African-Americans the History of African-Americans Term Paper

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S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.

Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders than as lawbreakers. "Interreality" comparisons of lawbreakers, or TV news vs. crime reports from the California Department of Justice, found that blacks are overrepresented as lawbreakers, and Latinos and Whites are underrepresented as lawbreakers on TV news compared to their respective crime rates. Interreality comparisons of law defenders, TV news vs. county employment records, revealed that whites are overrepresented, Latinos are underrepresented, and blacks are neither over- nor underrepresented as police officers on news compared to employment reports. Such results may shape public conceptions of order and justice in society intergroup, interrole, and interreality differentials on television news viewers.

Many of the views that whites have about African-Americans and visa versa were established decades ago. Hudson and Hudson (1999) studied the racial attitudes and patterns of interracial interaction of a representative sample of adult white and African-American residents in a large border-state metropolitan area between 1993 and 1996, which showed that values and behavior of both whites and African-Americans were influenced significantly by attitudes grounded in centuries old racial stereotypes. Formal knowledge of the culture and history of African-Americans and interaction across racial lines decreased stereotypes for both groups. However, such interaction has become increasingly infrequent in resegregated regions. The authors conclude that the country has gone from two to three different nations: 1) a large segregated "nation" in which whites have little contact across racial and class lines, and know little about, fear and denigrate persons of color; 2) a small segregated "nation" in which African-Americans have little contact across racial and class lines, know little about and often denigrate themselves; and 3) a still smaller "nation" in which African-Americans, other persons of color and whites lead comparatively non-segregated lives, and often move between one or both of the other nations.

According to a study by Palmer and Johnson-Bailey (2005), the situation for African-Americans for employment is not going as well as would be hoped either. Despite the fact that some organizations are attempting to manage and value cultural differences by instituting policies and programs that facilitate career advancement of minorities, minorities are being thwarted in their efforts to realize their full career potential. Organizational culture and structural, attitudinal, and personal barriers continue to be formidable barriers preventing them from fully developing their careers in many U.S. organizations. The factors with an impact on the career development of the participants were examined through three broad categories: structural factors, attitudinal factors, and personal factors: Structural Factors Affecting Career Development. The participants identified the following structural variables as factors with a profound impact on their professional aspirations and development: 1. The lack of diversity in the workplace; 2. The existing "good old box" network in the workplace; 3. The lack of mentoring; and 4. The lack of adequate succession planning.

Some studies regarding the situation for the African-Americans are not completely negative, but mixed in their findings. Studies regarding the black family, for example, vary. Some researchers point out such weaknesses as high rates of unemployment and illiteracy, drug use and prison occupancy, the shortage of black males, high teenage pregnancy rates and increasing number of female-headed households. However, those who believe that the black family is viable stress that most of these families are comprised of two parents with visible care and love for the children and responsibilities are shared. Some researchers even point to the fact that black families are more egalitarian, have extended families and cherish kinship bonds.

Such research as noted above point to the fact that blacks are still suffering from their years of slavery, despite doing what they can to make gains in this country. The hope is that as the United States becomes more racially diverse in the future, with expected demographic changes, the situation for blacks will change for the better as well.

References Cited.

Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.

Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65

Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131

Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.

Hickman, M. (1998) Social Justice 25(2) 149-164.

Hines, B.M., and Hudson, J.B. (1999) Study of the Contemporary Racial Attitudes of Whites and African-Americans. The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23(1), 22.

Johnson-Bailey, J., and Palmer, G.A. (2005). The Career Development of African-Americans in Training and Organizational Development. Human Resource Planning 28(1), 11.…

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