Analyzing the Endometriosis Phenomenon Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the growth level of endometrial tissue. This disease affects around seven million women in USA alone and more than 70 million women globally. According to the ASRM, the disease is classified as stage I-IV starting from minimal to minor, moderate and critical. It mostly causes infertility and soreness (Batt, 2011).

Signs and symptoms of Endometriosis

Indications of Endometriosis differ from person to person. The most common symptoms are severe pelvic pain, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dysmenorrhea, gastrointestinal uneasiness, dysuria and reduced libido. Two thirds of the women suffering from pelvic endometriosis experience these signs. Additionally, women with endometriosis are most expectedly going to suffer from cyclical leg pain as compared to those who do not suffer from this disease. However, the amount of pain between these two groups remains unchanged. Women with endometriosis usually face nerves firmness and penetration by the laceration. This often causes severe pain in patients with this disease. Ectopic endometrium contains nerves that are aroused by irritant elements peripheral afferent nerve fibers sense. This transfers the pain stimuli to central nervous structure to do sensory role. Other mediums that release the nerves are tachykinins, P, calcitonin, nitric oxide and gene-related peptide to perform sensory task. This function increases the local vascular permeability, and additionally results in neurogenic inflammation. Patients with endometriosis also commonly suffer from infertility. Endometriosis is usually unpredictable because the signs of this disease are usually found in other gynecological problems. This results in ignoring or not noticing many cases of endometriosis. Due to these issues, it takes 7 to 8 years of delay to confirm the diagnosis of this disease. Diagnoses are varied from patient to patient that include chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), pelvic congestion syndrome and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (Gupta, Harlev, & Agarwal, 2015).

Three major site of Endometriosis occurrence

Endometriosis is described as an unreasonable illness. In addition to the endometrial cavity, endometriosis is caused by the occurrence and production of ectopic endometrial tissue in sites. Endometriosis usually grows in the ovary, uterosacral ligaments and pouch of Douglas. Sometimes it is developed in the uterine cervix, colon, fallopian tubes, vagina, rectum, urinary bladder, and tract and vermiform appendix. Others are mostly produced in the pelvic cavity peritoneum and related deep tissue. Endometriosis is sometimes also detected in the distant organs including umbilicus, lymph nodes, lung and pudendum. It often grows in the tissues that are outside of pelvis and have varied symptoms depending on the area of development of disease. This includes bleeding or pain related to the menstrual cycle. Endometriosis is rarely found in males. However, there were many cases of men suffering from prostate cancer and who were being treated with high quantity of estrogens. In such circumstances, an overgrown change of the mu llerian remnants was detected in the prostate (Harada, 2014).

Underlying problems of Endometriosis

There are many dangerous impacts linked with endometriosis. Few of them include early menstruation in age less than or equal to 11 years, occurrence of menstrual cycle in less than 26 or 27 days, menorrhagia which means bleeding more than 7 days or 80 ml. Higher risk factors include low weight at birth, nulliparity and overweight of body. Most of these risk elements are related either with higher level of estrogens or extended menstruation cycle. This supports the dependence of estrogen on endometriosis and relationship between menstruation and endometriosis. Other factors related to endometriosis considered dangerous include late menopause and prolonged stages of ovulation. Throughout the ovulation process, estradiol discharge increases which
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leads to the increase in cell proliferation and endometriotic tissue implantation survival. Endometriosis responds to the increased estrogen and low levels of progesterone. The disease often has a polygenic inheritance and genetic tendency with higher chances of disease developed in blood relatives as also in monozygotic twins. Risks of this disease are also increased by stubborn inflammatory status, exposing to environmental contaminants, immunologicaldys regulation and/or epigenetic alterations. Certain elements that help in controlling ovulation also reduce the estrogen levels and in result, decreasing the risks of disease (Gupta, Harlev, & Agarwal, 2015).

Pathophysiology of Endometriosis

There are many theories projected over a century related to pathogenesis of endometriosis because of its different forms, positions, organs and reacting hormones. However, no single theory sufficiently describes the causes or development of endometriosis. Transplantation theory explains that the endometrium is switched from uterus to other area in the body. There are various methods of endometrial tissue diffusion, which are implied in this theory. This includes lymphogenic, Iatrogenic andhematogenic spread account for unusual, extraperitoneal laceration of endometriosis. The high rate of occurrence in this case is traced by the study that up to 90% females have menstrual blood in the peritoneal fluid. These women have clear fallopian tubes experiencing laparoscopy throughout the perimenstrual period. Retrograde menstruation describes the physical dislocation of endometrial wastes into the peritoneal cavity. Apart from that, further steps are mandatory to develop the endometriotic implants. Evading the immune clearance method, throughout the sequences of connection to the ovarian surface epithelium and peritoneal mesothelium, incursion of the epithelium, improvement of local neurovascularity are necessary steps to consider. Additionally, continuous development and persistence are also compulsory if endometriosis is to grow from retrograde path of the endometrium (Burney & Giudice, 2012).

Coelomic metaplasia theory explains that with the help of metaplasia, the mesothelium of the peritoneum that also contains ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) can be converted into endometrium. The mullerian tubes are produced with the help of incursion of the coelomic epithelium in the prenatal phase that also creates the primordial uterus. Therefore, it has been projected as secondary mullerian organism. It means the organs attained from the mullerian vessel are produced from the source same as of OSE and peritoneal mesothelium. The OSE and peritoneal mesothelium may go through metaplasia into the endometrial epithelium and stroma, thus causing endometriosis. Therefore, the significant aspect in the growth of endometriosis is the movement of endometrial stromal cells in the menstrual blood via fallopian tube (Meuleman et al., 2014).

During the antenatal stage, mullerian ducts increase due to coelomic epithelium. This further composes the uterus, upper part of vagina and fallopian tubes. During the process of the movement and discrepancy of fetal organogenesis and mullerian ducts, some of the primordial cells might expand in the subsequent pelvic bottom. This further describes the outcomes that endometriosis is often developed in the rectovaginal septum pouch of Douglas and uterosacral ligaments. It is also found in young women with Mayer--Rokitansky -- Ku ster-- Hauser condition (Vercellini et al., 2014).

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding caused by hormonal change

The capacity of endometrial cells to spread, attributed to the mesothelium, and/or escape immune-mediated clearance is affected by the change in hormones. Sex steroids that also include estradiol (E2) are often present intracellularly in patients suffering from endometriosis. Aromatase, which is precisely articulated in endometrial tissue and transforms androstenedione to estrone (E1). E1 is sequentially changed to E2 by 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD) type 1. Another form is 17?-HSD type 2, which transform E2 to E1 for E2 regulation, is formed in the normal endometrium, but not articulated in tissues of patients with endometriosis, with a subsequent rise in the local mediation of E2. Additionally, there is a clear indication for backing the P profile's confrontation in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. In the absence of P Receptor-B, endometriotic abrasions display an overall decrease in P receptor appearance comparative to eutopic endometrium. In addition to that, endometrial appearance outlining has accepted dysregulation of P-responsive RNA in the luteal stage. A partial conversion of endometrium from the proliferative phase to secretory has substantial molecular implantation of refluxed endometrial cells (Harada, 2014).

Endometriosis: externa vs. interna

There are two varied forms of endometriosis. The first form is Endometriosis genitalis interna that is also called Adenomyosis uteri et tubae. In the process of endometriosis genitalis interna, the endometriosis is passed through small wall mediums into the uterus muscle: myometrium, or to the fallopian tubes. The occurrence rate of such cases is 31 to 47%. Other form of endometriosis is endometriosis genitalis externa. These are the endometriosis masses that have developed into the several pelvis organs…

Sources Used in Documents:


1. Batt, R. (2011). A history of endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media.

2. Burney, R. O., & Giudice, L. C. (2012). Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and sterility, 98(3), 511-519.

3. Brown, J., & Farquhar, C. (2015). An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA, 313(3), 296-297.

4. Gupta, S., Harlev, A., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Update. Springer.

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