20th Century, the Major Medical Model of Essay

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20th century, the major medical model of disease was ascribed to faith, random events or other supernatural activities. Odor was considered to be either a preventative or cause of disease, and indeed, many intellectual people were "bled" to increase health benefits (Kennedy, 2004). After the discovery of bacteria and the use of the microscope, the "Bio-Medical Model" (BMM) moved into prominence, believing that specific illness were linked to specific bacteria, viruses, or pathogens. This "germ" model of medicine was a way for Europeans to define, analyze, and as practical philosophy showed -- deal with the issue by killing the germ. Rarely did science look at a germ as a cause of ill health, and indeed, the entire idea of vaccination came about precisely because of this germ model of science (James, 1992).

However, Eastern traditional medicine has held a different paradigm for centuries. Indeed, the very term "health," has come to mean more than just an absence of disease, but a more holistic and complete state of being. As health professionals began to study the links between mental and physical health, they also noticed that other factors influenced the very character of the debate; economic, political, social, and other models that contributed to a person's overall sense of self and well-being. Health as harmony, then, can be defined as the Healthy Psychology Model -- combining Eastern holism with Western organism (Porter, 2006).

Yoga is a centuries old physical and mental discipline that originated on the Indian subcontinent. It is often associated with some of the meditative practices of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Janism -- typically a way of relaxation and toning the bind, a sum of mental, verbal and physical activities. It was originally developed to help guide and transfix the meditative techniques of the religious caste in India, somewhere in the 2000-900 BCE era. Yoga is considered an alternative, or complimentary, medicine technique. In Western culture, the controversial term alternative medicine is any healing practice "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine," or "that which has not been shown consistently to be effective."evidence-based medicine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complimentary_medicine

It is often opposed to and encompasses therapies with a historical or cultural, rather than a scientific, basis (Goyeche, 1979).

For example, in a 2008 randomized pilot study, the effects of yoga and meditation combined vs. group therapy with hypnosis vs. psychoeducation on 46 patients with long-term depressive disorders found that the yoga/meditation group experienced a remission and had far fewer depressive symptoms than either control group. Overall, the results show that it yoga should be studied in a more robust manner to find ways to alleviate a number of mental illnesses, stress and even pain control (Butler, 2008).

The study was randomized and did include several variations in experimental mode for the test. One group used yoga and meditation, one group therapy and hypnosis…

Sources Used in Document:


Aslin, J., 1998. Why Patients Use Alternative Medicine: Results of a National Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(19), pp. 1545-53.

Butler, L. e. a., 2008. Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood. Clinical Psychology, 64(7), pp. 806-20.

Goyeche, J., 1979. Yoga as Therapy in Psychosomatic Medicine. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 31(1), pp. 373-81.

Jensen and Kenney, 2004. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 7(1), pp. 206-16.

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