Pathophysiology Essays (Examples)

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Educational Brochure or Handout on Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76824882


What's Gone Wrong?

CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.

isk Factors

Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.


CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…… [Read More]


Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable: 

Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at .


CV You
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Cardiovascular Interventions

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61991949


Cardiovascular Interventions

Cardiovascular disease is especially dangerous and one of the only effective measures to handle it is prevention. This ultimately makes interventions so crucial, especially with patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and those still showing signs of cardiovascular health. For the case in question, it is crucial to establish with the patient a need to start interventions so that he can avoid further cardiovascular problems. The patient witnessed an abnormal treadmill test, which ultimately signifies issues with the cardiovascular system that may endanger the patient's health.

First, there are interventions that deal with lifestyle changes. These are the least invasive because they do not entail the introduction of medicines or the need for surgery. ather, they aim to intervene with unhealthy lifestyle choices within the life of the patient. Changes in lifestyle include diets, exercise routines, and other changes that promote better cardiovascular health (Lauer, 2008).…… [Read More]


Aijaz, Bilal, Babuin, Luciano, Squires, Ray, & Kopecky, Stephen. (2008). Long-term mortality with multiple treadmill exercise test abnormalities: Comparison between patients with and without cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal. Web. 

Artinian, Nancy T., Fletcher, Gerald F., Mozaffarian, Dariush, Kris-Etherton, Penny, & Van Horn, Linda. (2010). Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults. Circulation, 122(2010), 406-441.

Dunn, Steven P., Holmes, David., & Moliterno, David J. (2012). Drug-drug interactions in cardiovascular catheterizations and interventions. Journal of American College of Cardiovascular Interventions, 5(12), 1195-1208.

Lauer, Michael S. (2008). The exercise treadmill test: Estimating cardiovascular prognosis. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 75(6), 424-430.
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Metabolic Syndrome in the United

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10894107

Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.

Mrs. Stiller has many…… [Read More]


Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288

Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85

Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60

Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
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Nursing Differences Between Men and

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46753557

It is believed that this is related to some basic dissimilarity in women's the way women's hearts work (icciotti, 2012).

Women are just as liable to have a heart attack as men, but the fact that they are more apt to die after their first heart attack may be because the signs of a heart attack are different in women. Doctors and patients frequently point chest pains in women to non-cardiac causes, leading to a misdiagnosis of their condition. Men generally experience crushing chest pain during a heart attack. Women may have a larger inclination to have pain just under the breastbone, or complain of abdominal pain, heartburn, trouble breathing, sickness and mysterious exhaustion. Women are consequently easily misdiagnosed of indigestion, gall bladder disease, or even an anxiety attack. The probability of misdiagnosing a heart attack in women is also augmented by the fact that women tend to have heart…… [Read More]


Braunstein, G.D. (2010). Gender Differences in Heart Disease: Nation's No. 1 Killer Kills

Differently. Retrieved from -


Gender Difference In Heart Failure. (2009). Retrieved from
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Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69323979

Arthritis is considered as one of the major health conditions affecting a significant portion of the United States population. Even though the condition currently affects approximately 50 million adults in the country, it is not primarily an adulthood health condition. There are numerous cases of children suffering from arthritis, which implies that this condition is not uncommon among children. As a result of the prevalence of arthritis among children and adults, understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of this condition has emerged as an important component in proper diagnosis and treatment. This paper examines the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to the similarities and differences between the two conditions. The analysis includes a selection of two patient factors that could impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is an umbrella term that refers to different conditions involving inflammation of…… [Read More]

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The Production and Stimulation of Gastric Acid

Words: 1162 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36058167

Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production

Pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production

The parietal cells in the stomach are responsible for the production of gastric acid. Parietal cells contain secretory canaliculus, which produce gastric acid and release it into the gastric lumen. Gastric acid is produced as a response to the messages received through hormonal, paracrine, and neurocrine messengers (Schubert & Peura, 2008). The production of gastric acid undergoes three phases namely cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. Gastrin, the major hormonal trigger of gastric acid production is produced by the G cells located in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach. The G cells will release gastrin in response to a meal. However, the Histamine 2 receptors are thought to be the primary stimulus for the secretion of gastric acid.

How GED, PUD, and gastritis affect the stimulation and production of gastric acid

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GED) is a…… [Read More]


Boeckxstaens, G. E., & Rohof, W. O. (2014). Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 43(1), 15-25.

Chait, M. M. (2010). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Important considerations for the older patients. World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy, 2(12), 388.

Kahrilas, P. J. (2003). GERD pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 70(5), S4.

Konturek, P. C., & Konturek, S. J. (2014). Peptic Ulcer Disease Metabolism of Human Diseases (pp. 129-135). New York: Springer.
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Acute Asthma

Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68744406

Asthma represents a lasting inflammatory airway condition characterized by hyper-responsiveness of the airways accompanied by repeated episodes of breathlessness, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Such episodes have commonly been linked to airflow blocks which can be spontaneously reversed or sometimes require medication. Roughly three hundred million individuals worldwide suffer from asthma. Among children, boys exhibit greater asthma risk whilst among adults, women exhibit greater prevalence. A grasp of the condition’s pathophysiology (both acute and chronic forms) will facilitate an understanding of how to diagnose and treat patients suffering from it. Experts’ asthma pathogenesis knowledge has greatly evolved during the past twenty-five years with scholars discovering several phenotypes of the condition (Lynn & Kushto-Reese, 2015).
Pathophysiology of Acute Asthma
Acute asthma intensification, or asthmatic attacks, take place through binding of inhaled antigens to mast cells performing immunoglobulin E (IgE). These cells start degranulating, thereby releasing bradykinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factors,…… [Read More]

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Incidence and Morbidity of Unprotected Sexual Behavior

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98106939

risky behavior, unprotected sex can lead to serious health consequences. isky sexual behaviors include having sex frequently with strangers or multiple partners, particularly without the use of condoms. Similarly, avoiding birth control can be considered a risky sexual behavior. Physiological consequences of unprotected sex include the contraction of a sexually-transmitted infection, many of which can lead to fatal illnesses like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis. Gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections present serious health consequences even when they are not life-threatening. In the United States, about 15 million people are infected every year with a sexually transmitted illness (SIU School of Medicine, 2010). Morbidity rates for sexually transmitted illnesses are high overall, and in fact, STIs are the most commonly reported of all communicable diseases in some states (Washington State Department of Health, 2014). Common sexually transmitted illnesses include chlamydia and herpes. Chlamydia morbidity rates are far higher for women…… [Read More]


Healthwise (2015). High risk sexual behavior. 

SIU School of Medicine (2010). Sexual behavior. Retrieved online: 

Washington State Department of Health (2014). STI Fast Facts. Retrieved online:
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Advanced Nurse Practitioner Diagnoses

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74287493

Scenario 1:

The main factor of the pathophysiology for Jennifer is a marked pain in her throat. Her throat has become sore, specifically her cervical nodes (which is a sign clearly indicative of disease). Thus it is difficult to eat, which explains why she neglected to eat her breakfast. Another capital aspect of Jennifer’s pathophysiology which is particularly revealing is her fever, which is common in children (de Pont, 2015, p. 2). Initially her fever was low grade. However, in just a matter of days it exceeded 103 degrees. Her body is attempting to counteract the effects of the malady afflicting it via the fever. One of the foremost associated alterations of her adaptive responses is the current state of her skin. Her skin is desiccated and warm, which is indicative of the fever the child has experienced over the past couple of days. Her skin will likely continue to…… [Read More]

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Diabetes According to America Diabetes

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73144084

The high levels of blood glucose lead to the production of insulin therefore patients have excessive production of insulin. There is insulin resistance and hence body cells do not respond in an appropriate way in the presence of insulin (Mealey, 2010).

The main difference between diabetes insipidus, and diabetes mellitus, is that in diabetes mellitus insulin resistance is referred to being "post-receptor." This implies that the problem lies with the cells which respond to insulin as opposed to there being a problem in the production of insulin. The onset of diabetes mellitus is slow and the disorder might go undiagnosed for a very long period of time. Diabetes insipidus has an abrupt onset and it might be diagnosed at any age.

Factors affecting diagnosis and treatment prescription of diabetes

There are various factors that might affect the diagnosis and treatment of these two types of of these factors is…… [Read More]


Mealey, B.L. (2010).Diabetes Pathophysiology. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from 

MediLexicon International Ltd.(2013). All about Diabetes. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from
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Advanced Nursing Practice and treatment of vein artery disorders

Words: 818 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31513225

Comparison of pathophysiology of CVI and DVT
The pathogenesis of CVI is not completely understood; however, it's based on both venous reflux and obstruction; or an amalgamation of the two. Though venous reflux is actually based on a number of mechanisms, the key elements are venous valve ineffectiveness, vessel wall swelling, hemodynamic elements and additionally venous hypertension. These systems could be further exasperated by dysfunctional pumping devices (vascular and/or muscle pump), for example, in inert patients or even individuals with stiff joints (Goerge and Santler, 2017). Similarly, Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is actually blood clotting in a deep vein of a limb (normally pelvis or the thigh or calf). Low-level extremity DVT frequently results from damaged venous return (for instance, in inert patients), endothelial injury or even dysfunction (for example post fractures of leg) as well as, hypercoagulability. Concurrently, upper-level extremity DVT frequently outcomes from endothelial injury because of pacemakers,…… [Read More]

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Nursing Asthma

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45347345

Nursing - Asthma

The limitation of airflow in asthma is reported as "recurrent and caused by a variety of changes in the airway." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Those changes include: (1) bronchoconstriction; (2) airway edema; (3) airway hyperresponsiveness; and (4) airway remodeling. Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway edema occurs with the progression of the disease and the inflammation is more progressive and exacerbated by "edema, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and the formation of inspissated mucus plugs as well as structural changes including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway hyperresponsivenss is reported to be "an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor response to a wide variety of stimuli. Airway modeling speaks of the permanent structural changes in the airway reported to be associated with "loss…… [Read More]


Asthma (2013) The Merck Manual. Retrieved from: 

National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.); 2007 Aug. Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma, and Natural History of Asthma. Available from: 

Thomas J. Morrow, MD J (2007) Implications of Pharmacogenomics in the Current and Future Treatment of Asthma. Manag Care Pharm. 2007;13(6):497-505. Retrieved from:
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Acute Renal Failure Is a Serious Medical

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2579717

Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis,…… [Read More]


Epstein, Murray. (1997). Alcohol's impact on kidney function. Alcohol Research and Health21. 1 (1997): 84-91.

Malay, Agrawal & Richard Swartz. (2000). Acute Renal Failure. American Family

Physician. Retrieved October 29, 2011 at 

Page, Timothy F. & Robert S. Woodward. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of Medicare's coverage of immunosuppression medications for kidney transplant recipients.
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Digestive Disorders Pathophysiological Mechanisms Prior

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39374482

On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does not work, there are many sorts of antibiotics, painkillers, laxatives or anti-diarrhea pills that one can take to negate the effects of noxious symptoms. Corrective surgery is also an option, although it does not always work.

Some of the treatments for inflammatory bowel disease can work for irritable bowel syndrome, such as the taking of antibiotics, anti-diarrhea medicine, and fiber supplements. Additionally, corrective measures to one's diet and lifestyle to attempt to procure a stress free environment may work as well. Treatments specific to this condition, however, include antidepressants and counseling to assist with stress. Additionally, medications such as lubiprostone and alosetron also pertain strictly to this condition, and not to inflammatory bowel disease.


Age certainly has a…… [Read More]


Pace, F., Molteni, P., Bollani, S., Sarzi-Puttini, P., Stockbrugger, R., Porro, Bianchi, Drossman, D.A. (2003). "Inflammatory bowel disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome: a hospital-based, case-control study of disease impact on quality of life.." BMC Gastroenterol. 38 (10): 1031-1038.

Porter, C.K., Brooks, D.C., Pimentel, M., Akinseye, a., Riddle, M.S. (2012). "Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome." BMC Gastroenterol. 12: 55. Retrieved from
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1 As She Suffers From

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15201917

Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]

1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
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Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853


Dirix LY,

Salgado R,

Weytjens R,

Colpaert C,

enoy I,

Huget P, van Dam P,

Prove a,

Lemmens J,

Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer,

John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"

MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at,

Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…… [Read More]


MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at

Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at 


Dirix LY,
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Stroke Is Widely Regarded One of the

Words: 2569 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54959389

Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of people who suffer a stroke in the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the physiological processes associated with stroke. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and complications. Further, I will also discuss the hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke.

Stroke: An Overview

In basic terms, stroke is said to be "an abrupt onset of neurological functions caused by a sudden reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is due in turn to either an ischemic occlusion or a hemorrhagic episode" (Gulini, Gianelli, Quaglia, and Marrucci, 2000, p. 239).…… [Read More]


Eisenberg, M.G., Glueckauf, R.L. & Zaretsky, H.H. (Eds.). (1999). Medical Aspects of Disability: A Handbook for the Rehabilitation Professional (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Gulini, M., Gianelli, M., Quaglia, W. & Marrucci, G. (Eds.). (2000). Receptor Chemistry Towards the Third Millennium. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Huether, S.E. & Mccance, K. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.

Mohr, J.P., Grotta, J.C., Wolf, P.A., Maskowitz, M.A., Mayberg, M.R. And Kummer, R.V. (2011). Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
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Tetralogy of Fallot Tof Is

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63599316,2004).

It is possible that a small number of infants that are diagnosed with TOF may also have other ventricular septal defects or an abnormality in the way that the coronary arteries branch. Some also have a complete obstruction from the right ventricle, getting no flow from there at all. Usually, the flow of blood to the lungs is quite limited by the condition, as well. hen the flow of blood to the lungs is found to be restricted, the combination of having an overriding aorta and the ventricular septal defect allows blood that is poor in oxygen to return to the right atrium and right ventricle, where it is then pumped out to the rest of the body, instead of the oxygen-rich blood that the body needs and should be receiving. This shunting can cause babies to look very blue and this occurs because the blood that is low…… [Read More]

Works Cited Anomalies/Congenital Heart Defects. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Retrieved 8 February 2005 at .

A Tetralogy of Fallot. Retrieved 8 February 2005 at .
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]


Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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Grave's Disease

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97073410

Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.

Overview and Brief History of the Condition:

Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.


The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.

Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:

pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.

Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
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Cardiovascular Patho

Words: 844 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2412639










Quality of the writing (See Writing Rubric)

Nothing special but solid nonetheless. Appropriate.

Thorough, and all appropriate.

Formatting (APA 6th Edition)


Physiology & Pathophysiology

Explained well.

Synthesis of the research

The review of literature is thorough.

There should be more written about future research possibilities.


The goals of peer review are 1) to help improve your classmate's paper by pointing out strengths and weaknesses that may not be apparent to the author, and 2) to help improve editing skills.


Read the paper(s) assigned to you twice, once to get an overview of the paper, and a second time to provide constructive criticism for the author to use when revising his/her paper. Answer the questions below.


1. Did the writer cite sources adequately and appropriately? Note any…… [Read More]

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Klinefelter Syndrome

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68017582

Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition where a male child is born with an extra X chromosome, so that his sex chromosomes are XXY rather than XY; some people with Klinefelter syndrome have more than two X chromosomes. Klinefelter syndrome is the result of random error and is not a heritable disease. While many people think of the X chromosome as solely a sex chromosome, it plays a significant role in bodily functioning, impacting brain development and growth in addition to sexual functioning. Mental retardation and phenotypic abnormalities are associated with Klinefelter syndrome and are "directly related to the number of supernumerary X chromosomes (Chen, 2013). Klinefelter syndrome is a "form of primary testicular failure, with elevated gonadotropin levels due to lack of feedback inhibition by the pituitary gland" (Chen, 2013). This results in an androgen deficiency that causes many of the symptoms associated with Klinefelter's syndrome. Other hormone levels…… [Read More]


Chen, H. (2013, February 22). Klinefelter Syndrome: Pathophysiology. Retrieved November

5, 2013 from Medscape website: 

Kebers, F., Janvier, S., Colin, A., Legros, J.J., & Ansseau, M. (2002). What is the interest of Klinefelter's syndrome for (child) psychiatrists? Encephale, 28(3/1), 260-265. Retrieved

November 6, 2013 from PubMed website:
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Contact Dermatitis to Metal Case Study Dermatitis

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48896511

Contact Dermatitis to Metal: Case Study


Contact dermatitis on the hands can be caused by a number of distinct mechanisms (Usatine & iojas, 2010). The type most amenable to treatment is dermatitis caused by environmental irritants. Other possible causes include allergic and atopic dermatitis, each arising from different mechanisms. The patient under consideration here has been diagnosed with contact dermatitis due to metal exposure and is concerned about a possible link between the eczema and rhinitis. This report will examine the pathophysiology of contact dermatitis and whether there could be any relationship between the patient's dermatitis and rhinitis.

Irritant Contact Dermatitis

Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by exposing the skin to harmful substances (Usatine & iojas, 2010). A wound or injury can compromise the ability of the skin to maintain an effective barrier against noxious substances, resulting in skin trauma. A single or chronic exposure can lead to local…… [Read More]


Alavi, A., Skotnicki, S., Sussman, G., & Sibbald, R.G. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 25(8), 371-381.

McFadden, J.P., Puangpet, P., Basketter, D.A., Dearman, R.J., & Kimber, I. (2013). Why does allergic contact dermatitis exist? British Journal of Dermatology, 168(4), 692-699.

Spergel, J.M. (2010). From atopic dermatitis to asthma: The atopic march. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 105, 99-106.

Usatine, R.P. & Riojas, M. (2010). Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis. American Family Physician, 82(3), 249-255.
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Dka Case Study

Words: 496 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21917976

drowsy, confused, pale sweaty detect a fruity odour breath. You initiate a MET call a set vital signs a BGL. Questions 1 What complications occurring Tanya? Connect signs symptoms? 2 What pathophysiology complication? 3 What blood glucose reading situation ? 4 What nursing interventions required complication? 100 WODS EACH 1 reference Farrell & Dempsey 2014 Smeltzer Bare textbook medical surgical nursing 3rd edition.

Tonya is suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition, also known as DKA, generally occurs in patients that have Diabetes Mellitus 1 or 2. The most prevalent precipitating factors include non-compliance with insulin therapy, infection, or a stressful event like a myocardial infarction or undergoing surgery. A key indicator is the fact that, upon assessment, in was noted that Tonya's breath had a fruity odor to it. This is a characteristic trait that can distinguish DKA from other pathophysiologic causes. If untreated, DKA can quickly turn into a…… [Read More]


Farrell, M. (2013). Smeltzer and Bare's textbook of medical-surgical nursing (3rd Australian and New Zealand ed.). Sydney: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Porth, C. (2005). Pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Guillain-Barre Syndrome Gbs Is the

Words: 2204 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71240654

He denies taking these meds for any other reason but to be able to stay awake at work. He also admits that he is not in the position he thought he would be in at this age in his life. Approximately five years ago, he was laid off as the manager of a local distributing company. Since that time (which is also the time of his son's birth), he feels that he has become increasingly stressed as well as disappointed in himself. He used to go to church, but he has not been since his mother died. He believes that going to church helps him feel more grounded and at ease. It is recommended that Mr. Sinatra learn to release his stress in positive manners such as exercising in the pool, walking, and stretching, attending counseling, and going to church.

Values and Beliefs

Mr. Sinatra and his family are members…… [Read More]


About GBS. (n.d.). Retrieved from 

Forsberg, A. (2005). Disability and health-related quality of life in Guillain-Barre syndrome during the first two years after onset: A prospective study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19, 900-909.

Guillaine-Barre syndrome and its treatment. (2008, July 31). Retrieved from WebMd.

NINDS Guillain-Barre. (2009, December 9). Retrieved April 14, 2010, from National Institute of Health.
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Management of Left Ventricular Heart

Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90872428

(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]


Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html

Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at:

NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health.

NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
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Stages Which Embody the Lifetime

Words: 336 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42244944

This represents the end stages of the disease, where the body has destroyed it and begun the task of reconstructing what was affected during the viscous battle.

Depending on the severity of the injury or other cause of inflammation, these five stages can cause various symptoms within individual patients. The aggravation phase causes high fevers and heavy swelling within many individuals inflicted with various diseases and conditions. The phase of destruction normally produces such symptoms as puss, open sores, and abscesses. It can also cause permanent damage to the human body, if not the loss of life. The abatement stage is when many patients' fevers and other symptoms of inflammation begin to subside and lower, (Huether & McCane, 2008). The final stage brings about rebuilding of damaged tissue along with recovery of the patient. However, the severity of the infection will always determine the capability of recovery within each individual…… [Read More]


Huether, S.E. & McCane, K.L. (2008). Understanding pathophysiology. 4th ed. St. Louis:

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Tumor Markers as a Tool

Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70099203

The Huether & McCance text describes tumor markers as being divided into two primary categories. Cancer-specific markers are demonstrative of the definitive presence of cancerous tissues. For instance, when Carcinoembryonic antigens appear in the bloodstream, the physician will understand the implication that some lung or breast tissue has been invaded by cancerous cells. Tissue-specific markers are those which, while not certainly indicating cancer, are used to direct follow-up tests and treatments relating to specific tissue areas. In such cases, while the specific tissue areas may not be cancerous, their altered process may help to identify the presence or absence of cancer elsewhere.

orks Cited

Huether, S.E. And McCane, K.L. (2008). Understanding pathophysiology, 4th ed. St. louis: Mosby.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Huether, S.E. And McCane, K.L. (2008). Understanding pathophysiology, 4th ed. St. louis: Mosby.
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Galectin-1 in the Regulation of

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10094274

The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)

Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)

All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]

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Boyle's Dalton's and Henry's Laws

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60223145

relationship among Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws and the physiology of the lung. obert Boyle investigated the relationship between the volume of a dry ideal gas and its pressure. Since there are four variables that can be altered in a gas sample, in order to investigate how one variable will affect another, all other variables must be held constant or fixed. Boyle fixed the amount of gas and its temperature during his investigation. He found that when he manipulated the pressure that the volume responded in the opposite direction. For example, when Boyle increased the pressure on a gas sample, the volume would decrease.

A physiological example of Boyle's Law is the action of the diaphragm. This muscle is located just below the lungs. When one inhales, the diaphragm moves downward allowing the lungs an increased volume. Consequently, this decreases the pressure inside the lungs so that the pressure is…… [Read More]


Ewalenko, M. (2002). [Scuba diving: practical aspects]. Rev Med Brux, 23(4), A218-222.

Wagner, P.D. (1993). Algebraic analysis of the determinants of VO2,max. Respir Physiol, 93(2), 221-237.

West, J.B. (1999). The original presentation of Boyle's law. J Appl Physiol, 87(4), 1543-1545.
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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia or Bpd Is

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4371736

The intense pulmonary microvasculature branching runs parallel with lung development; however, detailed understanding of their interactions and interactions with various growth factors is elusive (

hat causes BPD is unique to each neonatal situation. However, high levels of extra oxygen can harm the lungs, cause inflammation, and slow or stop the lung growth in babies born very early. Babies who need a high level of extra oxygen for a period of time may develop BPD. Babies who cannot breathe on their own have breathing failure. Many of these babies are put on a breathing machine to help them breathe. The pressure that the machine uses to push the air can irritate the airways and the lungs and cause them to become more inflamed. Also babies can be exposed to infections both in the womb and after birth. Infections in babies born early can harm their less formed lungs and cause…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Driscoll, W. (2003). Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Emedicine. Retrieved February

3, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http;//

What is Bronchopulmonary Dyplasia? National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Diseases and Conditions Index. Retrieved February 3, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.
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Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Mas Primarily

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39620027

How many enzymes from the liver and pancreas are actually present will vary somewhat with gestational age and there is no actual way to know which one of the many chemicals produces the severe inflammatory response that is seen in even mild cases of MAS. It is thought, however, that bile salts are mainly responsible for this problem. hen biopsies are taken, they reveal both macrophage infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. Soon, alveolar edema occurs, along with the formation of hyaline membranes. It is possible that the surfactant may be inactivated, but it can also be secreted, and pulmonary hemorrhaging may also occur. Some research samples have also shown the presence of microthrombi located in the pulmonary vasculature, as well as a more pronounced muscularization and thickness of the distal arterioles in the lungs (, n.d.).

here medical care and treatment is concerned, prevention is very important. Monitoring fetal status…… [Read More]

Works Cited (n.d.). Neonatal respiratory failure meconium aspiration syndrome. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at

A Meconium Aspiration Syndrome. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at .
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St John's Wort Depression in

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96325619

("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)

Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)

Another study, described in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at 

Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at 

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical

Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at
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Ulcerative Colitis Initial Presentation the Patient Is

Words: 2339 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12190706

Ulcerative Colitis

Initial presentation

The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.

Historical information

The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.

Presenting Symptoms

He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…… [Read More]


Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.

Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.

Libbey Eurotext.
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Hypothyroidism the Condition of Hypothyroidism Is Caused

Words: 470 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14667757


The condition of hypothyroidism is caused by a thyroid gland that does not produce the proper amount of certain important hormones.


The gland is located in the center of the neck and is described by ebMD (2012) as being butterfly shaped. The gland's hormone production is an important dimension of the metabolic process. Therefore, when its functionality is impaired, the body's capacity to digest, metabolize and utilize the nutrients and proteins yielded by food is also impaired. According to ebMD, "having a low level of thyroid hormone affects your whole body. It can make you feel tired and weak. If hypothyroidism is not treated, it can raise your cholesterol levels and make you more likely to have a heart attack or stroke." (ebMD, p. 1) In the vast majority of cases, the condition is produced by an inflammation called Hashimoto's thyroiditis. (ebMD, p. 1) ith this condition, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mathur, R. (2011). Hypothyroidism.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012). Hypothyroidism.

WebMD. (2012). Hypothyroidism.
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Wilm's Tumor Description Wilm's Tumor Refers to

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24754911

Wilm's Tumor


Wilm's tumor refers to a very rare type of kidney cancer that is also known as nephroblastoma, a type of cancer which can impact both kidneys, though usually first developing in just one. Because Wilm's tumor so frequently impacts children, doctors tend to think that "the tumor begins to grow as a fetus develops in the womb, with some cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor" (, 2013). At the same time, even though this condition is more common to children, it can still occur in adults. It generally manifests between the ages of 3 and 4 and becomes less likely to occur around the age of five.

Symptoms and Signs

It's important to acknowledge that while this condition does occur with a set group of symptoms, some children experience no symptoms whatsoever. Another important aspect to remember is that…… [Read More]

References (2013, January). General Information. Retrieved from (2013). Wilm's Tumor. Retrieved from 

MayoClinic. (2011, September 2). Symptoms. Retrieved from (2013). Etiology. Retrieved from
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Fact Sheet on Hypomagnesaemia

Words: 452 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32690635


Fact Sheet on Hypomagnesemia

Hypomagnesemia: An overview

Etiology, pathophysiology, incidence & prevalence

Hypomagnesemia, otherwise known as magnesium deficiency, is defined as the patient possessing a serum Mg concentration of < 1.4 mEq/L (< 0.70 mmol/L) (Lewis 2009).

Differential diagnosis

Hypomagnesemia is often seen in alcoholics, in pregnant or nursing women, or patients with gastrointestinal disorders due to their inadequate intake of vital fluids and excessive secretion. Other complaints associated with the deficiency include hypercalcemia after removal of parathyroid tumor and diabetic ketoacidosis (Lewis 2009).


An evaluation of the patient, in addition to lab work, will involve a full examination and a review of his or her disease history associated with hypomagnesemia.


Given the causes include taking drugs such as furosemide; a full medical review of the patient's history must be considered (Lewis 2009).

Physical examination

Common symptoms can be both psychological as well as physical in nature…… [Read More]


Lewis, James. (2009). Disorders of Magnesium concentration. Merck Manuals. Retrieved:
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Genes and Gene Environment Interaction

Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68812903

roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?

Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).

What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?

Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…… [Read More]


Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 

DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:
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Brugada Syndrome

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62860835

Brugada Syndrome is a hereditary illness that is categorized by irregular electrocardiogram (ECG) results (efer to Appendix 1) and an augmented danger of unexpected cardiac arrest. It is titled after the Spanish cardiologists Josep and Pedro Brugada. It is counted amongst one of the key (Nademanee, 1997) reasons for "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome" (SUDS), and is the most regularly occurring reason of unexpected expiration amongst young men without knowing the fundamental cardiac ailment. This holds particularly true for Laos and Thailand.

The purpose of this research essay is to talk about the Brugada Syndrome by focusing on its epidemiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology and implications for advanced nursing techniques. It also discusses the disease itself in tremendous detail and makes thorough used of secondary research to validate statements wherever required.

Even though, if the ECG results of Brugada Syndrome were initially found amongst survivors of cardiac arrest in the year 1989 (Martini,…… [Read More]


Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Corrado D, et al. (2005). Brugada syndrome: report of the second consensus conference: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association. Circulation; 111: 659-70

Antzelevitch C (2007). "Genetic basis of Brugada syndrome." Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 4 (6): 756 -- 7. DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.03.015. PMC 1989771. PMID 17556198

Belhassen B, Glick A, Viskin S (2004). "Efficacy of quinidine in high-risk patients with Brugada syndrome." Circulation 110 (13): f1731 -- 7. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000143159.30585.90. PMID 15381640

Brugada J, Brugada P, Brugada R (July 1999). "The syndrome of right bundle branch blocks ST segment elevation in V1 to V3 and sudden death -- the Brugada syndrome." Europace 1 (3): 156 -- 66. DOI:10.1053/eupc.1999.0033. PMID 11225790.
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Perioperative Nurse's Role in Caring for Pregnant Patients With Aortic Dissections

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83299405

Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)

The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…… [Read More]


Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from  -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming

Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from 

Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from 

Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.