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During pollution peaks, this department informs residents and announces any traffic restriction measures decided on by the town hall. Air quality has distinctly improved over the past two years and these restrictions are becoming less frequent" (Energy Agency of Municipality, 2001). These are all local methods of measuring pollution.
Another means through which one can measure the level of CO2 in the air and which was used in Italy is with portable monitors which "measure ultrafine particles" in the air. An experiment done using these mechanisms found out that the level of pollutant particles in the room of a home nearby a thoroughfare is indeed worrisome. More precisely, "Tommaso Abbate, 16, found that the pollution levels at night in his living room were "really high" - 200 micrograms per cubic meter at one point" (osenthal, 2007) a result which on the long run can seriously affect the health of the…
Colls, Jeremy. Air Pollution. Spon Press: New York, 2002.
Corrosion in Italy. N.d. 17 June 2008. http://corrosion-doctors.org/Arts/AtmCorros/mapItaly.htm
Energy Agency of Municipality of Naples. Quality of air Campaigns to set an example. 2001. 17 June 2008. http://www.energie-cites.eu/db/napoli_126_en.pdf
Fusco, D et al. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory conditions in Rome, Italy. 2001. 17 June 2008, http://www.erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/17/6/1143
Air Quality Climate Change Integrated Policy
Climate change has been a prominent issue in policy making since 20th century scientists discovered the detrimental effect of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Being responsible for the well-being and longevity of their people, governments have attempted to create policies to help their countries mitigate problems associated with climate change. However, integration seems to have been problematic on a variety of levels. There appears to have been a fragmentary, or at best a compartmentalized approach to the various problems associated with climate change. Air quality, for example, has been addressed as a separate issue, while climate change had its own sent of policies and rules. On another level, governmental units assigned to these problems have also been compartmentalized. Governments themselves have tended to focus single units on climate problems within their countries. Neither these units nor collective governments have made an integrative effort to…
Jacob, D.J. And Winner, D.A. (2009). Effects of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 43, no. 1. Retrieved from: http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/3553961/Jacob_EffectClimate.pdf?sequence=2
Kuylenstierna, J. And Hicks, K. (2008). Benefits of Integrating Air Pollution and Climate Change Policy. Stockholm Environment Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.sei-international.org/mediamanager/documents/Publications/Climate/air_pollution_climate_change_policy.pdf
Ostrom, E. (2009, Oct.). A Polycentric Approach for Coping with Climate Change. Policy Research Working Paper.
Air Quality Control
In 1945, United Nations diplomats convened in order to position an organization to assist global health, now known as the World Health Organization (WHO) (WHO.int, 2008). The organization has since established numerous health campaigns and standards across the globe. One of the most significant concerns is the air quality of the world. With the help of the WHO, the world is able to be more knowledgeable and proactive about the causes, effects, and preventative actions against human air pollution.
Air pollution can affect humans and wildlife alike. The lungs are among the leading organs to be damaged by air pollution. Studies have shown that in areas of higher air pollution, the lung capacity is as much as eighty percent less than it is fully capable of (LBL.gov, n.d.). The underperforming lungs experience diminishing functions. Other serious health issues in humans can include chronic respiratory disease, heart disease,…
Air Resources Board. (2009, November 24). California ambient air quality standards (CAAQS).
Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/aaqs/caaqs/caaqs.htm
Griffiths, H. (2003, June). Effects of air pollution on agricultural crops. Retrieved February 13,
2011 from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/01-015.htm
Indoor Air Quality
This report discusses viable options for reducing indoor pollutants in order to improve indoor air quality. This work focuses on three major concerns in regard to indoor air quality: poor ventilation, indoor smoking, and other indoor pollutants. The media bombards us daily with information regarding external pollution such as the emissions from automobiles, water contaminants, basic garbage and of course the smoke stacks of industry. But most people may not be aware of the high number and the effect of indoor pollutants. "Indoor air pollution consists of toxic gases or particles that can harm your health." (Air Resources Board) From this lack of knowledge stems the problem of also not understanding how important it is to reduce indoor pollutants as best we can in our homes, schools, restaurants, bars and other public places. Consider the fact that humans spend a great deal of time indoors and because…
Air Resources Board. "Reducing Indoor Air Pollution - Indoor Air Pollution: A Serious Public Health Problem." California Air Resources Board May 2nd (2001). Retrieved on 28 Apr. 2005, from .
Barg, Jeffrey. "Philadelphia Smoking Ban Long Overdue." Physician's News Digest, Inc. May (2000). Retrieved on 28 Apr. 2005, from .
Second Hand Smoke is Dangerous. Ed. smoke-free.eire.org. 2/13/1997. smoke-free.eire.org. Retrieved on 28 Apr. 2005, from < http://smoke-free.eire.org/secondhand.htm>.
St. Louis Post. "Major Indoor Air Pollutants." St. Louis Post [St. Louis] 23 Sept. 2003, Five Star Late Lift, News: A4. Retrieved on 28 Apr. 2005, from .
Pollution Strategies Improve Air Quality do not think that today's pollution strategies can improve our air quality. Although we are told by the media that the air quality is getting better, why then do incidence of asthma, cancer, acid rain, global warming, Greenhouse Gas levels and the hole in the ozone layer continue to get worse? Each year both larger conglomerates, smaller industrial companies, industrially strong nations like the United States and Germany and up and coming third world nations throughout the world emit millions of tons of pollutants into our air. "Energy, transport, agriculture and industrial activity cause emissions to the atmosphere. Environmental impacts can occur locally or at great distances from the source of emissions. Some emissions have a significant impact on the global environment." (Air Quality Facts and Figures)
In regard to air pollution, what measures are being used today to attempt to control the problem? If…
Air Quality Facts and Figures. Ed. Environmental Agency. 2003. Environmental Agency. 23 Nov. 2003 http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/airquality / 595310/?version=1&lang=_e>.
Bell, Michelle L., et al. "International Expert Workshop On The Analysis Of The Economic And Public Health Impacts Of Air Pollution" Environmental Health Perspectives: Workshop Summary (2002).
Gonzalez, George A. "Urban Growth And The Politics Of Air Pollution: The Establishment Of California's Automobile Emission Standards" Polity. 22 Dec. 2002.
Shaw, William H., and Vincent E. Barry. Moral Issues In Business. 9th ed. New York: Wadsworth, 2003.
This presentation highlights the role of indoor air quality in health. Poor indoor air quality has a strongly negative impact on health outcomes. These outcomes can largely be avoided through regular changing of indoor filters, and by maintaining proper air circulation inside the home. Such practices are recommended in order to address the issue of poor indoor air quality.
Quality of Sources
There are a number of good sources on this topic. Several governmental sources play a great role in educating the public about the issue. There are also some good scholarly sources that talk about indoor air quality, and the use of these sources would enhance the presentation. That aaid, however, the government sources that were used are authoritative in nature and provided a high quality of information.
Visual aids can augment most presentations. There are some concepts that are better explained verbally, but other concepts benefit from…
IAQ for Students
There are many factors and considerations that can be assessed when it comes to the quality of a student's living environment. Many people point to things like temperature in the classroom, the books being used, the availability of materials, the quality of the teachers, the condition of the schools and so forth. However, one condition that is missed a lot of the time would be the indoor air quality (IAQ) of a school. Indeed, if the air quality is not good, this can cause breathing or even wider health issues for the students that are present in the school. Just a few examples of what can cause this problem are defective air conditioning, heater or blower units, dirty air filters and so forth. While there are many important considerations when it comes to the learning quality and health-related conditions of a school, indoor air quality should be…
Chatzidiakou, L., Mumovic, D., & Summerfield, A. (2015). Is CO2 a good proxy for indoor air quality in classrooms? Part 2: Health outcomes and perceived indoor air quality in relation to classroom exposure and building characteristics. Building Services
Engineering Research & Technology, 36(2), 162-181. doi:10.1177/0143624414566245
Dias Pereira, L., Raimondo, D., Corgnati, S. P., & Gameiro da Silva, M. (2014). Assessment of indoor air quality and thermal comfort in Portuguese secondary classrooms: Methodology and results. Building & Environment, 8169-80. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.06.008
Dorizas, P. V., Assimakopoulos, M., & Santamouris, M. (2015). A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 187(5), 259.
Testing and sampling devices for monitoring volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor air by Zabiegala and Namiesnik (2012). The article begins by noting that indoor air quality is usually worse than outdoor air quality, and that issues with indoor air quality affect humans physiologically in ways that are often detrimental. Chemical compounds are" emitted from building and construction materials, and from indoor equipment." As industrial hygienists know, there are many different devices by which indoor environments can be tested for air quality.
Tests of building materials are done using either mathematical modeling or laboratory experiments using emission test chambers. In the field, however, testing is more complicated. The authors discuss the different types of analytical instruments that are used in the field for emissions testing. These include field and laboratory emission cells (FLECs), which are used to test for contaminants on flat surfaces. There are many types of FLECs…
Zabiegala, B., Namiesnik, J., Marc, M. (2012). Testing and sampling devices for monitoring volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor air
City of Houston's Bureau of Air Quality Control was implementing a series of new policies, technologies and strategies and needed to communicate these challenges to its constituents. The case study focuses on the challenges of communicating these issues to the minority communities of Houston. There are areas in that city that are minority-majority with both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans, and this has significant implications for technical communications between the citizens of these areas and the Bureau. How the Bureau approached these challenges is the subject matter of this paper.
Technical communication is an emerging discipline undergoing a process of professionalization (Coppola, 2012). This means that there are not many proven theories upon which to draw an understanding of the issues faced by the Bureau. Williams and James (2009) note that the body of knowledge for dealing with American-born minority communities is especially thin. As a consequence, the Bureau was…
Coppola, N. (2010). The technical communication body of knowledge initiative:: An academic-practitioner partnership. Technical Communication. Vol. 57 (1) 11-25.
Coppola, N. (2012). Professionalization of technical communication: Zeitgeist for our age. Technical Communication. Vol. 59 (1) 1-7.
Nam, T. (2012). Suggesting frameworks of citizen-sourcing via Government 2.0. Government Information Quarterly. Vol. 29 (1) 12-20.
Williams, M. & James, D. (2009). Embracing new policies, technologies and community partnerships: A case study of the City of Houston's bureau of air quality control. Technical Communication Quarterly. Vol. 18 (1) 82-98.
Air We Breath
Contrary to the popular phrase "I'll go out for some fresh air," one might ask is the present air that we are breathing is still fresh? Or, has this phrase become irrelevant the present day world. Air pollution has been very evident ever since history entered industrial revolution. By the time we step our foot on our doorstep, the moment we open the doors of our car, the very first instance that we pull up the drapes and open our window, we are experiencing air pollution at its finest ....so to speak. Smoke billowing from a factory chimney, fly-ash generated by thermal power plants, and speeding cars causing dust to rise from the roads, smokes from cigarettes, and the list would go on and on. If there is a drawback when we speak of modern day technology it is the pollution it emits into the very air…
K12 Science (2004);Air Pollution (2004), Extracted Oct23,2005
Website; www.k12science.org/curriculum/airproj / - 7k
Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia (2005), Air Pollution, Extracted Oct 24, 2005 Website; www.wikipedia.org
Nova.Net (2005), Local Air Pollution-BHP (2005) Extracted Oct 24, 2005 Website; http://www.science.org.au/nova/015/015key.htm
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
Membership in an exclusive, elite privileged club of those who own "the best" -- something that not just anyone can have. To wear Nike Air Jordans was to reify a sacred experience. It was a vehicle to feeling as if one were the hero figure, Michael Jordan" (Aaker & Biel, 1993, p.105). This excerpt demonstrates the extreme length of effectiveness of the complex and truly multi-faceted marketing campaign launched by Nike.
In conclusion, professional athletes have long exerted a strong influence over men's fashion and sports apparel. However, the case of Air Jordans represents a shoe where a celebrity endorsement truly revolutionized the product, the celebrity and the entire athletic shoe industry. Nike took a highly calculated and highly strategic risk when they started courting Michael Jordan and when they used such a tremendous bulk of their advertising budget on this particular campaign. However, their strategy paid off: they successfully…
Aaker, D., & Biel, a. (1993). Brand Equity & Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building Strong Brands. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Andrews, D. (2001). Michael Jordan, Inc.: Corporate Sport, Media Culture, and Late Modern America. Albany: SUNY Albany.
Johnston, J. (2001). The American Body in Context: An Anthology. Willmington: Scholarly Press.
Kathleen Morgan Drowne, P.H. (2004). The 1920's. Westport: Greenwood Publishing.
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…
1) Alexander T. wells, Clarence C. Rodriguez, (2003) 'Commercial Aviation Safety', Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.
2) NASA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System', retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
3) NBAA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)' retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://www.nbaa.org/ops/safety/asrs/
4) NTSB (2002) 'National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation investigation manual Major team investigations', retrieved Apr 6th 2010 from, http://www.ntsb.gov/Aviation/Manuals/MajorInvestigationsManual.pdf
Air Jet Yarn Comparison
Air jet spinning is relatively new, only beginning to be widely used in the late 1990s (Leitner, 2012; Kadolph, 2007; Tyagi & Shaw, 2012). efore it was used, ringspinning and rotorspinning were the common ways of creating yarn (Leitner, 2012). However, it had its limitations. Now that the popularity of air jet yarns is growing, there are still differences that have to be considered. One of these is between Viscose fiber air jet yarns and Tencel fiber air jet yarns when it comes to the applications of end users of the product. Air jet fibers of all kinds produce less yarn "hair" on the fabrics and also create less lint (Leitner, 2012).
They also give a very even appearance to the fabric and improve the piling performance (Leitner, 2012). Knitted fabrics are made from air jet yarn such as Viscose at the present time, and it…
Barber, E.W. (1994). Women's Work: The First 20,000 Years. NY W.W. Norton.
Collier, A.M. (1970). A Handbook of Textiles. NY: Pergamon Press
Kadolph, S.J. (ed). (2007). Textiles, 10th ed. NY: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.
Leitner, H. (2012). AirJet spinning. Perspectives for the future. Lenzing. Retrieved from http://tencelat20.lenzing.com/fileadmin/template/downloads/04_Leitner_Tencel_at_20_New_Orleans_December_5th_2012.pdf
GP will significantly improve the accuracy of air traffic control, and also provide a platform for the efficient increase of aircraft traffic. It is however somewhat unclear why it has taken so long to implement a technology that has such obvious advantages and that has been in existence for such a long time. Perhaps the time and cost involved was a determining factor. From the current viewpoint, it has become essential to upgrade ATC technology.
Like the ground-based ATC system, the current separations system for aircraft is becoming unviable in terms of the anticipated and current increase in aircraft using airspace. Alternative ways have therefore been investigated to safely handle the increase in aircraft, and also to address the increasing delays that have plagued American airports. The Free Flight concept is one such possible alternative.
According to J.M. Hoekstra (2002), commercial aircraft to date have been operating under the…
ADS-B Technologies LLC. Automatic Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast. (2009). http://www.ads-b.com/home.htm
Freudenrich, Craig (2009). How Air Traffic Control Works. http://science.howstuffworks.com/air-traffic-control.htm
Hoekstra, J.M. (2002, June). Free Flight with Airborne Separation Assurance. http://www.nlr.nl/smartsite.dws?id=2942
Knorr, Dave & Bennet, Mike. (2003, Nov 4). Lessons Learned from FAA Free Flight's En Route Modeling Workshop. http://www.tc.faa.gov/acb300/ap5_workshops/documents/Modeling%20CPDLC%20Benefits.pdf
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Commuting for Clean Air
Commuter choice programs are noble efforts to reduce air pollution and they will certainly help to improve air quality. For example, one study of fifty-eight pilot projects in southern California concluded that financial incentives/disincentives are the most consistently effective and cost effective group of projects (Commuter Choice Primer). And, according to the Commuter Choice Primer, the Transit Cooperative Research oard studied fifty employers throughout the United States and found that employers that combined both enhanced alternatives such as vanpool provision with incentives or disincentives such as vanpool subsidies realized an average trip reduction of 24.5%. However, it's naive to believe that commuter choice programs are a total solution for curbing automobile use. Non-work travel, the ubiquity of automobiles in the United States, and the total amount of the problem that commuter choice programs can reasonably address are issues that require additional measures.
Focusing on work travel…
Commuter Choice Primer. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from U.S. Department of Transportation Highway Administration Web site: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_PR/ccp/section08.htm
Pisarski, A.E. Life in the not-so-fast lane. Blueprint Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from Sacramento Transportation and Air Quality Collaborative Web site: http://www.sactaqc.org/resources/literature/transportation/Not_So_Fast_Lane.htm
Wald, M. (2003, August 29). One vehicle on the road, two others in the garage. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/30/business/30TRAF.html?th
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
Emissions from a new car purchased today are 90% less polluting than a new vehicle purchased in 1970. The Act has been reformed to include a provision that in 2004, all new passenger vehicles, including SUVs, minivans, vans and pick-up trucks, must meet even more stringent tailpipe emission standards. "This marks the first time that light-duty trucks, including SUVs, pickups, and minivans are subject to the same national pollution standards as cars." A common criticism of the Act was that because it had different standards for larger vehicles, a critical component of vehicle-related pollution was being ignored.
One of EPA's earliest accomplishments was the elimination of lead from gasoline. The use of lead-based gasoline had effects beyond that of air quality. "Elevated levels of lead can damage organs and the brain and nervous system, and affect the heart and blood. Adverse health effects range from behavior disorders and anemia…
Reduction of air pollution (PM 2.5) in Beijing, China
The environmental challenge of pollution has been at the top of the agenda in any conferences where the environmental conservation is the theme. There are various categories of pollution that are experienced and one of the major one, and sadly the fasted growing and dangerous, is air pollution. There are various cities that are considered worse off in terms of air pollution and Beijing, China happens to be one of the leading cities in air pollution.
Over the years, there has been a serious problem of air pollution within Beijing, with some levels going so high that the reach the 151-200 air quality index (AQI) such that the residents of these areas have to use masks (U.S. Department of State, 2014 Mission China: Beijing). The main sources of pollution within this city have been noted over time to be exhaust from…
With the ever-changing health care sector, reimbursement has increasingly been tied to care quality and health care outcomes. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have particularly been changing the way hospitals are reimbursed, with hospitals that deliver high quality care and report better health outcomes getting higher reimbursements than those that perform poorly. This has led to increasing prominence of the pay-for-performance approach. Under this approach, hospitals that report greater patient satisfaction, reduced error rates, lower readmission rates, and higher recovery rates for chronic illness get higher reimbursements than their poorly-performing counterparts. The implication is that health care organizations must pay greater attention to performance, especially in terms of quality, safety, and individual performance. Measurement and models used in the commercial world for these three aspects are considerably relevant to the health care sector. This paper discusses the usefulness of the total quality management (TQM) model, the Organization…
Skies 2003, etc.
Clear Skies 2003/Clean Air Act of 1990
The issue of clean air has been around probably since the first caveman objected to the smoke from a neighbor's fire. During the Industrial Revolution in England, numerous contemporary novels make reference to the condition of the air in major cities, fouled by the new growth of smokestacks. So, despite having been an issue for public discussion and legislative activity -- followed by the usual rounds of legal tests in the courts -- the issue of clean air officially floated into view in the U.S. only during the term of Richard Nixon. During the administrations of both Jimmy Carter and George Bush, clean air legislation was strengthened, and in 1990, the inclusive Clean Air Act (CAA) became law. (Browner 1997)
At times, the CAA has been touted as the embodiment of a bipartisan desire to protect all Americans form the…
Air Pollution Battle Heats Up," 15 September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 10 November 2003. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/27/politics/main570442.shtml
American Trucking Associations Web site: http://www.truckline.com/infocenter/econ/econ_about.html
Bush Pushes 'Clear Skies,'" 16 September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 10 November 2003. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/09/23/politics/main574704.shtml
Browner, Carol and Inhofe, James M., " Q: are more rigorous clean-air standards really necessary?" Insight on the News, 18 April 1997, Vol. 13.
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…
Despite the fact that the Clean Air Act has obviously evolved over the years to allow more government intervention and increased technological innovation, however, improvements can still be made. For example, the Clean Air Act of 1990 does not make mention of the contribution homes make to the problem. The World Wide Fund for Nature, however, suggests that simple daily living changes can greatly benefit the environment. Indoor air pollution, and smoking, which are harmful to the environment and others' health, is also not addressed.
In conclusion, the environment and air pollution are vital parts of an industrialized society. The clean Air Act attempted to address these problems through several versions. The earlier versions of the act suggest an attempt to solve the problem of air pollution, although the Clean Air Act of 1990 suggests a definite improvement, allowing for alternative fuels and technology. Still, more can be done to…
Coonan, Clifford. "China catches up with U.S. In greenhouse gas emissions." Irish Times
Ireland] 30 October 2008. n.pag. Online Edition. 5 November 2008. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2008/1030/1225303611534.html
History of the Clean Air Act Epa.gov. 15 October 2008. United States Environmental
Protection Agency. 5 November 2008. http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/caa_history.html
Improving Quality Control in Airlines and Aerospace Manufacturing Industries
Airlines and aerospace manufacturing industries are aviation sectors that focus on the design, development, testing, selling, and maintenance of aircraft and their associated parts. These industries are also involved in the manufacture and maintenance of rockets, missiles, and spacecraft. As the aviation industry has experienced tremendous growth because of the increased demand in air travel, airlines and aerospace manufacturing industries have also experienced growth. The growth in these industries has also been fueled by the increased demand and focus on airline safety as well as the increased competitiveness in the airline market. The projected increase in global passenger traffic generates significant prospects for airlines and aerospace manufacturing industries. However, these industries are facing significant pressures with regards to enhancing quality control as part of improving the efficiency and safety of airlines. This project seeks to examine strategies that are needed to…
Even in my current extracurricular activities, such as on my Varsity football team, sacrificing my need to be a 'star' and instead serve the common good is a necessity. Teaching the novice debaters is an integral part of my duties on my school's Lincoln-Douglas Debate team. I must help them see the world from competing perspectives, and to see issues in terms of grey, rather than stark black and white.
I am so thankful for the people in my life who have taught me this spirit of community: the people I met over the summer in Texas taught me what it means to be a good neighbor, the children and senior citizens I have befriended who have shown me that friendship knows no age or socioeconomic status. I have, despite the shortness of my life, tried to craft an open soul with few fences, with no barbed wire around my…
The hospitality industry has undergone significant evolution and with the globalization and technological advancements, there is stiff competition towards each entrepreneur ensuring that they are the best in the region where they are located. This then calls for the highest standards of every provisions and services that they provide, from the amenities of accommodation to the very rarely though of things like air breathed within the rooms.
It is quite important that one is able to enjoy staying whenever or wherever in a place that is comfortable and with fresh air within is not congested. This is especially true when one goes on a vacation; he will consider looking for a place that has some peace and quiet and just relax. Since naturally the temperature would seem to vary in different seasons; sometimes it is extremely hot or otherwise, air conditioning equipment is very useful in maintaining a balance…
The PIVOT Initiative at Midwest Bank - Part I - The MAIC Process
Finding the basic problem was easier said than done. As an example, initially, not much significance was attached to the errors caused by manual strapping. There was no evidence of a pattern until multitudes of graphical analyses were performed. The widely felt minor problems seemed more relevant initially and the course of investigation had to be overhauled completely.
Not much significance was given to quantify the different solutions proffered. Amongst the solution, the most capital intensive was that of procuring the strapping machine. A proper financial and works audit of the expenditure involved was warranted. The improper deposits accrued to the clients was also a point of contention and a feedback for the same from the clients was found wanting. Instances of double entries could be easily avoided by setting up a parallel, independent entry…
Andaleeb, S.S., & Conway, C. (2006). Customer satisfaction in the restaurant industry: An examination of the transaction-specific model. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(1), 3-11.
Bitner, M.J. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: the effect of physical surroundings and employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54, April, 69-82.
Bolton, R.N., & Drew, J.H. (1991). A longitudinal analysis of the impact of service changes o customer attitudes. Journal of Marketing, 55 (January), 1-9.
Cronin, J.J., & Taylor, S.A. (1992).Measuring service quality: a re-examination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 55-68.
Total Quality Management Theory
Total Quality Management Development
How Total Quality Management (TQM) Theory can be applied to improve the airport passenger handling
Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically deals with work process and people. Implementation of TQM calls for team work and employee involvement. All operations, suppliers, and customers have to be involved. Besides, it also calls for performance measurement. TQM is normally implemented by business organizations to satisfy its customers. It improves organizational performance (Asher, 1996).
Work processes have to be coordinated for continuous improvement in business units to be realized. The underlying reason behind this is meeting customer expectations. TQM endeavors a scenario where quality is enhanced in all facets of an organization while costs are kept at bare minimum. Any organization irrespective of its size can implement TQM especially if it wants to meet the demands of the customers. A major setback has however been the non-compliance…
Alamdari, F. (1999). Airline In-flight Entertainment: The Passengers' Perspective. Journal of Air
Transport Management, 5(4).
Andrle, J. (1994). Total Quality Management in Public Transportation. Research Result Digest,
EQI in Siwa
Environmental Quality International (EQI) in Siwa
Environmental Quality International in SIA
This essay examines project risk management challenges faced by Environmental Quality International (EQI) in furthering the Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative.
EQI, a private Egyptian development firm, was tasked with promoting sustainable development projects. The firm launched a project in SIA consisting of several commercial ventures intended to promote economic development, while at the same time meeting EQI's objectives of maintaining Siwa's environment and revitalizing its cultural heritage. EQI intended the project to keep Siwa's culture, traditions and heritage intact as much as possible. EQI planned to do this by combining the wisdom, skills, and creativity of Siwa's local community with modern expertise that would result in a model of sustainable development (Story, 2009).
The Siwa initiatives consisted of a series of projects that took advantage of the Andrere Amellal (hite Mountain in the native Siwa language)…
Ibrahim, S.O. (2001). Towards environmentally sustainable development of Siwa through NGO-Government partnership." Matrouh Governate. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/english/main/Env2003/Day1/PublicPrivate/said.scdec.pdf
Nakla, M. (2007). The role of the private sector in local development -- The Siwa experience. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.euromedina.org/bibliotheque_fichiers/DeadSea_MounirNakhla2.pdf
Story, J. (2009 April). Environmental quality international in Siwa. INSEAD-Rensselaer.
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
iPad & Macbook Air Marketing Analysis
In an economy that is still considered dismal by many, the marketing strategies of successful companies are viewed as guideposts by competitors who wish to both break into the market and maintain a significant presence. In viewing the branding tactics used by Apple for products such as the iPAD and MacBook Air, one can see the tactics used to not only brand these products in a manner that achieved significant attention from the market itself, but retain the interest of consumers. In viewing the research at hand, it also becomes clear that in order to cultivate such success, many issues must be accounted for such as regard for the environment, company ethics, price caps, etc.
IPAD v. MacBook Air: Marketing Analysis
In viewing the economic market, certain tactics are utilized by companies to remain a viable presence within their respective fields in terms…
Bourke, C. And Saminather, N. (2011 March 25). Apple begins global sales of new iPAD
2 tablet as competition intensifies. Bloomberg. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-25/apple-begins-global-sales-of-new-iPad-2-tablet-as-competition-increases.html , on 13 September 2011.
Bulk, B. (2008). Apple. Advertising Age, 79(39) pp: 29. Web: Retrieved from: ProQuest
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
In addition to these accomplishments, the company also branched into over a dozen businesses and has successfully created one of the most successful supply chains globally today (Barrett, 2003). Along the way to these stellar accomplishments however Nike has been accused of going too easy on suppliers who violate child labor laws and having questionable ethics (Doorey, 2011). It has also been experiencing high legal costs due to the various approaches the company takes to protecting its brand (Nike Investor Relations, 2012). As the company pursues high growth opportunities in women's apparel including shoes, one of the fastest growing markets it competes in, it is challenged with relatively moderate growth in sales, relatively flat gross contribution margins at 10% and a Return on Assets (ROA) of 14% with little growth over the period of analysis shown in the Appendix. On top of all these factors, the competitive climate of the…
In addition to the sporadic quality levels of these laptops, doing through the build-to-order configuration process at each of the manufacturers' Acer, Apple, Dell, Gateway, HP, Lenovo and retailers' websites brought out the fact that upgrades to graphics and sound editing cards would also be critical for my ideal system configuration to work. In addition to all these factors, there were updat4es, patches and in the case of those systems sold with Microsoft XP Professional Home Edition, Service Pack Updates that would need to be carefully installed and tested with the audio and video editing applications of interest. When the Apple MacBook Air was included in the analysis it was evident that these capabilities of audio and video editing and multi-streaming were in the baseline utilities that are part of the Macintosh OS X operating system (Cohen, Dalrymple, Michaels, 2008). In addition the costs of increasing SCSI and ATA-based disk…
Maxine Cheung (2008, April). MacBook Air is very polished and very thin. Computer Dealer News, 24(5), 24. Retrieved December 6, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1467957151).
Peter Cohen, Jim Dalrymple, Philip Michaels. (2008, December). Apple Updates MacBooks. Macworld, 25(12), 24. Retrieved December 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1596535711).
Bruce Nussbaum (2008, July). The Best Global Design of 2008. Business Week,(4093), 44-48. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1542610361)
The industry is highly dependent upon the United States' economy, as economic health and growth in this country and its businesses is largely responsible for supplying customers -- and especially more profitable customers, as business travelers pay higher prices than pleasure travelers/tourists -- making competition somewhat fiercer in the current economic environment. Larger competitors with more substantial reserves that are capable of offering more diverse flight opportunities on more diverse schedules are definitely better suited to continue growth or at least maintain profitability during this period. As a mid-sized high quality provider serving a broad enough array of destinations to remain attractive to commuters with diverse needs, however, EVA is actually in a position to differentiate itself from competition and become the airline of choice for the selected area.
Large operators often offer greater overall flexibility and certainly operate with higher reserves -- especially as larger airlines…
He or she is also entitled to proper medication to deal with the disease.
It's not just the responsibility of medics to offer health care but the family members of the sick too play a very important role in caring about health. y accompanying the sick person to hospital and administering the prescribed medicine at home. As well, family members offer support by praying and giving the sick member company. Did you know that even loneliness is a health hazard.
Quality health care is individual responsibility. Every individual is supposed to make sure they have the best health always. Contagious diseases should be avoided at all costs, however, should we contact them then we should care for ourselves. A sick person should maintain bodily cleanliness and eat the right foods. Ones health should not also cause harm to neighbors at home and in public. Global concerns are also rising quickly…
Baum F (1998).The new public health: an Australian perspective, Oxford University Press,
Mannion R, Konteh F, Davies H (2008) Measuring culture for quality and safety improvement: a national survey of tools and tool use, Quality and Safety in Health Care (in press).
Mannion R, Davies H, Marshall M (2005) Cultural attributes of 'high' and 'low' performing hospitals. Journal of Health Organization and Management 19(6):431-9.
"More to the point," another authority advises, "the objective of a PMO is to establish the procedures, processes, and standards that lead to a Center of Excellence -- not so much for itself as for the projects and organization it supports" (Pohlman, 2002, cited in Thorn, 2003, p. 48).
In this regard, Thorn points out that there are three basic approaches that can be used to establish a PMO to help facilitate the integration of Six Sigma or other management techniques with the CMM:
Project epository -- The PMO serves as the primary source of information on project methodology and standards. It assumes, rightly or wrongly, that the organization has established and follows a cohesive set of tools for project design, management, and reporting. Often a first step in establishing the idea of consolidating or sharing management practices, it still falls short, both in direct project oversight and as a…
Bertels, T. (2003). Rath & Strong's Six Sigma leadership handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Cook, J., & Semouchtchak, V. (2004). Lean object-oriented software development. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 69(2), 12.
Hahn, G.I., Hill, W.J., Hoerl, R.W., & Zinkgraf, S.A. (1999). The impact of Six Sigma improvement -- A glimpse into the future of statistics. The American Statistician, 53(3),
Mccabe, P.T. (2004). Contemporary ergonomics 2004. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
I learned that different people expect different things at hotels, for example, many of our British guests arrived with their own towels, while many of our North American guests were never satisfied with our air conditioning services, despite the fact that many of our local guests found the hotel to be too cold.
2. It is important to be aware of the cultures involved in one's staff. This comes into play a lot with respect to planning social events, which are important for developing staff morale. Yet, something very well intended can go the wrong way if cultural issues are not take into consideration. For example, we had many different cultures working at our hotel, which meant that we had many different dietary needs. This made planning parties very challenging with respect to choosing a menu that was appropriate for all cultures. It was important to understand which foods were…
On the hand, some plans may be slow to respond to the pilot's commands; complicating the piloting process, much like a sports car, for example, that under steers or a truck that over steers (Personal Communication, 2010). Bay contends that training on more than one plane of a particular model would prove to be a positive practice for airlines to implement.
Bay asserts that the following questions need to be answered regarding the cause of the crash of Flight 3407.
How much training and experience did the pilot/s have with this particular aircraft?
How many hours experience did the pilot/s have flying this particular craft?
Did a matter of pilot fatigue play a part in the incident?
Could alcohol have been a factor in the pilot's inability to "do the right thing"?
Were there any known defects with the plane?
Did any type mechanical malfunction occur?
On what date was…
Alcohol and Flying. (N.d.). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved February 13, 2010
Baron, R. (2005). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Airline Safety.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from http://airlinesafety.com/editorials/CockpitCabinPsychology.htm
Black, H.C.(1990). Discovery. Black's Law Dictionary West Publishing: St. Paul, MN.
However, although fewer cases of milkborne ailments exist today, the possibility is still realistic. For example, more than 300 people in the United States got sick from drinking raw milk or eating cheese made from raw milk in 2001, and nearly 200 became ill from these products in 2002 (ren, 2004). Most health people recover from foodborne illnesses within a short period of time, but others may have symptoms that are chronic, severe, or life-threatening. Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly, children and those with certain diseases or conditions, are most at risk for severe infections from pathogens that may be present in raw milk. In pregnant women, listeria monocytogenes caused illnesses that resulted in miscarriage, fetal death, or the illness or death of a newborn infant (ern, 1994). Furthermore, escherichia coli infection has been linked to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that…
Bren, L. (2004). Got Milk? Make sure its Pasteurized. FDA Consumer Magazine, September-
Cornell University. 2000. Pasteurized vs. Ultra0Pasteurized Milk - Why such Sell-by
Dates? Retrieved September 29, 2006, from Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Web site.
Business Case Quality for Athens Medical Center
A cost reduction, and high quality healthcare delivery are paramount to the values of a healthcare organization. Typically, a cost reduction is driven by operational quality, and clinical improvement leading to removal of harm, variation and waste. The objective of this paper is to present a business case to achieve quality improvement for Athens Medical Center to deliver optimal quality improve patients outcomes. Moreover, the business case develops the implementation plan to enhance the quality of healthcare delivery for our Medical Center. The implementation plan will focus on health education for diabetes patients. After 6 months of the plan implementation, the paper previews that 50% of diabetes patients who receive the health education will record a lower HA1C by 1 point. At least, 25% of the patients will be able to lower their HA1C by 2 points. (Homer et al., 2004, Swensen et…
Bailit, M., Dyer, M. B. (2004). Beyond bankable dollars: Establishing a business case for improving health care. The Commonwealth Fund.
Finkler, S. A., Jones, C. B., & Kovner, C. T. (2013). Financial management for nurses and executives (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Goudreau, K. A. & Smolenski, M. C. (2014). Health policy and advanced nursing practice. New York, NY: Springer.
Henriksen, K., Battles, J. B., Keyes, M. A., Grady, M. L., Hagg, H. W., Workman-Germann, J., ... & Doebbeling, B. N. (2008). Implementation of systems redesign: approaches to spread and sustain adoption.
Evidence-Based Protocol Implementation
Influencing Multiple Systems Through Evidence-Based Change as advance practice nurse, work informed factors direct reach, influence extends context labor. Likewise, propose a nurse leader influenced multiple systems, turn, impact groups.
Nurses are encouraged to utilize and incorporate in their daily practice evident-based practice. The Evidence-based practice (EBP) is considered to be a scientific standard that determines and guides on the best clinical measure (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber). EBP has grown in its relevance to clinical decision making and support to the nursing profession since it facilitates efficiency in provision of care and quick recovery to patients. Successful implementation of EBP calls for monitoring of existing practices, documentation of relevant procedures and evaluation of possible change practices in clinical and nursing care (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber).
Possible adjustments needful for patient's care protocol
Immediate care for patients coming from SICU is critical to their recovery from the procedure they undergo.…
Grossman, S., C. Bautista, and L. Sullivan. "Using Evidence-Based Practice to Develop a Protocol for Postoperative Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients." Dimensions Of Critical Care Nursing 21.5 (2002): 206-14. Print.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., and J. Haber. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2006. Print.
Melnyk, B., and E. Fineout-Overholt. Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins 2005. Print.
Schmidt, N.A., and J.M. Brown. Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research. (Eds.) United States: Laureate Education, Inc. custom ed., 2012. Print.
This particular aspect is what most medical trainers miss when dealing with interns or newly appointed nurses. They found that oxygen use, if below the necessary requirement can be damaging, so can its overuse. In another study, it has been found that using oxygen below the prescribed level can instigate damage in the organs, respiratory structures and can be especially damaging for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Danchin et al., 2009). Hence, the training and instructions that are given must follow be thorough enough to let the health caretakers realize that the monitoring is not merely a game of reading and recording, but it can have serious repercussions if handled carelessly.
Some of the common mistakes, which can be avoided through proper and accurate transference of instructions and training, occur in different medical circumstances. Sometimes nurses tend to miss the monitoring deadline. For instance, if a patient is…
("Friends official website," 2009)
In conclusion, we see that the show Friends was never really meant to show reality at all, but simply an illusion of what we might expect New York City to be like for all of its residents. It was aired during a time of resurgence in the United States, not just for the country, but also for the city of New York itself. Crime had been cleaned up, streets became friendlier, and the city revived itself during the 1990s, creating a backdrop of American success for the six stars of the show to thrive in. Not all of America shared this story, as much of the rest of the country has been in a slow decline in influence and wealth over the past several decades. Detroit, Atlanta, or even Los Angeles could never have truly filled the role that New York City had in making Friends…
Avria, M. (07/2). Friends. Retrieved from http://splitsider.com/2011/07/the-sexual-proclivities-of-friends .
Laura. (2011, 05-22). Retrieved from http://lauraview.blogspot.com/2011/05/analysis-of-friends-1994-2004.html .
Nettles, J. (2010). Friends watch it or else. Retrieved from http://www.popmatters.com/tv/reviews/f/friends.html
Friends official website. (2009). Retrieved from http://warnervideo.com/friends15/
Banner Health is a non-profit health care company, operating in 23 states. Its facilities provide a number of different types of care. Banner is based in Phoenix, and Arizona is home to a large portion of the company's operations. Over the course of the next decade, the baby boom generation will continue to enter its senior years something that will challenge the health care industry nationwide. The challenge will especially be felt in a state like Arizona, where many people go to retire. Banner's strategic objectives include lowering costs, providing high quality care and an excellent patient experience ("About Us," 2015). Banner has more than 3000 providers and the network has over 400,000 members.
Banner's vision incorporates the need to handle the growing population of elderly, with their many health needs. Banner has, for example, built out a large facility in Boulder, CO, as a means of not…
"About Us" (2015). Banner Health Network. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from https://www.bannerhealthnetwork.com/about/who
Armbrister, M. (2012). Just what is Banner Health planning? Biz West. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://bizwest.com/just-what-is-banner-health-planning/
Banner Health (2012). Five community organizations will share $4.9 million grant to enhance Arizona's health care workforce PR News Wire. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/five-community-organizations-will-share-49-million-grant-to-enhance-arizonas-health-care-workforce-159027625.html
Monegain, B. (2015). Banner Health, Cerner tackle big change. Health Care IT News Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/banner-health-cerner-take-big-change
For instance, in the movies James Bond wears a olex (olex, December 14, 2007); but so in real life did Pope John Paul II (Watchuseek olex Forum, November 16, 2006).
As Liebskind (Fall/Winter 2004) also explains, a key factor in olex's sustained success in high-end watch manufacturing is that it has always eschewed trends or fads in watch making in favor of careful but innovative craftsmanship and top quality (What makes olex tick?). In terms of the brand's independence, competitive edge and market share:
Over the past century, olex has built and defended a strong position in the high-end watch market. And it has remained independent even as many competitors have sought the shelter of conglomerates. Today, olex is the largest single luxury watch brand, with revenues of about $3 billion and annual production of between 650,000 and 800,000 watches. The secret to its success: a strategy that eschewed fashion…
Liebskind, D. (Fall/Winter 2004). What makes Rolex tick? SternBusiness.
15 December 2007 http://www.stern.nyu.edu/Sternbusiness/fall_winter_2004 rolex.html
The 100 top brands. (August 6, 2007). Business Week. 15 December 2007. http://www.businessweek.com/pdfs/2007/0732_globalbrands.pdf .
Rolex." Wikipedia. 14 Dec 2007. 15 Dec 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolex.html .
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
technology for hybrid vehicles is proven to work, we as a nation should only build and sell hybrid vehicles to help reduce the damage done to the nation's air quality. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have reached the point that they are affordable for most drivers, they use less energy, and they are cleaner than gasoline and diesel powered vehicles. These vehicles make sense for today and for the future, and Americans need to recognize the importance of saving the environment over their attachment to large, fuel inefficient vehicles. As a nation, the people should support and demand that automakers only build and sell HEVs. It is time to take the nation's air quality into our own hands, and demand carmakers take responsibility for the decrease in air quality standards in America today.
Hybrid electric vehicles have been talked about for many years. It is only in the last decade that…
Author not Available. "Air Quality." Airquality.Utah.gov. 2004. 21 June 2004.
Editors. "Hybrid Vehicles." Department of Energy. 2004. 21 June 2004.
< http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev / >
Prenegotiation Memorandum (pm)
Re: Tamarack, MN and Twin Lakes Mining Company
Twin Lakes Mining Company
The Twin Lakes Mining Company (hereafter known as 'company') makes significant contribution to Tamarack, Minnesota - employing 21% of the residents, providing 33% of the total real estate tax base - and is considered an integral entity to the town's longevity. The city needs Twin Lakes to maintain the current standard of living the residents enjoy.
The City of Tamarack
The city operates on a zero deficit per annum decree. Twin Lakes Mining Company has directly caused some of the need for improvements concerning water quality, air quality, and effluvia and pollution management. The city also relies upon the heavy property taxation to provide economic, culture, and recreation services to the community. Twin Lakes Mining Company does not need the City of Tamarack (hereafter known as 'city') to continue operations in…
Lichens are commonly used as ecological signs or bio-indicators. If atmosphere is extremely contaminated with sulphur dioxide there could be no lichens existing, just eco-friendly algae might be identified. When the atmosphere is clear, shrubby, hairy as well as, leafy; lichens turn out to be plentiful. A small number of lichen varieties can put up with extremely high degrees of air pollution and therefore are generally seen on pavements, wall surfaces and also tree-bark in city locations. By far the most delicate lichens happen to be shrubby and leafy whilst the most resistant lichens are crusty in looks (Showman, 68; Nash and Gries, 1-29). A lichen area design might be noticed in big cities and towns or close to commercial buildings which matches the average degrees of sulphur dioxide encountered.
The resistant lichens are helpful bioindicators for atmosphere air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide contamination, given that…
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
This part of the assignment is worth a total of 12 marks (details are provided below). It requires you to provide a written response to the questions listed below.
hen answering the provided questions you must ensure that your answers address the questions, that your answers have an accounting/financial reporting focus, that your answers are internally consistent and that the individual components of your answers provide a well-rounded argument that is easy to follow.
The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of Large Mart has been unable to find answers for two accounting problems. He has asked you to investigate the following questions and to write a report (including relevant references to source materials and accounting standards) that will provide him with answers to these questions and help him to understand how you have developed your answers.
(5 marks) Large Mart has recently purchased and installed a filter…
Accounting Standards Board. (N.d.). Tangilble Fixed Assets. Retrieved from ASB: https://www.frc.org.uk/Our-Work/Publications/ASB/FRS-15-Tangible-Fixed-Assets/FRS-15-Tangible-Fixed-Assets.aspx
Australian Tax Office. (n.d.). Deductions for business. Retrieved from Australian Government: http://www.ato.gov.au/Business/Deductions-for-business/What-you-can-claim-and-when/
Australian Taxation Office. (N.d.). Income and Deductions. Retrieved from Vehicle and travel expenses: http://www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/Income-and-deductions/Deductions-you-can-claim/Vehicle-and-travel-expenses/
McGregor, W. (2013, October). This Occassional Paper. Retrieved from Liabilities - the neglected element: http://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content102/c3/AASB_OP-1_10-13.pdf
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
quality of indoor air has received and increasing amount of attention, including a large amount of discussion about sick building syndrome, which has been recognised since the 1970's. Certainly, most North Americans spend the majority of our lives indoors, and the quality of our indoor air environment has been shown to play a huge role on our health. A wide variety of indoor pollutants can have an effect on human health, including environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and biological pollutants. iological indoor pollutants include dust mites, cockroaches, effluvia from pets like birds, rodents, dog and cats and mold.
Early investigations into sick building syndrome often gave a multi-factorial explanation for the symptoms of occupants. However, these investigations often could not explain the long duration of effects. Further, investigations into indoor air quality have historically ignored the problem of mold, and failed to give a clear history of water…
Ammann, Harriet M. Ph.D., D.A.B.T. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health? (20 May 2002). http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html
Carlile, M.J. The Fungi, 2nd ed. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 2001.
Indoor Air - Mold/Moisture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (20 May 2002). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/moldresources.html
Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division. (20 May 2002). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/index.html
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…
Asri, D. U & Hidayat, B 2005. Current transportation issues in Jakarta and its impact on environment. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5, 1792
Barth Boriboonsomsin. 2009. Real-World CO2 Impacts of Traffic Congestion. (ONLINE)
Available at: http://www.uctc.net/papers/846.pdf (Accessed 18 May 2012)
Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005