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AVIATION SAFETY AWADS (Dekker, 2007).
SH takes the issue of safety extremely seriously. Therefore, the company wishes to acknowledge and reward individuals who contribute significantly to the improvement and/or implementation of the prevention of safety issues, or the handling of a safety related situation. The contribution itself may be a single act that prevents damage to corporate property or injury to a colleague or passenger. In essence there will be a series of awards given for those who help to exhibit quality in safety or to enhance the SH safety program.
Field awards are also given a cash bonus of $100/incident and 1 paid day off. Those awards have no time frame, and have no cap for awarding during the year. Once a year, however, there will be a company wide selection of a single individual, group, or department that exemplifies the core safety values for the company. This annual…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Dekker, S. (2007). Just Culture: Balancing Safety and Accountability. Ashgate.
Hamilton, J. Scott. (2005). Practical Aviation Law. Aviation Supplies.
Stamford, S. (2003). Aircraft Safety: Accident Investigations, Analyses & Applications.
A clear and pointed memo needs to occur from the President's desk.
Item III -- critical issues -- Based on the above, the first critical issue is to meet with, dialog, and come to an agreement with maintenance that the issues between Safety and Maintenance become more team oriented and congenial. It is essential for both departments to understand that working together is not optional for the continued fiscal health of the airline, and that continued breach of communications and lack of cooperation is placing the entire company in jeopardy and open to legal and Federal action that may indeed shut the company down.
Item V -- Within 90 days the following needs to occur: a) a Safety Operations Committee featuring department heads from Marketing, Maintenance, Operations, Pilot Union, Human esources, and Worker's representatives, Chaired by Safety established and regular meeting schedule provided with mandates and charter; b) Charter for…
Resources, and Worker's representatives, Chaired by Safety established and regular meeting schedule provided with mandates and charter; b) Charter for the above to be first provided to President for approval; c) first order of business for committee is the rapid production of company Safety Manual, with clear delineations of authority for robust enforcement of Safety rules; d) companywide education program defined and scheduled regarding safety issues.
4. Top three priorities are as listed above in item #3. This is a rapid plan to correct numerous dysfunctions prior to any escalation in potential liability or legal exposure. In particular rift between Maintenance and Safety must be proactively healed, and a win-win opportunity presented that will allow Maintenance to feel that they are indeed integral to the function of the company. Additionally, there are several major issues that are far more pertinent to the company's success and safety than items that focus on small distances between items (1/8") or fire extinguisher placement. Safety must take the high road and provide cogent and legitimate conclusions.
The traditional bilateral air service agreements do have some restrictions that prevent foreign airlines to invest in foreign hubs, however, with the open skies agreements such restrictions do not exist and an airline will be able to fully exploit its investments in a foreign country thereby facilitating service between preferred cargo airports. The provision of such agreements also promote cargo services by guaranteeing access to customs facilities and processing, offering a range of ground-handling options, and availing surface transportation necessary for flights. Such provisions enable cargo carriers to efficiently monitor and control cargo from their point of departure to their final destination. This will enhance faster and safer delivery of cargo translating into value-added service to customers.
The benefits derived from the development in the international air transport is not limited to air services industry alone but spreads to cover several service providers, labor market, manufacturers, and the general economy…
Alford, E. And Champley, R. (2007). The impact of the 2007 U.S.-EU open skies air transport agreement. ITA Occasional Paper no. 07-001
Brueckner, J. And W.T. Whalen, (2000). "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances,"
The Journal of Law and Economics: 43(2), 503-545
Hertel, T.W. (1997) Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and Applications. Cambridge University Press: New York
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…
Air Line Pilots Association:
Again, rerphase in business language. For example, I would change this to: Discuss the potential fiscal losses vs. liability.
Discuss new rules and regulations that will be abided by and repecutions (repercussions?) that will take place if they are broken. The rules and repercussions shall and will apply to all hands. Again, rephrase for clarity. Discuss necessary new rules and regulations and reasons for implementation company wide. Engender plan to ensure 100% compliance.
Discuss the issue of why there is no relationship between the president and the safety director. Is this true, or is it broken? Where is the actual breakdown in communications? What about the Operations Manager, etc.
Three top priorities as new Safety Director and an explanation of each.
1) Establishing a new safety policy for Sky High Airlines. The new policy for the airline will clearly state everyone's role in the airline and provide guidance and procedures…
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…
Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Southwest Airlines has been a highly successful airline, it has been one of the most successful airlines in U.S. history with the low cost carrier model created by Southwest emulated successfully by many other airlines across the world. Today it is the largest domestic carrier in the U.S. And has a history of consistent profits, with on a few quarters in the recent recession showing losses (Southwest Airlines, 2013). There are numerous reasons behind the success, the main reason are the leadership and the way that the firms ability to gain and maintain effective competitive advantages. These will provide a good basis from which to consider the future of the firm.
Effectiveness of Leadership
Southwest Airlines was founded by ollin King and Herb Kelleher, having seen successful interstate airline operating out of California it was believed that Texas could also support an interstate airline (Barratt, 2008).…
Barrett, C, (2008), Southwest Airlines' Colleen Barrett on 'Servant Leadership', [online] accessed 27th September 2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6TgR95vnM0c
Bryant, E, (2008, Dec), Leadership Southwest Style, T+D, p36-39
Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B. (2011), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
Southwest Airlines, (2013), homepage, [online] www.Southwest.com
S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.
Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers
Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…
Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.
Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:
Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-
Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:
Similarly, this could influence the international airline community. Then, a stable economy is highly dependent upon a stable oil price, which once again is not the case. "The environment will continue to become more competitive as the LCC's continue to become more convenient. Business fares will continue to drop. Leisure fares won't raise much until capacity is generally in line with demand, which won't occur until much of the capacity overhand has been employed either by surviving legacy carriers or LCC."
To the customer, the continuing of this trend will generate no benefits. "In other words, we're stuck with the current system, because it isn't really in any airline's interest to try to change it. As long as no airline makes a dedicated effort to distinguish itself from the pack, all the airlines can stay lean, even at the expense of quality."
Surowiecki, J., the Unfriendly Skies, the New…
Surowiecki, J., the Unfriendly Skies, the New Yorker, 2007
Jankins, D., Overview of the Domestic Airline Industry, the George Washington University Aviation Institute, www.speea.org/news/files/layoffs/pcfinancials.pptRetrieved on February 13, 2008
Airlines face fiscal problems due to war, the Daily Michigan, September 1, 2003
Quick MBA, Porter's Five Forces - a Model for Industry Analysis, 1999-2007, http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml . Retrieved on February 13, 2008
And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.
In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.
Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score
Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20
EXTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION MATRIX
Gittell, Jody Hoffer. The Southwest Airlines Way Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
More City Pairs Await Southwest - Kelleher Says Opportunities Remain Using Airline's Formula." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 143. 6 (1995): 40.
A www.marketingmix.com.au / www.mcdonalds.com / www.bbc.co.uk
Hans Wendt, a staff photographer with the San Diego County's public relations office, who was covering an outdoor press event in North Park at the time of the accident, took two dramatic post collision still color photographs of the falling Boeing-727 trailing blue-and-white smoke streaking from its right wing while plunging towards the ground. They appeared in several publications around the world including the cover of Time magazine. Another television cameraman, covering the same event in North Park, also managed to capture footage of the falling Cessna wreckage.
Cause of the Crash
Probable Cause: According to the official majority findings of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the probable cause of the accident was:
the failure of the flightcrew of Flight 182 to comply with the provisions of a maintain-visual-separation clearance, including the requirement to inform the controller when they no longer had the other aircraft in sight. ("Aircraft Accident…
Aircraft Accident Report." (1979). National Aircraft Safety Board. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at http://www.psa-history.org/museum/NTSBAAR7905.pdf
CVR transcript: PSA Boeing 727." (n.d.) dnausers.net. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at http://dnausers.d-n-a.net/dnetGOjg/250978.htm
Shess, T. (1998). "This is it!" San Diego Magazine online. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at http://www.sandiegomag.com/issues/august98/psa.shtml
Stich, R. (2005). Unfriendly Skies: 20th and 21st Centuries. Reno, Nevada: Diablo Western Press
blogspot.com/2009/03/air-asia-flight-cancellations.html> [28 July 2010].
This source discusses a common situation that is occurring with some Air Asian flights, cancelations. This is problematic, because many are occurring because the planes are not full; leaving their passengers stranded at airports or forced to find other accommodations. This is significant, because this information can be used to show how some Thai's, were flying Air Asia based upon their low cost fares. However, once their flight has been continuously cancelled, is when many are becoming unhappy with the low cost service. This is important, because this information can be used to show another factor; that could be affecting someone's decision to fly on an LCC or FSC. Where, the lower fares and fewer frills are an advantage that they have over FSC's. Yet, when you factor in issues such as unexpected cancelations; these lack of services and sudden changes could be a turn off…
Air Asia, (2009) Academic [online] available from: . [ 28 July 2010].
Air Asia Company Strategic Management (2009) Air Asia [online] available from . [28 July 2010].
Air Asia Flight Cancelations (2009) Air Asia Reviews [online] available from: [28 July 2010].
Airline Review (2009) Knowledge Oman [online] available from [28 July 2010].
Furthermore, existing vulnerabilities of the airline industry are not taken into consideration until a disaster occurs. Lastly, the September 11th Security Fee introduced by the Department of Homeland Security was considered by many "as a beneficial trade off for their personal safety eventually," having as a direct consequence a rise of the airline industry.
Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw
InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/435732/economic_profile_of_the_airline_industry.htm
Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-ased Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com
Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG: https://www.acorn.org/index.php?id=203
FRSF Economic Letter. (January, 2002). Airline Competition. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Olin usiness School- Washington University: http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/gowrisankaran/pdf_papers/airline_competition.pdf
Virgin Territory (2006, September 30).…
Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw
InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/435732/economic_profile_of_the_airline_industry.htm
Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-Based Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com
Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG: https://www.acorn.org/index.php?id=203
Low Cost Airline in Thailand
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Geography of Thailand
Nature of Airlines
Variables under Study
The Profitability of Low Cost Airlines in Thailand
Operating esults, Selected Airlines, Financial Year 1999
The Economies of Scale Attained By Airline Industry
Human esource Practices
The future of low cost Thailand Airlines
Contrasting Qualities of State Owned and Non-State Owned Airlines
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Thailand is a global source for customers seeking cheap labor or material inputs. The country is rich in natural resources -- tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, and timber being a few examples. The country is a major source for agricultural products1a.
Thailand also has an abundant supply of low-skilled labor with high participation rates in the workforce 86% for males and 67% for females in 1995. At the same time, the country…
Aharoni, Y. & Nachum, L. (Eds.). (2000). Globalization of Services: Some Implications for Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102764448
Alagappa, M. (Ed.). (1998). Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35541491
Asia Top Companies by Sales. (2000, June). Business Asia, 8, 38. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001764374
Beirman, D. (2003). Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102031189
The following definitions may be helpful.
Category 1 APUs are installed where in-flight auxiliary power operation is necessary. Category 1 APUs are usually required for essential APU installations. These APUs have been shown to meet all of the test and analysis requirements of the Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) of TSO C77b, Appendix 1.
Category 2 APUs are installed where in-flight APU operation is not necessary (non-essential installations).
Both Category 1 and Category 2 APUs are acceptable for non-essential APU installations. Category 2 APUs are not required to meet all of the test and analysis requirements that Category 1 APUs are subjected to. (See TSO C77b, Appendix 1, for the detailed requirements). (Category 1 and Category 2 APU, 2005). (See Appendix a for another example of an APU)
History (may need something different for this part - raw research) significant early demonstration was of the first liquid-fueled, fuel cell APU on…
Canadian Inventor Develops Airplane Auxiliary Power Unit Passive Cooling System. U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P3-1503121691.html
Category 1 and Category 2 APU. (2005, June 15). Retrieved February 28, 2009 http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/design_approvals/engine_prop/apu_approvals/apu_
Continued airworthiness assessments of powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations of transport category airplanes. (2003, September 8). http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/b9e00e9e44bfe5a86256dad005b833c/$FILE/AC39-8.pdf
Cook, G. (1996, January/February). Uncle Sam's Not-So-Friendly Skies: The FAA Has a Good Safety Record, but it Could Do Much Better. Washington Monthly, 28, 9+. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001628609
Given that the profitability rate is already very low and that other costs have already been cut, the only practical response to rising fuel costs (assuming that they do not fall drastically very quickly) is to raise fares.
This will be problematic for the company, of course, since it has established as its major selling point the fact that it offers the lowest fares possible. However, having to raise fares is something that will no doubt happen at other companies as well since all companies will be affected. Thus it is entirely possible that the company will be able to raise fares and yet remain the lowest priced company in its market (Creaton, 2007, p. 48).
While rising fuel costs are the most significant costs that are beyond the control of the company, other external factors can have important impacts as well. Among potential issues in terms of overall costs…
Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, a. (2009). Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. New York: Cornell University Press.
Creaton, S. (2007). Ryanair: The Full Story of the Controversial Low-Cost Airline. Dublin: Aurum.
Davies, R. (2011, March 7.) Soaring Fuel Costs Spark New Airline Fees: Sky-High Fuel Costs Are Behind Recent Fee Hikes. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Travel/soaring-fuel-costs-spark-airline-fees/story?id=13077127 .
Fuel and Economy
The price of fuel affects every citizen in one way or another, thus, it can have profound consequences on not only the United States, but the global economy as a whole.
On April 28, 2005, President George . Bush expressed concern about the economy due to higher energy prices, and stressed the need to take measure to boost oil output and lower prices (Bush pp). In a primetime press conference, Bush said the small business owners and families are paying higher prices at the gas pump, and that higher gas prices is like a tax and "I do think it's affected the economy" (Bush pp). His comments followed a report that same day from the Commerce Department that stated that the United States "economy grew at an annualized 3.1% in the first quarter in terms of real gross domestic product, decelerating from the previous quarter's 3.8% and…
Gray, John. "Books: Goodbye globalisation? The World Is Flat."
The Independent (London, England); 4/29/2005; pp.
Marshall, Randi F. "War's ripple effects set city businesses back."
January 27, 2005
While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.
Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…
Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review
Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31617.pdf on April 22, 2009
North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge, http://econedge.org/01/war-on-terrorisms-economic-effects / last accessed on April 23, 2009
O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor, http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/monitor/monm05d.htm last accessed on April 23, 2009
The emergence of low cost carriers has marked a shift in the aircraft industry away from owning aircraft and towards leasing and subleasing of aircraft. National and legacy carriers have long struggled with profitability, and their business model is in part a reason for this. Low cost carriers have attempted to resolve the business issues of heavy debt burden and excess capacity by leasing aircraft rather than owning them. There are other advantages to aircraft leasing as well, including a reduction in maintenance costs. Aircraft leasing has become part of the low cost carrier business model. This paper will examine the issue of aircraft leasing, in particular with respect to the financial considerations. A conclusion will be drawn with respect to the leasing decision and whether or not it is recommended for airlines today.
Overview of the Industry
The aviation industry is one of the world's largest businesses,…
A.T. Kearney. (2010). Fast growing aircraft leasing industry A.T. Kearney. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.atkearney.com/index.php/Our-expertise/aerospace-a-defense-fast-growing-aircraft-leasing-industry.html
Hadhi, A. (2005). Aircraft shortage adds to low cost carrier woes in Asia. Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.pprune.org/dg-p-reporting-points/189041-aircraft-shortage-adds-low-cost-carrier-woes-asia.html
Investec. (2010). An introduction to aircraft leasing. Investec. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.investec.com.au/media/spool._2f_en_5f_au_2f_documents_2f_pdf_5f_s_23_0907_23_File-MediaFile.pdf
Jeremiah, D. (2011). Asia Pacific to lead the upward ride for aircraft leasing opportunities, says Frost & Sullivan. The Lessors Network. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.lessors.com/news11-Q2/allnews-110426b.html
The September 11 terrorist attacks had a tremendous impact on foreign and domestic policy. One of the industries most directly affected by the terrorist attacks was the aviation industry. Shocked by the methods used in the terrorist attacks and forced to immediately address core managerial weaknesses, the aeronautical industry has risen to the occasion admirably. eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women who Kept America Flying is about people -- the people that comprise the American aeronautical industry who understood how to cope with extreme crisis. The anecdotes in Tom Murphy's compilation highlight key areas in which the aeronautical industry succeeded by meeting the challenges it faced after the terrorist attacks. Focusing on the positive aspects of how the various levels of management and employees dealt with the crisis provides a framework for the future of the industry.
eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and…
Blake, A. & Sinclair, M.T. (2003). Tourism crisis management: U.S. response to Septmeber 11. Annals of Tourism Research 30(4): 813-832.
Campbell, R.D., & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human performance and limitations in aviation. Blackwell. Retrieved online: http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/105044474.pdf
Jensen, R.S. (1997). The Boundaries of Aviation Psychology, Human Factors, Aeronautical Decision Making, Situation Awareness, and Crew Resource Management. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 7(4): 259-267.
Murphy, T. (2006). Reclaiming the Sky. AMACOM.
Forty years ago, when ALPA still championed the rights of all pilots to remain employed, former ALPA president Clarence Sayen challenged FAA Administrator Elwood Quesada to justify his hasty decision to enact the Rule. Quesada responded with 41 highly questionable articles culled from the medical archives of the 1950's, the majority of these having been published decades earlier. In addition to being astonishingly outdated, these articles described characteristics of the general population and not of airline pilots.
Medical evidence was therefore manipulated. A closer examination of the "facts" would have revealed that there was much that was not applicable to the situation at hand. And if these data were years out of date more than two generations ago, one can only imagine that the picture that they present is even more inaccurate today than it was in 1959. In countless other fields, 60-year-old men and women pursue their careers without…
Agarwal, Naresh C., and Michael G. Degroote. "Retirement of Older Workers: Issues and Policies." Human Resource Planning 21.1 (1998): 42+.
Flight Safety Digest, Special Issue, p. 202. (Flight Safety Foundation, June-August 1999).
Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).
Gokhale, Jagadeesh. "Mandatory Retirement Age Rules: Is it Time to Re-evaluate?" Statement of Senior Fellow of the Cato Institute before the United States Senate Special Committee on Aging. (Washington D.C. 20510, 9 September 2004).
In this regard, Selzer notes that, "Pan American World Airways was a great carrier and a foremost representative of the American way around the world. Its triumphs were one of the major reasons why English is the primary language spoken in air-traffic control towers throughout the globe" (p. 20).
Notwithstanding these early successes, by the late 1980s, though, Pan American was experienced serious financial trouble and sought relief through wage and benefits negotiations with the flight attendant and flight engineer unions (uben 1989). By the early 1990s, the writing was on the wall for all to see and Pan American's days were clearly numbered. Based on his analysis of Pan American's demise, Branson (2007) suggests that Trippe was relatively out of touch with the important global events that swirled around him during the early 1990s and failed to respond to these changes in a timely fashion. According to Branson, "Trippe…
Barrett, F. 2009, January 25 "This Year You Could Conquer the World - for Less Than a Grand." The Mail on Sunday, p. 38.
Branson, R. 2007 "Juan Trippe (1899-1981) Biography." Charles Lindbergh: An American
Aviator. [online] available: http://www.charleslindbergh.com/plane/trippe.asp .
Burns, G.E. 2011 "The War Years." Pan American Historical Foundation. [online] available:
Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…
Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.
Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.
Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
Dierct Air - Management & Marketing Mistakes
The following case study employs the array of industry metrics discussed above to determine major factors that contributed to Direct Airways filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during the time period from 2007-212. This time period was chosen because SEC filings at that time available, providing valuable insight into the stark differences between the two airlines. Direct Airways was a major U.S. carrier that was founded in 2001 and operated for 7 years until it fell into bankruptcy in 2001. This terminated an unrestrained years for Direct Airways, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy last year of 2012 (Jayanti).
I understood that already the subject of a federal investigation by transportation regulators, the outdated charter service Direct Air long ago would soon may be facing a far-reaching investigation of its finances by the bankruptcy trustee (Bomkamp). The lawyer governing Direct Air's bankruptcy went ahead…
Barla, P., & Koo, B. (1999). Bankruptcy protection and pricing strategies in the U.S. airline industry. Transportation Research.Part E, Logistics & Transportation Review, 35, 101-120.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (1995). Bankruptcy and pricing behavior in U.S. airline markets. The American Economic Review, 85(2), 397-397.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (2003). The impact of bankruptcy on airline service levels. The American Economic Review, 93(2), 415-415.
Baran, Michelle. Uncertainty over refunds surrounds Direct Air's bankruptcy. 2 April 2012. http://www.travelweekly.com/Travel-News/Tour-Operators/Uncertainty-over-refunds-surrounds-Direct-Airs-bankruptcy/ . 29 November 2012.
Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.
According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…
Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.
Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.
Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
DayJet, on the other hand, plans to sell single seats to frustrated air travelers who no longer fly on trips of 250 to 500 miles - they choose to drive instead. DayJet believes they can identify and market effectively to these travelers, serving "regional route sectors -- starting in Texas and the Southwest, eventually expanding to the New York area south to Florida, and then to the Pacific coast" (Sharkey, 2006). This air taxi service plans to use Eclipse 500 planes, and are awaiting delivery of the planes to begin service.
Neither of these operators has begun regular service because the planes seem to be coming off the assembly lines more slowly than anticipated. DayJet's delivery of Eclipse 500's has been slowed due to delays in production and certification. Therefore, no one knows how these air taxi services will ultimately affect airport traffic and air travel. The public may embrace…
Author not available. (2006). Smaller, faster, cheaper new jets may transform flying. Retrieved from the USAToday.com Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2006-01-19-little-jets_x.htm19 April 2007.
Croft, J. (2006). Very light jets: Boom or blip? Retrieved from the AIAA.org Web site: http://www.aiaa.org/aerospace/images/articleimages/pdf/AA_May06_CRO.pdf19 April 2007. 32-36.
Editors. (2007). NBAA training guidelines for single pilot operations of Very Light Jets and technically advanced aircraft. Retrieved from the NBAA.org Web site: http://web.nbaa.org/public/ops/safety/vlj/19 April 2007.
Robinson, J.L. (2006). Predicted air traffic control impact from VLJ's. Retrived from the Casa.aero Web site: http://www.casa.aero/adminUploads/TheVeryLightJet_ATCA.pdf19 April 2007.
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
50). Therefore, the ability of planners in both civilian and military aviation settings will need to ensure this integrated approach to information management to identify opportunities for improvement and what steps will be needed today to ensure their successful outcome in the future.
The research showed that resource management and strategic decision making processes in the civilian and military sectors of the aviation industry have been profoundly affected by innovations in technology that continue to have an enormous impact today. The research also showed that although there is much to be considered in developing effective resource management techniques, the strategic decision process can help organizations of all types identify opportunities for improvement today and take the steps today to help ensure their successful development and implementation in the future. In the final analysis, the body of knowledge in these areas is growing at exponential rates, and the terrible costs…
Goodman, W.C. (2000). Transportation by air: Job growth moderates from stellar rates. Monthly Labor Review, 123(3), 34.
Harris, W.C., Goernert, P.N., Hancock, P.A., & Arthur, E.J. (1994). The comparative effectiveness of adaptive automation and operator initiated automation during anticipated and unanticipated taskload increases. In Hollnagel at p. 159.
Hendrick, H.W. & Kleiner, B.M. (2002). Macroergonomics: Theory, methods, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollnagel, E. (2003). Handbook of cognitive task design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Domestic and Global Environments
Delta operates in the airline industry and competes with other leaders in the industry including brands such as Frontier Airlines, United Airlines, American Airlines and Southwest Airlines. These are the dominant firms in the industry and Delta rates second highest in terms of volume. Delta's overall performance has improved recently compared to previous performances. Yet, there is one customer service issue that has gained publicity which is their propensity to bump people off flights due to overbooking and this practice is fairly pronounced and thus drags them down rating-wise (NY Post, 2014). Customer service is especially relevant because the domestic industry in general is highly competitive and consumers have multiple options for flights. Airlines in the domestic environment typically try to offer differentiation in service to create consumer value and create brand loyalty.
The government tends to regulate the industry mostly in the form…
Carey, S. (2014). Delta Airlines to take control of its data systems. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2015 from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303480304579575891541812918
Hofstede, G. (2015). Japan. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com/japan.html
Hofstede, G. (2015). United States. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com/united-states.html
NY Post. (2014). The worst airlines in America. New York Post. Retrieved 20 September 2015,
Chassidic fundamentalist environment in a part of Williamsburg in Brooklyn NY. She lives with her parents but has often been thrown out of the house and has other times tried to run away. She is 19 years old, and works fulltime as a nursery teacher, a job that she detests and that her mother forced her into. She has minimal independence skills, little social maturity, i.e. developmentally behind her age in comparison to 'normal' American society, although has an IQ that I suspect is quite high. Given her lack of secular subjects, all of Ellie's knowledge comes from books that she acquired from the library when she, benign thrown out of the house, found her refuge there at night. Ellie is totally ignorant therefore of some subjects, such as math and geography, but has a knowledge of others, such as Latin and Greek that others her age would not have.…
Almond, G.A., Appleby, R.S., & Sivan, A. (2003). Strong religion: The rise of fundamentalisms around the world. Chicago: The Univ. Of Chicago Press.
Antoun, R.T. (2001). Understanding Fundamentalism: Christian, Islamic, and Jewish movements. Oxford: Altamira Press.
Heilman, C. (2007). Jews and fundamentalism, Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42, 1-9.
Heilman, C., & Friedman, M. (1991). Religious fundamentalism and religious Jews. In Fundamentalisms Observed, ed. M.E. Marty, R.S. Appleby, pp. 197-265. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.
My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…
Airscooter. "Airscooter II: Back to the Future of Rotor Craft Design" http://www.airscooter.com/pages/airscooter_main.htm
Boyle, Alan. "Seven flights of fancy that fizled." MSNBC, 17, Nov. 2003. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475918/
Cessna 150-152 Club "Safety FAQ's. http://www.cessna150-152.com/faqs/safety.htm
Ericg. "Cessna 172." Wikipedia, 18, Apr 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cessna_172
Positives and Negatives from a Century of Aviation
Little did the Wright brothers know, on December 17, 1903, when they successfully tested their flying machine at Kitty Hawk, what an influential industry they were launching. They could not have known in their wildest dreams that ninety-nine years later, an airport called Chicago O'Hare would facilitate some 383,362 landing and takeoff cycles each year. Or that by 1967, sixty-four years later, aerospace would become America's leading industrial employer, with some 1,484,000 employees, and sales of $27 billion, according to author Donald Pattillo (Pushing the Envelope). Nor could the Wright brothers know that a man would fly to the moon, and walk on the moon, by 1969, just sixty-six years after that little plane at Kitty Hawk left solid ground for a few triumphant seconds.
ut though the Wright brothers' crude little aircraft got the aerospace industry off the ground to become…
Biddle, Wayne. Barons of the Sky: From Early Flight to Strategic Warfare. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Knott, Richard C. A Heritage of Wings: An Illustrated History of Navy Aviation. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Miller, Jerry. Nuclear Weapons and Aircraft Carriers: How the Bomb Saved Naval Aviation. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.
Aer Lingus, 2012a ()
No security breach has even been recorded on the Aer Lingus website so the website can be thought to be tightly secure and that all the necessary steps have been taken to ensure that the personal information of their customers is kept safe.
Methods for ensuring greater security for customers
One of the ways which the company can ensure that they continue maintaining this record of security and providing greater security for customers is to make sure the company has a security work team. This will be a team that is involved in checking the security of the company's website and other online products as their daily activity.
The second method is to ensure they keep up-to-date with changes in the technological world. Technology changes pretty fast therefore the company needs to keep up with these changes especially in the online security field. This will ensure…
Aer Lingus. (2010). Annual Report 2010: Aer Lingus.
Aer Lingus. (2011). Company Profile Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from http://www.aerlingus.com/aboutus/aerlingusmedia/companyprofile/
Aer Lingus. (2012b). Contact Us Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from http://www.aerlingus.com/help/contactus/
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
front line of defense and the first line of offense of American might, the United States military plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the nation's interests at home and abroad. In sharp contrast to the highly motivated and professional armed forces that are in place today, though, the U.S. military struggled to overcome the legacy of its conscription-based approach to maintaining adequate manpower during the Vietnam War where relatively short enlistment periods and high attrition rates resulted in diminished combat readiness and dangerously low levels of troop morale. This paper examines how the U.S. armed forces overcame this legacy to emerge as the preeminent military power in the world today. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Organizational Behavior in Today's Military
Over the past half century, the United States armed forces have experienced a number of changes to their…
Gates, R.M. (2008, September 29). National Defense University. U.S. Department of Defense
Greenberg, J. (2003). Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).
One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…
Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.
De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/
Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.
Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm .
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…
(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,
Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.
Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane
Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
Sometime the debtor is able to successfully reduce its liability and returns to profitability but quite often it returns to seek the court's protection again and sometime the end result is liquidation.
Under Chapter 11 protections, the debtor gets an automatic protection from all creditors. The unsecured creditors cannot lay a claim on assets and secured creditors are also prevented from foreclosing on their collateral. A Chapter-11 company also gets the advantage of discarding or renegotiating union agreements, ability to freeze or cut wages and benefits and restructures its staffing requirement. Retirement and pension plans can also be reviewed or the company can transfer its pension obligations to the Federal Pension enefit Guaranty Corporation.
The reorganization is carried out by the bankruptcy and the court appointed trustee. The trustee appoints committee(s) to represent the creditor's interests and work out a plan for reorganization of the company. The reorganization plan must…
Boser, R.J., Has the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 adversely affected airline safety? Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.airlinesafety.com/faq/faq3.htm
Delaney, K.J., Strategic Bankruptcy (Review), Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/5725.html
Fix, J.L., The chaotic skies: A look at how deregulation has affected the airline industry, 2001, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.freep.com/money/airtravel/dereg2_20010302.htm
Isidore, C., U.S. Air files Chapter 11 -- "again, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://money.cnn.com/2004/09/13/news/fortune500/usair_bankruptcy
43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…
Airguide Online (2006). North America. Airline News: Pyramid Media Group, Inc.
Retrieved on December 28, 2008 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOQXQ/is_2006_Oct_2/ai_n27005685?tag=content;col1
Air Safety Week (2008). Controllers declare "staffing emergency" in Atlanta,
Chicago, New York and Southern California. Access Intelligence, LLC: Gale, Cengage
" (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) Market saturation is possible according to Traventec, Ltd., due to the constant "influx of new entrants into the low cost carrier and regional space and continued expansion of existing players. When and whether market saturation is actually reached in specific regions of the world depends on how mature regional and low cost air transport is in the first place and the size of the yet under-served demographic area." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) There is stated to be a potentially huge regional aviation market in South East Asia yet untapped with more than half of the population of the entire world within six hours flying radiuses from "Kuala Lumpur and a five hour flying radius from angkok." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) the airports in this area have only recently been liberalized with the "international bilateral agreements and vested in the development of airport capacity." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) When this…
The Impact of Low Cost Carriers in Europe (2003) Online available at http://www.icao.int/icao/en/atb/ecp/CaseStudies/Europe_LowCost_En.pdf .
The Inevitable Convergence of Regional and Low Cost Carriers (2005) Traventec - the Travel Technology People. July-August 2005. Traventec Ltd. Galway Business Park, Dangan, Ireland Online available at http://www.sourceit-travel.com/directory/downloads/traventec/trav entec_publication_july2005.pdf
Sean D. Barrett (2004) the sustainability of the Ryanair model 1 Dec 2004. International Journal of Transport Management Volume 2, Issue 2, 2004, Pages 89-98. Online available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W83-4FHJYDN-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=6c4406b7409fa7b9f01b15b1ae584273
Europe's Airports (2006) Mintel International Group Ltd. Published: Feb. 1, 2006 - Online available at http://www.marketresearch.com/map/prod/1224216.html
Effect of the recession on upon financial market, the real economy and over everyday lives
ecession is defined as the economic slowdown or decline characterized by slowing down of trade, a magnitude decline in the GDP, and a decrease in employment usually lasting between 6 months to a year. This was the situation in the U.S.A. The hardest times being from 2008 through 2009 and the early months of 2010. America is still recovering from the effects of the recession that the country experienced from 2007 to 2009.
The slow down in economy triggered a massive job loss and unemployment rates that shot through the roof, the prices went up and a great deal of uncertainty rippled through the country. This situation has now seen a reverse trend albeit at a slower rate than was expected by many. The unemployment rate in November 2011 fell by 0.4% to 8.6%…
Amitabh Shukia, (2009). Top 5 major Economic Effects of Recession on Economy.
Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.paggu.com/business/world-economy/top-5-major-economic-effects-of-recession-on-economy/
Browder, Laura, (1998). Rousing the Nation: Radical Culture in Depression America.
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Description of high/low marketing strategy
The marketing strategy of choice, however, is simply to accentuate low costs by cutting frills and eliminating hub-based systems in favor of short nonstop hops for even the largest national carriers. This is the model followed by such successful low-cost carriers as Jet lue and Southwest Airlines.
These airlines are able to go up against giants like United and American by slashing fares, marketing their no-frills image and flying short distances and choosing cheaper, slightly out of the way airports.
For instance, Jet lue flies not to Miami but to Ft. Lauderdale and even though Delta might fly to Miami, Jet lue will still get the fare because of its lower price and no-frills marketing strategy.
Airlines have to realize that this is a price-sensitive market and only spend marketing dollars on advertising low-cost fares and the fact that fliers are not being charged for…
Adams, Ed. (2005). "Low-cost carriers." www.navigant.com
Gooch, Daniel-Robert. (2005). "Air France suspending non-stop Vietnam flights." Commercial Aviation Today, Feb. 28, 2005.
Mercer Management Consulting. (2002). "Impact of low cost airlines." www.mercermc.com
TEMPOAY FLIGHT ESTICTIONS EGULATION: IS IT CONSTITUTIONAL?
Condition of airline industry after Sept.
TFs and general aviation
TFs without information
TFs and business at busy airports
TFs and young pilots
TFs: an ineffective measure
Temporary flight restrictions (TF) are considered unconstitutional by many quarters because they are seriously hurting economic conditions of the United States aviation. But speaking from legal point-of-view, we cannot declare any action taken for security reasons as unconstitutional. This is because the federal government has Congress's permission to take appropriate measures to ensure security of the country, its landmarks, general public and important public figures such as the President and Vice president. But when these actions cross the limits of justice and start interfering with smooth operations of any industry, a petition can be filed against them in U.S. courts to determine the legality of those actions. No such action has so far been…
Al Carrozza, Since Sept. 11, Not a Banner Year / Advertisers grounded by FAA regulations., Newsday, 10-25-2001, pp. A69
Kathy McCabe, Airspace limits hurt flight schools, Globe Correspondent, 10/21/2001
EDITORIAL / Use Common Sense in Restricting Republic Airport., Newsday, 10-02-2001, pp. A38
BOB EDWARDS, Analysis: Impact of new government flight restrictions on general aviation., Morning Edition (NPR), 10-11-2001
argaining power of suppliers
Price of aviation fuels is directly related to the cost of oil.
Regional airports have little bargaining power as they are heavily dependent on one airline.
4. argaining power of customers
Customer are price sensitive and switching to another airline is relatively simple
5. Threat of substitutes
a. UK -- none
c. Driving holidays
d. High- speed trains
e. No loyalty of customers (Ryanair, 2009)
. Ryanair - Value chain analysis
Cost-containment is the focus of the low cost airline and includes the following:
Cost containment realized through spending as little money possible for advertising with all marketing identified as 'in-house' marketing to customers to increase turnover;
Cost containment realized through turning the costs of food and drinks on a flight into a revenue stream through making drinks and a selection of food available at a reasonable price;
Cost containment realized through creating additional…
Rivalry among Existing Firms
The "fatigue summit " was held in 2005 and hosted by the Association of Professional Flight Attendants, representing flight attendants at American Airlines, and Transport Workers Union Local 556, representing flight attendants at Southwest Airlines. The meeting was held at American Association of Flight Attendants-CWA headquarters outside Dallas. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours)
One of the central issues on the table was a critique of the Federal Aviation Administration regulations promulgated in 1996, which required flight attendants to have eight to nine hour rest periods. However, as has already been referred to, these 'rest periods' included time taken for transportation to and from airports as well as the time taken for meals etc. Therefore, this FAA regulation was seen as being insufficient to deal with the very real problem of fatigue. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours) at this meeting, the AFA-CWA President, Patricia Friend,…
AFA-CWA Wins Action on Fatigue Study. (2006) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at http://www.cwa-union.org/news/page.jsp?itemID=27802406
Congress Takes Up Safety Issues for Airline Passengers, First Responders.
2007) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at http://blog.aflcio.org/2007/06/07/congress-takes-up-safety-issues-for-airline-passengers-first-responders/
Crew Fatigue. (2005) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at http://www.aviationtoday.com/asw/categories/commercial/3223.html
On April 15, 2008, Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines formally announced a merger agreement forming the largest commercial airline in the world; a fleet of almost 800 aircraft. This combined airline, still known as Delta, would have a value of $17.7 billion. In addition, due to the merger and the proposed benefits and synergisms, the company stated that it had come to an agreement with its pilot union to extend the collective bargaining agreement through the end of 2012; providing Delta pilots a 3.5% equity stake in the newly created organization (Rhoades 2008).
On September 26, 2008 the shareholders of both companies approved the merger, with only a Federal antitrust review board's approval. As expected from most analysts, the merger was approved by all requisite Federal agencies, largely due to the minimal overlap between the two carriers' routes and very little threat to competitive industry pressures. A…
American Bar Association 2008, Annual Review of Antitrust Law Developments 2008, ABA Publications, Chicago.
Center for Management Research 2009, The Delta and Northwest Airlines Merger, viewed March 2011, <
Havel, B 2009, Beyond Open Skies: A New Regime for International Aviation, Kluwer Law Publications, Frederick, MD.
ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing
There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…
Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.
Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.
Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.
Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)
Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)
Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…
141 Self-Examining Authority. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from McAir Aviation website: http://www.mcairaviation.com/141_flight_training.htm
1999 Mooney M290. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/1999-MOONEY-M20-Ovation-97012603
2007 172 Cessna Sky Hawk. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/2007-CESSNA-172-SKYHAWK-96517151
Become a Pilot. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from MVP Aero Academy website: http://www.mvpaeroacademy.com/
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
Airmen, Iraqi air traffic controllers work together. (2007). U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P3-1286415771.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).
The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…
Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.
Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/
Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.
Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from http://www.scsi-inc.com/HFAM.php
engineer engages in a process that is both technical, and social as he or she works to facilitate the creation of a product to meet the customer's needs. If this process were strictly functional application of mathematics, design specifications and materials testing, the bulk of the work could be done by a computer. But the design process is all together human, interwoven by cultural issues, communications issues, and the knowledge that is created as the engineering process travels from conception to completion.
In any design project there generally are different kinds of engineers - mechanical engineers, electronics engineers and so on. They speak different languages; they have different responsibilities, competencies and interests. To reconcile their different claims and proposals, negotiation is required. The book uses the example that refrigerators in the States are huge and in Europe they are small. Clearly there are technical reasons, but the main reason has…
Bucciarelli, Louis. Designing Engineers. 1996. Mass: MIT Press
Sharpe, Mike & Partworks, Brown. Air Disasters. 1999. USA: Brown Packaging Partworks
Human Factors in Aviation
rief Historical ackground
The Airline Industry has a history that dates back to 1903 when the Wright brothers made their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Initially the public did not take the idea of the airplane travel favorably. ut this event marked the beginning of the Airline Industry as more and more inputs were given by people such as Charles Lindbergh who successfully completed a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 and created massive interest in flying with the general public.
The concern for human factor involvement in aviation started as soon as the interest of general public was roused in it. The initial concern was for the safety of people daring to fly the aircraft as accidents were reported due to a flaw in the design or working of the plane. A pilot task was to juggle with the complexity…
Daniel J. Garland, V. David Hopkins, John A. Wise. (1999). Handbook of Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Clint A. Bowers, C. Shawn Burke, Eduardo Salas, Katherine A. Wilson. (2001) Team Training in the Skies: Does Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training Work?, Vol. 43
Clint A. Bowers, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Randall L. Oser, Carolyn Prince, Eduardo Salas, Renee J. Stout. (1999) A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training, Vol. 41
Airlines in the industry. (N.d.) Retrieved on Sep 30, 2005 from:
Port Everglades is a predominantly industrial area, with a container port and cruise ship port. Overall, however, noise levels at FLL for all airlines are below the federal standards.
The effort to manage noise pollution at FLL is ongoing. The airport authorities have submitted Noise Mitigation Principles to the FAA and are awaiting feedback on a preferred alternative for noise mitigation. The Broward County Board of County Commissioners also has a consultant to implement the noise mitigation program forthcoming.
The growth of FLL has mirrored growth in the region. The population of South Florida is expected to grow a further 25% by 2020. This will increase the strain on FLL. The lands adjacent to the airport are all developed, so there is little room for expansion. The 9R/27L runway, for example, cannot be expanded to accommodate jet traffic because of the course of I-95. Therefore, flights on the 9L/27R…
No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.cleanairports.com/reports/gai_fllforweb.pdf
No author. (2008). Noise Information. Broward County. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.broward.org/airport/community_noise.htm ; http://www.broward.org/airport/pdfs/fll_pqs_q22008.pdf
Andrus, Katherine (2006) ATA Comments on FAA Noise Analysis for Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. Air Transportation Association. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.airlines.org/NR/exeres/2E3BE77B-86CF-41E2-BADD-1936AC6250FB.htm no author). (2000). Aviation and the environment: airport operations and future growth present environmental challenges United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?id=1yTVCGk7DfMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=fll+environment+noise&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0
No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership.
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
, 1999, p. 315). This point is also made by Doyle (2002), who reports that, "In fact, airline companies take pilot fatigue very seriously because they also have to contend with jet-lagged pilots" (p. 128).
Indeed, the introduction of these sophisticated aircraft, replete with a vast array of displays and controls, can in and of itself result in increased pilot fatigue. According to Mouloua and Parasuraman (1996), "Increasing task demands, such as increasing the number of displays that the pilot must monitor, also increases workload, particularly during demanding flight segments. Pilot fatigue also increases workload because it can reduce the capacity of the pilot to respond to task demands in a timely or appropriate manner" (p. 120). The authors provide a useful schematic to help illustrate how these processes play out in real-world settings by introducing the factors of pilot skill, feedback and system reliability and how these factors can…
Backs, R.W., & Boucsein, W. (2000). Engineering psychophysiology: Issues and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Deitz, S.R., & Thoms, W.E. (1991). Pilots, personality, and performance: Human behavior and stress in the skies. New York: Quorum Books.
Doyle, C.E. (2002). Work and organisational psychology: An introduction with attitude. London: Psychology Press.
Fusco, C. (2000, January 30). Pilot fatigue another angle in Flight 1420 crash probe. Daily Herald, 1.
Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT
How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents?
Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one location to another in the world. Without air traffic, the business world would come to a screeching halt. Although businesses can transfer mass amounts of digital communications DATA, thus eliminating much of the demand on mail and fax transmissions of just a decade ago, businesses organizations can still not transfer products, mail, personnel, and other hard goods through electronic blips on the internet. Travel still relies on airliners and cargo air-busses which fill the skies around the world and around the clock. The experts are agreed that global commercial air traffic will grow at an average 5% per year over the next 20 years. This means that traffic will double in 15 years and will practically triple by the end of…
Jensen, D. (2000, November) EGPWS: look what it can do now. Retrieved 14 November, 2003. from Avaition Today, Website: http://www.aviationtoday.com/cgi/av/show_mag.cgi?pub=av&mon=1100&file=coverstory.htm
Matteo, Luccio. (2001, 1 Oct.) GPS and Aviation Safety. GPS World.
Unraveling the Mystery of General Aviation Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents Using HFACS. (2002) Retrieved 14 Nov. 2003 from Institute of Aviation. Website: http://www.aviation.uiuc.edu/new/html/ARL/conference/shappellwiegavpsy01.pdf
An ongoing concern at the NASA Ames esearch Center pertains to the human factors in the safety of aviation, which was considered to a great extent during the development of the ASS. The data analysts, who are principally experts in air traffic control and aircraft operations, give insight relating to the nature of human errors and other fundamental factors regarding the incidents. Even though the reports are encoded in detail, the entire narrative text of all the reports is preserved, in case they are needed for evaluation at a later stage. (Office of Technology Assessment, United States Government Printing Office, 1988)
The effectiveness with which the data is collected and stored by a program like ASS is just one part of the reporting side of the incident. More important is the potency of the feedback loop, of the reporting system, to the industry and the reporters to whom its serves.…
N.A. (n. d.) "ASRS: The Case for Confidential Incident Reporting Systems"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/docs/rs/60_Case_for_Confidential_Incident_Reporting.pdf
N.A. (n. d.) "Aviation Safety Reporting System: Program Briefing"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
46). To date, though, these reforms have not materialized and the air traffic control system remains mired in the FAA bureaucracy (McDougall & oberts, 2008). In this regard, Poole (2008) emphasizes that, "[the air traffic control system] is managed by an unwieldy government bureaucracy, micromanaged by Congress, and subjected to the ups and downs of the federal budget process. And as air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system is less and less able to keep pace" (p. 11).
Based on the importance of sound air traffic control systems, there have been a number of studies conducted to determine the primary causes of existing air traffic control system deficiencies. The research to date has identified five main causes as follows:
1. Procurement: cumbersome federal procurement processes end up taking five to seven years to acquire new radar and computer systems -- at a time when a new generation…
Deitz, S.R. & Thoms, W.E. (1999). Pilots, personality, and performance:
Human behavior and stress in the skies. New York: Quorum Books Jacko, J.A. & Sears, a. (2003). The human-computer interaction handbook:
Fundamentals, evolving technologies, and emerging applications.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
The 2007 BCB survey averaged out to 7.5 out of a possible 10 "with regard to the perception of the services it offers." In the section dedicated to Barcelona's "worldwide image" the 2007 survey reached 8 out of ten from those visitors participating in the survey.
Spain isn't the only attractive meetings tourism destination by any means. There are countries all over the world seeking to attract business travelers that are part of conventions, conferences, seminars and other business-related gatherings. China is also an appealing destination for meetings tourism. The Jiangsu Tourism Company spells out some "useful tips for Meeting Planning in China" (http://tastejiangsu.com).
The old Japanese saying, "The protruding nail gets hammered down" is linked by the travel service to the possibility that some business travelers that are part of a meetings tourism group may commit a "major faux pas" during the business sessions. Hence, the ebsite explains, one…
About.com. "What is Adventure Travel." Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.adventuretravel.about.com . (2010).
Bawaba, Al. "Malaysia Still Has Room to Grow in Health Tourism, Says Liow." Malaysian
Government News. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from GaleGroup.
Berger, Karen. "Types of Adventure Travel Tours: Challenges, Features of Soft, Medium, and Hard-Core Adventure Trips." Suite101.com. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.suite101.com (2009).