Break Out of War in Afghanistan and Annotated Bibliography

Excerpt from Annotated Bibliography :

break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. The chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PTSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PTSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. They feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.

Psychiatry ratified the PTSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly, the most strenuous epidemiological research ever before done on Vietnam veterans had actually reported that 30.9% of guys who served in this war established PTSD (Kulka et al., 1990), consequently laying a basis for very early forecasts about PTSD amongst Iraq veterans. Keen to stay clear of the errors of the Vietnam period, American, British, and Dutch governments introduced epidemiological studies analyzing the mental wellness of soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, intending to determine the frequency of PTSD and allow its very early detection and therapy.

The Epidemiology of PTSD

Some years later, the information of PTSD, and its ramifications turn out to be remarkably positive. The wars have definitely triggered PTSD, however at rates far lower than lots of prior conflicts had and thus lower than the overall rates that were actually anticipated. The most methodologically sound studies have actually evaluated multitudes of military workers (or veterans) arbitrarily tested from the total populace of American and British soldiers who have actually served in Iraq and Afghanistan. These researches reveal that the proportion of soldiers that have actually established PTSD varies from 2.1% to 13.8%. (Sundin et al., 2010).

The most extensive research on American soldiers is the United States Millennium Cohort research, a population-based, longitudinal examination of active service and Reserve/National Guard workers (Smith et al., 2008). It includes arbitrary samples agent of the sub-populace of deployed war veterans and soldiers, alongside the deployed non-combatants, and non-deployed non-combatants. For this reason, it stays clear of the predispositions related to ease samples or from samples drawn from those looking for therapy. In addition, the topics were without PTSD at baseline, consequently offering quotes of PTSD attributable to military injury alone, not to trauma taking place prior to a soldier's enlistment in the service. Evaluating 47,837 participants of the Armed Forces, the analysts discovered that 4.3% of workers deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq established PTSD. Amongst deployed workers, 7.6% of those sample respondents reporting fight exposure established the condition, whereas 1.4% experienced this amongst those reposndents who were not experiencing battle. Of those who had actually never ever been deployed overseas, 2.3% established PTSD in feedback to stateside injury (e.g., mishaps on military bases). To be sure, rates of 4.3% amongst all deployed combatants and 7.6% amongst combatants are not unimportant. Yet these figures are much lower than the anticipated figure of 30% for all deployed soldiers, noncombatants along with combatants (Dentzer, 2003; Kulka et al., 1990).

Annotated Bibliography

Article 1: 'World Assumptions and Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder' by Dekel and colleagues (2004)


Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Elklit, Ask; Ginzburg and Karni investigated the relationship between the

1. Individual world assumptions

2. Combat stress reactions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD's itinerary.

The sample was the three groups of Israeli veterans who were divided as follow:

109 veterans who experienced CSR on the combat zone

98 decorated veterans

189 control participants.

Respondents finished homogeneous questionnaires that assessed PTSD and world supposition. Both CSR and severe PTSD were linked with lesser levels of self-esteem and beliefs about the kindness of people. Additionally, Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Elklit, Ask; Ginzburg and Karni saw a linear connection between self-esteem perceptions and levels of mental status. Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Elklit, Ask; Ginzburg and Karni looked at the findings of the study thinking the extraordinary characteristics and sense of warfare.

Assessment and Critique

The approach of the study was a good one as it helped integrate the war veterans' personal opinions, albeit only a part of their personal opinions, with the potential development of PTSD. This provided a
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good insight on how personal perceptions also influenced easier development of PTSD or how personal perceptions could counter the extent of PTSD. Furthermore, the approach of personal strengths and weaknesses of the individual have rarely been integrated in studies and usually prior experiences are also ignored, but this study was a good approach as it did integrate at least one aspect.


This above chosen study could help in the development of this proposed study by helping the researcher understand that the individual structure of eth war veterans must also e taken into account in order to clearly understand the extent of PTSD development amongst them. This proposed study will also thus be able to include a strong perception and support of the integration of personalized factors of war veterans as well.

Article 2: 'The Relationships between Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Clusters and Marital Intimacy Among War Veterans' by Solomon and colleagues (2008)


This particular research investigated the following:

Connections between the PTSD symptom cluster and the marriage intimacy of the Israeli warfare veterans.

The function of self-disclosure and oral hostility in mediating the effects of PTSD prevention and agitated arousal symptoms on marriage intimacy.

The sample for the study comprised of 219 respondents that were split into 2 main groups:

1. Ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs; N. 125)

2. Comparison group of veterans who battled in the similar war but were not captivated (N94).

According to the results the Ex-POWs showed superior levels of PTSD symptoms and verbal hostility and inferior levels of self-disclosure as compared to controls. Even though ex-POWs and controls did not vary in level of marital understanding, they did, though, showed a dissimilar pattern of associations between PTSD clusters and understanding.

In ex-POWs, self-disclosure mediated the associations between PTSD avoidance and marital understanding. Verbal violence was also discovered via indirect effect of agitated arousal on marital understanding.

The findings showed the significance of self-disclosure and verbal hostility as interpersonal mechanisms for the associations among posttraumatic symptoms on marital understanding of ex-POWs.

Assessment and Critique

This study was a good approach towards understanding how captive war veterans when captured can have a different form of PTSD as opposed to those war veterans who had not been captured in war or had not been victims of the retaliations of war. This approach is not a common one amongst many studies but could actually provide good comparative grounds for future research and is definitely an area of research that could help in understanding the realms of impact that war veterans have to go through in their normal lives.


The above study can help establish a comparative ground for this study as well. It will help the researcher also establish a good understanding of the different types and levels of PTSD that can occur with exposure to different experiences at war. This will add a profound dimension and depth to the paper that only a few prior studies could match.

Article 3: 'Deployment Stressors and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: Comparing Active Duty and National Guard/Reserve Personnel from Gulf War I' by Vogt and colleagues (2008)


Due to the increased use of the National Guard and Reserve military workers in the present scenario has raised many questions that whether the employment experiences and their relations with posttraumatic strain symptomatology vary for on duty and NG/R military workers.

There are very few studies to date which can be found related to this issue and moreover it is still uncertain that whether the impact of this military status varies for men and women or not. Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A and Martin, James A dealt with these study issues in a sample of 311 men and women who were associated with the Gulf war 1.

Numerous dissimilarities were experienced in deployment stressor contacts and results derived from differential relations normally recommended more unconstructive impacts of deployment experiences for on duty females and NG/R men. The probable role of unit consistency in elucidating these findings is also discussed.

Assessment and Critique

The above study follows the approach less implemented by many researchers whereby the impact and extent of PTSD is measured and compared between men and women in the armed forces. This approach gives the study a unique distinction in the sense that it allows the researcher to aptly see the impact of posttraumatic experiences and the coping techniques for men and women during and after their experience at war. Of course PTSD is experienced differently by every individual,…

Sources Used in Documents:

Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.

Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.

Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.

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