Sky High Airlines Essays (Examples)

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Open Skies Agreement Impact of

Words: 1965 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94439976

The traditional bilateral air service agreements do have some restrictions that prevent foreign airlines to invest in foreign hubs, however, with the open skies agreements such restrictions do not exist and an airline will be able to fully exploit its investments in a foreign country thereby facilitating service between preferred cargo airports. The provision of such agreements also promote cargo services by guaranteeing access to customs facilities and processing, offering a range of ground-handling options, and availing surface transportation necessary for flights. Such provisions enable cargo carriers to efficiently monitor and control cargo from their point of departure to their final destination. This will enhance faster and safer delivery of cargo translating into value-added service to customers.

The benefits derived from the development in the international air transport is not limited to air services industry alone but spreads to cover several service providers, labor market, manufacturers, and the general economy…… [Read More]


Alford, E. And Champley, R. (2007). The impact of the 2007 U.S.-EU open skies air transport agreement. ITA Occasional Paper no. 07-001

Brueckner, J. And W.T. Whalen, (2000). "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances,"

The Journal of Law and Economics: 43(2), 503-545

Hertel, T.W. (1997) Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and Applications. Cambridge University Press: New York
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Airline Industry Has Become Increasingly

Words: 17068 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69548589

By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).

By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…… [Read More]

Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:

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K?Z\?[?H[?\??B??[???X][????[?WH]?Z[X?N????[?\?X?\???K? ?\?X?\??ZW?L??K?\???? L?]Y?\??K?ZW?MLL??N ??%vW7D?WB6?2????&R?&??R6?FR?6?&W2F??2?V"?"#??7F?&W"b????'V??WF??3r?v??FV?Vvr?B?#R$f???rf?"V?WG3?F?R&?6R?b??r?6?7B6'&?W'2??F?R?&??R??GW7G'?? ??F?R??W&???bG&?7?'B??7F?'?#b?"??#R?#r?????W&???"???R%v?V?7GVF?W26???FS??WF???6?2?B'V?W2?bWf?FV?6Rf?"V?f?&???V?F??V?F???7???6F???2F?&V??V?R?F?????2??Bf?&??FV??FR?"??7?7GVF?W2??W&???#2???#2
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Airline Pilots Association

Words: 1798 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99383905

history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.


ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.

The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.

The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation


The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…… [Read More]


Air Line Pilots Association:
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Personnel Analysis My Personnel Analysis

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46566968

Again, rerphase in business language. For example, I would change this to: Discuss the potential fiscal losses vs. liability.

Discuss new rules and regulations that will be abided by and repecutions (repercussions?) that will take place if they are broken. The rules and repercussions shall and will apply to all hands. Again, rephrase for clarity. Discuss necessary new rules and regulations and reasons for implementation company wide. Engender plan to ensure 100% compliance.

Discuss the issue of why there is no relationship between the president and the safety director. Is this true, or is it broken? Where is the actual breakdown in communications? What about the Operations Manager, etc.

Three top priorities as new Safety Director and an explanation of each.

1) Establishing a new safety policy for Sky High Airlines. The new policy for the airline will clearly state everyone's role in the airline and provide guidance and procedures…… [Read More]

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Strategic Management of the U S Airline Industry After 9-11 2001

Words: 3479 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62492947


Strategic Management of the United States

Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks

Strategic Management of the United States

Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks

Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.

The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…… [Read More]


Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.

Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
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Southwest Airlines

Words: 1606 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81998087

Business Studies

Southwest Airlines

Southwest Airlines has been a highly successful airline, it has been one of the most successful airlines in U.S. history with the low cost carrier model created by Southwest emulated successfully by many other airlines across the world. Today it is the largest domestic carrier in the U.S. And has a history of consistent profits, with on a few quarters in the recent recession showing losses (Southwest Airlines, 2013). There are numerous reasons behind the success, the main reason are the leadership and the way that the firms ability to gain and maintain effective competitive advantages. These will provide a good basis from which to consider the future of the firm.

Effectiveness of Leadership

Southwest Airlines was founded by ollin King and Herb Kelleher, having seen successful interstate airline operating out of California it was believed that Texas could also support an interstate airline (Barratt, 2008).…… [Read More]


Barrett, C, (2008), Southwest Airlines' Colleen Barrett on 'Servant Leadership', [online] accessed 27th September 2013 from

Bryant, E, (2008, Dec), Leadership Southwest Style, T+D, p36-39

Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B. (2011), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall

Southwest Airlines, (2013), homepage, [online]
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Open Skies Agreements on Domestic

Words: 4470 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64771870

S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.

Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers

Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…… [Read More]


Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.

Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:

Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-

Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:
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U S Airline Industry Assess the

Words: 1677 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89234738

Similarly, this could influence the international airline community. Then, a stable economy is highly dependent upon a stable oil price, which once again is not the case. "The environment will continue to become more competitive as the LCC's continue to become more convenient. Business fares will continue to drop. Leisure fares won't raise much until capacity is generally in line with demand, which won't occur until much of the capacity overhand has been employed either by surviving legacy carriers or LCC."

To the customer, the continuing of this trend will generate no benefits. "In other words, we're stuck with the current system, because it isn't really in any airline's interest to try to change it. As long as no airline makes a dedicated effort to distinguish itself from the pack, all the airlines can stay lean, even at the expense of quality."


Surowiecki, J., the Unfriendly Skies, the New…… [Read More]


Surowiecki, J., the Unfriendly Skies, the New Yorker, 2007

Jankins, D., Overview of the Domestic Airline Industry, the George Washington University Aviation Institute, on February 13, 2008

Airlines face fiscal problems due to war, the Daily Michigan, September 1, 2003

Quick MBA, Porter's Five Forces - a Model for Industry Analysis, 1999-2007, . Retrieved on February 13, 2008
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Southwest Airline Is One of

Words: 6479 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1715892

And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.

In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.

Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score


Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20


The external…… [Read More]


Gittell, Jody Hoffer. The Southwest Airlines Way Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

More City Pairs Await Southwest - Kelleher Says Opportunities Remain Using Airline's Formula." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 143. 6 (1995): 40.

A / /
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Emirates Airlines the Purpose of

Words: 7279 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 953622

" (Knorr and Eisenkopf, 2004) the fifth and final strength identified for Emirates Airline in the work of Knorr and Eisenkopf (2004) is stated to be the Emirates "...award-winning service in all classes, which is matched or exceeded only by very few other carriers such as Singapore Airlines. Sixth, clever marketing - for example, Emirates, not Lufthansa - was named official carrier of the 2006 FIFA World Cup hosted by Germany - has created a very strong brand awareness worldwide. Finally, since the UAE's currency is firmly pegged to the U.S. dollar, Emirates has benefited, at least in recent years, from an additional devaluation-related cost advantage, especially vis-a-vis its Eurozone-based rivals." (2004)

Strengths of Emirates Airline Identified

The work of Knorr and Eisenkopf (2004) state that Emirates Airline weaknesses are really hard to pinpoint however, derived from what is a "notoriously unreliable...source...some posters on travel-related internet blogs are complaining about…… [Read More]


De Chernatony, Leslie (2006) From Band Vision to Brand Evaluation. Butterworth-Heinemann. Google Books Online available at,M1

Deyes, Reena Amos (2008) Branding a Key Component for Development of Airlines. Landor - Thinking in the News May 2008. Online available at

Emirates - a First Class Primer (2008) About FIFA. Online available at

Emirates to Launch First Commercial A380 Service to America (2008) Emirates News 9 June 2008. Online available at
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Sustainability Report for an Airline

Words: 2998 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36100853

Organization Behavior

Sustainability eport for Lufthansa Airlines

Sustainability eport

Sustainability eport for Lufthansa Airlines

The purpose of this report is to analyze and discuss the sustainability practices and efforts of one of the leading airlines of the world -- Lufthansa Group. Every organization incorporates some sustainability practices that show its concern for the society it serves and the environment in which conducts its business (Bleischwitz & Hennicke 2004). Through this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss the key sustainability practices which Lufthansa Group has adopted for proving itself as a socially and environmentally sustainable organization. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the organization and then highlights its major sustainability efforts. The later sections discuss the two most important sustainability practices and give recommendations on how this organization can improve these practices in the light of business sustainability models.


Lufthansa Group is one of the…… [Read More]


Bleischwitz, R., & Hennicke, P. 2004, Eco-efficiency, regulation, and sustainable business: towards a governance structure for sustainable development. Northampton: Edward Elgar

Epstein, M.J. 2008, Making sustainability work: best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental and economic impacts. 1st Edition. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publications.

Hond, F.D., Neergaard, P., & Bakker, F.G. 2007, Managing corporate social responsibility in action: talking, doing and measuring. England: Ashgate

International Institute for Environment and Development, 2012, Business models for sustainable development. Available from [Accessed April 14th, 2012]
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Pacific Southwest Airlines PSA Flight

Words: 3262 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73454523

Hans Wendt, a staff photographer with the San Diego County's public relations office, who was covering an outdoor press event in North Park at the time of the accident, took two dramatic post collision still color photographs of the falling Boeing-727 trailing blue-and-white smoke streaking from its right wing while plunging towards the ground. They appeared in several publications around the world including the cover of Time magazine. Another television cameraman, covering the same event in North Park, also managed to capture footage of the falling Cessna wreckage.

Cause of the Crash

Probable Cause: According to the official majority findings of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the probable cause of the accident was:

the failure of the flightcrew of Flight 182 to comply with the provisions of a maintain-visual-separation clearance, including the requirement to inform the controller when they no longer had the other aircraft in sight. ("Aircraft Accident…… [Read More]


Aircraft Accident Report." (1979). National Aircraft Safety Board. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at

CVR transcript: PSA Boeing 727." (n.d.) Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at

Shess, T. (1998). "This is it!" San Diego Magazine online. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at

Stich, R. (2005). Unfriendly Skies: 20th and 21st Centuries. Reno, Nevada: Diablo Western Press
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Low Cost and Full Service Airlines in Thailand

Words: 2506 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37248783> [28 July 2010].

This source discusses a common situation that is occurring with some Air Asian flights, cancelations. This is problematic, because many are occurring because the planes are not full; leaving their passengers stranded at airports or forced to find other accommodations. This is significant, because this information can be used to show how some Thai's, were flying Air Asia based upon their low cost fares. However, once their flight has been continuously cancelled, is when many are becoming unhappy with the low cost service. This is important, because this information can be used to show another factor; that could be affecting someone's decision to fly on an LCC or FSC. Where, the lower fares and fewer frills are an advantage that they have over FSC's. Yet, when you factor in issues such as unexpected cancelations; these lack of services and sudden changes could be a turn off…… [Read More]


Air Asia, (2009) Academic [online] available from: . [ 28 July 2010].

Air Asia Company Strategic Management (2009) Air Asia [online] available from . [28 July 2010].

Air Asia Flight Cancelations (2009) Air Asia Reviews [online] available from: [28 July 2010].

Airline Review (2009) Knowledge Oman [online] available from [28 July 2010].
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Economic Profile of the Airline

Words: 1692 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35632429

Furthermore, existing vulnerabilities of the airline industry are not taken into consideration until a disaster occurs. Lastly, the September 11th Security Fee introduced by the Department of Homeland Security was considered by many "as a beneficial trade off for their personal safety eventually," having as a direct consequence a rise of the airline industry.


Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw

InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site:

Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-ased Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site:

Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG:

FRSF Economic Letter. (January, 2002). Airline Competition. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Olin usiness School- Washington University:

Virgin Territory (2006, September 30).…… [Read More]


Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw

InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site:

Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-Based Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site:

Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG:
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Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand

Words: 11802 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57365723

Low Cost Airline in Thailand

The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand

Geography of Thailand

Nature of Airlines

Variables under Study

The Profitability of Low Cost Airlines in Thailand

Thai Economy

Operating esults, Selected Airlines, Financial Year 1999

The Economies of Scale Attained By Airline Industry

Human esource Practices

The future of low cost Thailand Airlines

Contrasting Qualities of State Owned and Non-State Owned Airlines

The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand

Thailand is a global source for customers seeking cheap labor or material inputs. The country is rich in natural resources -- tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, and timber being a few examples. The country is a major source for agricultural products1a.

Thailand also has an abundant supply of low-skilled labor with high participation rates in the workforce 86% for males and 67% for females in 1995. At the same time, the country…… [Read More]


Aharoni, Y. & Nachum, L. (Eds.). (2000). Globalization of Services: Some Implications for Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database:

Alagappa, M. (Ed.). (1998). Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database:

Asia Top Companies by Sales. (2000, June). Business Asia, 8, 38. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database:

Beirman, D. (2003). Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database:
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Southwest Airlines When Southwest Airlines

Words: 2779 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69385192

The following definitions may be helpful.

Category 1 APUs are installed where in-flight auxiliary power operation is necessary. Category 1 APUs are usually required for essential APU installations. These APUs have been shown to meet all of the test and analysis requirements of the Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) of TSO C77b, Appendix 1.

Category 2 APUs are installed where in-flight APU operation is not necessary (non-essential installations).

Both Category 1 and Category 2 APUs are acceptable for non-essential APU installations. Category 2 APUs are not required to meet all of the test and analysis requirements that Category 1 APUs are subjected to. (See TSO C77b, Appendix 1, for the detailed requirements). (Category 1 and Category 2 APU, 2005). (See Appendix a for another example of an APU)

History (may need something different for this part - raw research) significant early demonstration was of the first liquid-fueled, fuel cell APU on…… [Read More]


Canadian Inventor Develops Airplane Auxiliary Power Unit Passive Cooling System. U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Category 1 and Category 2 APU. (2005, June 15). Retrieved February 28, 2009

Continued airworthiness assessments of powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations of transport category airplanes. (2003, September 8).$FILE/AC39-8.pdf

Cook, G. (1996, January/February). Uncle Sam's Not-So-Friendly Skies: The FAA Has a Good Safety Record, but it Could Do Much Better. Washington Monthly, 28, 9+. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:
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Air Asia Has'so Far

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72985389

Given that the profitability rate is already very low and that other costs have already been cut, the only practical response to rising fuel costs (assuming that they do not fall drastically very quickly) is to raise fares.

This will be problematic for the company, of course, since it has established as its major selling point the fact that it offers the lowest fares possible. However, having to raise fares is something that will no doubt happen at other companies as well since all companies will be affected. Thus it is entirely possible that the company will be able to raise fares and yet remain the lowest priced company in its market (Creaton, 2007, p. 48).

While rising fuel costs are the most significant costs that are beyond the control of the company, other external factors can have important impacts as well. Among potential issues in terms of overall costs…… [Read More]


Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, a. (2009). Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. New York: Cornell University Press.

Creaton, S. (2007). Ryanair: The Full Story of the Controversial Low-Cost Airline. Dublin: Aurum.

Davies, R. (2011, March 7.) Soaring Fuel Costs Spark New Airline Fees: Sky-High Fuel Costs Are Behind Recent Fee Hikes. Retrieved from .
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Fuel and Economy the Price of Fuel

Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34005604

Fuel and Economy

The price of fuel affects every citizen in one way or another, thus, it can have profound consequences on not only the United States, but the global economy as a whole.

On April 28, 2005, President George . Bush expressed concern about the economy due to higher energy prices, and stressed the need to take measure to boost oil output and lower prices (Bush pp). In a primetime press conference, Bush said the small business owners and families are paying higher prices at the gas pump, and that higher gas prices is like a tax and "I do think it's affected the economy" (Bush pp). His comments followed a report that same day from the Commerce Department that stated that the United States "economy grew at an annualized 3.1% in the first quarter in terms of real gross domestic product, decelerating from the previous quarter's 3.8% and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Gray, John. "Books: Goodbye globalisation? The World Is Flat."

The Independent (London, England); 4/29/2005; pp.

Marshall, Randi F. "War's ripple effects set city businesses back."

January 27, 2005
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Long-Term Economic Repercussions to the

Words: 2419 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37020903

While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.

Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…… [Read More]


Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review

Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from on April 22, 2009

North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge, / last accessed on April 23, 2009

O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor, last accessed on April 23, 2009
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Advantages Disadvantages of Leasing Aircraft

Words: 2037 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95772195

Leasing Aircraft

The emergence of low cost carriers has marked a shift in the aircraft industry away from owning aircraft and towards leasing and subleasing of aircraft. National and legacy carriers have long struggled with profitability, and their business model is in part a reason for this. Low cost carriers have attempted to resolve the business issues of heavy debt burden and excess capacity by leasing aircraft rather than owning them. There are other advantages to aircraft leasing as well, including a reduction in maintenance costs. Aircraft leasing has become part of the low cost carrier business model. This paper will examine the issue of aircraft leasing, in particular with respect to the financial considerations. A conclusion will be drawn with respect to the leasing decision and whether or not it is recommended for airlines today.

Overview of the Industry

The aviation industry is one of the world's largest businesses,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

A.T. Kearney. (2010). Fast growing aircraft leasing industry A.T. Kearney. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from

Hadhi, A. (2005). Aircraft shortage adds to low cost carrier woes in Asia. Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from

Investec. (2010). An introduction to aircraft leasing. Investec. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from

Jeremiah, D. (2011). Asia Pacific to lead the upward ride for aircraft leasing opportunities, says Frost & Sullivan. The Lessors Network. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from
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Aeronautical the September 11 Terrorist Attacks Had

Words: 934 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3273347


The September 11 terrorist attacks had a tremendous impact on foreign and domestic policy. One of the industries most directly affected by the terrorist attacks was the aviation industry. Shocked by the methods used in the terrorist attacks and forced to immediately address core managerial weaknesses, the aeronautical industry has risen to the occasion admirably. eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women who Kept America Flying is about people -- the people that comprise the American aeronautical industry who understood how to cope with extreme crisis. The anecdotes in Tom Murphy's compilation highlight key areas in which the aeronautical industry succeeded by meeting the challenges it faced after the terrorist attacks. Focusing on the positive aspects of how the various levels of management and employees dealt with the crisis provides a framework for the future of the industry.

eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and…… [Read More]


Blake, A. & Sinclair, M.T. (2003). Tourism crisis management: U.S. response to Septmeber 11. Annals of Tourism Research 30(4): 813-832.

Campbell, R.D., & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human performance and limitations in aviation. Blackwell. Retrieved online: 

Jensen, R.S. (1997). The Boundaries of Aviation Psychology, Human Factors, Aeronautical Decision Making, Situation Awareness, and Crew Resource Management. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 7(4): 259-267.

Murphy, T. (2006). Reclaiming the Sky. AMACOM.
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Flying Off Into the Sunset

Words: 3488 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3171584

Forty years ago, when ALPA still championed the rights of all pilots to remain employed, former ALPA president Clarence Sayen challenged FAA Administrator Elwood Quesada to justify his hasty decision to enact the Rule. Quesada responded with 41 highly questionable articles culled from the medical archives of the 1950's, the majority of these having been published decades earlier. In addition to being astonishingly outdated, these articles described characteristics of the general population and not of airline pilots.

Medical evidence was therefore manipulated. A closer examination of the "facts" would have revealed that there was much that was not applicable to the situation at hand. And if these data were years out of date more than two generations ago, one can only imagine that the picture that they present is even more inaccurate today than it was in 1959. In countless other fields, 60-year-old men and women pursue their careers without…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agarwal, Naresh C., and Michael G. Degroote. "Retirement of Older Workers: Issues and Policies." Human Resource Planning 21.1 (1998): 42+.

Flight Safety Digest, Special Issue, p. 202. (Flight Safety Foundation, June-August 1999).

Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).

Gokhale, Jagadeesh. "Mandatory Retirement Age Rules: Is it Time to Re-evaluate?" Statement of Senior Fellow of the Cato Institute before the United States Senate Special Committee on Aging. (Washington D.C. 20510, 9 September 2004).
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Pan American World Airways on

Words: 2627 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72297342

In this regard, Selzer notes that, "Pan American World Airways was a great carrier and a foremost representative of the American way around the world. Its triumphs were one of the major reasons why English is the primary language spoken in air-traffic control towers throughout the globe" (p. 20).

Notwithstanding these early successes, by the late 1980s, though, Pan American was experienced serious financial trouble and sought relief through wage and benefits negotiations with the flight attendant and flight engineer unions (uben 1989). By the early 1990s, the writing was on the wall for all to see and Pan American's days were clearly numbered. Based on his analysis of Pan American's demise, Branson (2007) suggests that Trippe was relatively out of touch with the important global events that swirled around him during the early 1990s and failed to respond to these changes in a timely fashion. According to Branson, "Trippe…… [Read More]


Barrett, F. 2009, January 25 "This Year You Could Conquer the World - for Less Than a Grand." The Mail on Sunday, p. 38.

Branson, R. 2007 "Juan Trippe (1899-1981) Biography." Charles Lindbergh: An American

Aviator. [online] available: .

Burns, G.E. 2011 "The War Years." Pan American Historical Foundation. [online] available:
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One World Alliance and Antitrust Laws

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54544224


Why would large airlines want to join alliances such as One World, Star, or Sky Team? What are the potential advantages and disadvantages?

The main reason why large carriers want to join alliances is because it helps them to: increase their competitive position. These primary advantages are what have been fueling the push for a number of airlines to embrace this model. The way this improves their operations, is to reduce the total amounts of competition on different routes. This enables one carrier (who is the most profitable) to offer these services to consumers. These alliances help all airlines to benefit from this arrangement by reducing costs and competition on key routes. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

The biggest disadvantages are that these organizations could form a trust. This is when the airlines will use strategic alliances in order to increase fares. When this happens, it means that there will…… [Read More]


Hauptman, J. (2008). The Target. Limerick: E-Book Sale Publishing.

Wensveen, J. (2011). Air Transportation. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
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Air Cargo Security

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77354940

Air Cargo Security

Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).

Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…… [Read More]


Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.

Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.


Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
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Direct Air Management and Marketing Mistakes

Words: 2797 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14787673

Dierct Air - Management & Marketing Mistakes

The following case study employs the array of industry metrics discussed above to determine major factors that contributed to Direct Airways filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during the time period from 2007-212. This time period was chosen because SEC filings at that time available, providing valuable insight into the stark differences between the two airlines. Direct Airways was a major U.S. carrier that was founded in 2001 and operated for 7 years until it fell into bankruptcy in 2001. This terminated an unrestrained years for Direct Airways, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy last year of 2012 (Jayanti).

I understood that already the subject of a federal investigation by transportation regulators, the outdated charter service Direct Air long ago would soon may be facing a far-reaching investigation of its finances by the bankruptcy trustee (Bomkamp). The lawyer governing Direct Air's bankruptcy went ahead…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Barla, P., & Koo, B. (1999). Bankruptcy protection and pricing strategies in the U.S. airline industry. Transportation Research.Part E, Logistics & Transportation Review, 35, 101-120.

Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (1995). Bankruptcy and pricing behavior in U.S. airline markets. The American Economic Review, 85(2), 397-397.

Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (2003). The impact of bankruptcy on airline service levels. The American Economic Review, 93(2), 415-415.

Baran, Michelle. Uncertainty over refunds surrounds Direct Air's bankruptcy. 2 April 2012. 29 November 2012.
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Flight Crew Resource Management

Words: 4295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18349321


Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.


According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…… [Read More]


Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.

Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.

Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.

Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
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Light Jets Vlj Specifically it

Words: 2535 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10250866

DayJet, on the other hand, plans to sell single seats to frustrated air travelers who no longer fly on trips of 250 to 500 miles - they choose to drive instead. DayJet believes they can identify and market effectively to these travelers, serving "regional route sectors -- starting in Texas and the Southwest, eventually expanding to the New York area south to Florida, and then to the Pacific coast" (Sharkey, 2006). This air taxi service plans to use Eclipse 500 planes, and are awaiting delivery of the planes to begin service.

Neither of these operators has begun regular service because the planes seem to be coming off the assembly lines more slowly than anticipated. DayJet's delivery of Eclipse 500's has been slowed due to delays in production and certification. Therefore, no one knows how these air taxi services will ultimately affect airport traffic and air travel. The public may embrace…… [Read More]


Author not available. (2006). Smaller, faster, cheaper new jets may transform flying. Retrieved from the Web site: April 2007.

Croft, J. (2006). Very light jets: Boom or blip? Retrieved from the Web site: April 2007. 32-36.

Editors. (2007). NBAA training guidelines for single pilot operations of Very Light Jets and technically advanced aircraft. Retrieved from the Web site: April 2007.

Robinson, J.L. (2006). Predicted air traffic control impact from VLJ's. Retrived from the Web site: April 2007.
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Airbus and Boeing Porters 5 Forces the

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43989112

Airbus and Boeing Porters 5 Forces

The airframe manufacturing industry is a highly competitive environment that has come to be dominated by two firms: Boeing and Airbus. Airbus is a European joint venture between EADS and BAE Systems headquartered in Toulouse, France and originally founded in 1970 (Mayer, 2007). Boeing, on the other hand, is an American firm founded in 1916 in Seattle, Washington, and now headquartered in Chicago, Illinois (Mayer, 2007). As airframe manufacturing firms, Airbus and Boeing hold 86% of the total market share, thus creating a duopoly. Through an analysis of Porter's Five Forces of the two firms, as a duopoly and as individual firms, one can better understand how influential these firms are to each other and to other firms within the industry.

The first of five forces to be analyzed is the threat of new entrants. Within the airframe manufacturing industry, the threat of new…… [Read More]


Chapter 12: Industry Analysis. (n.d.). Accessed 

Huber, M. (2009, August 1). The major airplane manufacturers at a glance. Business Jet

Traveler. Accessed 3 July 2013,
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Resource Management and Strategic Decision

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61500046

50). Therefore, the ability of planners in both civilian and military aviation settings will need to ensure this integrated approach to information management to identify opportunities for improvement and what steps will be needed today to ensure their successful outcome in the future.


The research showed that resource management and strategic decision making processes in the civilian and military sectors of the aviation industry have been profoundly affected by innovations in technology that continue to have an enormous impact today. The research also showed that although there is much to be considered in developing effective resource management techniques, the strategic decision process can help organizations of all types identify opportunities for improvement today and take the steps today to help ensure their successful development and implementation in the future. In the final analysis, the body of knowledge in these areas is growing at exponential rates, and the terrible costs…… [Read More]


Goodman, W.C. (2000). Transportation by air: Job growth moderates from stellar rates. Monthly Labor Review, 123(3), 34.

Harris, W.C., Goernert, P.N., Hancock, P.A., & Arthur, E.J. (1994). The comparative effectiveness of adaptive automation and operator initiated automation during anticipated and unanticipated taskload increases. In Hollnagel at p. 159.

Hendrick, H.W. & Kleiner, B.M. (2002). Macroergonomics: Theory, methods, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollnagel, E. (2003). Handbook of cognitive task design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Market Analysis Arik Air Based

Words: 3615 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97373357

(Dunn, 2009)

Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)

Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…… [Read More]


Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at:

Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at:

More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at:

Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at:
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Delta Environmental Comparison and Discussion

Words: 2094 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34923987

Delta Airlines

Domestic and Global Environments

Delta operates in the airline industry and competes with other leaders in the industry including brands such as Frontier Airlines, United Airlines, American Airlines and Southwest Airlines. These are the dominant firms in the industry and Delta rates second highest in terms of volume. Delta's overall performance has improved recently compared to previous performances. Yet, there is one customer service issue that has gained publicity which is their propensity to bump people off flights due to overbooking and this practice is fairly pronounced and thus drags them down rating-wise (NY Post, 2014). Customer service is especially relevant because the domestic industry in general is highly competitive and consumers have multiple options for flights. Airlines in the domestic environment typically try to offer differentiation in service to create consumer value and create brand loyalty.

The government tends to regulate the industry mostly in the form…… [Read More]


Carey, S. (2014). Delta Airlines to take control of its data systems. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2015 from

Hofstede, G. (2015). Japan. Retrieved October 18, 2015 from

Hofstede, G. (2015). United States. Retrieved October 18, 2015 from

NY Post. (2014). The worst airlines in America. New York Post. Retrieved 20 September 2015,
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Beyond Clienthood

Words: 4449 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81683124

Chassidic fundamentalist environment in a part of Williamsburg in Brooklyn NY. She lives with her parents but has often been thrown out of the house and has other times tried to run away. She is 19 years old, and works fulltime as a nursery teacher, a job that she detests and that her mother forced her into. She has minimal independence skills, little social maturity, i.e. developmentally behind her age in comparison to 'normal' American society, although has an IQ that I suspect is quite high. Given her lack of secular subjects, all of Ellie's knowledge comes from books that she acquired from the library when she, benign thrown out of the house, found her refuge there at night. Ellie is totally ignorant therefore of some subjects, such as math and geography, but has a knowledge of others, such as Latin and Greek that others her age would not have.…… [Read More]


Almond, G.A., Appleby, R.S., & Sivan, A. (2003). Strong religion: The rise of fundamentalisms around the world. Chicago: The Univ. Of Chicago Press.

Antoun, R.T. (2001). Understanding Fundamentalism: Christian, Islamic, and Jewish movements. Oxford: Altamira Press.

Heilman, C. (2007). Jews and fundamentalism, Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42, 1-9.

Heilman, C., & Friedman, M. (1991). Religious fundamentalism and religious Jews. In Fundamentalisms Observed, ed. M.E. Marty, R.S. Appleby, pp. 197-265. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
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Aviation - Personal Air Vehicles

Words: 1879 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48343827

There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.

My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Airscooter. "Airscooter II: Back to the Future of Rotor Craft Design"

Boyle, Alan. "Seven flights of fancy that fizled." MSNBC, 17, Nov. 2003.

Cessna 150-152 Club "Safety FAQ's. 

Ericg. "Cessna 172." Wikipedia, 18, Apr 2005.
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American Aviation

Words: 2019 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83760206

Positives and Negatives from a Century of Aviation

Little did the Wright brothers know, on December 17, 1903, when they successfully tested their flying machine at Kitty Hawk, what an influential industry they were launching. They could not have known in their wildest dreams that ninety-nine years later, an airport called Chicago O'Hare would facilitate some 383,362 landing and takeoff cycles each year. Or that by 1967, sixty-four years later, aerospace would become America's leading industrial employer, with some 1,484,000 employees, and sales of $27 billion, according to author Donald Pattillo (Pushing the Envelope). Nor could the Wright brothers know that a man would fly to the moon, and walk on the moon, by 1969, just sixty-six years after that little plane at Kitty Hawk left solid ground for a few triumphant seconds.

ut though the Wright brothers' crude little aircraft got the aerospace industry off the ground to become…… [Read More]


Biddle, Wayne. Barons of the Sky: From Early Flight to Strategic Warfare. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.

Knott, Richard C. A Heritage of Wings: An Illustrated History of Navy Aviation. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Miller, Jerry. Nuclear Weapons and Aircraft Carriers: How the Bomb Saved Naval Aviation. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.
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Internet Technology Marketing and Security

Words: 1677 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93854055

Aer Lingus, 2012a ()

No security breach has even been recorded on the Aer Lingus website so the website can be thought to be tightly secure and that all the necessary steps have been taken to ensure that the personal information of their customers is kept safe.

Methods for ensuring greater security for customers

One of the ways which the company can ensure that they continue maintaining this record of security and providing greater security for customers is to make sure the company has a security work team. This will be a team that is involved in checking the security of the company's website and other online products as their daily activity.

The second method is to ensure they keep up-to-date with changes in the technological world. Technology changes pretty fast therefore the company needs to keep up with these changes especially in the online security field. This will ensure…… [Read More]


Aer Lingus. (2010). Annual Report 2010: Aer Lingus.

Aer Lingus. (2011). Company Profile Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from

Aer Lingus. (2012a). Aer Lingus website privacy policy Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from

Aer Lingus. (2012b). Contact Us Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from
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Terrorism Tech Technological Innovation as

Words: 4295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74677890

The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.

After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."

This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.

Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at 

Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at

Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at
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Organizational Behavior in Today's Military

Words: 2583 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24788694

front line of defense and the first line of offense of American might, the United States military plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the nation's interests at home and abroad. In sharp contrast to the highly motivated and professional armed forces that are in place today, though, the U.S. military struggled to overcome the legacy of its conscription-based approach to maintaining adequate manpower during the Vietnam War where relatively short enlistment periods and high attrition rates resulted in diminished combat readiness and dangerously low levels of troop morale. This paper examines how the U.S. armed forces overcame this legacy to emerge as the preeminent military power in the world today. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Organizational Behavior in Today's Military


Over the past half century, the United States armed forces have experienced a number of changes to their…… [Read More]


Gates, R.M. (2008, September 29). National Defense University. U.S. Department of Defense

Speeches, 37.

Greenberg, J. (2003). Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Hillsdale, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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My Personal Interest in a Career in Information Technology IT

Words: 805 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88301875

information technology skills I acquired through the military are transferable to civilian situations. The 20 years I gave to the military have placed me in a wide variety of situations quite different from what others might encounter in civilian life.

My experience in the U.S. Navy has allowed me to learn new skills in the information technology field and I have been able to apply them in new situations. The future for me after the military has been decided after a careful analysis of the way the military is currently structured and how a projection into the future bodes for me. I know that a career in the information technology field is the best choice for me because of my experiences in the Navy and on the job. It is important for me to continue to grow in this field and learn more when I transfer into the civilian sector.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freedberg, Sydney J. "IT Changes Everything." National Journal. 34.19

2002): 1378.

Loeb, Vernon W. "Afghan War is a Lab for U.S. Innovation; New

Technologies Are Tested in Battle." The Washington Post. 26
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Airmail in the United States

Words: 5981 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68589230

S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).

One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…… [Read More]


Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.

De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/

Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.

Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available:
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The External Audit of Robbins Communications

Words: 10866 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31066696

pros outweigh the cons of airport navigational systems upgrades. Specifically, the study conducts analysis of the perceived costs and benefits of maintaining legacy versus next generation (Nextgen) aviation terminal navigation systems (NAVAIDS). The study tests the hypothesis that the cost-benefit ratio of upgrading NAVAIDs to Nextgen systems justifies the expense when compared to continuing to use existing legacy systems. The null hypothesis is that the cost-benefit ratio of upgrading NAVAIDs to Nextgen systems does not rationalize the expense when compared to continuing to use existing legacy systems. To test this hypothesis, a literature review is conducted of reports in the National Transportation Safety Board database as well as in journal reports and correspondence between agencies regarding Nextgen upgrades in order to determine the extent to which navigational systems were a factor in accidents or present a going concern for stakeholders. The Federal egister's Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the…… [Read More]


A4A. (2015). Safety Record of U.S. Air Carriers. Airlines for America. Retrieved from

Al-Muslim, A. (2013). Laguardia, Kennedy aircraft noise study goes forward.

Newsday. Retrieved from

Bello, V. (2012). Public Submission: FAA-2011-1082-0356. Retrieved from
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Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation

Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91891162

Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation

Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…… [Read More]


(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,

Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.

Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane

Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
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Protection Afforded to a U S

Words: 4974 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35111847

Sometime the debtor is able to successfully reduce its liability and returns to profitability but quite often it returns to seek the court's protection again and sometime the end result is liquidation.

Under Chapter 11 protections, the debtor gets an automatic protection from all creditors. The unsecured creditors cannot lay a claim on assets and secured creditors are also prevented from foreclosing on their collateral. A Chapter-11 company also gets the advantage of discarding or renegotiating union agreements, ability to freeze or cut wages and benefits and restructures its staffing requirement. Retirement and pension plans can also be reviewed or the company can transfer its pension obligations to the Federal Pension enefit Guaranty Corporation.

The reorganization is carried out by the bankruptcy and the court appointed trustee. The trustee appoints committee(s) to represent the creditor's interests and work out a plan for reorganization of the company. The reorganization plan must…… [Read More]


Boser, R.J., Has the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 adversely affected airline safety? Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. 

Delaney, K.J., Strategic Bankruptcy (Review), Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005.

Fix, J.L., The chaotic skies: A look at how deregulation has affected the airline industry, 2001, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005.

Isidore, C., U.S. Air files Chapter 11 -- "again, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005.
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Organized Labor in U S Commercial

Words: 3198 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67577375

43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…… [Read More]


Airguide Online (2006). North America. Airline News: Pyramid Media Group, Inc.

Retrieved on December 28, 2008 at;col1

Air Safety Week (2008). Controllers declare "staffing emergency" in Atlanta,

Chicago, New York and Southern California. Access Intelligence, LLC: Gale, Cengage
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Sustainability of Low Cost Carriers

Words: 5333 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51305334

" (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) Market saturation is possible according to Traventec, Ltd., due to the constant "influx of new entrants into the low cost carrier and regional space and continued expansion of existing players. When and whether market saturation is actually reached in specific regions of the world depends on how mature regional and low cost air transport is in the first place and the size of the yet under-served demographic area." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) There is stated to be a potentially huge regional aviation market in South East Asia yet untapped with more than half of the population of the entire world within six hours flying radiuses from "Kuala Lumpur and a five hour flying radius from angkok." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) the airports in this area have only recently been liberalized with the "international bilateral agreements and vested in the development of airport capacity." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) When this…… [Read More]


The Impact of Low Cost Carriers in Europe (2003) Online available at .

The Inevitable Convergence of Regional and Low Cost Carriers (2005) Traventec - the Travel Technology People. July-August 2005. Traventec Ltd. Galway Business Park, Dangan, Ireland Online available at entec_publication_july2005.pdf

Sean D. Barrett (2004) the sustainability of the Ryanair model 1 Dec 2004. International Journal of Transport Management Volume 2, Issue 2, 2004, Pages 89-98. Online available at

Europe's Airports (2006) Mintel International Group Ltd. Published: Feb. 1, 2006 - Online available at
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Current Crisis Impacted Financial Market Real Economy Everyday Lives

Words: 3675 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33873594


Effect of the recession on upon financial market, the real economy and over everyday lives

ecession is defined as the economic slowdown or decline characterized by slowing down of trade, a magnitude decline in the GDP, and a decrease in employment usually lasting between 6 months to a year. This was the situation in the U.S.A. The hardest times being from 2008 through 2009 and the early months of 2010. America is still recovering from the effects of the recession that the country experienced from 2007 to 2009.

The slow down in economy triggered a massive job loss and unemployment rates that shot through the roof, the prices went up and a great deal of uncertainty rippled through the country. This situation has now seen a reverse trend albeit at a slower rate than was expected by many. The unemployment rate in November 2011 fell by 0.4% to 8.6%…… [Read More]


Amitabh Shukia, (2009). Top 5 major Economic Effects of Recession on Economy.

Retrieved May 13, 2012 from 

Browder, Laura, (1998). Rousing the Nation: Radical Culture in Depression America.

Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
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Status of the Industry Marketing

Words: 1349 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12759252

Description of high/low marketing strategy

The marketing strategy of choice, however, is simply to accentuate low costs by cutting frills and eliminating hub-based systems in favor of short nonstop hops for even the largest national carriers. This is the model followed by such successful low-cost carriers as Jet lue and Southwest Airlines.

These airlines are able to go up against giants like United and American by slashing fares, marketing their no-frills image and flying short distances and choosing cheaper, slightly out of the way airports.

For instance, Jet lue flies not to Miami but to Ft. Lauderdale and even though Delta might fly to Miami, Jet lue will still get the fare because of its lower price and no-frills marketing strategy.

Airlines have to realize that this is a price-sensitive market and only spend marketing dollars on advertising low-cost fares and the fact that fliers are not being charged for…… [Read More]


Adams, Ed. (2005). "Low-cost carriers."

Gooch, Daniel-Robert. (2005). "Air France suspending non-stop Vietnam flights." Commercial Aviation Today, Feb. 28, 2005.

Mercer Management Consulting. (2002). "Impact of low cost airlines."
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Temporary Flight Restrictions

Words: 3708 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62212194


Condition of airline industry after Sept.

TFs and general aviation

TFs without information

TFs and business at busy airports

TFs Circles

TFs and young pilots

TFs: an ineffective measure

Temporary flight restrictions (TF) are considered unconstitutional by many quarters because they are seriously hurting economic conditions of the United States aviation. But speaking from legal point-of-view, we cannot declare any action taken for security reasons as unconstitutional. This is because the federal government has Congress's permission to take appropriate measures to ensure security of the country, its landmarks, general public and important public figures such as the President and Vice president. But when these actions cross the limits of justice and start interfering with smooth operations of any industry, a petition can be filed against them in U.S. courts to determine the legality of those actions. No such action has so far been…… [Read More]


Al Carrozza, Since Sept. 11, Not a Banner Year / Advertisers grounded by FAA regulations., Newsday, 10-25-2001, pp. A69

Kathy McCabe, Airspace limits hurt flight schools, Globe Correspondent, 10/21/2001

EDITORIAL / Use Common Sense in Restricting Republic Airport., Newsday, 10-02-2001, pp. A38

BOB EDWARDS, Analysis: Impact of new government flight restrictions on general aviation., Morning Edition (NPR), 10-11-2001
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Strategic Business Plan for Ryanair

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42888722

argaining power of suppliers

Price of aviation fuels is directly related to the cost of oil.

Regional airports have little bargaining power as they are heavily dependent on one airline.

4. argaining power of customers

Customer are price sensitive and switching to another airline is relatively simple

5. Threat of substitutes

a. UK -- none

b. Europe

c. Driving holidays

d. High- speed trains

e. No loyalty of customers (Ryanair, 2009)

. Ryanair - Value chain analysis

Cost-containment is the focus of the low cost airline and includes the following:

Cost containment realized through spending as little money possible for advertising with all marketing identified as 'in-house' marketing to customers to increase turnover;

Cost containment realized through turning the costs of food and drinks on a flight into a revenue stream through making drinks and a selection of food available at a reasonable price;

Cost containment realized through creating additional…… [Read More]


Industry Competitors

Rivalry among Existing Firms

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Flight Attendant Fatigue and Working

Words: 3969 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8062076

The "fatigue summit " was held in 2005 and hosted by the Association of Professional Flight Attendants, representing flight attendants at American Airlines, and Transport Workers Union Local 556, representing flight attendants at Southwest Airlines. The meeting was held at American Association of Flight Attendants-CWA headquarters outside Dallas. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours)

One of the central issues on the table was a critique of the Federal Aviation Administration regulations promulgated in 1996, which required flight attendants to have eight to nine hour rest periods. However, as has already been referred to, these 'rest periods' included time taken for transportation to and from airports as well as the time taken for meals etc. Therefore, this FAA regulation was seen as being insufficient to deal with the very real problem of fatigue. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours) at this meeting, the AFA-CWA President, Patricia Friend,…… [Read More]


AFA-CWA Wins Action on Fatigue Study. (2006) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at 

Congress Takes Up Safety Issues for Airline Passengers, First Responders.

2007) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at

Crew Fatigue. (2005) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at
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Delta Nw Merger on April 15 2008 Delta

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79727640

Delta/N Merger

On April 15, 2008, Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines formally announced a merger agreement forming the largest commercial airline in the world; a fleet of almost 800 aircraft. This combined airline, still known as Delta, would have a value of $17.7 billion. In addition, due to the merger and the proposed benefits and synergisms, the company stated that it had come to an agreement with its pilot union to extend the collective bargaining agreement through the end of 2012; providing Delta pilots a 3.5% equity stake in the newly created organization (Rhoades 2008).

On September 26, 2008 the shareholders of both companies approved the merger, with only a Federal antitrust review board's approval. As expected from most analysts, the merger was approved by all requisite Federal agencies, largely due to the minimal overlap between the two carriers' routes and very little threat to competitive industry pressures. A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Bar Association 2008, Annual Review of Antitrust Law Developments 2008, ABA Publications, Chicago.

Center for Management Research 2009, The Delta and Northwest Airlines Merger, viewed March 2011, < 

Havel, B 2009, Beyond Open Skies: A New Regime for International Aviation, Kluwer Law Publications, Frederick, MD.
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How ICE and Rain Affect Normal Operations Focusing on Icing

Words: 3763 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15663040

ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing

There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…… [Read More]


Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.

Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.

Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.

Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
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Popularity of Aviation Has Continue

Words: 7059 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79080535

This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)

Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)

Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…… [Read More]


141 Self-Examining Authority. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from McAir Aviation website: 

1999 Mooney M290. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website:

2007 172 Cessna Sky Hawk. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website:

Become a Pilot. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from MVP Aero Academy website:
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Phraseology Is Vital for Aviation

Words: 9175 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15002570

2. Approach Clearances

According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.

Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).

The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…… [Read More]


Airmen, Iraqi air traffic controllers work together. (2007). U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Air Traffic Control. (N.d.). Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at traffic_control/POL15.htm

Air Traffic control. (2008). U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 25Mar2009 at

Back door IFR: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely. (2006). Aviation Safety. Belvoir Media Group, LLC. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety

Words: 3015 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3783283

They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).

The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…… [Read More]


Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.

Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from

Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.

Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from
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Engineer Engages in a Process That Is

Words: 2802 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14474410

engineer engages in a process that is both technical, and social as he or she works to facilitate the creation of a product to meet the customer's needs. If this process were strictly functional application of mathematics, design specifications and materials testing, the bulk of the work could be done by a computer. But the design process is all together human, interwoven by cultural issues, communications issues, and the knowledge that is created as the engineering process travels from conception to completion.

In any design project there generally are different kinds of engineers - mechanical engineers, electronics engineers and so on. They speak different languages; they have different responsibilities, competencies and interests. To reconcile their different claims and proposals, negotiation is required. The book uses the example that refrigerators in the States are huge and in Europe they are small. Clearly there are technical reasons, but the main reason has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bucciarelli, Louis. Designing Engineers. 1996. Mass: MIT Press

Sharpe, Mike & Partworks, Brown. Air Disasters. 1999. USA: Brown Packaging Partworks
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Human Factors

Words: 3134 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39195503

Human Factors in Aviation

rief Historical ackground

The Airline Industry has a history that dates back to 1903 when the Wright brothers made their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Initially the public did not take the idea of the airplane travel favorably. ut this event marked the beginning of the Airline Industry as more and more inputs were given by people such as Charles Lindbergh who successfully completed a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 and created massive interest in flying with the general public.

The concern for human factor involvement in aviation started as soon as the interest of general public was roused in it. The initial concern was for the safety of people daring to fly the aircraft as accidents were reported due to a flaw in the design or working of the plane. A pilot task was to juggle with the complexity…… [Read More]


Daniel J. Garland, V. David Hopkins, John A. Wise. (1999). Handbook of Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Clint A. Bowers, C. Shawn Burke, Eduardo Salas, Katherine A. Wilson. (2001) Team Training in the Skies: Does Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training Work?, Vol. 43

Clint A. Bowers, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Randall L. Oser, Carolyn Prince, Eduardo Salas, Renee J. Stout. (1999) A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training, Vol. 41

Airlines in the industry. (N.d.) Retrieved on Sep 30, 2005 from:
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Air Travel and the Environment

Words: 2763 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56001487

Other aircrafts in the category of A380, produced in the last few years, included the A350, oeing 777, oeing 787 and the other 747's. GKN and other similarly-motivated companies have been focused on reducing harmful acoustic emissions of aircraft jet engines (Hilpern).

UK Prime Minister Tony lair endorsed the report made by economist Sir Nicholas Stern on October 30, 2006 about the global economy shrinking by 20% because of global warming (C News 2007). In his 700-page study, Stern said, however, that taking appropriate measures now would incur only 1% of the world's gross domestic product. Prime Minister lair used the scientific evidence on global warming from Stern's report to describe the phenomenon as "overwhelming" and its consequences as "disastrous." At about the same time, the United Nations released information on the rising volume of emissions of greenhouse gases, which would affect rich countries more. Among the most immediate responses…… [Read More]


BBC News (2007). Climate change fight "can't wait." 6 web pages. British Broadcasting Corporation

Hilpern, K (2005). Flying towards a greener future. 4 pages. The (London) Independent: Independent Newspapers UK Limited

Lean, G. (2006). Green taxes don't have to be a punishment. 2 pages. The Independent on Sunday: Independent Newspapers UK Limited

2000). Airlines called to account over pollution. 2 pages. The (London) Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC