implement more controls on the real. While this protects exporters, it hurts the GDP by reducing trade in general.

Works Cited:

Bristow, M. & Soliani, A. (2011). Brazil signals no change in rate policy after cutting to 11%. Business Week. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from

EurActiv. (2010). Brazil urged…… [Read More]

Bristow, M. & Soliani, A. (2011). Brazil signals no change in rate policy after cutting to 11%. Business Week. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from

EurActiv. (2010). Brazil urged to remove trade barriers in telecoms. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from
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Trade Theories to Enhance International Trade

Words: 2044 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57380614

International Trade Theories

International trade may be classified as the trade of capital, goods, and services across international boundaries or areas. In many nations, such trade signifies a substantial share of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade continues to be present throughout a lot of significant research for trade history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), the fact remains that the over societal, economic and political importance for international trade continues to be increasing even further in recent decades (Samuelson, 2001).

Industrialization, modern and intricate transportation structures, globalization, the presence of multinational companies, and outsourcing are getting increased attention and thus having a significant effect on the international trade system. Growing international trade is vital towards the continuation and growth of globalization. Without international trade, nations could be restricted to the products or services created inside their own boundaries (Samuelson, 2001).

International trade is, in its theory and fundamentals, not the same as domestic trade because the incentive and also the behavior of businesses involved with a trade commitment don't change essentially or at the core irrespective of the trade being localized, across a border, across the seas or otherwise. The primary difference is the fact that international…… [Read More]

Bhagwati J.A.Panagariya and T.N. Srinivasan (2004), "The Muddles Over Outsourcing." Journal of Economic Perspectives, November.

Broadman H.G. (2006), Africa's Silk Road. China and India's New Economic Frontier. The World Bank, Washington DC.
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Trade Show Industry in Germany

Words: 31155 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38292092

Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.

The study is important for a second reason that international trade is becoming a cause for concern after the global recession. The economies of various countries have been affected after a decline in their purchasing power. It is said that economic recovery is possible through an increase in trade and opening up of markets (OECD, 2009). As a result, governments are trying to find new ways of stimulating trade in order to increase demand in the national economy and create more jobs to reduce unemployment. Trade shows can be an effective means of stimulating trade activity by bringing together buyers and sellers in a single location. This study will be useful for governments because it will help them to identify the economic, regulatory, legal, and logistical issues that need to be controlled to organize successful trade shows. By using the information in this study, they will be able to promote economic growth through increased local and international trade.

Study Components

This comparative study on the trade show industry in Germany and South Korea will follow a systematic analysis of the…… [Read More]

UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at [Accessed 10 May, 2012].

Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House

Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
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Trade Agreements and Negotiations on International Trade

Words: 3470 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90386211

Trade Agreements and Negotiations on International Trade

International Trade

Trade is important to countries all around the world. International trade opens up job opportunities and also leads to development of economic activity in every region of the trading country. The trading countries must also ensure that traders, whether self-employed entrepreneur, corporate executive or pensioner must bear the responsibility of making sure that goods and services are transported efficiently to global markets. The best way to advance in international trade is to work on two aspects namely, the Trade Commissioner Service, and also foster productive ways of negotiating and administering trade agreements and rules.

International Trade is defined as follows:

The law relating to the exchange of goods and services between nations. Legal issues can relate to tariffs and government restrictions on export and import, as well as the contracts between the trading partners." [LawyerLocator - Glossary of Terms]

The "old" theory of international trade focused on the theory of market interaction and their integration. The older theory stressed largely on globalization so as to make the trading world into a small global village working to bring better coordination and integration between the countries in the transformation of all the countries…… [Read More]

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Trade Issues Surrounding an Internationally

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85896009

It stated that the future negotiations will "try to achieve substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support" (Beghin, Roland-Holst and Van Der Mensbrugghe, 2002).

6. Possible future developments

All in all, the topic on the international trade of agricultural products remains opened for further discussions; and the most likely outcome is an increase in the efforts made by the World Trade Organization to resolve the disputes and complaints of the participants in the meaning of reducing and even eliminating export subsidies, while in the same time easing the access to the markets in the high income countries.


Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue

Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha Round: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at March 9, 2008

Beghin, J.C., Roland-Holst, D., Van Der Mensbrugghe, D., 2002, Global Agriculture and the Doha Round: What Are the Implications for the North and South?, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at March 9, 2008

Schmitz, a.,…… [Read More]

Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue

Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha Round: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at  March 9, 2008
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Trade Act of 1974 on Euro Exchange

Words: 5980 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94103994

Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?

Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.

President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government support which allowed them to have large capacity for expansion and as a result they have flooded the U.S. market with cheap imports. Since 1998, thirty percent of all U.S. steel producers have filed for bankruptcy as a result of falling steel prices in the U.S. The World Trade Organization…… [Read More]

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Trade Partners

Words: 968 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13513043

trade in Mexico. The writer explores the nation's dependency on the U.S. And presents plans to reduce that dependency and increase other options. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

As the world continues to globalize many of the previous boundaries that were experienced have been removed. This means advancements in technology, communication, manufacturing and other areas. Mexico is frequently accused of being too dependent on the United States. With the globalizing moves forward there have been many new horizons for the country of Mexico to explore regarding trade. Reducing its dependence on the United States and expanding its interdependence with other nations will provide Mexico with bargaining power when it comes to its dealings with the states in the future.

Within the last decade the trade abilities and clout in Mexico has improved significantly. Whereas Mexico used to be almost exclusively dependent on the U.S., the more recent years and worldwide globalization have changed it all for the better (Giant, 2000). Mexico recently enjoyed the honor of being named as a main trade power in the world. "The World Trade Organization officially labeled Mexico as a one of the main trade powers in the world, with international…… [Read More]

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Trade Patterns Between U S and

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80032090

S. with the land from which these manufacturing warehouses and factories were to be built. Inevitably, with the establishment of manufacturing companies in China, it had slowly developed and became known as one of the primary producers of technological products and merchandise -- that is, mass production of technological merchandise. China was pitted against its other Asian neighbors, especially Korea, when it comes to manufacturing (since Japan was known as the cradle of technological invention and innovation and not so much for manufacturing technological products and materials.

The third phase involves the integration of China into the world market. With the U.S. As its primary investor, China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the onset of the 21st century. The country continued its role as provider of foodstuffs to America, especially agricultural products such as edible meat, vegetables, oil seeds, sugar, cocoa, nuts, and tobacco substitutes (McMillion, 2000). Meanwhile, U.S. had provided support in the development of China's agricultural technology as part of its agreement in establishing trade relations with the country. These support services include the provision of technical expertise in the cultivation, protection, and distribution of farm products, research on plant technology, genetic engineering,…… [Read More]

China in the WTO: An interview with Amb. Charlene Barshefsky." (March 2000). Asia Source Web site. Available at

McMillion, C. (March 2000). "The U.S., China, and WTO: More false promises, debt, and unnecessary instability." Washington, DC: MBG Information Services.
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World Commerce and Its Demographics

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23236406

Commerce and Its Demographics

The diffusion of ideas and technological impacts that have taken place globally.

Globalization as a phenomenon of economic and cultural connectivity has been growing for centuries, but the current form is of a fundamentally different order (Smith and Doyle 2002). The speed of communication, the complexity and size of the networks involved and the huge volume of trade, interaction and risks involved make up the current and peculiar form. The diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies that occurs within is more than internationalization, universalization, modernization and westernization. Anthony Giddens (1990 as qtd in Smith and Doyle) described today's globalization as "the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." It has changed the way geography has been traditionally understood and how localness has been experienced. The new framework is a spread and connectedness of production, communication and technologies across the world through the interlacing of economic and cultural activity. Its unique feature is the momentum and power of the change involved -- the interaction of extraordinary technological innovation and its worldwide reach capability (Hutton and Giddens 2001…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
5. National Policy Foundation. (2001). WTO Expansion and Its Impact on APEC. Taiwan Institute of Economic Research.

6. Smith, MK and Doyle, ME (2002). "Globalization," the Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Last updated: January 28, 2005

7. Wikipedia (2005). Mercosur. Media Wiki.
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Attacks on the World Trade

Words: 3951 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9666752

Emergency management is also a vital part to the planning for a disaster. Training will have to be conducted at periodic intervals to maintain the preparedness of the emergency response team and to evaluate the condition and the operational difficulties if any that may arise due to the equipment being used. The procedures will have to be critiqued and constantly evaluated to determine if a better, safer or more efficient method can be used in the procedure. A clean up task force will also have to be set up to help clean and restore the area to as near as possible, its pre-disaster state. Sufficient funds will have to be allocated to keep the emergency response team properly outfitted. An emergency fund may also be required to be set up to take care of the clean up activities that may be required. This fund would have to be very liquid so that it can be accessed quickly at any time.

Training the public is also an important part of any emergency management plan. Many state and local emergency relief plans state their mission as: "ensuring that the area or region is prepared to respond to emergencies, recover from them, and…… [Read More]

Sykes, L., Richards, P., Kim W-Y., Armitage, J., Jacob, K., & Lerner-Lam, Art. (2001) Seismograms recorded by LCSN Station PAL (Palisades, NY) New York, Columbia University. Retrieved February 18, 2008 at 

TRADE. (2008). The Training Resources and Data Exchange Washington, D.C., FEMA. Retrieved February 18, 2008, at
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Trade Unions a Trade or Labor Union

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56405122

Trade Unions

A trade or labor union is a small committee or organization that consists of workers or laborers within a corporation, which works for the betterment of the organization in terms of securing its employees. Such unions try to achieve pre-set goals such as extended employee hiring when needed, increasing pays and incomes of the workers, providing other fringe benefits to the employees housing, medical, compensations, other allowances and leaves to the workers, proving fair and unbiased working environment in which no one is favored. Such organizations assure workers rights and legislations, bonus and promotion laws, pre-notices before firing and any other such benefits to safeguard the rights of employees as a beneficial part of the organization. Trade union exists in every part of the world and there are specific rules and regulations with respect to the working environment of a country.

For a trade union to be strong and effective, it is important that it attains certain modes of equality, ecological sustainability, and democracy. Equality guarantees sustainability; which is regarded as access to all fair shares of resources which provide a healthy quality of life. There are several such organizations in the world that are aimed for the…… [Read More]

Harcourt, M., & Wood, G.E. (2004). Trade unions and democracy: Strategies and perspectives. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

ILGA Europe. Trade Unions & LGBT Equality. Retrieved on 16/8/2012 from:
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Organizational Behavior

Words: 7778 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71080159

Organizational Behavior

In 1984, the movie The Gods Must be Crazy depicted a Kalahari bushman who finds a Coca-Cola bottle that was discarded from an airplane into the desert. The bushman does not recognize the bottle or the brand, and the situation leads to all manner of confusion among the tribe, who try to decipher the meaning of the bottle. Such a story would be rather incomprehensible today, that there would be anywhere in the world where people would not recognize a Coca-Cola bottle. Indeed, not long after the movie was made, the process of globalization began in earnest with the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, followed by waves of other bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements, and then followed further by the invention of the Internet. If the era of globalization had not been officially declared before, by the time the 1999 WTO protests in Seattle occurred, globalization was a household word.

Globalization is one of the major driving forces in business. The processes by which globalization has occurred are technological advancements in communication, improved transportation infrastructure and trade liberalization. On the first, communication has improved substantially since the Internet went public in 1994, creating a world where people are…… [Read More]

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World Health and Globalization the

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86771706

The text identifies one practical reason that this is the case, indicating that "One of the particularly threatening aspects of this compression of time is that people can now cross continents in periods of time shorter than the incubation periods of most diseases. This means that, in some cases, travelers can depart from their point of origin, arrive at their destination, and begin infecting people without even knowing that they are sick." (3) This means that an epidemic can be spread from multiple "ground zero" locations before it is even clear that the condition in question has come to reflect so significant a threat of proliferation. To the practical interests of preventing the disease's further spread, this denotes a real and substantial challenge to public health and safety administrators in the developed world. Quite to this point, the text reveals that the United States has experienced a greater level of infectious disease uptake in the last decade, a product both of its increasing proportion of immigrants and the speed with which such disease can be spread throughout the world. Naturally, we may make observations as to the ethical implications of an interest only heightened by the degree to which developed…… [Read More]

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International Trade Participation

Words: 1848 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63665175

regional international institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, World Trade Organization, a financial institution. Select countries apply traditional international trade theories, absolute advantage, comparative advantage, factor endowment, enhance participation international trade.

International Trade Participation

The interaction between countries is a complex process that is strongly influenced by economic, political, and cultural factors. The need for this interaction is based on the resources that can be provided with smaller efforts by some countries to countries that need them. The need for resources has determined countries to involve in military, economic, and biological wars, or to involve in influence relationships where several countries support a larger community that can polarize greater power in the attempt to counteract the influence of other powerful countries. This is the case of the European Union that was developed in order to join the efforts of European countries so that they could balance the power between the U.S. And Europe.

In order to be successful, relationships between countries must be regulated by international organizations that monitor relationships and ensure that they are in accordance with agreements established between countries. The most important international organizations are The International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the United Nations,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1. Comparative Advantage (2014). Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from .

2. Regional Trade Agreements (2011). OECD. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from,3746,en_2649_36442957_31839102_1_1_1_1,00.html.

3. Role of the World Trade Organization (2012). ICT. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from
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Global Organization Analysis

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27300183

Global Organization Analysis

The World Trade Organization, or WTO, has a strong role in promoting international trade (World, 2014). It not only supervises that trade, but also works to make trade more liberal for all countries (World, 2014). Since trade is an excellent way to keep the economies of various countries moving forward and growing, it would make logical sense that the WTO would be encouraging trade in many different capacities. The WTO was created in 1995 and offers a framework whereby countries can formalize and negotiate trade agreements with one another (World, 2014). There is also a process for dispute resolution so there is less risk to the countries who decide to trade with one another (World, 2014). Participating countries have to agree to the WTO requirements and regulations, and the current focus of the WTO is to bring in more developing countries and get them trading so they can provide more value for their people and offer goods and services that would be of interest to other countries (World, 2014; Daniel & Hughes, 2014).

By encouraging trade, the WTO is able to help any number of countries. Both large, developed countries and smaller, emerging countries can get assistance…… [Read More]

African Development Bank Group. (2014). Retrieved from: 

Daniel, F.J. & Hughes, K. (2014). U.S. To take India to WTO over solar power policy. LiveMint. Retrieved from
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Testimony Heard by the World

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98197795

Often, globalization brings rapid changes to a country, including some drastic changes in the economy that some countries may not be able adsorb. These experts note, "In the same way as industrialization disembedded the economy from the community, the process of globalization disembodies the economy from the state. The economy becomes uncoupled from the national interest and increasingly subjected to international forces"

Rice and Michael 172). If a country loses too much control of its own economy, it can be damaging or even deadly, and the WTO needs to monitor these economies, to make sure they can survive and thrive during times of growing globalization. In addition, many global markets may take advantage of much lower wages in growing countries, thereby keeping the foreign workers at the poverty level, while leaving American workers without jobs here at home. Since the WTO is now the administrator of all multilateral trade agreements (Hurrell and Woods 29); it is their foremost responsibility to make sure no country takes advantage of another in these trade agreements.

In conclusion, globalization can lead to a better life for residents of growing countries, but it can also lead to problems that some countries may not be prepared…… [Read More]

Hurrell, Andrew and Ngaire Woods, eds. Inequality, Globalization, and World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Rice, James, and Michael. "12 a 'Double Movement': Implications of Globalization and Pluralization for the Canadian Welfare State." Globalization and Its Discontents. Ed. McBride, Stephen. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 2000. 170-180.
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International Trade Current Issues in

Words: 1295 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12525283

The problem with this argument is that the world is not purely economical in its activities or its planning. The notion that state -- i.e. political -- entities have ceased to matter in global trade issues, though increasingly popular among certain scholars and pundits, is a perspective that is at best "profoundly misleading" (Krasner 1976, pp. 317). The fact is, states act according to perceived threats both to their security and to their sovereignty. These reactions are not always purely rational, at least not from an economic sense of the word, and therefore the pure rationality of economics cannot be used to predict state action -- which is still hugely important -- in the area of free trade (Krasner 1976). Despite the hegemonic decline of the United States that Milner notes, it is still a country with an enormous amount of international clout that can easily appear threatening in international bargaining.

Free Trade and the Poor

The primary breakdown in the global free trade talks exists because of the perceived disparity of globalization's effects on poor countries and those that are already sufficiently economically developed. As Frank ( points out, the misconception that underdeveloped countries are merely at an earlier…… [Read More]

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Wto Trade Resolution Procedures

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17127968

WTO Trade Dispute Resolution: Turkey Cotton Case

In the case at hand, we would discuss the trade and economic policies of Turkey. In the case that would be discussed, India is the complainant and Turkey is the respondent. The case was presented to and the World Trade Organization was approached by India on 13 February 2012. The case pertains to India's complaint against Turkey for adopting protectionist policies with regards to the import of cotton to the country. India approached the WTO and requested for consultations with Turkey with regards to some specific safeguard measures that was imposed by Turkey on imports of cotton yarn with the exception for sewing thread from India.

Turkey had started this protectionist and definitive safeguard measures on cotton import to that country from 15 July 2008 and it was meant to be implemented for a period of three years. India complained that Turkey had imposed the measured in a retroactive manner and extended the period of application of the protectionist tax impositions retroactively. India also challenged any amendments and replacements in this act and any other related acts and measures formulated and imposed by Turkey.

One of the specific charges made by India according…… [Read More]

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Fair Trade for All The

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45767390

Overall, fair trade is a great way to make sure that countries work together and help one another focus on developing and moving forward. Not all fair trade is fair, but most of the options given to people who want to see fair trade are better than what they would receive if they were not part of any particular fair trade agreements. People who are interested in fair trade and the Czech Republic's role in that trade have to consider that individuals and countries both have to play a role in whether trade is fair or whether there are problems with it that go deeper than WTO regulations. While the WTO is not the only organization that has anything to do with trade on an international level, it is certainly the most recognized. Because of the current strength of the Czech Republic and its ties to numerous other countries, the Republic does have a fair trade deal with the world overall. While that may change in the future, it is more of a concern right now for developing countries, instead.


Czech Republic to join Schengen. (2006). The Prague Post.

Garrett, S.A. (1996). Conscience and power: an examination of dirty…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Czech Republic to join Schengen. (2006). The Prague Post.

Garrett, S.A. (1996). Conscience and power: an examination of dirty hands and political leadership. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Intra-Industry International Trade

Words: 2124 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46738616

Intra-Industry International Trade: Benefits and Costs

Trade is brought about by specialization. People specialize in those goods and services that they can produce effectively, and since they cannot survive on only these, exchange their surplus production for other items that they need, but do not produce. There are mainly two types of trade in this regard; international and domestic. The domestic form of trade refers to the exchange of trade items (services and goods) within a country's borders. International trade, on the other hand, can be defined as "the exchange of goods and services among residents of different countries" (Chacholiades, 2006). International trade can take either of two forms; intra-industry or inter-industry forms of trade. Inter-industry trade is trade between industries, whereas intra-industry trade takes place within industries. Intra-industry trade, therefore, refers to the importation and exportation of same-industry items of trade (Gandolfo, 1998).


International trade has been on the increase in recent years. This is particularly the case given that the world is now regarded a global village. In order to facilitate international trade, countries have had to significantly reduce, or even eliminate trade barriers that exist in the form of quotas and tariffs. This has been beneficial,…… [Read More]

Boyes, W.J. & Melvin, M. (2007). Microeconomics (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Chacholiades, M. (2006). The Pure Theory of International Trade. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
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Runnng Head Microeconomics International Trade All the

Words: 1130 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46685591

RUNNNG HEAD: Microeconomics


International Trade

All the countries in the world are dependent on each other nowadays. Countries need natural resources that are not present in their homeland or they may also be in need of some finished goods that they don't produce. This interdependency gives a beginning to trade between countries. The notion of international trade has become quite common nowadays as all the countries are participating in it. In addition to fulfilling the requirements of the country, international trade also increases overall efficiency of the production of a good. As some countries have the resources to produce certain goods at a lower cost than other countries. So, that cost efficient country can be given the chance to produce that good for other countries as well so that the overall cost of that product falls. The decision of international trade is undertaken by economies keeping either comparative or absolute advantage in mind. (Lipsey and Harbury, 1994)

2. Economic Growth

Economic growth is referred to as the increase in the full production potential of a country. This means that a country will have more production and employment options available growth is considered to be a macro and microeconomic issue.…… [Read More]

Andersen, L. And Babula, R. (2008). The link between openness and long-run economic growth. Journal of International Commerce and Economics, 1 pp. 1 -- 20.

Lipsey, R. And Harbury, C. (1994). First principles of economics. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press.
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Economics International Trade

Words: 3214 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92125911

International Trade Between Bahrain and Saudi Arabia

This is a paper on Trade between Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, focusing on how it affects their international trade relations with special attention to OPEC, GCC and the Qatar dispute. It uses 22 sources in MLA format.

Both Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council along with Qatar, UAE, Kuwait and Oman. Under the GCC Agreement, preferential tariffs apply among the member states. Since independence in 1971, Bahrain has essentially pursued a liberal trade and investment policy, and has integrated its economy closely with those of other countries in the region, through the Unified Economic Agreement of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Trade and economic growth in Bahrain is strongly affected by variations in international energy prices. Real GDP growth, as a result, was slower during the 1990s compared with the previous decade, averaging around 3.6% annually since 1994.

Bahrain: General Policy Framework

Although the Government of Bahrain has controlling interests in many of the island's major industrial establishments, its overall approach to economic policy can best be described as laissez faire. Except for a few basic foodstuffs, the price of goods in Bahrain is determined by market forces,…… [Read More]

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Canada and Unfair Trade Practices

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77273402

WTO and Canada

conference in Havana in 1948 adopted a complex charter for an international body to preside over issues of trade called the International Trade organization (ITO). U.S. Congress never signed the ITO charter so it was never ratified but GATT not requiring U.S. ratification continued to exist. By default GATT became the international body dealing with trade. GATT had three main objectives:

To help trade flow as freely as possible,

To achieve further liberalization gradually through negotiation,

And to set up an impartial means of settling disputes.

For 47 years GATT helped establish a prosperous multilateral trading system. But by the 1980s an overhaul was due. The Uruguay Round brought about that overhaul. It was the largest trade negotiation ever. The Uruguay Round has produced the most fundamental reform of the world trading system since the establishment of the GATT in 1947. The establishment of the WTO in 1995 contributed to a necessary strengthening of the global trading system, with stronger procedures for settling disputes and a mechanism for reviewing countries' trade policies. The November 2001 declaration of the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the WTO in Doha, Qatar, provides the mandate for negotiations on a range of subjects,…… [Read More]

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Is the European Union a State or What Else Distinguishes it From Other International Organizations

Words: 9068 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99365197

European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations

The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional) governance is complicated and also the role of multilevel governance formations in major policy spheres, increased through the role and processes of both problem-specific and regional focused agencies, is continuing to grow among scholars (Higgott and Erman, 2008).

Nonetheless, in certain key regions of the global cooperative agenda, both in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.

Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
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International Management as the World

Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47938358

Business communications are official and face-to-face meetings are always preferred to indirect communications.

At the specific level of negotiations, it is important to note that, during negotiations, only the seniors in the team will speak. The negotiation process is slow and advancements are made in an unhurried rhythm. The Chinese people are non-confrontational individuals and they will avoid saying "No." They will, instead, promise to think about the proposition, see about it and so on.

In China, the negotiations do not focus on specific and measurable goals, but their emphasis falls on assessing the negotiation partner and seeing whether the relationship can be further developed. Since the Chinese are calculated people, decision making will often take a lot of time, until the locals are convinced of their future actions. The American counterparts are advised to always remain calm, or they will lose "face" and irremediably damage the relationship. The foreigners are also advised to not use pressure techniques (they might find themselves outmaneuvered), to remember that the Chinese are shrewd negotiators and to always leave room for concessions (Kwintessential).

Part 4. Strategic alliances

The selection of a strategic partner in China is based on the ability of the respective company…… [Read More]

Feenstra, R.C., Hanson, G.H., (2003). Ownership and control in outsourcing to China: estimating the property-rights theory of the firm. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hira, R., Hira, a. (2008), Outsourcing America: the true cost of shipping jobs overseas and what can be done about it. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
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International Trade Advantages and Limitations

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34170

Thirdly, an advantage of the WTO treaty is that it protects individual privacy when it comes to the "processing and dissemination of personal data and the protection of confidentiality of individual records and accounts" ( That issue came up because consumer advocate Ralph Nader was quoted as saying, "Particularly in the area of Internet privacy protections, the WTO is forcing governments to forego sovereign privacy protections deemed to be overly restrictive to international trade" ( The WTO's answer to that the trade deal signed by 123 nations "has had nothing whatever to do with internet privacy" and indeed a safeguard is built into the General Exceptions in Article XIV regarding processing and dissemination of personal data, as mentioned at the top of this paragraph.

The fourth advantage of international trade under the auspices of the WTO is that deals signed cannot force any country to move towards the privatization of any service within either trade partner. This comes up because a report has been circulated by the "Alliance for Democracy" (called "Don't let the WTO get hold of our water") that asserts the "progressive liberalization" under GATT "means moving towards privatization of all services, including public services" ( The…… [Read More]

Organics Unlimited. (2009). FreshPlaza: Global Fresh Produce and Banana News / EU

Proposal to end Banana Trade Dispute. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from
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New Zealand Council of Trade

Words: 3308 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98889980

The regulatory settings in (say) 2000 would not have contemplated the government becoming the major shareholder in Air New Zealand or buying back the railway tracks; so if they had been bound into the GATT, the government would not have been able to step back in" (Conway, 2005, p. 15).

The CTU's official position on these issues is as follows:

1. The CTU does not oppose international trade;

2. The CTU does not oppose all negotiations on preferential trade arrangements;

3. The CTU prefers a multilateral approach;

4. The CTU recognises that free trade agreements are a reality;

5. The CTU therefore focuses on specific issues in free trade agreements;

6. The CTU does not want the 1984-1999 deregulation of the New Zealand economy to be the baseline for trade rules on access;

7. The CTU wants to see more focus on alternative trade models;

8. The CTU wants to see trade within a sustainable development framework.

According to Conway, the CTU acknowledges that international trade is important to New Zealand's economy and its workers and support rules-based trade. Notwithstanding this recognition, though, the CTU also cites the terms of a number of existing rules such as manner in which…… [Read More]

About us. (2009). The New Zealand Council of Trade Unions. [Online]. Available: http://union.
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Free Trade There Are Few

Words: 1559 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31696147

However, each stakeholder has its own interests at heart. Those interests in the long-run may be served by freer trade, but in the short-run they are driven more by political considerations.

Works Cited

Markheim, Daniella & Rield, Brian M. (2007) Farm Subsidies, Free Trade and the Doha Round. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Chang, Ha-Joon. (2007). Protectionism...the Truth on a $10 Bill. The Independent. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Surowiecki, James. (2008). The Free Trade Paradox. The New Yorker. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Krugman, Paul. (2004) the Trade Tightrope. New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Dorn, James a. (n.d.) Trade and Human Rights in China. Journal of Commerce. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Goh, Ai Tung & Olivier, Jacques. (2002). Free Trade and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights: Can we Have One without the Other? Centre for Economic Policy Research. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Hornbeck, J.F. (2005) a Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Johnson, Nathan. (2008). Does Freer Trade Mean Lower Environmental Standards? Retrieved December 11, 2008 at…… [Read More]

Markheim, Daniella & Rield, Brian M. (2007) Farm Subsidies, Free Trade and the Doha Round. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at

Chang, Ha-Joon. (2007). Protectionism...the Truth on a $10 Bill. The Independent. Retrieved December 11, 2008 at
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Feed the World the Economist

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4137780

Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.


Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. When nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. Worse, such regulations stifle innovation. When regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily. When the free trade act removed those subsidies and barriers, the market became flooded with American wine, which because of competitive advantages was cheaper and better. This spurred a bout of innovation at Canadian vineyards, resulting in a strong domestic industry based on premium product rather than the weak domestic…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Eide, W. & Kracht, U. (2009). Official responses to the world food crisis in light of the human right to food. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from 

Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically modified foods: Harmful or helpful? CSA Illumina. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from
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Global Economy and International Trade

Words: 1146 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7259528

The third sets of factors that are driving international trade growth are the cultural ones that are the most criticized and discussed in the context of globalization. These factors include the rapid spread of westernized cultural values and purchasing habits vs. those that are native to a given region of the world. For example, the rapid rise in western culture within India and Muslim-led countries are a case in point. The cultural backlash of globalization continues to be significant and throughout the next twenty years, the successful integration of western-based companies into these 3rd world nations will be a key criteria in global economic growth. Just as the initial economic agreement set the foundation for economic growth, the reliance on culture frameworks including the Hofstede Five Cultural Dimensions Model will be essential for the successful integration of westernized companies into foreign markets where cultural norms, values and beliefs must be respected and taken into account during any expansion strategy. The bottom line is global trade growth will continue to become more pervasive and the accuracy, speed and complexity of transactions will continue to increase over time due to these factors.

Assessment of Global Competitive Factors Influencing American Consumers Firms, and…… [Read More]

Gowa, J.. "Alliances, market power, and postwar trade: explaining the GATT/WTO" World Trade Review 9.3 (2010): 487-504.

Kim, M.. "Does the WTO promote trade? Further evidence. " The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development 19.3 (2010): 421.
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International Trade & Finance China

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37404028

S. inflation in check, even during economic boom times.

Cultural Values

The debate about increasing protectionism in the U.S. boils down to a clash of cultural values. In the natural course of international trade, there will be those who suffer and those who benefit. International markets are amoral. Trade is conducted between nations with the intent of raising the standard of living for both, but this is on aggregate, not universally. As a result, jobs losses in some sectors, particularly those where the U.S. does not have comparative advantage, are inevitable. To enact protectionist measures to stem those job losses will have three negative impacts.

The first is retaliatory trade measures. Tariffs and other protectionist measures tend to go hand in hand. If a country protects its industries, nations that trade with that country will do the same. This is the classic Smoot-Hawley scenario. To protect American jobs during the Depression, the Smooth-Hawley Act was signed, bringing heavy tariffs to protect U.S. workers. However, the major trading partners in Canada and Europe retaliated against these measures by protecting their markets from American goods. The impacts on the U.S. economy were devastating, as export markets disappeared overnight and domestic consumption remained…… [Read More]

No author. (2009). Top ten countries with which the U.S. trades. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from

No author. (2007). David Ricardo and comparative advantage. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from 
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International Trade Navigating the Seas

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50105524

Mercantilism as a philosophy may be dead, but special interests that lead to trade controls are alive and well (Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life, 2003). Trade controls that affect price and indirectly quantity include tariffs, subsidies, arbitrary customs-valuation and special fees (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include quotas, voluntary export restrictions, "buy local" legislation, arbitrary standards, licensing arrangements, foreign-exchange controls, administrative delays and requirements to take goods in exchange for selling (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).

Finally, businesses must also consider trade organizations and regional economic integration when deciding where to conduct business. The World Trade Organization promotes trade liberalization and mediates trade disputes and enforcing agreements (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Major regional trading groups include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Community and Common Market, the Andean Group, Mercosur, a regional trade agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uraguay, the South American Community of Nations, the Associations of South East Asian Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa…… [Read More]

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426.

Kokko, a., Matha, T., and Gustavsson, P. (2006). Regional integration and trade diversion in Europe.
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International Trade for Developing Countries

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34187298

The World Hunger organization ( assertsthat there is a bias in international trade rules that favor developed nations. Why? Developed nations control the World Trade Organization, according to the World Hunger organization; and as to export items like pharmaceuticals, developed countries have shown "reluctance" to allow developing countries "to produce or import low cost generic drugs for major illnesses, such as AIDS" (

Another example of this alleged unfairness can be viewed in light of the U.S. Sugar Tariffs and Brazil. In the Washington Post (Jeter, 2003) it is explained that though the U.S. extols the greatness of free trade, it does not always live up to that rhetoric. The U.S. imposes a tariff of 244% on sugar imports "...above a small quote of duty free sugar imports" (Jeter, 2003). "While Brazil has both plentiful and fertile land and available workers, the 244% tariff that the U.S. Government levies on sugar imports" (above pre-established quotas) thoroughly throttles the Latin American nation from greatly expanding its sugar industry. This is an example of an unfair negotiation, and it also shows that big developed nations and their multinational corporations - such as seen in the U.S. - can dominate on the global…… [Read More]

Jeter, John. "Brazilians Soured by U.S. Sugar Tariffs." Washington Post 10 September 2003. Retrieved March 3, 2009, at

Nogues, Julio J. "Unequal Exchange: Developing Countries in the International Trade