GPS will significantly improve the accuracy of air traffic control, and also provide a platform for the efficient increase of aircraft traffic. It is however somewhat unclear why it has taken so long to implement a technology that has such obvious advantages and that has been in existence for such a long time. Perhaps the time and cost involved was a determining factor. From the current viewpoint, it has become essential to upgrade ATC technology. A private ATC system would for example be subject to providing the best possible service to users. Users rather than political entities would therefore determine the quality of service provided. The competition created in this way would force the much more rapid development and implementation of technologies such as the GPS system in order to ensure efficiency and minimal flight delays.
Like the ground-based ATC system, the current separations system for aircraft is becoming unviable in terms of the anticipated and current increase in aircraft using airspace. Alternative ways have therefore been investigated to safely handle the increase in aircraft, and also to address the increasing delays that have plagued American airports. The Free Flight concept is one such possible alternative.
According to J.M. Hoekstra (2002), commercial aircraft to date have been operating under the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). This system allows aircraft to fly in a wide range of weather conditions, including when visibility is low. Air Traffic Control has occurred from gate to gate. Route information is requested and received before flights, while route changes -- including altitude changes - are requested and cleared during flight. Flight crew therefore are obliged to negotiate with the ground before choosing any change for more optimal routes. It is a very involved process, and can often cause costly delays in choosing optimal routes.
Free Flight, on the other hand, moves the task of aircraft separation to the cockpit. Through ADS-B (Airborne Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast) technology, the position, velocity, and route to be used to ensure both optimal separation and optimal route is broadcast directly to monitoring equipment within the cockpit. Aircraft pilots therefore receive all data from all other aircraft in the area, as displayed on the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) system. This information can then be used by pilots to ensure airborne separation.
The final aim of implementing Free Flight is to completely eliminate ground controlled separation. The advantage of this is real-time self-optimization by pilots. However, it must also be kept in mind that such a system carries significant risks, and that pilots will need thorough training before the system can be entirely implemented. However, it is a promising technology that could significantly improve problems such as flight delays and accidents.
Many of the efficiency and effectiveness problems experienced by the FAA and ATC systems is the fact that the industry is controlled by only one public entity. There is no competition; hence the FAA is not under any obligation to optimize its operations to benefit users. According to Robert W. Poole Jr. (1982), the ATC system is a very complex system that includes people, equipment, facilities and procedures. Many of the facilities and procedures are outdated and no longer serve the FAA's purposes optimally.
In terms of costs and competition, the ATC system is operated by a monopoly, it is paid for taxes, governed by civil service rules, and subject to political control and interference. These factors affect the optimal management of ATC systems. Poole notes that the private sector entails several contrasts to this system. Private sector industries include competition; services are sold directly to users; and they generally to not attract a large amount of political interference. This results in strong incentives for economic efficiency.
Problems such as flight delays and the inefficient use of airspace are the direct result of bureaucratic and political processes that are involved in the public sector. Privatization has the dual advantage of competition and the absence of interference from parties that hinder development and efficiency. The ATC system has a very important role in the airline industry, and should be managed as such.
ADS-B is a new Air Traffic Management system that concerns the process of communications, navigation, and surveillance. It has significant advantages over the traditional radar system. In addition to being a much faster system of communication and navigation, it also entails a much wider paradigm for pilots and air traffic controllers to determine the position of aircraft with more accuracy and over a wider range.
Radar is a system of communication that occurs in a linear way among air traffic control entities. The first signal is sent by the air traffic control tower at the airport of takeoff. The signal then reaches one or more of 22 possible entities that control airspace across the route of the aircraft. This can take up to 36 seconds, which is a significant delay in terms of the speed of aircraft. Finally, the signal is then sent to the destination airport. It is also significant that pilots can only access this information via their contact with air traffic control entities. This causes a further delay of information and a possible hazard in terms of accuracy.
ADS-B on the other hand provides information to both pilots and air traffic controllers. The information is also both instantaneous and highly accurate. There are significant advantages to this system as opposed to radar, in addition to the fact that it is relatively inexpensive.
ADS-B allows more information to be sent instantaneously to multiple recipients, including via cockpit technology to pilots themselves. This allows for greater accuracy and speed in decision-making, entailing a much safer flight experience. Radar can entail costly delays and result in accidents that could have been prevented by means of faster technology.
I therefore believe that ADS-B is the superior technology in terms of speed and accuracy. ADS-B also has the advantage of the more efficient use of airspace, as separation distances can be significantly reduced. The improvement of aircraft technology necessitates the improvement of communications technology as well.
ADS-B Technologies LLC. Automatic Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast. (2009). http://www.ads-b.com/home.htm
Freudenrich, Craig (2009). How Air Traffic Control Works. http://science.howstuffworks.com/air-traffic-control.htm
Hoekstra, J.M. (2002, June). Free Flight with Airborne Separation Assurance. http://www.nlr.nl/smartsite.dws?id=2942
Knorr, Dave & Bennet, Mike. (2003, Nov 4). Lessons Learned from FAA Free Flight's En Route Modeling Workshop. http://www.tc.faa.gov/acb300/ap5_workshops/documents/Modeling%20CPDLC%20Benefits.pdf
Peterson, Barbara S. (2007). End of Flight Delays? FAA's GPS Fix Could Bust Sky Gridlock. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/air_space/4219569.html
Poole, Robert W. Jr. (1982, Oct 5). Air Traffic Control: The Private Sector Option. http://www.heritage.org/research/regulation/bg216.cfm
A private ATC system would for example be subject to providing the best possible service to users. Users rather than political entities would therefore determine the quality of service provided. The competition created in this way would force the much more rapid development and implementation of technologies such as the GPS system in order to ensure efficiency and minimal flight delays.
46). To date, though, these reforms have not materialized and the air traffic control system remains mired in the FAA bureaucracy (McDougall & Roberts, 2008). In this regard, Poole (2008) emphasizes that, "[the air traffic control system] is managed by an unwieldy government bureaucracy, micromanaged by Congress, and subjected to the ups and downs of the federal budget process. And as air travel continues to grow, the air traffic
privatization of Air Traffic Control in the U.S. Non-profit privatization of ATC Industry experts position on privatizing the U.S. ATC Improvement in safety and regulation New Public Management Orientation in the U.S. Air Traffic Control Technology up gradation and budgetary constraints State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are organizations owned and operated by governments. There is a growing consensus amongst economists and governments that governments should not operate commercial organizations as it hampers the efficiency and productivity of the
In this regard, Osorio adds that, "The strike put deregulation on hold, giving the airlines a respite from intense competition and more time to plan for the post-deregulation era" (2000, p. 114). The PATCO strike also severely hampered further governmental employee unionizing activities for decades (Osorio, 2000). Conclusion The research showed that in 1981, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization engaged in an illegal strike for more money, better working conditions
Air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and
Design errors in assuming simple linear scalability of engineered systems as the transition is made from the current to the new technology and to more aircraft flying with closer separations. (Sheridan, nd) Sheridan states that 'human-in-the-loop simulation' is both a "well-known and obvious need for any large system development involving people and technology interacting." (nd) These 'HITL' simulations are believed to be very expensive due to their requirement of "full-scale hardware
" A report published by Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction (PARTNER) explains that "Aircraft landing take-off (LTO) emissions include those produced during idle, taxi to and from terminal gates, take-off and climb-out, and approach to the airport. Aircraft LTO emissions contribute to ambient pollutant concentrations and are quantified in local and regional emissions inventories (Ratliff et al., 2009)." Local air quality is an important issue that has