20th Century Essays (Examples)

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19th and 20th Centuries Americans

Words: 3665 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49376107

In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).

The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…… [Read More]


Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.

Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood

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The Russian Prisoners in 18th 19th and 20th Centuries

Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48718432

Treatment of Prisoners in ussia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century

The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical ussia, but still remains a concern even in the present day ussian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in ussia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…… [Read More]


Boytinck P., (1995). What Happened to Stalin's German prisoner-of-war. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/General/HnetPrisoners1.html

Committee of The Judiciary U.S. Senate, (1972). Communist Treatment of Prisoners of War: A Historical Survey. December 10, 2015 from https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/comm_treat_POW.pdf

Gessen M. (2013). Life in A Russian Prison. December 10, 2015 from http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/life-in-a-russian-prison/?_r=0

Mekler J., (2015). Vasily Vereshchagin: The Road of War Prisoners. Brooklyn Museum, 06.46, Oil on Canvas.
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Revolutions of the Early 20th

Words: 1186 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56653730

" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."

During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."

In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."

Russia's Revolution…… [Read More]

Works Cited

MacEwan, Arthur. Banishing the Mexican Revolution. Monthly Review. (1991): 01 November.

The Path to Revolution. (accessed 12 October, 2004). http://www.interknowledge.com/russia/rushis06.htm).

Unknown. India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
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American Pragmatism in the 20th

Words: 1778 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64171687

Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.

Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.

Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…… [Read More]


Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,


James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
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Borders as the Last Century

Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53330743

The IRC allowed thousands of people in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas Australia join together at a moment's notice in a cross-cultural communication. It has enabled a global subculture to be built from artificial but stable identities, quick wit, and the use of words to construct an imagined shared conservational context. The thousands of people tuned who are on IRC at any one time are divided into hundreds of "channels" that Internet users can join or leave at any time; like Usenet newsgroups, the channels consist of a rich variety of topics, from the academic to the obscene.

Some of the things that took place at the end of the century were a mix of good and bad. For example, According to the World Bank, global poverty rate has fallen to 21.1% since 1990. In 2001 there were 100 million fewer people living in poverty than in 1990 and…… [Read More]

However, there is controversy about the extent or impact of this. For example, in his report "Are we Really Reducing Poverty?" Vandemoortele argues that poverty cannot be correctly understood with the use of a single indicator. Global poverty estimates based on the $1-a-day norm are incorrect and misleading. They under-estimate global poverty and over-estimate poverty reduction -- thus give a false sense of progress and inaccurate complacency.

The changes form a world without borders are already occurring. The European Union of twenty-seven independent states was founded to enhance political, economic and social co-operation. In the United States, the demographics are changing with a much smaller African-American and Caucasian population growth compared to the Asian and Hispanic. Meanwhile, companies are developing satellites all over the world, so employees will end of working at different world locations. The major implication is that people of all backgrounds and culture are going to have to get along with each other. Given today's volatile world, this is questionable.

Vandemoortele, J. "Are we Really Reducing Poverty?" In World Poverty: new policies to defeat an old enemy (Ed). Peter Townsend and David Gordon, New York: The Policy Press, 2002.
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Was the Twentieth Century a Good Century for Labor

Words: 1636 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70710316

20th Century a Good Century for Labor?

By all accounts, the early 20th century was a terrible time to be a worker in the United States. ages were low, benefits were virtually nonexistent, and safety considerations were not even a consideration. There was no unemployment or disability insurance for the vast majority of workers, and the labor movements that emerged during the early and middle 20th century were largely in response to these conditions. Further, a number of key pieces of legislation were passed during the 20th century that helped to address these inequities in the workplace. Unfortunately, a downside to the emergence of labor unions was a concomitant increase in the corruption and collusion between big business and labor leaders who did not always have their constituents' best interests at heart. To determine whether the 20th century ended up being a good century for labor or not, this paper…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abraham, Steven E. (1996). "The Impact of the Taft-Hartley Act on the Balance of Power in Industrial Relations." American Business Law Journal, 33(3):341.

Condit, Celeste M. And Enid M.I. Sefcovic. (2001). "Narrative and Social Change: A Case

Study of the Wagner Act of 1935." Communication Studies, 52(4):284.

Cooper, Marc. (2002, December 9). "Labor Pains: Unions Are Edging into the Peace
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Twentieth Century Designers

Words: 468 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78457482

20th Century Fashion and Designers

According to Tara Maginnis of Costumes.org, the prominent silhouette for a woman in (in estern cultures) was a thin-waisted shape created by a tightly-laced corset. She writes "The Hourglass shape of the woman of the 1890's transformed after 1897 into the "S" curve of 1897-1908. This change came from longer lined "health" corsets that supported the spine and abdomen, especially when they were over-laced by the fashionable. Fashionable women in this period seem to be leaning into a wind." As mentioned above, this "S" shape was a slight change from the hourglass shape favored prior to 1897, and it was highly influenced by Art Neaveau illustration.

One particularly influential designer of the time was Spanish designer Mariano Fortuny, who was working in France at the time. According to his biography on the Fortuny company website, He is most famous for designing the "Delphos Gown," which…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Maginnis, Tara. (2008). "The Turn of the 20th Century." Web. .

Fortnuy Company. (2010). "Legacy." Web. .

Westin Tomas, Pauline. (2010). "Edwardian Hats and Hair Fashion." Web. .

Vadeboncoeur, Jim. (1999). "Leyendecker." Web. .