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Hypnosis in Medicine
Proven and Effective: The ontinued use of Hypnosis in Modern Western Medicine
Alternative medical therapy has become an increasingly discussed topic in the medical profession as more and more clinicians and agencies study and build collective works on the issues surrounding preventative and holistic medical care. It has begun to be acknowledged across the field that traditional Western medicine may have been entirely to focused on the technology and mechanisms that govern disease and not as focused as need be on the human needs of the patient.
Through this new emphasis on holistic care doctors, nurses, hospitals and their governing boards have begun to readdress issues of old, issues like the melding of eastern and western traditional therapies, sound therapy, aroma therapy, spiritual therapy and many others. At this what some would call the crossroads of this holistic focus one of the first things that has occurred…
Child psychologists may practice hypnosis, as do selected pediatric nurse practitioners. Hobbie (1989) suggested that the hypnotist make a tape of hypnotic suggestions for the child to use every night at home, so that he can then gradually learn to repeat those same positive suggestions to himself without the use of the tape. (Teets 96)
Cognitive-behavioral-based treatment programs focus on providing patients with skills to enhance their sense of control over the effects of pain. Relaxation training, imagery, biofeedback, and hypnosis can be used to modify attention focus as well as to enhance the sense of mastery. Cognitive techniques are used to help place affective, behavioral, cognitive, and sensory responses under patients' control, the assumption being that long-term behavioral changes are more likely to be maintained when the patient attributes success to his or her efforts (Dolce, 1987). (Block, Kremer and Fernandez 32)
Andrew R. Block, Edwin F. Kremer and Ephrem Fernandez, eds., Handbook of Pain Syndromes: Biopsychosocial Perspectives (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999) 297.
It is caused be the chemical imbalances in the brain and for such illnesses conventional medicines should only be used rather than Hypnosis. The symptoms for schizophrenia include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior and speech (Jeff Gazley). Hypnosis with people diagnosed with schizophrenia can cause severe disruptions and would do more harm than any good.
The effectiveness of Hypnosis was explored in the case of the reduction of pain in osteoarthritis. Patients were involved who were experiencing this pain in either the knee of the hip area. The patients were divided into three groups and each group underwent three options. The first group was put through eight standardized sessions of hypnosis whereas the second group was given the same number of sessions of Jacobson relaxation. The third group served to be a control. After the completion of the sessions, it was observed that the group of patients, who had…
1) History of Hypnosis - Available at http://hypnoticworld.com/facts/history_of_hypnosis.asp [Accessed on: 20/09/2005]
2) G.M. Johnson - Hypnosis: A Brief History and Explanation. [Online website] Available at http://www.head-cleaners.com/hypnosis.htm [Accessed on: 20/09/2005]
3) John Sderlund - Your tired, old ideas about hypnosis will begin to grow heavy. [Online website] Available at http://www.newtherapist.com/tired10.html [Accessed on: 20/09/2005]
4) Methods of Hypnosis - Available at http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/02086/methods_of_hypnosis.htm[Accessed on: 20/09/2005]
Whole belief systems can be transformed with the power of hypnosis, which is why the technique is used for treating addictions and phobias. On the Tonight Show with David Letterman, actor Matt Damon lauded the power of hypnosis to help him stop smoking. Damon noted, "I should have done it years ago. It's amazing - I didn't even want cigarettes any more," (cited on the Hypnosis Network).
No absolute statistics for the effectiveness of hypnosis are possible due to a number of intervening variables that interfere with research validity and reliability. Hypnosis works in part because of the cooperation of the client. The placebo effect is a type of hypnosis: the person tricks his or her body or mind based on the belief that a substance is working. In other words, the placebo effect is hypnosis in action. Hypnosis proves that it does not matter whether or not a pill…
Brody, J.E. (2008). The Possibilities in Hypnosis, Where the Patient Has the Power. The New York Times. Nov 3, 2008. Retrieved Nov 11, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/04/health/04brody.html?ref=science
Hypnosis Network. (2008). What Do Tiger Woods, Kevin Costner, Matt Damon, and Jackie Kennedy All Have in Common? Retrieved Nov 1, 2008 at http://www.hypnosisnetwork.com/index.php
Hypnosis Shown To Reduce Symptoms Of Dementia." (2008). Science Daily. Retrieved Nov 11, 2008 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080728111402.htm
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008). Hypnosis: Another way to manage pain, kick bad habits. Retrieved Nov 1, 2008 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypnosis/SA00084
Niehaus, Joseph. (2000). Investigative Forensic Hypnosis. New York: CRC Press.
This heavily-researched book by Joseph Niehaus explores a number of areas related to the use of hypnosis in the courtroom. Although hypnosis has come under much dissent in recent years, Niehaus points out that it can serve as a powerful tool when collecting information from witnesses and aids prosecutors by enabling the witness to recall forgotten details. Niehaus also provides a discussion on various applications, suggestibility, ethics, polygraph use and induction techniques.
In addition, Niehaus leads the reader through a step-by-step session and discusses ethics, court requirements and various techniques for successful investigative hypnosis. Despite the fact that Niehaus argues for the use of testimony based on hypnosis, he does divulge some information based on real cases which seems to contradict the use of testimony by a person who underwent hypnosis before the start of a trial.
Hypnosis in Investigation
Before discussing hypnosis in investigation, it is important to understand what the term hypnosis means. American Psychological Association (1994) defines hypnosis as "an interaction between one person, the 'hypnotist', and another person or people, the 'subject' or 'subjects'." In the process the subjects' perceptions, feelings, thinking, and behavior are influenced by the hypnotist, this is done by asking the subject to concentrate on ideas and images that may induce the intended effects. The hypnotist will use 'suggestions' to bring out these effects, the difference between these 'suggestions' and instructions used daily is that the success is measured by a state involuntariness or effortlessness by the subject.
Hypnosis has been applied in various fields including crime investigations, in which case it is referred to as forensic hypnosis. The main aim of forensic hypnosis is to bring into memory of a witness events or details of things that they…
American Psychological Association, Division of Psychological Hypnosis. (1994). Definition and description of hypnosis. Contemporary Hypnosis, 11, 143.
Anderton, C.H. (1986). The forensic use of hypnosis. In F.A. De Piano & H.C. Salzberg (Eds.),
Clinical applications of hypnosis (pp. 197-223). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Lynn, S.J. & Sherman, S.J. (2000). The clinical importance of sociocognitive models of hypnosis: Response set theory and Milton Erickson's strategic interventions. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 42, 294 -- 315.
The conclusion of most contemporary psychologists is that hypnotized subjects may believe that their actions under hypnosis are involuntary when, in fact, those subjects who are considered "hypnotizable" generally are responding to their expectations and their desire to validate the hypnotist's expectations too. That also would explain why some people are not hypnotizable at all and why hypnotized people generally will not follow directions that they would consider highly offensive when they are not hypnotized (Pinker, 2002). Therefore, this should not be a concern.
Hypnotic Suggestion for Memory Enhancement, Studying, and Pain elief
Because hypnosis is similar to meditation, it has been used with some success to help people overcome fears and addictive habits (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Pinker, 2002). People who have a strong desire to improve their study habits or their memory can potentially use either traditional meditation or mental visualization techniques to help achieve those goals; hypnotism…
Gerrig R, Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Pinker S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York:
Scientific research has proven how valuable hypnosis is in relieving the symptoms of mental and physical ailments.
However, the open state of mind that hypnosis creates can be misused and abused. One area in which abuse is possible is in the planting of false memories. False memories are not always directly or deliberately planted. In some cases, the simple suggestion that some event might have occurred is enough for a client to believe that it did take place. Once the idea is formed, the person perceives that thought as a "memory."
Loftus outlines a series of case studies that show that hypnosis has been and still is used to coax "memories" out of people, usually women or children. Unscrupulous psychiatrists or hypnotherapists might plant memories of physical or sexual abuse. False memories can pose serious legal problems for defendants but also for psychiatrists. One woman sued a psychiatrist for planting…
Durbin, Paul G. "Hypnosis and Religious Faith." Excerpt from Kissing Frogs Practical Uses of Hypnotherapy. 1997. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 from http://www.godrules.net/NeuroSemantics_Articals_PaulGDurbin_Hypnosis.html
Fromm, Erika and Shor, Ronald E. Hypnosis: New Developments in Research and New Perspectives. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine, 1979
"Hypnosis has Real Brain Effect." BBC.com. 16 Nov 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8359170.stm
Hypnosis & Drugs
Hypnosis may not always be taken very seriously, but studies have shown that it can be highly effective in some cases (Astin, et al., 2003). That is often because some individuals are more susceptible to the power of suggestion than others (Elkins & ajab, 2004). These people are more easily hypnotized, while others claim they cannot be hypnotized at all. For those who are able to be hypnotized, the power of suggestion can help them overcome addictions to everything from caffeine to heroin (Elkins & ajab, 2004). Marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol addictions have also been successfully treated with hypnosis in some people (Elkins & ajab, 2004). This information can be used in many different settings, but it is important to note that it is not considered mainstream in its usage and it will not be the right choice for every person struggling with addiction to one or…
Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D.M., & Forys, K.L. (2003). Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners, 16(2): 131 -- 147.
Elkins, G.R. & Rajab, M.H. (2004). Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: Preliminary results of a three-session intervention. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 52(1): 73 -- 81.
Hypnosis in Memory Retrieval
In recent years there has been a myriad of books and articles written concerning the use of hypnosis and memory retrieval. Aside from the clinical application of hypnosis in treating a variety of psychiatric disorders, hypnosis has received much news coverage concerning its use in awakening early memories of sexual abuse, and even past life therapy. Moreover, there are numerous books and CDs available teaching self-hypnosis as a means memory improvement and recall as well as a method of self-help or self-therapy. Hypnosis, today, is used in a variety of therapy and research, including criminal investigations. Hypnosis is viewed as viable research and therapy tool.
Hypnosis is said to be a social interaction "in which one person, the subject, responds to suggestions given by another person, the hypnotist, for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception, memory, and the voluntary control of action" (Memory pg). The responses…
Alman, Brain M.; Lambrou, Peter T. Self-Hypnosis: The Complete Manual for Health and Self-Change. Brunner-Mazel Trade. November 1991; pp 5.
Clinical Hypnosis and Self-Regulation: Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives (Dissociation,
Trauma, Memory, and Hypnosis Book Series). American Psychological Association. January 15, 1999; pp 21.
Heller, Steven. Monsters and Magical Sticks or There's No Such Thing As Hypnosis
ILLUSION OR REALITY?
The Trouble with Hypnosis
What is Real and What Isn't in Hypnosis and Altered States
Hypnosis is that technique, which is believed to bring about a special state of consciousness wherein seemingly miraculous works are done without the use of pain-killers (Harary, 1992). It began with the elemental theory of animal magnetism by Franz Anton Mesmer about two centuries ago. In that long span of time, it was laughed off as a quackery until in recent decades when it was found to be quite useful. It came into widespread clinical use in both medical and psychological purposes, particularly in boring into the unconscious to eliminate buried memories or surviving responses to experience. It has demonstrated usefulness in tackling childbirth pain, wart removal, smoking cessation, weight management and the elimination of phobias (Harary).
For the lack of a standard procedure in its use, it has remained…
Harary, K (1992). The trouble with hypnosis. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers.
Retrieved on February 27, 2015 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200910/the-trouble-hypnosis
I responded "I owe a lot of money." The hypnotist then followed up with questions designed to determine what I meant and I subsequently revealed that I have concerns about my student loans and that the current economic crisis is the reason that I have begun worrying about this now.
In actuality, my student loans are not so excessive that they should cause me to lose sleep over them, but the recent focus on debt issues and the implications of credit problems in today's economic environment were apparently on my mind subconsciously.
On a conscious level, I was genuinely unaware that this was bothering me. However, as soon as the hypnosis session brought this to my conscious mind, I experienced an immediate sense of relief because it allowed me to address the concern consciously.
Since realizing the source of my stress, I have not experienced further sleeping problems.
People experience trauma, addiction, mental breakdowns every day. Whether it is obsessive behavior, trying to make one's self fit into a model mystique so worshipped by the masses, or even just breaking the cycle of abuse, people time and time again have needed assistance in facing their demons. Hypnotherapy, before commercials and the movies that hyped it turned it into what is perceived as a "faux science," was actually once thought of as a useful form of treatment. "Hypnosis was once a viable treatment approach for addictions. Then, due to hypnosis being used for entertainment purposes many professionals lost confidence in it" (Potter, 2004, pp. 21). It is, to some extent. In fact doctors have found hypnotherapy useful in conjunction with traditional therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. New research suggests that although hypnotherapy may not be a viable singular treatment option, it can help in a host of mental disorders…
Golabadi,, M., Tabad, H., Yaghoubi, M., & Gholamrezaei, A. (2012). Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Opium Addiction: A Pilot Study. Integrative Medicine, 11(3), 19-22.
Gruzelier, J.H. (2006). Frontal functions, connectivity and neural efficiency underpinning hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1), 15-32.
Huynh, M.E., Vandvik, I.H., & Diseth, T.H. (2008). Hypnotherapy In Child Psychiatry: The State Of The Art. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(3), 377-393.
Kankaanpe, A., Liukkonen, R., & Ariniemi, K. (2007). Determination of g-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: A salting-out approach. Forensic Science International, 170, 133-138.
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
There are also physiological data indicating that people really do experience hypnotic suggestions. ecent brain-imagining studies show that when hallucinations or pain inhibition is suggested, brain activity can be observed that is consistent with the suggested experiences (Kirsh, 2001)."
Alternate consciousness states also provide humans with the ability to numb themselves to pain and stress. Whether it is the use of drugs, drinking in excess or learning to meditate each morning, the ability to alter one's state of consciousness can allow at least a temporary relief of life stress symptoms.
There have been more than 1.000 peer reviewed journal articles published with regard to altered states of consciousness with meditation and its impact on stress. The research indicates that the altered state has a positive effect on people's stress levels, which allows them to function in a more efficient manner (Mind, 2006).
Altered states of consciousness have attracted humans…
Kirsch, Irving (2001) the altered states of hypnosis. Social Research
____(2006) Meditation -- the relaxation remedy: research suggests meditation can help ease stress, improve health and well-being, and even boost brain activity.
Mind, Mood & Memory
personalized induction is effective.In order to discuss the effectiveness of personalizing a given induction, it is crucial that we first of all explore as well as defined the concept of personal induction. After that has been done, we then proceed with the analysis of the concepts that are part of the process. The rest of this work deals with the arguments in favor of the concept of personalized inductions as well as the ones against it prior to the drawing of a conclusion.
Every human being is unique and complex in different ways. Each and everyone have their likes and dislikes and we own these to our entirely different upbringings. This view was shared by various world leaders such as Pope John Paul II when he pointed out that every human being is single, unique as well as unrepeatable (Chang,2006).
Personalization of screed means to effectively tailor it so that…
Banyan, C.D., & G.F. Kein (2001). Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy: Basic To Advanced Techniques for the Professional. St. Paul, MN: Abbot Publishing House
Bandler, R, and Grinder, J (1975). The Structure of Magic. Volume 1. Palo Alto, Cal-if., Science and Behavior Books,
Brockopp, DY (1983).What Is NLP -- the American Journal of Nursing, Vol 83 (7) .pp. 1012-1014
Dementia Care Australia (2011). Understanding & Communicating
Are OBEs some kind of hallucination http://www.psywww.com/asc/obe/faq/obe21.html
Sleep Medicine Home Page: http://www.webct.com/dispatcher?PATH=service/ViewContent&contentI=11820&VERSION=1&FUNCTION=GetPath&SERVERIP=192.168.2.118&COURSEI=PSC150WWJM&COURSETITLE=General%20PsychologyJM%a&ISCIPLINE_0=79&BOOKTITLE_0=Psychology&BOOKTITLE_1=Taking%20Sides%2C&SOURCE=homepage
ream Control Techniques through Hypnosis
Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine.
Medical Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences. Volume 11, No.2
Betchley, Lee C. Ht. "The hypnotic benefits of lucid dreaming." http://hypnoticworld.com/Articles/lucid_dreaming.asp
ream Central's Unique Method of ream Analysis
Dream Central's Unique Method of Dream Analysis
Is repression a valid and legitimate process in the sense that Freud portrayed it or, alternatively, as might be presented in a more modern explanation?
According to Freud we 'repress' aspects of our memory we find unpleasant by relegating them to what Freud called our subconscious, versus our conscious mind (Ciccarelli 2013: 180). Scientists today are more inclined to view repression in light of the faulty operations of long-term memory retrieval. As new memories are created in a subject's long-term memory, existing memories can become distorted or replaced (Ciccarelli 2013: 182). Also, every time a memory is retrieved it is slightly altered, as it is affected by the memories that have been subsequently formed. Memory can also become distorted by current misinformation. We may think we have remembered something but we are really affected by the prompting of others.
Thus, repression can be legitimate in the sense that not…
Ciccarelli, S.K., & White, J.N. (2013). Psychology: An Exploration (2nd ed.). U.S.A.: Pearson
Johnson, Kareem J. & Barbara L. Fredrickson. (2005). "We all look the same to me:"
Positive emotions eliminate the own-race bias in face recognition.
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."
It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…
Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones D (2001) Eating Disorders: the facts. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Bruch H (1973) Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within. New York, Basic Books.
Bunnell, D.W., Shenker, I.R., Nussbaum, M.P., Jacobson, M.S., & Cooper, P. (1990). Sub-clinical vs. formal eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 357-362.
Cathie E. Guzzetta. (2001). Developing and implementing a comprehensive program for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.
The preliminary data suggests that nurses need to adopt a holistic approach toward care as more and more mothers seek out non-pharmacological and natural methods for improving comfort and reducing the pain associated with labor and delivery.
Nurses can also help patients by educating them about their choices during labor, as well as potential unexpected events that occur during labor and delivery. As this study shows, mothers prepared for the unexpected are much more likely to report satisfaction than those who are not.
These findings provide significant insight with regard to nursing education protocols, and open the doors for new approaches to care for patients. Nursing programs of the future should focus on educating staff members regarding alternative therapies that can improve a mother's comfort before, during and after the labor process.
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain:…
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: A systemic review." Am J. Obstet Gynecol. 191(1): 36-44.
Kannan, S., Jamison, R.N. & Datta, S. (2001, Sep-Oct). "Maternal satisfaction and pain control in women electing natural childbirth." Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(5): 468-72.
Ketterhagen, D., VandeVusse, L & Berner, M.A. (2002 - Nov, Dec). "Self-hypnosis:
Alternative anesthesia for childbirth." MCN Am J. Matern Child Nurs. 27(6): 335-40.
The claim has been made that chocolate operates upon the brain in much the same way as an antidepressant drug. Generate specific predictions based on this general hypothesis and provide operational definitions of the variables involved.
Chocolate releases a unique neurotransmitter called phenylethylamine or chocolate amphetamine, which fluctuate the blood and sugar levels, causing euphoria and attentiveness. Unlike amphetamines, however, it doesn't cause addiction to the consumer, but it does act as an anti-depressant by lightening the mood of a person. According to Coveleskie (2004), phenylethylamine in chocolate gives you the same feeling you get when you're in love and therefore, it's also called a love drug.
Chocolate also releases the lipid anandamide, similar to the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) which is found in the drug, marijuana. The THC as well as the lipid anandamide produce the neurotransmitter 'dopamine' which makes people happy and high. The chemical anandamide is already…
Bernard, T. J. (1991). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
Coveleskie, K. (2004). Chocolate on the Brain. Serendib. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro04/web1/kcoveleskie.html on 26 May 2016
Flaherty, M. G. (1983). The national incidence of juvenile suicide in adult jails and juvenile detention centres. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 13(2), 85-94.
Hlavaty, Joel R. (1983). Hypnosis in Our Legal System: The Status of its Acceptance in the Trial Setting, Akron Law Review: Vol. 16: Iss. 3, Article 6
SHAMANIC APPOACHES vs. ALTEED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Compare and contrast Eastern and shamanic approaches to altering consciousness
This paper focuses on the similarities and differences between eastern Shamanic practices and altered states of consciousness (ASC), and the significance of these practices in the today's urban society. Prior to going deep into the discussion, it is significance to define the terms; Shamanic and altered states of consciousness. As asserted by Oesterreich (1935:295), Shamanic illustrates what the Shamans do, while as Shamanic practices entails an intricate of belief, rituals and traditions huddled around the Shaman practices.
Some of the authors, for instance, Ashvind, (1999) relate Shaman to Siberian, Eurasian or sub-Arctic practitioners, while others extend the term Shaman to other practitioners, for example, any practitioner that interrelates with the spirit world through altered states of consciousness (ASC). Others extend the definition and define Shamans as medicine men or witch doctors. In essence,…
Ashvind N. (1999). Shamans, Healing, and Mental Health, Journal of Child and Family
Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1, pp. 131-134
Block, N. (1995). On confusion about a function of consciousness. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 18, 227 -- 247.
Block, N. (2001). Paradox and cross-purposes of recent work on consciousness. Cognition, 79,197 -- 219.
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot
Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.
Sigmund Freud and his contributions
He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between 1856 and 1939. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. He…
Freud, S., & Strachey, J. (2001). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud: early psycho-analytic publications. Vol. 7, 1901-1905, A case of hysteria, three essays on sexuality and other works. London: Vintage.
Huberman, G., & Charcot, J.M. (2003). Invention of hysteria: Charcot and the photographic iconography of the Salpe-trie-re. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding
Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.
One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…
Hull, C.L.. (1933) Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. Whales: Crown House Publishing.
Hull, C.L. (1943) Principals of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton.
Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (1987). A History of Modern Psychology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publications.
Hothersall, D. 1995. History of Psychology, 3rd ed., Mcgraw-Hill:NY
SBFT focuses on the aim a couple wants to achieve. It centers on talking about the present and future conditions of both the partners. Some of the major contributions in the field were made by Milton Erickon, who provided the basics of hypnotic techniques. He asserted the use of hypnosis techniques to discuss with couples the existing and potential problems in their marital life. He focused on the effective and open two way communication regarding all issues of marital life including trust, expectations, sex, and excessive alcohol use (or abuse) by one of the partners and other similar issues (Erickson, 1976). Erickson made use of his proposed hypnosis techniques in counseling couples for solution of all the problems by letting them speak their heart. A
wide variety of hypnotic techniques is of great importance in marriage preparation for the couples who have some issues between them before marriage.
Bowen, Murray (1990) Family Therapy in Clinical Practice: Jason Aronson Publishing.
De Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in brief therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.
Erickson & Rossi (1976) Two-Level Communication and the Microdynamics of Trance and Suggestion, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1976 Reprinted in Collected Papers Vol.1
Fisch, R., Weakland, J.H., & Segal, L. (1982). The tactics of change. San Francisco:
One instance of this strategy is the self-therapy suggested by the Speech Foundation of America which is focused on the assumption that stuttering is not a symptom, rather a behavior which can be corrected. (Sadock; Kaplan; Sadock, 2007)
Stutterers have been advised that they can learn to control their problems in part by correcting their feelings regarding stuttering and mindset towards it and in part by correcting the abnormal behaviors linked with the blocks that come to the forefront during stuttering. The strategy covers desensitizing i.e. lowering the emotional reaction to and uncertainties revolving stuttering and substituting positive action to control the moment of stuttering. The latest mature strategies concentrate on the aspect of restructuring fluency. The complete speech production pattern is remolded with emphasis on a series of target behaviors, covering reduction of rate, simple or gentle starting of voicing, and even shift between sounds, syllables as also words.…
Bothe, Anne K; Shenkar, Rosalee C. (2004) "Evidence-based treatment of stuttering"
Conture, Edward G. (2001) "Stuttering"
Allyn and Bacon.
And also, his conclusion is that "all technologies" designed to help advertising "will tend to push social evolution in this direction," e.g., in the direction of dominating citizens. Doesn't it seem possible that there are a few people in advertising who have no interest in dominating people's minds, but just want to make a living creating clever advertising to sell kites, and toothpaste, and English muffins?
In this regard, Mander is using a "hasty generalization"; that is, making an inductive generalization "that draws a conclusion about all members of a group from evidence that pertains to a select few" (Hurley, 142). But wait, Mander hasn't even shown any evidence; he just fires with both barrels and makes a "false cause" (a fallacy based on a phantom link between his premises and conclusions) (Hurley, 143).
Before launching into his four arguments, Mander asks readers to believe (47) that the four are…
Hurley, Patrick J. (2000). A Concise Introduction to Logic. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth /
Mander, Jerry. (1978). Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television. New York: William
Morrow and Company, Inc.
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Conditioning and Learning: Biological vs. Conditioned Fear
Fear of pain is most likely a biologically grounded fear that mankind developed as a defense mechanism. Fear lets us know that something is not right with the body, or that we are in potential danger. There are a variety of physiological changes that occur in the body in response to fear. Blood pressure may rise for example, the body may produce excessive levels of cortisol and other stress syndromes and the body may go into fight or flight response mode to counteract any dangers present that may have initiated the pain.
Fortunately studies have shown that multiple techniques are effective for reducing the fear associated with pain and resulting anxiety. One method that has proven effective despite lack of mainstream support is hypnosis. Studies suggest that hypnosis is very good for controlling pain and for many should be considered "the…
Long, P. (1986). "Medical mesmerism; Once considered mere trickery, hypnosis is emerging as a valuable technique for controlling pain and anxiety." Psychology Today, 20(1): 28.
Mcloed, B. (1986). "Rx for health: A dose of self-confidence; the Mind can help the body mend when you learn to cope with what you fear." Psychology Today, 20(1): 46.
The experiment should be broad enough to encompass many demographic variables, and be done over time to validate the results.
Part 4 - Language is the human capacity for using complex systems for communication. This may be through verbal, visual, or written means. cholars disagree about the origin of language, but it is likely that it evolved through a necessity for humans to need to learn from each other and remember techniques and events that would allow them to survive. yntax, or the way in which we put sounds together to form words, then words to other concepts, is hierarchical in nature. From an evolutionary perspective, it would focus on the issues for survival and procreation of the social unit. The labeled-line theory would tell us that each portion of the language is focused on a very specific quality. The across-fiber pattern system focuses on patterns, and the way stimuli…
Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cenage
Ecologically, human hearing was needed to communicate better in order to survive; higher ranges of hearing have no real genetic advantage because it does not help humans to find food, shelter, or to communicate with one another. In addition, being able to localize sounds (friend or foe) would be essential and usually those sounds occur under 20,000 Hz (rustling of leaves, breaking of branches, etc.) (pp. 193-4).
2. The text explains how we might distinguish loudness for low-frequency sounds. How might we distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone?
Loudness is a sensation that is related to amplitude (strength of frequency). We distinguish loudness based on many factors; speed of the sound, quality of the sound, etc. The higher the amplitude, the louder something appears -- and in higher frequency tones, the amplitude is faster and the peaks more robust, so the sound appears to be much louder than the identical…
Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cenage
Sage Publications. Retrieved from: http://dualibra.com/wp-content / uploads/2012/12/BiologPsych.pdf
After reading the instructions for this project, I closed all the windows and doors to my apartment, and set the stopwatch on my phone for 10 minutes. I composed myself, and then sat on my couch. It was nighttime, so that there were no audible sounds except the hum of the refrigerator and my own breathing. I closed my eyes and began to meditate. To help me do so, I inhaled slowly and deeply, before exhaling in an equally deliberate way. I attempted to concentrate solely on my breathing and to keep my mind bereft of other thoughts. My hands were on my side; my feet were firmly in front of me. I sat in the same position for the duration of the time. I experienced various feelings during this time period -- both a drowsiness and alertness. There were several thoughts that invaded my mind, despite my…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Furuya, S. (1997). Unfinished business. Family of Origin Systems MAP603C.
Greenberg, L.S., Goldman, R.N. (2008). Emotion-Focused Couples Therapy. New York: American Psychological Association.
Greenberg, L.S. (2002). Emotion Focused Therapy. New York: American Psychological Association.
Modern man is an aiming to struggle within the private and the public sphere. He wants to be a productive member of the society yet still wants to avail the freedom of living in the society. The central theme that Peter Shaffer tries to deliver in Equus is of this struggle and conflict of the modern man. In this play, Schaffer tries to depict the longings of the soul and body which are mainly of worship and sexuality. On the other hand, the man tries to seek perfection by obliging to the conventions set in the society.
The quest of humans in seeking their spiritual fulfillment or their belief something that has some spiritual worth appears to be the primary and most important concern of Peter Shaffer. Other aspects of his plays includes the unfortunate dimension in most of his plays comes from the apparent conviction o the playwright.…
Shaffer, P. (2005). Equus. New York: Simon and Schuster.
It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…
Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th ed.) New York: Lippincott.
Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York: John
Mcleod, S. (2007). Psychology perspectives. In Simply psychology. Retrieved December 2,
Utay and Miller (2006) described a study in which researchers observed over 100 individuals with unresolved grief reactions. There were three phases of treatment employed with these individuals. The first stage of treatment involved cognitive structuring for the decision to grieve again and for procedure clarification. The second stage involved guided imagery for reliving, revising, and revisiting the scenes at which the loss occurred. The third and final stage involved future-oriented identity reconstruction. The researchers reported that the reliving of the event through guided imagery effectively changed the client's view of reality, and furthermore helped along their grief resolution (Melges & DeMaso (1980), as cited by Utay & Miller, 2006). Moreover, Guided imagery has been established as a versatile and effective intervention.
The importance in assisting the children's mother with the grief process lies in the fact that bereavement is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it…
Elliott, K. (2000). Long QT syndrome. Alberta RN, January/February.
Firth, Hurst (2005). Clinical Genetics, New York: Oxford University Press, 378-9.
Gravitz, MA. (2001). Perceptual reconstruction in the treatment of inordinate grief. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44(1), 51-5.
Joffrion, L.P., Douglas, D. (1994). Grief resolution: faciliatating self-transcendence in the bereaved. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 32(3), 13-9.
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
Moreover, there are a number of people who are not able to even sustain a lasting marriage, nor produce and nurture a pair of twins the way Seth, who has been plagued with disassociation all his life, has. Julia is able to continue through her mentally demanding job while disassociating for days at a time. Neither of these two examples of Stout's patients engages in behavior that is deemed an act of lunacy while disassociating, which proves that they are very much sane and have reasons for being unable to perceive reality the way they usually can during these periods. Additionally, we can attempt to stabilize the unreliability of our memories by choosing to confront those issues, however dark and scary they may be, that our minds choose to disassociate from in that respect there is no wishful thinking involved in the adage "Know Thyself," because with will, desire, and…
25. How does New Age spirituality differ from that of Eastern mysticism?
Although the New Age readily embraces Eastern mysticism, it diverges from the old Eastern traditions because the New Age is more of a "hybrid spirituality," (131). The New Age combines Eastern and estern mystical beliefs. Eastern religions are not tailored for the modern world so the New Age mutates Eastern traditions to best suit the needs of the modern lifestyle.
26. How is paganism related to the New Age movement?
Paganism is integrally related to the New Age movement. Evidence of this can be found on any New Age bookstore shelf. The New Age movement is not necessarily demonic, as many modern witches do not believe in Satan, but neo-pagans assert a belief in a Goddess. Many New Agers support pre-Christian pagan beliefs and shamanism as well.
27. How does the eastern element of New Age spirituality contrast…
Groothuis, Douglas R. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1986.
popularity of Chinese Traditional acupuncture in the United Kingdom.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that treats people by insertion and handling of solid, usually thin needles into the body. Through its beginnings, acupuncture has been deep-rooted in the notions of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its general theory is based on the idea that bodily functions are synchronized by the flow of an energy-like entity called qi. Acupuncture tries to right inequities in the flow of qi by stimulus of anatomical locations on or under the skin called acupuncture points, most of which are linked by channels known as meridians. Scientific study has not found any bodily or organic correlate of qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some modern practitioners needle the body without using an academic structure, instead choosing points because of their tenderness to pressure (Acupuncture: An Introduction, 2011).
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is becoming…
Acupuncture: An Introduction.2011. [online]. Available at:
BAcC responds to NICE guidelines re acupuncture for back pain on the NHS. 2009. [online].
Available at: http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/the-news/press-statements/312.html
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
consciousness has been studied actively since the 1960s. Interestingly, Taylor (2003) notes, "Consciousness is a subtle phenomenon, which has so far resisted all attempts to understand it." Taylor's statement may be an exaggeration, as the author of this assigned reading goes on to discuss a number of facets of consciousness that have been well studied. These include biological rhythms, facets of waking consciousness, automatic vs. controlled processing, shifts in self-awareness, sleep, and drugs that alter consciousness.
This article notes that circadian rhythms can be either short-term or longer term, and are simply biological rhythms that occur as regular changes in our bodily functions and processes. The pineal gland plays an important role in long-term biological rhythms like hibernation through its production of melatonin. Human differences between day and night people is a common example of biological rhythms in humans.
The author then moves on to examine common disturbances in circadian…
Morin, Alain. 2002. Self-awareness review part 1: Do you 'self-reflect' or 'self-ruminate'? SCR, December, No. 1. 26 August 2004. http://www2.mtroyal.ab.ca/~amorin/Rumination.pdf
Chapter: States of Consciousness. p. 121 -154.
Revonsuo, Antti and Valli, Katja. 2000. Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. PSYCHE, 6(8), October 2000. 26 August 2004. http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v6/psyche-6-08-revonsuo.html
Tart, Charles T. 1975. States of Consciousness. First published by E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, in 1975. ISBN 0-525-20970-0. August 26, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/special/tart/soccont.htm
Cognitive Unconscious, by John F. Kihlstrom (1987) addresses the idea that many processes and mental structures that affect what happens in a person's conscious mind are actually processed in the unconscious mind. That would mean that a lot of the things people do, they are doing based on information they may be processing without realizing it (Kihlstrom, 1987). In other words, people take in information about the world around them all the time, but much of it is unconscious information they do not realize they are collecting. Even though they have not realized the collection of this information, they use the information to help them make decisions and to determine how they feel about things (Kihlstrom, 1987). There has been a great deal of past research that does indicate mental functions can be altered by information that was provided subliminally or even under hypnosis, as opposed to information the person…
Fernald, L.D. (2008). Psychology: Six perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gazzaniga, M. (2010). Psychological science. NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. Science, 237(4821): 1445-1452.
Sun, R. (2008). The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life is a downright unusual book. It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months. These men are the Oxford don, C.S. Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity. Freud never read a word that C.S. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…
Nicholi, Armand. The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life. New York: Free Press, 2002. Print.
Alternatives to Pain Medication
Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…
Clinical practice guidelines. (2016). U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/clinicalpractice.htm .
Levin, R. F. & Feldman, H. R. (2006). Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing: A guide for academic and clinical settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Moore, B. A. & Anderson, D. (2016, Janury). Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(1), 137-141.
Pain management guidelines. (2016). U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/9744 ?.
Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
" It is worth separating the two here, as the differences between the two highlight the diversity of the discipline. Behavioral learning is defined as "a change in behavior brought on by experience." (Psychological Approaches to Learning). Made famous through the Pavlov experiment, where dogs were shown to salivate at the sound of a bell once they had learned that food followed the noise, behavioral therapists seek to "re-condition" their clients. Thus, like their cognitive colleagues, behavioral therapists work with their clients to bring about conscious changes in their lives. epeated practice with different responses to troubling stimuli may allow a patient to adjust his/her behavior to be more productive.
In addition to these sub-disciplines, the diversity of psychology is further deepened by Humanism, Structuralism, and Functionalism, just to name a few. So much diversity has made the science appealing to a great diversity of practitioners, from therapists to patients.…
Cherry, Kendra. 2010. Psychology Theories. Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm
Psychological Approaches to Learning. Available at: http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.PSY/Career_Paths/Educational/subfield2
Types of Psychological Treatment: A Guide to Psychology and its Practice. Available at: http://www.guidetopsychology.com/txtypes.htm
Nobelprize.org). Pinter went on:
"The crimes of the U.S. have been systematic, constant, vicious, remorseless -- not to mention very effective. You have to hand it to America," Pinter explained, "It has exercised a quite clinical manipulation of power worldwide while masquerading as a force for universal good" (Pinter, 2005). He added, cryptically, "It's a brilliant, even witty, highly successful act of hypnosis."
The timing of his book (2003) prevents Kagan from realizing that his narrative on page 88 is incorrect. "There is little cause to believe that the United States will…begin to conduct itself in the world in a fundamentally different manner" than Bush did. Indeed, President Obama has already charted a more democratic course and has reached out to some of the cultures (namely Islam) that Bush relentlessly and ruthlessly attacked with words and bullets. I would enjoy seeing an updated version of Kagan's book, and see…
Delahunty, Robert J., and Yoo, John. 2009. The Bush doctrine: Can Preventative War
be Justified? Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 32 (3), 843-855.
Dunn, David Hastings. 2006. A Doctrine Worthy of the Name?: George W. Bush and The Limits
of Pre-Emption, Pre-Eminence, and Unilateralism. Diplomacy and Statecraft, Vol. 17,
Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).
Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:
Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.
There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.
These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).
The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).
Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…
Aquinas, T. "Summa Theologica Question 176." New Advent. March 2008. http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3176.htm (accessed September 2010).
Bock, D. Acts: Baker Exegetical Commentary. Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2007.
Chavda, M. The Hidden Power of Speaking in Tongues. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, 2003.
Coffman, J. "Commentary on Mark 16." Abeline Christian University Press. 1999. http://www.searchgodsword.org/com/bcc/view.cgi?book=mr&chapter=016 (accessed September 2010).
There were many periods of trauma and upheaval in his life. In general, especially in the earlier period of his life, he lived in a secure and comfortable fashion with his supportive wife and friends and "…. In spite of his being uncomfortable with the readings, his life was fulfilling. He had a loving wife, a home, a Sunday School class at the local church, and a good job" (The Life of Edgar Cayce). He also opened a photographic studio and was later able to run his own hospital for a time.
However, his second son, Milton, developed whooping cough shortly after his birth. When the doctors were not effective in curing him, Edgar undertook as reading of his son's condition and found that there was no hope. This was a devastating use of his abilities that traumatized Cayce. After the death of the child both Cayce and his wife,…
Edgar Cayce, Clairvoyant (1877-1945). Retrieved from http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/phoebe.htm
Edgar Cayce on the Future. Retrieved from http://www.near-
Edgar Cayce's Prophecies. Retrieved from http://2012-end-of-world.cyberwitchcraft.net/edgar-cayce.html
With Freud's help, Lucy R. eventually came to the realization that her employer did not care for her in the same way that she cared for him. Eventually, she recovered from most of her symptoms. During her recovery, she also experienced elements of the psychodynamic transference that Freud described in his writings. In general, Freud's transference principle typically accounts for the romantic feelings or sexual desires that patients undergoing psychotherapy often experience for their therapists. In the specific case of Lucy R., that transference manifested itself in her replacing her olfactory hallucinations of burnt pudding for the imagined odor of burning cigars. Freud frequently smoked cigars during his sessions and also described other similar transference experience having to do with his female patients and his cigars in that regard.
The case of Lucy R. illustrates the classic Freudian concepts of psychological repression of unpleasant thoughts or of thoughts…
Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions.
Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…
This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.
Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).
Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…
Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.
Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.
Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.
The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.
Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…
(Stress Management Health Center, 2008)
Also stated as methods used for relaxation are: (1) physical activity; (2) doing something one enjoys and (3) body-centered relaxation. (Stress Management Health Center, 2008) ody-centered relaxation may include breathing exercise, progressive muscle relaxation, massage, aromatherapy and Yoga. Also stated to be effective is 'Magnetic Field Therapy' although there is some disagreement about the use of this type of therapy for stress-relief.
III. STRESS PREVENTION
Primary among stress-related coping skills is that of knowing how to avoid potentially stress-producing situations and knowing how to reduce the negative reactions one experiences due to stress. Time management skills are 'key' toward stress avoidance and reduction. For instance, one can save time through task delegations and by setting aside personal time for themselves. Prioritization of tasks according to their importance and management of commitments are also 'key' components of effective stress management. Lifestyle choices also affect ones' ability…
Tips for Coping with Stress (2008) Mayo Clinic. Online available at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/coping-with-stress/SR00030
Stress Management - Relieving Stress (2008) Stress Management Health Center. WebMD. Online available at http://www.webmd.com/balance/stress-management/stress-management-relieving-stress
Stress Management - Avoiding Unnecessary Stress (2008) Stress Management Health Center WebMD Online available at http://www.webmd.com/balance/stress-management/stress-management-avoiding-unnecessary-stress
Quick JD, et al. (1996). Social support, secure attachments, and health. In CL Cooper, ed., Handbook of Stress, Medicine, and Health, pp. 269-287. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
..in an optimum range, between excessive denial and excessive intrusiveness of symptoms" (366); b) "normalizing the abnormal" (let the survivor know that it is perfectly normal to react emotionally to triggers that bring the trauma to mind; there is nothing wrong with the person, and indeed, the recurring symptoms are normal and just part of the healing process); c) "decreasing avoidance" (the person should be allowed to and encouraged to be open
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments about the trauma, not to try to tuck it away or be in denial); d) "altering the attribution of meaning" (change the mindset of the victim from "passive victim" to "active survivor"); and e) "facilitating integration of the self" (371) (this is used primarily in coordination with hypnosis and "dissociation" in a strategy for "reintegrating" parts of the personality into the "self" - the theory being that PTSD tends to split apart components…
Another scholarly research article - published in the Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology (Reed, et al., 2006) weighs in on treatment strategies for spousal psychological abuse. The authors assert that presently there is a dearth of empirical evidence backing up the effectiveness for any existing treatments for the trauma a woman experiences when psychologically abused by her spouse or significant other. That said, the article suggests that "forgiveness therapy" (FT) is a "promising new area" (920) of treatment for this particular form of PTSD. The authors emphasize, however, that forgiveness therapy cannot be confused with "pardoning, forgetting...condoning or excusing" the wrongdoing that led to PTSD. The key concept in presenting FT is to have the woman examine "the injustice of the abuse," then give consideration to forgiveness as one possible option, and through compassion, make a choice to forgive or not to forgive. When a woman embraces FT, it certainly would be in sync with Christian values.
Finally, a recent article published in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training (Heckman, et al., 2007), presents a literature review of existing empirical studies of treatments for incarcerated persons suffering PTSD. There are over 2 million people in U.S. prisons - 93% of them male and 100,000 juveniles - and of those inmates, some 21% of males are victims of PTSD, 48% of females prisoners are PTSD victims, and up
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments to 65% of juveniles suffer due to PTSD. The authors believe that "cognitive treatments" (such as relaxation training, psycho education, art therapy, anger management) deserve more study. Also worthy of more research are "exposure and desensitization" treatments (clients simultaneously focus on traumatic material and an "external stimulus using saccadic eye movements of alternating bilateral stimulation"). Among the offshoots of exposure and desensitization treatments - seemingly effective in a correctional institution setting - is "traumatic incident reduction" (TIR); this entails the PTSD survivor / victim being exposed to repetitive "guided imagery" of the event that originally caused the trauma. Seeing that event over and over can reduce the depression, anxiety, avoidance and intrusive thoughts that are associated with PTSD, the authors explain.
It was noted that the variation in the role and responsibilities of the negotiator towards others in different organization was responsible for the growing stress and mental illness on the basis of uncertainties experienced by the employees in their interaction and performance. It was also noted that the employees were asked and forcibly compelled to 'analyze the value of various partners' (Harris, 2002), this was of course considered to be risky practice, and the employees reflected their concerns towards the nature of responsibility, but of course were not able to veto because of the threat of the termination of their services was apparent. The technological revolution, in particular concentrated in the cellular and telecommunication technology was responsible for mental illness among the employees. The employees also complained of the mental stress due to the increasing expectation laid down by the employers without any provision of financial rewards, and access to…
John Upson, David Ketchen, and R. Duane Ireland. Managing Employee Stress: A Key to the Effectiveness of Strategic Supply Chain Management. Organizational Dynamics. 2007. Vol. 36.1.
David Lee. Managing Employee Stress and safety. Maine Employers Mutual Insurance Company. 2000. MEMIC Publication. pp. 23
Harris. Putting People First: Value Options. Rothenberg International LLC. 2002
Ellen Jaffe Gill. Robert Segal. Jaelline Jaffe. Job Stress Management: Causes and Effects. Help Guide Publication. 2007.
Finally, the idea that human beings are manifestations of God is profoundly empowering and can in itself foster healing and growth. Murphy urges his readers to use their subconscious minds to become like gods on Earth: to invoke their own healing. The subconscious mind of each person is endowed naturally with the power of God because each person is a manifestation of God. Similarly, the principle of unity underlies the idea that human beings are a manifestation of God. If the universe is unitary then there is no qualitative differences between a human being and God; God is within each person. The idea that human beings are manifestations of God also precludes prejudice or discrimination. If all human beings are manifestations of God then no one person is better or worse than any other. This idea can greatly aid the health care practitioner who has difficulty with ethical issues. This…
Murphy, J. (2001). The Power of Your Subconscious Mind. Bantam, 2001.
Parse, R.R. (2002). Transforming healthcare with a unitary view of the human. Nursing Science Quarterly. 15(1): 46-50.