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20th Century Architecture
Architecture in the 20th Century
As said by a famous spokesperson, architecture aims at eternity. Throughout history, architecture has always asked for creativity and coordination from those who possess the skills to excel in this field. Throughout the course of the nineteenth century, architecture had very little to do with industrial activities and rather was only concerned with structures and monuments which symbolised the pride of a country or state. ut the dawn of the twentieth century changed it all[footnoteRef:1] (Writework 1). [1: See "What impact has technology had on architecture of the 20th century? For more information regarding the advancements of technology in the 20th century.]
The industrial revolution in many countries and the development of man's relation with the machines brought about significant changes in the field of architecture. A new ideology was adopted which revolved around mechanics and efficiency, and architecture was transformed into…… [Read More]
Moreover, both viewed the distinctive opportunities afoot in helping the world to define itself along either capitalist or communist lines. To this extent, the period following orld ar II may actually be defined as a transitional phase necessary encumbered by brutal conflict. The end of feudalism and colonialism in Europe, marked most officially by the end of the II and the need for each European nation to look inward toward rebuilding, would signal a new period in the history of human governance. American and Soviet orientation would reflect new ideals, to the extent that we can define the world of the late 20th century as distinguished by efforts at redefining government orientation. ith the eras of enlightenment and industrialization now past, these European institutions were no longer plausible or relevant.
In many ways, the conflicts of the next several decades would be the natural byproduct of attempts to define some…… [Read More]
Television. Perhaps as no other medium in the history of humankind, television became such an integral part of the human condition during the latter part of the 20th century that no one today can likely imagine what life would truly be like without it. Television has certainly had a major impact on American society (Chalkey, 1993). Although many children and adults are spending more time on the computer than watching television in the 21st century, people could not get enough of the medium in the 20th century. Television became enormously popular and served as a unifying cultural force, a ubiquitous purveyor of goods and services, and the "boob tube" has transformed the human condition in America ever since. According to Marilou M. Johnson (2001), "Television programming has the power to inform, to guide, to persuade and to cause audience members to react with a variety of emotions. This power is…… [Read More]
Even the success in the Spanish American war of 1898, which turned the U.S.A. into a "young empire" as it received such possessions as Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines and unlimited control over "independent" Cuba didn't make the U.S.A. A world power, as the world politics until 1918 took place mainly in the Old World.
High economical potential, which the U.S.A. acquired, by the beginning of the World War allowed it to turn into one of the most influential economies at the first half of the twentieth century. In a quite a short period of time from the debtor of European super powers it turned into their main creditor and became one of the most influential participants in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, which defined the future of the after war world. he U.S.A. proved the Old world that it was not only a reliable and responsible ally, but also…… [Read More]
.A. should intervene to this conflict mainly to insure its positions in the region and to provide "humanitarian aid" to local population struggling for independence. As a result this war turned into war against all panish possessions in the Western Hemisphere (including Guam, Puerto Rico and Philippines in the Pacific).
The declaration of war to Germany had a lot of similar premises to the war with pain. First of all the U..A. was an economical donor of Allies in this war, as it declared neutrality after the war began in 1914. But undeclared u-boat war of German submarines, which led to, sank of Lusitania liner and political intrigues with Mexican government to declare war against the U..A. were directed on destabilization of American positions and could have serious consequences for the U..A. In case Germany won the war. By 1917 Central powers had big chance to win the war, especially…… [Read More]
20th Century Art History's Response To New Technology
hile Norman Rockwell's 1949 magazine cover "The New Television Set" suggests both delight and humor to the viewer, in portraying the confusion of middle-class Americans faced with new technological innovations, Edward Hopper's 1940 oil on canvas work "The Office at Night" and "The Family-Industry and Agriculture" oil of printmaker Harry Sternberg (1939) suggest a much darker version of human beings' collective response to the impersonal nature of modern industrialization and technology.
This contrast is due to three major reasons -- firstly, Rockwell's painting deals with human's use of technology in their leisure time, in contrast to the mechanization of the modern office and of modern farming. Secondly, Rockwell painted his work after the end of orld ar II, and the advent of much greater American prosperity than had been enjoyed during the time when "The Family-Industry and Agriculture" by Harry Sternberg were…… [Read More]
In fact, all these novels are concerned with the psychology and attitudes of the characters, and use them to represent the fragmentation and uncertainty in society. The characters own lives are uncertain and fragmented, and this represents these themes in society at large.
hys also wanted to confront areas of British society that remained hidden and unacknowledged in her novel. In "Jane Eyre," the character's madness is simply alluded to, and the character does not have a voice. In "Wide Sargasso Sea," the character has a voice. hys writes, "But we must talk about it.... No other time, now.... You have no right to ask questions about my mother and then refuse to listen to my answer" (hys 129). In true 20th century honesty and openness, she wants to bring the subject out and confront it, while in England it was covered up and hidden. This shows the fragmentation in…… [Read More]
20th century humanities or modernism is the assumption that the autonomy of the individual is the sole source of meaning and truth. This belief, which stemmed from the application of reason and natural science, led to a perpetual search for unique and novel forms of expression (Keep, McLaughlin, & Parmar). Thus, it is evident that modernism discarded the Renaissance period's interest in the classical tradition and universal meaning, in favor of a belief in the individual.
The influence of naturalism on modernism is highly evident in its humanistic philosophy, especially in Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophical school of thought, existentialism. In a radical departure from the classical belief in a purposeful universe, created and governed by God, Sartre set out to disprove the existence of God, while simultaneously establishing that only individual free will can define or change the essence of being (yatt, 2004). The same emphasis on naturalism and the individual…… [Read More]
20th century, a new and distinctive global system had developed out of the interaction and mutual reinforcement of technological innovations, nationalist motivations, and new imperialism. Nationalist motivations to acquire land and glory for the good of one's nation likely played an important part in driving the new imperialism that characterized the beginning of the 19th century. In turn, technology provided a means for countries like Britain and France to expand their overseas territories, and thus bring many of their nationalist dreams to fruition. Overall, the interplay between nationalist motivations, new imperialism and technological innovation was a complex and profoundly important factor in the history of the early 20th century and late 19th century.
Nationalist motivations focus on loyalty and an almost complete and blind devotion to a country. To the nationalist, a country is seen as superior to all others, and the promotion of its culture and interests above all…… [Read More]
20th Century Genius
The Genius of the 20th century, whose work and artistic contribution can be classified in both the Age of Modernism and the Age of Pluralism, is artist and social commentator Pablo Picasso. Picasso is a genius because he helped create an entire new art form through his modern artwork, but he also was an individual not content to simply work as an artist. His works also reflected his political beliefs, were often a social commentary on what was happening in society, and were always interesting or even startling. He represents both the Age of Modernism with his paintings and other artworks, and the Age of Pluralism with his works that were not only art, but political commentary, too.
Pablo Picasso was born in October 1881 in Malaga, Spain. He grew up in Malaga and began to draw at a young age -- supervised by his father, who…… [Read More]
President Roosevelt's Corollary, introduced in 1904, marked America's emergence as a world policeman.[footnoteRef:6] in World War I, America greatly contributed to Allied victory and saw marked advancements in technology and the military, followed by an economic boom and bust.[footnoteRef:7] in World War II, America again greatly contributed to Allied victory with even more striking technological and military advancements, followed by an economic boom.[footnoteRef:8] the ensuing, ongoing Cold War consumed considerable American resources and attentions.[footnoteRef:9] the Korean War and Vietnamese War significantly involved the United States in an ongoing struggle against Communism in the Far East[footnoteRef:10], while the Gulf War significantly involved the United States in an ongoing struggle against conflicting ideologies in the Middle East.[footnoteRef:11] America's emergence on the world stage, commencing in the earliest years of the 20th Century, created such an expanded and involved role for the United States that by the end of that Century, its duties…… [Read More]
Five notable 20th century artists
The nature of 20th century art was profoundly challenged by the sudden ubiquity of apparently 'objective' media such as the motion picture, photography, and standardized graphic advertising. How could art be deployed effectively in the face of such representation? If art was no longer needed to physically capture the past, what was its use? The answer posed by the plastic arts was that art must look inward, and capture the soul of the artist, rather than objective reality. This new focus on the inwardness of art soon extended itself into other media, of performance as well as static at The rise of psychology in the popular imagination and consciousness provided the 'answer' of inwardness to this potent question possible. A new internal soul-searching had entered the common and uncommon artistic imagination. Rather than represent reality, the inner life of the artist came to the…… [Read More]
20th century farming in America was dominated by the small family farm. Labor was provided by the family members and there was no issue regarding wages. Beginning in the early years of the 20th century and increasingly thereafter large-scale commercial agriculture displaced the family farms but the corporate farmers found that hand labor remained more cost effective for harvesting certain fruits and vegetables. This work was highly seasonal and the corporate farmers had to rely upon migrant workers in most cases to staff their farms. These migrants were exposed to exceedingly low wage, exploitation, and wretched living and working conditions. Yet, when the U.S. Congress finally passed the National Labor Relations Act in 1935 an exemption for these workers was crafted in order to pacify the strong farm growers' lobby (Keyserling). orkers in other areas of work were granted the right to organize under the terms of the new legislation…… [Read More]
20th century, the major medical model of disease was ascribed to faith, random events or other supernatural activities. Odor was considered to be either a preventative or cause of disease, and indeed, many intellectual people were "bled" to increase health benefits (Kennedy, 2004). After the discovery of bacteria and the use of the microscope, the "Bio-Medical Model" (BMM) moved into prominence, believing that specific illness were linked to specific bacteria, viruses, or pathogens. This "germ" model of medicine was a way for Europeans to define, analyze, and as practical philosophy showed -- deal with the issue by killing the germ. arely did science look at a germ as a cause of ill health, and indeed, the entire idea of vaccination came about precisely because of this germ model of science (James, 1992).
However, Eastern traditional medicine has held a different paradigm for centuries. Indeed, the very term "health," has come…… [Read More]
20TH century the average life-expectancy of an average American has augmented. Furthermore, the major causes of death have also changed over time. Majority of the Americans used to die very young; very few used to live beyond 65 years of age. However, trends have changed drastically and a lot more people are able to live beyond 65 years of age (Nadine R. Sahyoun, Harold Lentzner, Donna Hoyert, Kristen N. Robinson, 2001). The following graph illustrates the point being made.
Percentage of newborns living to age 65
It is worth noting that the leading cause of death amongst the elderly people 65 years of age and above is "heart disease" (35%) and "cancer" (22%). This trend has been evident since the preceding 2 decades and had taken almost one million lives of elderly Americans in the year 1997 alone. The third leading cause of death is "stroke." However, "chronic obstructive pulmonary…… [Read More]
In 1915, after some work with other physicists, instein published his General Theory of Relativity, in a form still used today -- explaining gravitation as a distortion of the structure of space-time by matter. (Isaacson, 2008).
instein spent the World War I years in Berlin, continuing to publish and gain attention from the worldwide scientific community. In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"(Lieber, 2008). From then on instein was in demand as a lecturer, teacher, and colleague (not always agreed with). He used his previous work to continually work on what he called his Unified Field Theory, which attempted to bring numerous disciplines together in one solid theory of the universe. Still, his work was seminal for much of modern physics, and his work remains the basis for current…… [Read More]
Henri Matisse -- Western Tradition
FAUVISM AND THE WESTERN PICTORIAL TRADITION
Henri Matisse (1869 -- 1954), a painter, draughtsman, sculptor, printmaker, designer and author, came into the world of art comparatively late in his life and made his reputation as the main exponent of Fauvism, the first avante-garde artistic movement of the 20th century. As Jacques Lassaigne points out, Matisse "never ceased probing the mystery of the creative process and applied an intelligence far above the average to discovering the origins of his art. . . (15). Thus, Matisse created images full of spontaneity with rich surface textures, lively linear patterns and boldly clashing effects based on primary colors. Also, his subject matter was varied as his painting methods, although many familiar subjects linked to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism still remained.
It is relatively simple to understand how Matisse escaped from the confines of the Impressionists, for all one…… [Read More]
And we know that the subsequent international crisis, which was especially intense during the summer and autumn of 1961, threatened the world with the risk of a military conflict, one that seemed as if it could escalate at any time into nuclear confrontation between the U.S. And the Soviet Union" (p. 44). Over the next 25 years, the Berlin Wall grew both in terms of its physical dimensions as well as in its increasingly clear message to the world that the Soviet Union was going to do everything possible to contain its citizens in East Berlin in what was tantamount to an enormous prison. In this regard, Tijus and Santolini (1996) report that, "The main purpose of the wall that enclosed West Berlin was to prevent East Germans from crossing into West Berlin (and therefore into West Germany). The wall was 167.7 kilometers long. Concrete slabs, other walls, buildings, and…… [Read More]
Gay rights movement began late in the 20th century. This movement was based on empowering homosexuals and ensuring that they could get the same quality of life as others that were not homosexuals. Prior to this movement, many homosexuals concealed the fact that they were gay for a number of different reasons. These include the fact that it was not socially correct to be openly gay, and gays were subject to threats and acts of violence. Because of this movement, there are several different facets of life that have changed for homosexuals today.
Perhaps at the core of the movement for gay rights that initiated at the end of the last century is the concept of tolerance. Tolerance is a wide sweeping social phenomenon that includes religion, ethnicity, nationality, gender, disability, and even sexual orientation. The crux of the gay rights movement was to produce a society in which there…… [Read More]
N. In the 1960s had backfired. Generations of schoolchildren had practiced the useless "duck and cover" exercise under their desks in case of a nuclear attack, and thousands of families still had the remnants of a bomb shelter in their basements or backyards. And all living at the time remember the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Soviet nuclear missiles 90 miles away -- and the world just "this" close to war (jfk library, n.d.).
This was no joke and no game. It was real and it was scary. The end of the Cold War removed that fear, and, for a while made us all feel safer. That is why the end of the Cold War has to be the one overriding significant event of the 1990s and the one that most impacted our country and its citizens.
It wasn't until September 11, 2001 that the U.S. really had to face its…… [Read More]
Eugene O'Neill's play, "The Emperor Jones (1921)," is the horrifying story of Rufus Jones, the monarch of a West Indian island, presented in a single act of eight scenes of violence and disturbing images. O'Neill's sense of tragedy comes out undiluted in this surreal and nightmarish study of Jones' character in a mighty struggle and tension between black Christianity and black paganism (IMD). Jones is an unforgettable character in his powerfulness and fatalness, made most evident by the support of language, sound and other stage effects, such as the dreadful drumming sounds and the Emperor's hallucinations. This psychological drama delves into the nature of power, the inevitable pull of history and in the belief in the supernatural as these were experienced in the first two decades of the last century.
The play is a monument to O'Neill's vision of conflict between a man and his own psyche, "between learning what…… [Read More]
The student journalists sued, citing the Tinker standard (Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 1988).
The issue in this case, while similar to those of Tinker and Fraser, differed in that the question was not about "obviously inappropriate" language, or about viewpoint discrimination. Instead, the issue was whether a school official had the right to censor school-sponsored publications if they believe the material is inappropriate for some students, or that the material will disrupt the school atmosphere. ather than being a question of power over dissent, the issue was over pedagogical concerns (Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 1988).
In a 5-3 vote, the Court ruled that the school did have a right to censor school-sponsored publications when their reasoning was based on legitimate concerns about the educational atmosphere. In their decision, the Court noted the difference between private student speech and student speech that is sponsored by the school. Since the…… [Read More]
The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.
Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…… [Read More]
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…… [Read More]
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida
This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.
We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…… [Read More]
There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.
Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…… [Read More]
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…… [Read More]
Women in 20th Century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change
20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the husband and father was the man of the house and the sole financial provider or “breadwinner” for the family. Given the narrowness of existence for these women, and how limited their choices were, their reactions to this type of domestic captivity were all very diverse. Some women responded to the limiting social conventions by conforming to the expectations placed upon them, while others made great…… [Read More]
Fauvism in 20th-century Paintings
The medium I have selected for the time line I will be working on for the museum website is 20th-century Western painting, sharing the common theme of Fauvism.
th-century Western painting began with the weighty influence of painters like Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Georges Seurat, Henri de Toulouse Lautrec and the like - all of whom played critical roles in shaping the modern art. At the start of the 20th-century Henri Matisse, along with a number of other young artists including Andre Derain, aoul Dufy, and Maurice de Vlaminck collectively influenced the existing Paris art scene by introducing "bold," vividly vibrant paintings of landscapes and figure. The style adopted by these young artists that have been referred to as Fauvism by critics. Fauvism is predominantly talked about as the style characteristic of the works of a seemingly loose group of Modern artists in…… [Read More]
Vietnam in the 20th Century
In the year 2012, the country of Vietnam is a united nation which has a Communist government and a people who are predominantly poor. Before this time, Vietnam went through centuries of turmoil up until the war between Vietnam and the United States wherein North and South Vietnam became a single country. hat began the process of dividing Vietnam and isolating its people was the colonization of Vietnam by the French government. According to historian Peter Stearns (2008): "History must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings." In a study of the country of Vietnam, it is important to understand the nation's history and events which may have impacted that country's current psychological and sociological makeup.…… [Read More]
Balzac and Kafka: From Realism to Magical Realism
French author Honore de Balzac defined the genre of realism in the early 19th century with his novel Old Man Goriot, which served as a cornerstone for his more ambitious project, The Human Comedy. Old Man Goriot also served as a prototype for realistic novels, with its setting of narrative parameters which included plot, structure, characterization, and point-of-view. The 20th century, however, digressed considerably from the genre of realism. Franz Kafka, for example, has been considered as one of the forerunners of the genre known as Magical Realism. endy B. Faris defines the genre of Magical Realism as the combination of "realism and the fantastic so that the marvelous seems to grow organically within the ordinary, blurring the distinction between them… [including] different cultural traditions" (1). Faris finds magical realism to exist at the crossroads of modernism and post-modernism, as a kind…… [Read More]
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and women's roles were unavoidably mixed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was a time in which many women protested their restrictions through novels, poetry, pamphlets, and speeches. By analyzing those creations, readings can begin to understand the lives of those forward-looking women. In their own time, people dismissed them as inconsequential complainers. Minority authors, like blacks and lesbians were even more ignored. However, by learning about their work, we can learn about the daily life of the social classes to which they belonged.
Many people feel that our socioeconomic status limits our understanding of others (McClish and Bacon). Because our understanding is limited by our own viewpoint from our socioeconomic status, patriarchal societies tend to limit self-expression to that which is compatible with the patriarchy. As a result, it's important to remember to ask questions based one's own experience,…… [Read More]
It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.
Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."
oles of Women
Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna
Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…… [Read More]
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…… [Read More]
Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century
Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.
Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.
This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.
ags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…… [Read More]
corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…… [Read More]
The only image from the time that we have of the original dress is in the film poster (Image 5), where one can see that the dress showed quite a big of leg, which was considered improper and that is why the film commissioned a tailor to sew up Givenchy's original design, as to not offend anybody in the audience. hat a pity, for today, the dress would perhaps be ever-more popular.
In the third image, however, which is the picture of the dress as seen at Christie's, one can see that one of the photos shows the dress with the slit. Yet this discussion of without or without the cut prompts the thought of the fact that these are two dresses, one created by Givenchy, and one a copy created by another designer, a 'knock-off' almost, that together with the original created a phenomenon of epic proportions. Could it…… [Read More]
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.
According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. hen one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…… [Read More]
The progressive era in American political culture set the stage for President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal. Starting in the 1890s, the Progressive Era drew upon Marxist theory of labor exploitation to help balance unbridled capitalist growth during the Gilded Age of industrial development. Progressivism welcomed social and technological progress both by suggesting reforms in both government and business to reduce corruption and ensure a higher quality of life for all Americans. Two of the progressive political party movements during the turn of the century included the Populist Party and the Bull Moose Party. Progressive values then later became embedded in the platform of the Democratic Party when President Franklin Roosevelt became president.
Some of the specific issues spearheaded by the Progressive movement included labor rights, women's suffrage, and anti-trust laws. During the age of urbanization, the Progressive movement helped to improve what was rapidly becoming deplorable and deteriorating living and…… [Read More]
Civil War and by the mid-20th century, the United States was a prevailing and influential nation in the global politics. This was enhanced by the high level of involvement in controlling the events that take place across the world. The U.S. has been an active player in working with other international players in the processes of promoting peace and coexistence among the nations. Its large stake in a number of countries politically or economically has made the U.S. A major player in the international politics. The high involvement of the United States in international relations has led many to argue that it to be considered as the 'policemen of the world'. "The United States acts as the world's police, through taking policy and practical military action/missions in war/conflict torn areas across the world, with the focus to enforce global security."
Indeed, many people have argued that the U.S.…… [Read More]
Higher Ed Course
Course Design: 20th Century History and Popular Music
For many students, popular music is scene as being disposable and readily replaceable. The nature of the modern media cycle means that much of what dominates the sphere of popular music is inherently designed to achieve vast commercial appeal with a short shelf-life. However, there are also ways in which popular music has figured critically into moments in history. This is the premise that underscores the proposed higher education course, which would be couched within the broader discipline of History.
The proposed course is intended to draw parallels between important moments in history and the way that the culture of popular music connected to these moments or in some powerful instances such as the British Invasion, oodstock and the Hip Hop movement, even came to define some of these important historical moments. Using different eras in history…… [Read More]
Vietnamese History In the 20th Century
There has been much controversy regarding the Vietnam ar, considering that the general public has gradually come to acknowledge that it was unproductive for the American military as a result of a series of factors that prevented both leaders and soldiers from acting effectively. Taking this into account, one can observe how the Vietnam ar came to be one of the most debated conflicts in history because of the rules of engagement (ROE) employed in it. The ROE in the Vietnam ar were initially meant to ensure that the conduct of war took place in safe conditions and slowly but surely evolved into being a tool in the hands of politicians. Individuals such as George Donelson Moss got actively engaged in discussing regarding the topic, given that one of his books, "Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition" goes at highlighting errors in management during…… [Read More]
The term "neo-orthodoxy" refers to a 20th century movement among Protestant theologians -- in the United States and in Europe -- that emerged following the bloody carnage of orld ar I. The disillusionment that several Christian theologians -- and millions of others impacted by the ar -- experienced led to a rejection of the liberal Christian movement which had urged the adaptation of an ongoing sense of optimism that seemed to cling to the literal translation and understanding of the Bible. Some parts of the Bible simply could not be true, according to neo-orthodoxy, and this point-of-view continues today albeit not under the neo-orthodoxy movement per se.
This paper reviews the tenets of neo-orthodoxy and embraces the writings and the philosophies of notable theologians like Karl Barth, Emil Brunner, Rudolf Bultmann, and Reinhold Niebuhr. These theologians are linked by their understanding of neo-orthodoxy, and by their advocacy of neo-orthodoxy;…… [Read More]
Treatment of Prisoners in ussia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century
The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical ussia, but still remains a concern even in the present day ussian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in ussia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…… [Read More]
The metanoetic goal of reaching beyond the mind's cognitive limitations is not regarded as attainable through art, yet the Dutch author envisions that new figuration presents the potential of temporarily short-circuiting self-referential faculties and unleashing otherwise confined awareness. Previous modern figuration is described as anchored in mimesis and therefore strived for comprehension, whereas new figuration feigns an allegorical representation, subject to comprehension, in order to trick the viewer into overcoming nous, the mind (Esmann).
Under these terms, two courses of action might be employed, namely presenting two mutually exclusive narratives or excluding any narrative from the action, and thereby deconstructing comprehension. "There is no story, no meaning, no allegory; only metanous" (Esmann), therefore the mind either rejects the installment as devoid of meaning, or stills into a perceptive ideal characterized by non-conceptual awareness of being. Interestingly, abstract expressionism is incompatible with expressing metanoesis due to the fact that the phenomenon…… [Read More]
Paragraph 1: Explain the ways and causes in which the “New South” emerged economically in the late 19th century and the impact on the region after the Civil War.
The New South was characterized by a shift from a plantation-based economy to one which was more industrialized and therefore similar to the North (Dixon, 2009). Unionization proliferated, giving new empowerment to lower class whites. Skilled labor, capital, and new wealth was generated. The South began to rebuild. On the other hand, African-Americans were simultaneously disempowered through a network of Jim Crow laws.
Paragraph 2: Explain the European and Asian Immigration described as “the New Immigrants” and how they were viewed in the late 19th century by American society.
Immigration reached new heights after the Civil War, surging to “5.2 million in the 1880s then surging to 8.2 million in the first decade of the 20th century” (“The New Immigrants,” 2016,…… [Read More]
The Gilded Age witnessed industrial progress and accumulated wealth that boosted the growth of the middle class, yet at the same time there was the spread of "appalling" conditions in the slum areas of the cities, the farmers were in desperate times, and factory workers and others were trampled upon by the wheels of progress (Progressive pp). The "war between capital and labor" demonstrated that Americans were willing to fight for their economic rights, and many historians believe that if the conditions of the working poor had not been addresses, the country very likely would have been thrown into another revolution (Progressive pp). Yet, a revolution did actually take place, just not on the battlefield (Progressive pp). It was called the Progressive Movement, and as a basic conservative movement, it was not meant to cause as stir, but to address the problems of society and find solutions in…… [Read More]
women's dress movement. The writer explores the movement and the progression of changes in women's dress through the years with the movement. The writer places an emphasis on the feminists of the era that created and continued the dress movement. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
For many years the 1960's have gotten all the credit for the women's movement in America. Many people believe that the movement began then and escalated until women were the equal partners that they are today. While many of the women's movements largest steps did indeed occur in the 1960's the actual movement began many years before that. The women's movement was alive and active in the 1800's and caused as many if not more changes for females than the more recent movement has caused. Today's women dress for success and comfort. The very fact that they can choose what to…… [Read More]
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is an integral part of military strategy. eferring to the interception and decoding of enemy communications, SIGINT is the topic of Peter Matthew's 2013 publication, SIGINT: The Secret History of Signals Intelligence 1914-1945. Matthew focuses on the history of SIGINT until the Cold War. What makes SIGINT: The Secret History of Signals Intelligence unique is that the author presents the Axis point-of-view on SIGINT. As Matthew (2013) puts it, the author's aim is "to tell the other side of the Bletchley Park story," (p. 16).
A brief introduction describes what SIGINT is and how it evolved through technological and strategic changes. SIGINT is related to cryptography, because it encompasses the decoding of encrypted messages. The author points out that the book will be emphasizing Bletchley Park and Ultra, which were instrumental in bringing about the Allied Victory in the Second World War. Moreover, the author is interested…… [Read More]
Anger is a dated film. It is not simply dated because of its gritty, black and white texture, and its stark and somewhat schematic portrayal of class conflict in 1950's postwar Britain. It is dated by the lack of importance it gives to race in Great Britain, and also by the pitting of men against women, with working class men becoming 'the good' that is the radical sex, while women are cast in subordinate, subservient, and constraining roles.
In terms of the plot of "Look Back in Anger," the protagonist, an educated working class lad of taste, talent, and verbal alacrity, named Jimmy Porter, is reduced to selling sweets to make a living in an England that denies him advancement because of his class. He is constantly angry at the limited life he leads, and takes to lashing out at his wife and playing the trumpet to release his anger.…… [Read More]
Paul Valery was a French poet, essayist, and critic, who gave up writing for 20 years to pursue work in the scientific arena. His poetic style was based on symbolism and he believed that the mental process of creation was what was really important and that the poetry that he wrote was a by-product of the effort. "Enthusiasm is not an artist's state of mind," stated Valery. T.. Eliot has compared Valery's analytical attitude to a scientist who works in a laboratory "weighting out or testing the drugs of which is compounded some medicine with an impressive name."
Poetry is simply literature reduced to the essence of its active principle. It is purged of idols of every kind, of realistic illusions, of any conceivable equivocation between the language of "truth" and the language of "creation." (from Litterature, 1929)
His quote, "Beauty is a way of death. The novelty, the intensity,…… [Read More]
Lady Chatterley's Lover - DH Lawrence
According to Lawrence, World War I was a tragic disgrace and resulted in a chaotic society in England. He felt that the English morals and guidelines changed drastically after the war. In the first chapter of "Lady Chatterley's Lover," Lawrence wrote: "Ours is essentially a tragic age, so we refuse to take it tragically. The cataclysm has happened, we are among the ruins, we start to build up new little habitats, to have new little hopes (Lawrence, 1995, p. 2)."
Lady Chatterley's Lover is full of social, political, and cultural implications. y focusing on the forbidden relationship between Lady Connie Chatterley and Oliver Mellors, Lawrence reveals a great deal about the structure and politics of post-war society.
While the main theme of this book is love, the unproductiveness, inhumanity and ugliness of life in a local mining community play a large role in this…… [Read More]
Lenin's form of Marxism/Communism as applied to the Russian economy backfired. Why? What happened? What went wrong that he and other Marxists/Communists did not anticipate?
Of course, Lenin wanted to improve productivity and use this improvement as a means to create and uphold operations of Lenin's version of a Marxist economy. Lenin attempted to take classes of people and improve the economy even though the first World War was causing problems. They tried the War Communism approach. owever, it did not go well because Lenin did not accurately guage the level of Russia's economic problems. In addition, Lenin pushed too hard and two soon into full-fledged Communism and the country was simply not ready for that yet. e also tried the NEP, confiscation of a portion of business products and so forth and that equally failed.
Lenin coined the phrase, "Commanding eights" to describe the system that managed the economy…… [Read More]
A Brief Look
13733 Brimhurst Dr., Houston, TX 77077
Short Story and Poetry
Lowe, Motley, and L. Smith
Lesson: Elements of a Story
There were twenty two students.
The first hour they were given laptops and use of headphones and were able to sign in, in order to access the content/assignment. They were given 3 tasks for a homework assignment. The students received a "warm-up journal," so they could practice expression through writing and strengthen their overall writing ability. They also read from text and students either were chosen by the teacher or elected to volunteer. The homework that was given, was due weekly, on Fridays. Some of the adjectives they went over concerning personality project was: connotation, denotation, sentence, picture, synonym, and antonym.
In the second hour, there were fourteen students.
The assignment was a personal narrative outline. They had to quote similes/metaphors…… [Read More]
" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."
During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."
In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."
Russia's Revolution…… [Read More]
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…… [Read More]
The IRC allowed thousands of people in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas Australia join together at a moment's notice in a cross-cultural communication. It has enabled a global subculture to be built from artificial but stable identities, quick wit, and the use of words to construct an imagined shared conservational context. The thousands of people tuned who are on IRC at any one time are divided into hundreds of "channels" that Internet users can join or leave at any time; like Usenet newsgroups, the channels consist of a rich variety of topics, from the academic to the obscene.
Some of the things that took place at the end of the century were a mix of good and bad. For example, According to the World Bank, global poverty rate has fallen to 21.1% since 1990. In 2001 there were 100 million fewer people living in poverty than in 1990 and…… [Read More]
20th Century a Good Century for Labor?
By all accounts, the early 20th century was a terrible time to be a worker in the United States. ages were low, benefits were virtually nonexistent, and safety considerations were not even a consideration. There was no unemployment or disability insurance for the vast majority of workers, and the labor movements that emerged during the early and middle 20th century were largely in response to these conditions. Further, a number of key pieces of legislation were passed during the 20th century that helped to address these inequities in the workplace. Unfortunately, a downside to the emergence of labor unions was a concomitant increase in the corruption and collusion between big business and labor leaders who did not always have their constituents' best interests at heart. To determine whether the 20th century ended up being a good century for labor or not, this paper…… [Read More]
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]
Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain
Private Property in 16th Century Spain
Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]