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Here, the research suggests that "cardiac depression may also cause fluid to back up into the pulmonary system, resulting in pulmonary edema" (Aucoin, 2011, p 12). Moreover, increasing releases of aldosterone can also cause the body to retain fluid and sodium which can lead to endothelial dysfunction and organ fibrosis (Hobbs & Boyle, 2010).
Along with other systems, there is an impact on the thyroid as well when examining the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. According to the research, the "thyroid hormone (TH) has a fundamental role in cardiovascular homeostasis" from a pathophysiological perspective (Galli et al., 2012, p 155). When there are conditions ripe for congestive heart failure, there are notable reactions seen in the thyroid. In fact, Galli et al. (2010) assert that there is a "well-known but not yet well-understood relationship" between the thyroid and congestive heart failure (Galli et al., 2012, p 155). Continuing…
Aucoin, a. (2011). Management of a Patient with Congestive Heart Failure and Acute Pulmonary Edema -- a Case Study. Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy, 47(1), 12-14.
Borlaug, B.A., & Paulus, W.J. (2011). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. European heart journal, 32(6), 670-679.
Galli, E., Pingitore, a., & Iervasi, G. (2010). The role of thyroid hormone in the pathophysiology of heart failure: clinical evidence. Heart failure reviews, 15(2), 155-169.
Hobbs, Robert & Boyle, Andrew. (2010). Heart failure. Disease Management Project. Cleveland Clinic. Web. http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/cardiology/heart-failure/
Fenton, Drew Evan (2010) Myocardial Infarction. eMedicine. 24 Jun 2010) Online available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/759321-overview
Fletcher GF, alady G, lair SN, et al. Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans: a statement for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1996;94:857 -- 862. [PubMed] cited in Williams, Paul T. 2010) Physical Fitness and Activity as Separate Heart Disease Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 May 33(5); 754.
Gehi, Anil K. Inducible ischemia and the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in outpatients with stable coronary heart disease: The Heart and Soul Study. rch Intern Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 May 1. Published in final edited form as: Arch Intern Med. 2008 July 14; 168(13): 1423 -- 1428.
Ischemic Heart Disease (2010) Los Angeles Learning Center. Online available…
Fenton, Drew Evan (2010) Myocardial Infarction. eMedicine. 24 Jun 2010) Online available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/759321-overview
Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, et al. Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans: a statement for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1996;94:857 -- 862. [PubMed] cited in Williams, Paul T. 2010) Physical Fitness and Activity as Separate Heart Disease Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 May 33(5); 754.
Gehi, Anil K. Inducible ischemia and the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in outpatients with stable coronary heart disease: The Heart and Soul Study. rch Intern Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 May 1. Published in final edited form as: Arch Intern Med. 2008 July 14; 168(13): 1423 -- 1428.
Ischemic Heart Disease (2010) Los Angeles Learning Center. Online available at: http://chinese-school.netfirms.com/heart-disease-ischemic.html
Pathophysiology of Pain
Pain is a physical manifestation of something being wrong within the body. Pain is an indicator of an injury or of a physical illness. Often, it is one of the first indicators that there is something wrong with the health of the patient and anyone experiencing pain should seek medical attention. Acute, chronic, and referred pain are three very different things but are often confused, even by medical experts.
Acute pain tends to begin suddenly and is usually a sharp pain. It is considered a symptom of a disease or physical injury (Acute 2008). Examples of acute pain can include, but are no means limited to: surgery and recovery, broken bones, burns, cuts, contusions, and muscle injury. There is always a cause for acute pain, although the cause may or may not be serious and therefore it always requires investigation. ithin the body, the polymodal peripheral…
Acute vs. chronic pain. (2008). Cleveland Clinic: Cleveland, OH.
Fink, W.A. (2005, May). The pathophysiology of acute pain. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 23(2). 277-84.
Understanding pain. (2013). Pain Care Clinic: London, England.
Vecchiet, L., Vecchiet, J., & Giamberardino, M.A. (1999). Referred muscle pain: clinical and pathophysiologic aspects. Current Review of Pain. 3(6). 489-98.
Pathophysiology of Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease
The author provides a comprehensive overview of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, including discussions about what is generally known about the disease with regard to heritability, disease progression, and risk factors. Findings from relevant studies on the association of LOAD with genotypes, cellular processes, and patterns of brain deterioration are provided. Brief discussions of pharmacological treatments and future research are included.
Key words: Alzheimer's, late-onset
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and it is both progressive and incurable. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease is considered to be an onset of the symptoms before the age of 65 years of age (Canu, et al., 2010). Compared to late onset AD patients, early onset AD patients show a more rapid cognitive and clinical decline, along with earlier impairment of a multidomain nature that includes language, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities, although memory deficits may be less…
Bellbin, O., Carrasquillo, M.M., Crump, M., Culley, O.J., Hunter, T.A., Ma, L., Bisceglio, G., Zou, F., Allen, M., Dickson, S.W., Graff-Radford, N.R., Petersen, R.C., Morgan, K., and Younkin, S.G. (2011). Investigation of 15 of the top candidate genes for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Hum Genet, 129, 273-282.
Buckley, L.L. And Schub, T. (2012, July 20). Quick Lesson About: Alzheimer's Disease. Glendale, CA: Cinahl Information Systems.
Canu, E., Frisoni, G.B., Agosta, F., Pievani, M., Bonetti, M., and Filippi, M. (2010). Early and late onset Alzheimer's disease patients have distinct patterns of white matter damage. Neurobiology of Aging, 33, 1023-1033.
Chiarini, A., Pra, H. d., Marconi, M. Chakravarthy, B., Whifield, J.F., and Armato, U. (2009). Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in human brain's pathophysiology: Roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 10, 317-326.
In basic terms, medical and family histories act as the basis for CAD diagnosis. In this case, abnormal levels of blood proteins, glucose, cholesterol or fats are risk factors for CAD. Further, the risk of CAD is identified by recording electrical purses of the heart using an electrocardiogram. For purposes of indicating heart failure, a chest x-ray may be taken. Any injury in heart muscles can be identified through echocardiography. Narrowing or hardening of the arteries is identified by the use of computer tomography scans. Coronary angiography is yet another way of diagnosing whether the arteries are blocked and the extent of such blockage.
Treatment and Prognosis
Lifestyle and diet adjustments must be made for CAD patients (Marshall Cavendish Corporation 2007). In this case, patients could exercise regularly, stop smoking, reduce their intake of salt and eat low fat diets. To ensure that risk factors like diabetes, high…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011, October 14). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR): Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease - United States, 2006 -- 2010. Retrieved October 27th, 2011, from the CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6040a1.htm
Granato, J.E. (2008). Living With Coronary Heart Disease: A Guide for Patients and Families. JHU Press.
Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). Diseases and Disorders, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish.
The case study is of a 66-year-old man who has been drinking and smoking daily for 30 years. He admits to smoking two packs of cigarette per day and to drinking three glasses of brown alcohol daily for 30 years. Currently his family describes his behavior as erratic; he gets frustrated easily and gets quite aggressive at times. He visited his family doctor after a recent episode of hematemesis and forgetfulness. The doctor diagnosed him with ascites, splenomegaly, and hemorrhoids, ammonia levels are elevated, which are all symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver, so he is scheduled for a liver biopsy.
Cirrhosis and Alcohol
Cirrhosis of the liver is where unhealthy tissues replace the normal healthy functional tissues in the liver. In many cases cirrhosis of the liver is caused by alcohol consumption over a long period of time, as in this case study. The liver slowly deteriorates…
NDDIC. (2010). Cirrhosis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Retrieved on December 10, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/#what
Pluta, A., Gutkowski, K., & Hartleb, M. (2010). Coagulopathy in liver diseases. Advances in Medical Sciences. 55 (1) 16-21
Stockert, R.J. & Becker, F.F. (1980). Diminshed hepatic binding protein for desialylated glycoproteins during chemical hepatocarcinogensis. Cancer Research Center. Retrieved on December 9, 2010 from http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/40/10/3632.short
Verrill et. al. (2009). Alcohol-related cirrhosis-early abstinence is a key factor in prognosis, even in the most severe cases. Addiction. 104 (5) 768-774
There are two different kinds - those that cause blood between the brain and the skull, and those that actually cause blood inside the brain itself. Most hemorrhagic strokes have specific symptoms, including headaches. They can also cause vomiting and loss of consciousness because of increased intracranical pressure from the blood accumulation (Donnan, et al., 2008). Some of these kinds of strokes happen because of previous head injuries, but others occur in people who have no known head injuries and no known risk factors. These strokes are harder to treat than strokes that are ischemic in nature, but that does not mean that the prognosis for patients with these kinds of strokes is always a negative one.
Many people are able to recover from hemorrhagic strokes and avoid having another cerebrovascular accident in the future, but there is always increased risk after any stroke, whether it is hemorrhagic or ischemic.…
Donnan, G.A., et al. (2008). Stroke. Lancet 371(9624): 1612 -- 23.
O'Regan C., et al. (2008). Statin therapy in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis involving 121,000 patients. American Journal of Medicine, 121(1): 24 -- 33.
Warlow, C.P., et al. (2008). Stroke: Practical management (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
However, in cancer these cells grow out of control and mutate, causing disease. Some of the issues with the development of breast cancer have been linked to exposure to estrogen, but that does not always appear to be the case (Sariego, 2010). Other factors can also be problematic. The main issue with breast cancer is not what caused it but how to treat it and whether it is diagnosed quickly. Mammograms are still the standard to locate lumps that may or may not be breast cancer. When these lumps are suspect, a biopsy is often done in order to determine what the lump, or mass, actually is and whether there is cancer present. Biopsies are the best way to determine if there are cancerous cells, but some of the rarer types of breast cancer are still hard to diagnose and require other options (Gotzsche & Nielsen, 2011).
Once a diagnosis…
Gotzsche, P.C. & Nielsen, M. (2011). Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database System Review (1): CD001877
Saini, K.S., Taylor, C., Ramirez, a.J., et al. (2011). Role of the multidisciplinary team in breast cancer management: results from a large international survey involving 39 countries. Annals of Oncology, 23(4): 853 -- 9.
Sariego, J. (2010). Breast cancer in the young patient. The American surgeon, 76(12): 1397 -- 1401.
The implication of narrowing is that blood flow to the myocardium is impeded thus leading to the condition described as ischemic. Therefore, occurrence of this condition in the left ventricle is because of impeded oxygen blood flow rather than oxygen content per cubic millimeter of blood (Mann, 2010).
5. Draw a normal ECG wave pattern and show how it relates to the action potentials of cardiac muscle cells. What causes the delay between the P. wave and QS complex?
The delay between P. wave and QS complex is attributed to the pause that causes the transmission of electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles to take longer than expected.
6. What is a ventricular ectopic or estrasystole, what area its effect on stroke volume, and what might cause an extrasystole?
Extrasystole refers to the additional beat, or contraction, which causes an interruption in the standard rhythm of the heart…
Bijlani, R.L. et al. (2010). Understanding Medical Physiology: A Textbook for Medical Students. New Delhi: JP Medical Ltd.
Mann, D.L. (2010). Heart Failure: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease: Expert Consult. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.
2008). Indeed better screening is necessary due to the number of false-negatives from women with precancerous lesions among the most frequent reasons of medical malpractice in the United States (Steben, M. et al. 2007).
In the case of having a tissue sample to be tested, early stage cervical cancer can be differentiated from healthy cervical tissue by gene expression profile due to comparisons done with healthy and lymph node metastatic tissues which found certain genes upregulated and down regulated (Biewenga, P. et al. 2008). Early stage cervical cancers can be cured by radical surgery or radiotherapy with similar effectiveness (Biewenga, P. et al. 2008). Overall the treatment options for cervical cancer are based on whatever the outcome of clinical staging is and include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or chemoradiotherapy (Ellenson, L.H. & Wu, T.C. 2004). More sophisticated methods such as the use of M imaging before, during and after radiation therapy…
Biewenga, P., et al. (2008). Gene Expression in Early Stage Cervical Cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 108, 520-526.
Boulet, G.A.V., et al. (2008). Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer Screening: Important
Role as Biomarker. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 17(4), 810-817.
Ellenson, L.H., & Wu, T.C., (2004). Focus on Endometrial and Cervical Cancer. Cancer Cell, 5,
hile there is no direct indication of exactly what information or perception caused the patient to make the decision to withdraw from medication, it is clear that the patient's delusional state has prevented her from properly weighing the implications of information, which would instead demonstrate to her the immediacy of the danger of infarction because of sudden withdrawal from a medication regimen.
According to the source provided by Klatt, the risk of myocardial infarction is increased by the implications of hypertension, indicating that withdraw from one's medication as in the case of the patient in our case study can lead to the pairing of "increased intraventricular pressure and myocardial contraction." (Klatt, 1) These, in turn, can lead to the type of constricted bloodflow that is likely to invoke heart failure. Therefore, in the case study at hand, the patient is categorically at a high risk for fatality relative to her…
Franklin, K. (1997). Delusions in the Forensic Context. Karen Franklin, Forensic Psychologist. Online at http://www.karenfranklin.com/topix2-delusions.html
Klatt, E.C. (2009). Myocardial Infarction. The University of Utah. Online at http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/MYOCARD/MYOCARD.html
Wikipedia. (2009). Antihypertensive drugs. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Patients with superficial ulcers should take antibiotics at intervals for treatment (McCance & Huether, 2010).
Difference in malignant melanoma and other skin lesions
There some characteristic which helps in differentiating malignant melanoma and other skin lesions.
i. Border; unlike other skin lesions malignant melanoma, have irregular borders. In case of irregular or distinct borders a practitioner should understand that the disease is not a normal skin lesion.
ii. Color; the color of malignant melanoma differs forms other skin lesions. When suffering from malignant melanoma a person will have a mixture of light, dark and medium areas of different colors. Unlike other skin lesions which have consistent color malignant melanoma color is inconsistent.
iii. Diameter; when suffering from malignant melanoma, an individual will have moles or pigmented areas of the skin which will be large than normal. Evaluations need to be carried on for moles larger than five to six millimeters…
Pathophysiology of Asthma
Asthma is a common respiratory disease believed to be influenced or determined by genetic and environmental factors, such as allergens and respiratory viruses (Chung & Adcock, 2001). Asthma can be acute, chronic or fatal. It is acute when it is severe and sudden (Hadjlladis, 2014), chronic when it develops for a long period of time, and fatal, when it leads to death. An acute first asthmatic attack can lead to chronic asthma if it is not treated (Hadjilladis).
During an attack, changes occur in the airways, consisting in chronic inflammation and altered matrix proteins, which account for the narrowing of the airway and increased responsiveness of the bronchial tubes (Chung & Adcock, 2001). Many inflammatory mediators, like histamine and cysteinyl-lekotrienes, are released by inflammatory mediators. These trigger the tightening of the brochial tubes, production of mucus and plasma exudation and brochial hyp0er-responsiveness. T-helper 2-derived cytokines like…
Barnes, P.J. (2003). Pathophysiology of asthma. Chapter 5. Vol. 23, European Respiratory
Monograph: ERS Journals Ltd. Retrieved on July 11, 2015 from http://pneumonologia.gr/articlefiles/20060117_Pathophysiology_of_asthma.pdf
Briscoe, K. (2002). Thetford: mother of Bradley Wilson, who died of asthma attack, told there was nothing she could have done. Retrieved from http://www.eadt.co.uk/news/thetford_mother_of_bradley_wilson_who_died_of_asthma_attack_told_there_was_nothing_she_could_have_done_1_1375128
Chung, K. And Adcock, I.M. (2001). Pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma. Application of cell and molecular biology techniques. Vol. 18 # 3, Molecular Biotechnology: PubMed.
Stroke Case Study
In the present case study, the patient is a 61-year-old male named Mr. Black. Mr. Black has presented at the Emergency Room with symptoms of stroke. Further investigation revealed a Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) distribution stroke with substantially impacted physical function on the left side of his body. The patient also showed signs of impeded speech and reasoning abilities. According to Slater (2013), "middle cerebral artery stroke describes the sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit resulting from brain infarction or ischemia in the territory supplied by the middle cerebral artery (MCA)." (Slater, p. 1) Evidence suggests that the major contributor the Mr. Black's condition has been his chronic hypertension. hereas many of his vital signs indicate relatively normal functionality at the time leading up to his episode, Mr. Black's blood pressure is registered at a decidedly hypertensive rate of 150/80. At 90 beats per minute, Mr.…
Dzialowski, I.; Hill, M.D.; Coutts, S.B.; Demchuk, A.M.; Kent, D.M.; Wudnerlich, O. & von Kummer, R. (2006). Extent of early ischemic changes on computed tomography (CT) before thrombolysis: prognostic value of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in ECASS II. Stroke, 37(4), 973-978.
Mayo Clinic. (2011). Alteplase. Mayoclinic.com.
National Health Service (NHS). (2012). Asasantin. NHS.uk.
National Stroke Association (NSA). (2012). Tobacco Use & Smoking. Stroke.org.
Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus II
The patient is a male 45 years of age who has been diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome many years ago but most recently has been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The patient presents expressing concerns that he may have had high blood sugars prior to the recent diagnosis. It is necessary to explain to the patient that Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is comprised by a range of dysfunctions "characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion." (Khardoni, 2014, p. 1)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is reported to be a "heterogeneous disorder with varying prevalence among different ethnic groups." (Death to Diabetes, 2014, p. 1) The primary events of DM are held to be "an initial insensitivity of insulin resulting in peripheral insulin resistance; and later on, relative insulin deficiency." (Death to…
The Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes (2014) Death to Diabetes. Retrieved from: http://www.deathtodiabetes.com/Diabetes_-_Pathology.html#.VBjYyfldWQk
Khardoni, R. (2014) Types 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Medscape. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853-overview
Immune System and Pathophysiology of Inflammation
One of the most important or core functions of public health professionals is prevention of disease. There are various ways through which public health professionals can engage in the process of preventing diseases including immunization, which is an appropriate protective means against several infectious diseases. However, public health professionals need to understand the immune system in order to enhance the effectiveness of various immunizations against diseases. In essence, these professionals need to understand the immune system in order to effectively develop treatments that help in managing and lessening the debilitating impacts brought by diseases ("The oles of Immunology," n.d.).
Given that immunization is one of the ways of prevention of disease, it is important for people to understand the importance of vaccination. For a person who is resistance to the idea of vaccination, the most suitable means of helping him/her understand risks and the…
Friedman, E.M. & Herd, P. (2010, April). Income, Education, and Inflammation: Differential Associations in a National Probability Sample (The MIDUS Study). Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(3), 290-300.
Okada, H., Kuhn, C., Feillet, H. & Bach, J.F. (2010, April). The 'Hygiene Hypothesis' for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases: An Update. Clinical & Experimental Immunology -- The Journal of Translational Immunology, 160(1), 1-9.
Pick, M. (n.d.). Reducing Inflammation -- The Natural Approach. Retrieved September 29, 2015, from https://www.womentowomen.com/inflammation/reducing-inflammation-the-natural-approach-2/
"The Roles of Immunology." (n.d.). British Society for Immunology. Retrieved September 29, 2015, from https://www.immunology.org/page.aspx?pid=1272
Pathophysiology of the disease development
The thyroid, a gland located in the front of the neck, plays a critical role in the body's endocrine system, specifically in regards to cellular metabolism-i.e. how cells use energy (NLM, 2015). In a normal, healthy person the thyroid is in a state of homeostasis with the rest of the body; however, in a number of cases the body can produce too much (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormone needed to keep the body in a state of health. Hypothyroidism can have a number of causes, many of which are poorly understood. The immune system may attack the thyroid gland, mistaking it for a foreign invader. According to the American Thyroid Association (ATA): "autoimmune thyroiditis can begin suddenly or it can develop slowly over years. The most common forms are Hashimoto's thyroiditis and atrophic thyroiditis" (ATA, 2014). A variety of other conditions,…
Hypothyroidism. (2014). American Thyroid Association (ATA). Retrieved from:
Hypothyroidism. (2015). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:
Blood vessels in the body also undergo changes during inflammation. These changes occur to maximize the movement of leukocytes, antibodies and platelets towards the injury site. It undergoes vasodilation, causing increase redness and heat because this process increases blood flow. The blood vessels become more permeable which causes the swelling or edema from the extravasated protein-rich fluid. This is a means of the body to bring the antibodies and other cells to the exact site of injury and perform their function. The changes in the blood vessels are mediated by a number of chemical mediators that cause this vascular leakage. They assert their function in the endothelial cells causing contraction, therefore letting the protein-rich, antibody containing fluid to escape toward the site of injury, and prevent further damage to the body.
Kumar, Vinay, et. al. obbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier,…
Kumar, Vinay, et. al. Robbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2005.
The digestive fluids that are secreted by the stomach glands aimed at breaking down solid food and to kill bacteria in the stomach are referred to as gastric juices. Gastric acid is produced by the gastric parietal cell located on the walls of the stomach. The region where the gastric juices are secreted into the lumen is the most acidic environment in the human body and is known as the secretory canaliculus (Schubert & Peura, 2008). The secretion of the gastric acid into the lumen occurs in response to a variety of messages from the paracrine, hormonal, and neurocrine inputs. Gastrin, produced by the G cells that are located in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach is the primary hormonal stimulation for gastric acid production. There are various inputs that will stimulate the parietal cells in order for them to secrete hydrogen ions that will flow into the gastric lumen,…
Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Vein Thrombosis
There are a number of conditions that affect the circulatory system in different ways. Not all circulatory issues are connected with blood clotting or high cholesterol. In fact, chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is more associated with some form of trauma that damages the tissues of veins and reduces their ability to circulate blood effectively. This is much different to Deep Vein Thrombosis, which is more associated with blood clotting.
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is essentially when the venous return proves to be inadequate for long periods of time. The condition occurs in varicose veins, where pooled blood causes blood vessels to distort. It is often caused by trauma to the vein tissues or systems. Thus, the patient factors that are most likely to impact the presence of CVI are age and behavior. For the purpose of this assignment, I will focus on age…
Huether & McCance.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2014). What are the signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis? Public Health. Web. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dvt/signs
What's Gone Wrong?
CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.
Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.
CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…
Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable: http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700220373/Taking-blood-pressue-in-both-arms-may-find-silent-heart-disease.html
Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085412-overview .
Cardiovascular disease is especially dangerous and one of the only effective measures to handle it is prevention. This ultimately makes interventions so crucial, especially with patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and those still showing signs of cardiovascular health. For the case in question, it is crucial to establish with the patient a need to start interventions so that he can avoid further cardiovascular problems. The patient witnessed an abnormal treadmill test, which ultimately signifies issues with the cardiovascular system that may endanger the patient's health.
First, there are interventions that deal with lifestyle changes. These are the least invasive because they do not entail the introduction of medicines or the need for surgery. ather, they aim to intervene with unhealthy lifestyle choices within the life of the patient. Changes in lifestyle include diets, exercise routines, and other changes that promote better cardiovascular health (Lauer, 2008).…
Aijaz, Bilal, Babuin, Luciano, Squires, Ray, & Kopecky, Stephen. (2008). Long-term mortality with multiple treadmill exercise test abnormalities: Comparison between patients with and without cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal. Web. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/581591_4
Artinian, Nancy T., Fletcher, Gerald F., Mozaffarian, Dariush, Kris-Etherton, Penny, & Van Horn, Linda. (2010). Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults. Circulation, 122(2010), 406-441.
Dunn, Steven P., Holmes, David., & Moliterno, David J. (2012). Drug-drug interactions in cardiovascular catheterizations and interventions. Journal of American College of Cardiovascular Interventions, 5(12), 1195-1208.
Lauer, Michael S. (2008). The exercise treadmill test: Estimating cardiovascular prognosis. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 75(6), 424-430.
Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.
Mrs. Stiller has many…
Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288
Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85
Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60
Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
It is believed that this is related to some basic dissimilarity in women's the way women's hearts work (icciotti, 2012).
Women are just as liable to have a heart attack as men, but the fact that they are more apt to die after their first heart attack may be because the signs of a heart attack are different in women. Doctors and patients frequently point chest pains in women to non-cardiac causes, leading to a misdiagnosis of their condition. Men generally experience crushing chest pain during a heart attack. Women may have a larger inclination to have pain just under the breastbone, or complain of abdominal pain, heartburn, trouble breathing, sickness and mysterious exhaustion. Women are consequently easily misdiagnosed of indigestion, gall bladder disease, or even an anxiety attack. The probability of misdiagnosing a heart attack in women is also augmented by the fact that women tend to have heart…
Braunstein, G.D. (2010). Gender Differences in Heart Disease: Nation's No. 1 Killer Kills
Differently. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/glenn-d-braunstein -
Gender Difference In Heart Failure. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/158956.php
Arthritis is considered as one of the major health conditions affecting a significant portion of the United States population. Even though the condition currently affects approximately 50 million adults in the country, it is not primarily an adulthood health condition. There are numerous cases of children suffering from arthritis, which implies that this condition is not uncommon among children. As a result of the prevalence of arthritis among children and adults, understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of this condition has emerged as an important component in proper diagnosis and treatment. This paper examines the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to the similarities and differences between the two conditions. The analysis includes a selection of two patient factors that could impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is an umbrella term that refers to different conditions involving inflammation of…
Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
Pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production
The parietal cells in the stomach are responsible for the production of gastric acid. Parietal cells contain secretory canaliculus, which produce gastric acid and release it into the gastric lumen. Gastric acid is produced as a response to the messages received through hormonal, paracrine, and neurocrine messengers (Schubert & Peura, 2008). The production of gastric acid undergoes three phases namely cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. Gastrin, the major hormonal trigger of gastric acid production is produced by the G cells located in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach. The G cells will release gastrin in response to a meal. However, the Histamine 2 receptors are thought to be the primary stimulus for the secretion of gastric acid.
How GED, PUD, and gastritis affect the stimulation and production of gastric acid
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GED) is a…
Boeckxstaens, G. E., & Rohof, W. O. (2014). Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 43(1), 15-25.
Chait, M. M. (2010). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Important considerations for the older patients. World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy, 2(12), 388.
Kahrilas, P. J. (2003). GERD pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 70(5), S4.
Konturek, P. C., & Konturek, S. J. (2014). Peptic Ulcer Disease Metabolism of Human Diseases (pp. 129-135). New York: Springer.
Asthma represents a lasting inflammatory airway condition characterized by hyper-responsiveness of the airways accompanied by repeated episodes of breathlessness, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Such episodes have commonly been linked to airflow blocks which can be spontaneously reversed or sometimes require medication. Roughly three hundred million individuals worldwide suffer from asthma. Among children, boys exhibit greater asthma risk whilst among adults, women exhibit greater prevalence. A grasp of the condition’s pathophysiology (both acute and chronic forms) will facilitate an understanding of how to diagnose and treat patients suffering from it. Experts’ asthma pathogenesis knowledge has greatly evolved during the past twenty-five years with scholars discovering several phenotypes of the condition (Lynn & Kushto-Reese, 2015).
Pathophysiology of Acute Asthma
Acute asthma intensification, or asthmatic attacks, take place through binding of inhaled antigens to mast cells performing immunoglobulin E (IgE). These cells start degranulating, thereby releasing bradykinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factors,…
The main factor of the pathophysiology for Jennifer is a marked pain in her throat. Her throat has become sore, specifically her cervical nodes (which is a sign clearly indicative of disease). Thus it is difficult to eat, which explains why she neglected to eat her breakfast. Another capital aspect of Jennifer’s pathophysiology which is particularly revealing is her fever, which is common in children (de Pont, 2015, p. 2). Initially her fever was low grade. However, in just a matter of days it exceeded 103 degrees. Her body is attempting to counteract the effects of the malady afflicting it via the fever. One of the foremost associated alterations of her adaptive responses is the current state of her skin. Her skin is desiccated and warm, which is indicative of the fever the child has experienced over the past couple of days. Her skin will likely continue to…
The high levels of blood glucose lead to the production of insulin therefore patients have excessive production of insulin. There is insulin resistance and hence body cells do not respond in an appropriate way in the presence of insulin (Mealey, 2010).
The main difference between diabetes insipidus, and diabetes mellitus, is that in diabetes mellitus insulin resistance is referred to being "post-receptor." This implies that the problem lies with the cells which respond to insulin as opposed to there being a problem in the production of insulin. The onset of diabetes mellitus is slow and the disorder might go undiagnosed for a very long period of time. Diabetes insipidus has an abrupt onset and it might be diagnosed at any age.
Factors affecting diagnosis and treatment prescription of diabetes
There are various factors that might affect the diagnosis and treatment of these two types of diabetes.one of these factors is…
Mealey, B.L. (2010).Diabetes Pathophysiology. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.health.am/db/diabetes-pathophysiology/
MediLexicon International Ltd.(2013). All about Diabetes. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes/
Comparison of pathophysiology of CVI and DVT
The pathogenesis of CVI is not completely understood; however, it's based on both venous reflux and obstruction; or an amalgamation of the two. Though venous reflux is actually based on a number of mechanisms, the key elements are venous valve ineffectiveness, vessel wall swelling, hemodynamic elements and additionally venous hypertension. These systems could be further exasperated by dysfunctional pumping devices (vascular and/or muscle pump), for example, in inert patients or even individuals with stiff joints (Goerge and Santler, 2017). Similarly, Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is actually blood clotting in a deep vein of a limb (normally pelvis or the thigh or calf). Low-level extremity DVT frequently results from damaged venous return (for instance, in inert patients), endothelial injury or even dysfunction (for example post fractures of leg) as well as, hypercoagulability. Concurrently, upper-level extremity DVT frequently outcomes from endothelial injury because of pacemakers,…
Nursing - Asthma
The limitation of airflow in asthma is reported as "recurrent and caused by a variety of changes in the airway." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Those changes include: (1) bronchoconstriction; (2) airway edema; (3) airway hyperresponsiveness; and (4) airway remodeling. Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway edema occurs with the progression of the disease and the inflammation is more progressive and exacerbated by "edema, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and the formation of inspissated mucus plugs as well as structural changes including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway hyperresponsivenss is reported to be "an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor response to a wide variety of stimuli. Airway modeling speaks of the permanent structural changes in the airway reported to be associated with "loss…
Asthma (2013) The Merck Manual. Retrieved from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary_disorders/asthma_and_related_disorders/asthma.html
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.); 2007 Aug. Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma, and Natural History of Asthma. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7223/
Thomas J. Morrow, MD J (2007) Implications of Pharmacogenomics in the Current and Future Treatment of Asthma. Manag Care Pharm. 2007;13(6):497-505. Retrieved from: http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/pages%20497-505.pdf
Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis,…
Epstein, Murray. (1997). Alcohol's impact on kidney function. Alcohol Research and Health21. 1 (1997): 84-91.
Malay, Agrawal & Richard Swartz. (2000). Acute Renal Failure. American Family
Physician. Retrieved October 29, 2011 at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000401/2077.html
Page, Timothy F. & Robert S. Woodward. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of Medicare's coverage of immunosuppression medications for kidney transplant recipients.
On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does not work, there are many sorts of antibiotics, painkillers, laxatives or anti-diarrhea pills that one can take to negate the effects of noxious symptoms. Corrective surgery is also an option, although it does not always work.
Some of the treatments for inflammatory bowel disease can work for irritable bowel syndrome, such as the taking of antibiotics, anti-diarrhea medicine, and fiber supplements. Additionally, corrective measures to one's diet and lifestyle to attempt to procure a stress free environment may work as well. Treatments specific to this condition, however, include antidepressants and counseling to assist with stress. Additionally, medications such as lubiprostone and alosetron also pertain strictly to this condition, and not to inflammatory bowel disease.
PATIENT FACTO: AGE
Age certainly has a…
Pace, F., Molteni, P., Bollani, S., Sarzi-Puttini, P., Stockbrugger, R., Porro, Bianchi, Drossman, D.A. (2003). "Inflammatory bowel disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome: a hospital-based, case-control study of disease impact on quality of life.." BMC Gastroenterol. 38 (10): 1031-1038.
Porter, C.K., Brooks, D.C., Pimentel, M., Akinseye, a., Riddle, M.S. (2012). "Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome." BMC Gastroenterol. 12: 55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444908/
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…
1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Huget P, van Dam P,
Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705
John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.
Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"
MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf
Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254
Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…
MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf
Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of people who suffer a stroke in the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the physiological processes associated with stroke. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and complications. Further, I will also discuss the hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke.
Stroke: An Overview
In basic terms, stroke is said to be "an abrupt onset of neurological functions caused by a sudden reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is due in turn to either an ischemic occlusion or a hemorrhagic episode" (Gulini, Gianelli, Quaglia, and Marrucci, 2000, p. 239).…
Eisenberg, M.G., Glueckauf, R.L. & Zaretsky, H.H. (Eds.). (1999). Medical Aspects of Disability: A Handbook for the Rehabilitation Professional (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Gulini, M., Gianelli, M., Quaglia, W. & Marrucci, G. (Eds.). (2000). Receptor Chemistry Towards the Third Millennium. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Huether, S.E. & Mccance, K. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.
Mohr, J.P., Grotta, J.C., Wolf, P.A., Maskowitz, M.A., Mayberg, M.R. And Kummer, R.V. (2011). Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
It is possible that a small number of infants that are diagnosed with TOF may also have other ventricular septal defects or an abnormality in the way that the coronary arteries branch. Some also have a complete obstruction from the right ventricle, getting no flow from there at all. Usually, the flow of blood to the lungs is quite limited by the condition, as well. hen the flow of blood to the lungs is found to be restricted, the combination of having an overriding aorta and the ventricular septal defect allows blood that is poor in oxygen to return to the right atrium and right ventricle, where it is then pumped out to the rest of the body, instead of the oxygen-rich blood that the body needs and should be receiving. This shunting can cause babies to look very blue and this occurs because the blood that is low…
Works Cited www.cincinnatichildrens.org.(n.d.)Cardiac Anomalies/Congenital Heart Defects. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Retrieved 8 February 2005 at http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/anomalies/tof.htm .
A www.emedicine.com.(2004). Tetralogy of Fallot. Retrieved 8 February 2005 at http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic575.htm .
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.
Overview and Brief History of the Condition:
Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.
The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…
Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.
Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:
pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.
Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
AUTHOR ____ REVIEWER
SUBMITTED TO REVIEWER ____DATE RETURNED
FINAL CRITIGUE GRID
Quality of the writing (See Writing Rubric)
Nothing special but solid nonetheless. Appropriate.
Thorough, and all appropriate.
Formatting (APA 6th Edition)
Physiology & Pathophysiology
Synthesis of the research
The review of literature is thorough.
There should be more written about future research possibilities.
SUPPORTING REVIEW COMMENTS
The goals of peer review are 1) to help improve your classmate's paper by pointing out strengths and weaknesses that may not be apparent to the author, and 2) to help improve editing skills.
Read the paper(s) assigned to you twice, once to get an overview of the paper, and a second time to provide constructive criticism for the author to use when revising his/her paper. Answer the questions below.
1. Did the writer cite sources adequately and appropriately? Note any…
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition where a male child is born with an extra X chromosome, so that his sex chromosomes are XXY rather than XY; some people with Klinefelter syndrome have more than two X chromosomes. Klinefelter syndrome is the result of random error and is not a heritable disease. While many people think of the X chromosome as solely a sex chromosome, it plays a significant role in bodily functioning, impacting brain development and growth in addition to sexual functioning. Mental retardation and phenotypic abnormalities are associated with Klinefelter syndrome and are "directly related to the number of supernumerary X chromosomes (Chen, 2013). Klinefelter syndrome is a "form of primary testicular failure, with elevated gonadotropin levels due to lack of feedback inhibition by the pituitary gland" (Chen, 2013). This results in an androgen deficiency that causes many of the symptoms associated with Klinefelter's syndrome. Other hormone levels…
Chen, H. (2013, February 22). Klinefelter Syndrome: Pathophysiology. Retrieved November
5, 2013 from Medscape website: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/945649-overview#a0104
Kebers, F., Janvier, S., Colin, A., Legros, J.J., & Ansseau, M. (2002). What is the interest of Klinefelter's syndrome for (child) psychiatrists? Encephale, 28(3/1), 260-265. Retrieved
November 6, 2013 from PubMed website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12091788
Contact Dermatitis to Metal: Case Study
Contact dermatitis on the hands can be caused by a number of distinct mechanisms (Usatine & iojas, 2010). The type most amenable to treatment is dermatitis caused by environmental irritants. Other possible causes include allergic and atopic dermatitis, each arising from different mechanisms. The patient under consideration here has been diagnosed with contact dermatitis due to metal exposure and is concerned about a possible link between the eczema and rhinitis. This report will examine the pathophysiology of contact dermatitis and whether there could be any relationship between the patient's dermatitis and rhinitis.
Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by exposing the skin to harmful substances (Usatine & iojas, 2010). A wound or injury can compromise the ability of the skin to maintain an effective barrier against noxious substances, resulting in skin trauma. A single or chronic exposure can lead to local…
Alavi, A., Skotnicki, S., Sussman, G., & Sibbald, R.G. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 25(8), 371-381.
McFadden, J.P., Puangpet, P., Basketter, D.A., Dearman, R.J., & Kimber, I. (2013). Why does allergic contact dermatitis exist? British Journal of Dermatology, 168(4), 692-699.
Spergel, J.M. (2010). From atopic dermatitis to asthma: The atopic march. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 105, 99-106.
Usatine, R.P. & Riojas, M. (2010). Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis. American Family Physician, 82(3), 249-255.
drowsy, confused, pale sweaty detect a fruity odour breath. You initiate a MET call a set vital signs a BGL. Questions 1 What complications occurring Tanya? Connect signs symptoms? 2 What pathophysiology complication? 3 What blood glucose reading situation ? 4 What nursing interventions required complication? 100 WODS EACH 1 reference Farrell & Dempsey 2014 Smeltzer Bare textbook medical surgical nursing 3rd edition.
Tonya is suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition, also known as DKA, generally occurs in patients that have Diabetes Mellitus 1 or 2. The most prevalent precipitating factors include non-compliance with insulin therapy, infection, or a stressful event like a myocardial infarction or undergoing surgery. A key indicator is the fact that, upon assessment, in was noted that Tonya's breath had a fruity odor to it. This is a characteristic trait that can distinguish DKA from other pathophysiologic causes. If untreated, DKA can quickly turn into a…
Farrell, M. (2013). Smeltzer and Bare's textbook of medical-surgical nursing (3rd Australian and New Zealand ed.). Sydney: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Porth, C. (2005). Pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
He denies taking these meds for any other reason but to be able to stay awake at work. He also admits that he is not in the position he thought he would be in at this age in his life. Approximately five years ago, he was laid off as the manager of a local distributing company. Since that time (which is also the time of his son's birth), he feels that he has become increasingly stressed as well as disappointed in himself. He used to go to church, but he has not been since his mother died. He believes that going to church helps him feel more grounded and at ease. It is recommended that Mr. Sinatra learn to release his stress in positive manners such as exercising in the pool, walking, and stretching, attending counseling, and going to church.
Values and Beliefs
Mr. Sinatra and his family are members…
About GBS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gbs-cidp.org/aboutgbs.htm
Forsberg, A. (2005). Disability and health-related quality of life in Guillain-Barre syndrome during the first two years after onset: A prospective study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19, 900-909.
Guillaine-Barre syndrome and its treatment. (2008, July 31). Retrieved from WebMd.
NINDS Guillain-Barre. (2009, December 9). Retrieved April 14, 2010, from National Institute of Health.
(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…
Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html
Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#
NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.
NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
This represents the end stages of the disease, where the body has destroyed it and begun the task of reconstructing what was affected during the viscous battle.
Depending on the severity of the injury or other cause of inflammation, these five stages can cause various symptoms within individual patients. The aggravation phase causes high fevers and heavy swelling within many individuals inflicted with various diseases and conditions. The phase of destruction normally produces such symptoms as puss, open sores, and abscesses. It can also cause permanent damage to the human body, if not the loss of life. The abatement stage is when many patients' fevers and other symptoms of inflammation begin to subside and lower, (Huether & McCane, 2008). The final stage brings about rebuilding of damaged tissue along with recovery of the patient. However, the severity of the infection will always determine the capability of recovery within each individual…
Huether, S.E. & McCane, K.L. (2008). Understanding pathophysiology. 4th ed. St. Louis:
The Huether & McCance text describes tumor markers as being divided into two primary categories. Cancer-specific markers are demonstrative of the definitive presence of cancerous tissues. For instance, when Carcinoembryonic antigens appear in the bloodstream, the physician will understand the implication that some lung or breast tissue has been invaded by cancerous cells. Tissue-specific markers are those which, while not certainly indicating cancer, are used to direct follow-up tests and treatments relating to specific tissue areas. In such cases, while the specific tissue areas may not be cancerous, their altered process may help to identify the presence or absence of cancer elsewhere.
Huether, S.E. And McCane, K.L. (2008). Understanding pathophysiology, 4th ed. St. louis: Mosby.
Huether, S.E. And McCane, K.L. (2008). Understanding pathophysiology, 4th ed. St. louis: Mosby.
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
relationship among Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws and the physiology of the lung. obert Boyle investigated the relationship between the volume of a dry ideal gas and its pressure. Since there are four variables that can be altered in a gas sample, in order to investigate how one variable will affect another, all other variables must be held constant or fixed. Boyle fixed the amount of gas and its temperature during his investigation. He found that when he manipulated the pressure that the volume responded in the opposite direction. For example, when Boyle increased the pressure on a gas sample, the volume would decrease.
A physiological example of Boyle's Law is the action of the diaphragm. This muscle is located just below the lungs. When one inhales, the diaphragm moves downward allowing the lungs an increased volume. Consequently, this decreases the pressure inside the lungs so that the pressure is…
Ewalenko, M. (2002). [Scuba diving: practical aspects]. Rev Med Brux, 23(4), A218-222.
Wagner, P.D. (1993). Algebraic analysis of the determinants of VO2,max. Respir Physiol, 93(2), 221-237.
West, J.B. (1999). The original presentation of Boyle's law. J Appl Physiol, 87(4), 1543-1545.
The intense pulmonary microvasculature branching runs parallel with lung development; however, detailed understanding of their interactions and interactions with various growth factors is elusive (www.emedicine.com).
hat causes BPD is unique to each neonatal situation. However, high levels of extra oxygen can harm the lungs, cause inflammation, and slow or stop the lung growth in babies born very early. Babies who need a high level of extra oxygen for a period of time may develop BPD. Babies who cannot breathe on their own have breathing failure. Many of these babies are put on a breathing machine to help them breathe. The pressure that the machine uses to push the air can irritate the airways and the lungs and cause them to become more inflamed. Also babies can be exposed to infections both in the womb and after birth. Infections in babies born early can harm their less formed lungs and cause…
Driscoll, W. (2003). Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Emedicine. Retrieved February
3, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http;//www.emedicine.com.PED/topic289.htm.
What is Bronchopulmonary Dyplasia? National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Diseases and Conditions Index. Retrieved February 3, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.
How many enzymes from the liver and pancreas are actually present will vary somewhat with gestational age and there is no actual way to know which one of the many chemicals produces the severe inflammatory response that is seen in even mild cases of MAS. It is thought, however, that bile salts are mainly responsible for this problem. hen biopsies are taken, they reveal both macrophage infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. Soon, alveolar edema occurs, along with the formation of hyaline membranes. It is possible that the surfactant may be inactivated, but it can also be secreted, and pulmonary hemorrhaging may also occur. Some research samples have also shown the presence of microthrombi located in the pulmonary vasculature, as well as a more pronounced muscularization and thickness of the distal arterioles in the lungs (pedsccm.wustl.edu, n.d.).
here medical care and treatment is concerned, prevention is very important. Monitoring fetal status…
Pedsccm.wustl.edu. (n.d.). Neonatal respiratory failure meconium aspiration syndrome. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at http://pedsccm.wustl.edu/all-net/english/pulmpage/neon/mecasp.html.
A www.emedicine.com.(2004). Meconium Aspiration Syndrome. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic768.htm .
("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)
Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)
Another study, described in…
Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp
Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm
Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical
Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
The condition of hypothyroidism is caused by a thyroid gland that does not produce the proper amount of certain important hormones.
The gland is located in the center of the neck and is described by ebMD (2012) as being butterfly shaped. The gland's hormone production is an important dimension of the metabolic process. Therefore, when its functionality is impaired, the body's capacity to digest, metabolize and utilize the nutrients and proteins yielded by food is also impaired. According to ebMD, "having a low level of thyroid hormone affects your whole body. It can make you feel tired and weak. If hypothyroidism is not treated, it can raise your cholesterol levels and make you more likely to have a heart attack or stroke." (ebMD, p. 1) In the vast majority of cases, the condition is produced by an inflammation called Hashimoto's thyroiditis. (ebMD, p. 1) ith this condition, the…
Mathur, R. (2011). Hypothyroidism. Medicinenet.com.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012). Hypothyroidism. Mayoclinic.com.
WebMD. (2012). Hypothyroidism. Webmd.com.
Wilm's tumor refers to a very rare type of kidney cancer that is also known as nephroblastoma, a type of cancer which can impact both kidneys, though usually first developing in just one. Because Wilm's tumor so frequently impacts children, doctors tend to think that "the tumor begins to grow as a fetus develops in the womb, with some cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor" (kidshealth.org, 2013). At the same time, even though this condition is more common to children, it can still occur in adults. It generally manifests between the ages of 3 and 4 and becomes less likely to occur around the age of five.
Symptoms and Signs
It's important to acknowledge that while this condition does occur with a set group of symptoms, some children experience no symptoms whatsoever. Another important aspect to remember is that…
Canver.gov. (2013, January). General Information. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/wilms/HealthProfessional/page1#Section_558
Kidshealth.org. (2013). Wilm's Tumor. Retrieved from Kidshealth.org: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/kidney/wilms.html#
MayoClinic. (2011, September 2). Symptoms. Retrieved from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/wilms-tumor/DS00436/DSECTION=symptoms
Medscape.com. (2013). Etiology. Retrieved from Medscape.com: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/989398-overview#aw2aab6b2b2ab1
Fact Sheet on Hypomagnesemia
Hypomagnesemia: An overview
Etiology, pathophysiology, incidence & prevalence
Hypomagnesemia, otherwise known as magnesium deficiency, is defined as the patient possessing a serum Mg concentration of < 1.4 mEq/L (< 0.70 mmol/L) (Lewis 2009).
Hypomagnesemia is often seen in alcoholics, in pregnant or nursing women, or patients with gastrointestinal disorders due to their inadequate intake of vital fluids and excessive secretion. Other complaints associated with the deficiency include hypercalcemia after removal of parathyroid tumor and diabetic ketoacidosis (Lewis 2009).
An evaluation of the patient, in addition to lab work, will involve a full examination and a review of his or her disease history associated with hypomagnesemia.
Given the causes include taking drugs such as furosemide; a full medical review of the patient's history must be considered (Lewis 2009).
Common symptoms can be both psychological as well as physical in nature…
Lewis, James. (2009). Disorders of Magnesium concentration. Merck Manuals. Retrieved:
roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?
Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).
What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?
Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…
Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:
Brugada Syndrome is a hereditary illness that is categorized by irregular electrocardiogram (ECG) results (efer to Appendix 1) and an augmented danger of unexpected cardiac arrest. It is titled after the Spanish cardiologists Josep and Pedro Brugada. It is counted amongst one of the key (Nademanee, 1997) reasons for "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome" (SUDS), and is the most regularly occurring reason of unexpected expiration amongst young men without knowing the fundamental cardiac ailment. This holds particularly true for Laos and Thailand.
The purpose of this research essay is to talk about the Brugada Syndrome by focusing on its epidemiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology and implications for advanced nursing techniques. It also discusses the disease itself in tremendous detail and makes thorough used of secondary research to validate statements wherever required.
Even though, if the ECG results of Brugada Syndrome were initially found amongst survivors of cardiac arrest in the year 1989 (Martini,…
Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Corrado D, et al. (2005). Brugada syndrome: report of the second consensus conference: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association. Circulation; 111: 659-70
Antzelevitch C (2007). "Genetic basis of Brugada syndrome." Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 4 (6): 756 -- 7. DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.03.015. PMC 1989771. PMID 17556198
Belhassen B, Glick A, Viskin S (2004). "Efficacy of quinidine in high-risk patients with Brugada syndrome." Circulation 110 (13): f1731 -- 7. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000143159.30585.90. PMID 15381640
Brugada J, Brugada P, Brugada R (July 1999). "The syndrome of right bundle branch blocks ST segment elevation in V1 to V3 and sudden death -- the Brugada syndrome." Europace 1 (3): 156 -- 66. DOI:10.1053/eupc.1999.0033. PMID 11225790.
Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)
The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…
Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from http://duranki.hubpages.com/hub/Beware-High-Blood-Pressure-It-will-Kill-You -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming
Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/GuidelinesDocuments/guidelines-aortic-dissection-FT.pdf
Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/morphine-injection.html
Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.
Spinal vs. General Anesthesia
The outcome of patients after undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate is examined under varying clinical situations to assess whether spinal anesthesia is associated with greater likelihood of positive outcome. Also examined in great detail are the potential for increased morbidity and mortality based on whether patients underwent general or spinal anesthesia during surgery. A large body of evidence indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between patient outcomes regardless of choice of anesthetic technique. This paper concludes that patients should be well educated and informed so they may make the choice most appropriate to their personal situation and comfort level preferences. An equal number of adverse side effects are associated with each anesthetic technique; as such patients should choose the technique that will result in the greatest post-operative satisfaction. The implications for practice suggest that physicians and anesthetists have an obligation to educate and…
Dobson, PM., Caldicott, LD., Gerrish, SP., Cole, JR., & Channer, KS. Changes in haemodynamic variables during transurethral resection of the prostate: comparison of general and spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Mar; 72 (3): 267-71
Edwards, ND., Callaghan, LC., White T., & Reilly, CS. (1995). Perioperative myocardial ischaemia in patnets undergoing transurethral surgery: a pilot study comparing general with spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Apr; 74 (4): 368-72
Gravenstein, D. (1997). Transurethral resection of the prostate syndrome: a review of the pathophysiology and management. Anesthesia Analg. Feb; 84 (2): 438-36
Hosking, MP., Lobdell, CM., Warner, MA., Offord, KP., & Melton LJ. 3rd. (1989).Anaesthesia for patients over 90 years of age. Outcomes after regional and general anaesthetic techniques for two common surgical procedures. Anaesthesia. Aug; 44 (8): 697-8