Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (R. W. Rogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)
In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and the theory help resolve for the individual the threat of climate change upon the individual and assist in the restoration or perceived restoration of health, which in and of itself is an improvement on health, as when people feel safer they are healthier. Another issue that can easily be indicated in this same vein is the perceived threat of social violence. As individuals those who have witnessed violence, or even been privy to stories of violence, particularly in areas close to the location where they lie or work or currently are, will likely be more motivated than others to perform prevention measures, such as locking the car door, carrying one's money in a separate location from the logical place. Those who do proactive things tend to feel safer and therefore healthier, whether they are truly safe or simply perceive themselves to be more safe.
5.Consider an important type of violence that is explained through aggression theory. Identify the aggression theory or theories that explain this violence and propose a means of reducing or eliminating violence as suggested by the theory. Explain.
Domestic violence, or violence against the family usually by an adult id often explained using frustration-aggression theory which indicates that much violence occurs as a result of internal individual feelings of frustration surrounding situational occurrences. Frustration-aggression theory has a long history in social psychology, as many indicate that it more significantly than other theories explains violence in the home. Frustration-aggression theory most effectively explains how an individual can displace anger and frustration felt regarding issues and situations completely secondary to the home. One stereo typical scenario being the individual who feels powerless and therefore frustrated with work may go home and exhibit aggression toward his or her spouse of children. (Zillmann, 1979, p. 128) as suggested by the frustration-aggression theory eliminating the number and intensity of the outside frustrations as well as the individual seeking and learning how to reduce and/or eliminate expressions of aggression toward innocents is important. There is also an additional line of reasoning that places the importance of the aggression motivation on frustration that elicits helplessness, therefore simple frustration in the face of a stressful situation might not be enough to motivate violence but if that frustration is coupled with the feeling that the individual has no power or hope of altering the frustrating experience then it may, given the right circumstances result in aggressive acts. In this line of thinking positive empowerment in any environment, where the individual at the very least perceives that he or she has the power to elicit change and contribute to it will likely result in a reduction of displaced aggression on others. (Agnew, 1985, p. 166)
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