correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?
In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).
2. Non-verbal behaviors can be used to serve many functions in communication. Discuss two functions of non-verbal communication, and include two distinct non-verbal behaviors in your explanation of discussion.
Non-verbal behaviors can be referred to non-verbal communication because this is an action that will intend to convey a message to other individual or express any kind of emotions towards a particular event or experience to other person. As functions of non-verbal emotion, self-representation of a person's own personality will be expressed due to the presence of reaction of a certain external stimuli that includes personal experience to a certain event. In this manner, a person will be able to react with the incidents that have been experienced for a specific period of time. Another will be greetings such as smiling when meeting another person because this action projects positive environment towards other individuals to feel them more comfortable.
3. What is self-awareness and what are the possible consequences of self-awareness?
Self-awareness pertains to the process of establishing introspection of an individual's self-worth, confidence, and over-all psychological well-being. This is an assessment that will be able to identify all kinds of psychological flaws by the use of reminiscing past events to help an individual to cope up current stressful experiences. As a consequence, an individual that will be conducting self-awareness will boost their self-esteem, confidence, and increasing their self-worth to be able to handle stressful events efficiently according to Harisson (2009).
4. What is self-perception theory, how do we use it to increase our self-knowledge?
In the field of social science, self-perception theory refers to any change in the attitude that can be developed by identifying the particular emotional behavior that has been expressed by an individual. Self-perception can be used by employing personal convictions to a particular event, individual, or experience due to their nature or functions that has been carried out for a specific reason. This process can increase our knowledge because it will help us find ways to examine that particular issue that has been the center for showing self-perception at a specific period of time as indicated by Pentin (2011).
5. Isa believes herself to be a healthy person that would not do damage to herself. Yet, Isa smokes a pack of cigarettes a day. This situation should create dissonance. Define dissonance and indicate three ways that Isa could reduce dissonance in this situation.
Dissonance pertains to a presence of any discomfort caused possibly by the presence of ideas, perceptions, values, and psychological reaction of a particular event, area, experience, or a person. In the case of Isa, she believes that smoking cigarettes will help her to satisfy her emotions and this is a helpful activity because it is an activity that will help her to compensate her stressful behaviors. There are three solutions to reduce dissonance and the first is education because this is an application of knowledge, skills, and attitude towards a particular issue to increase the knowledge of an individual to prevent false beliefs. Therapy is a psychological intervention that will help an individual to restructure their cognitive dissonance to express their emotions by being involved with activities that includes counseling, art therapy, music therapies, and all other related activities. Promoting pro-social and healthy behavior is a therapeutic habit that will help improve false perception that leads to dissonance of an individual by exercising healthy diet and healthy lifestyle on a daily basis according to Aronson, et, al., (2007).
6. You decide to start a neighborhood watch program. You want the members to be devoted to the group, to attend meetings regularly, and to be involved. How could you employ strategies of effort justification and dissonance to increase involvement in the organization?
Stewart (2007) explained that the first step will be to reach out for the leaders of the community because they are the key personnel that will help you to materialize your plan to establish a neighborhood watch program. This process will enable to help you with the processing of information and dissemination to the public regarding to the event that will allow the members of the neighborhood to attend a watch program. In this case, these leaders will help you gain the trust from the members of the community due to the impact and influence of the leader that is carrying out the necessary information regarding the upcoming event. Through information and dissemination, this will help the members of the community to become more educated regarding the upcoming event using leaflets and posters to allow the readers to understand the event.
7. Fear-arousing messages can be persuasive. Discuss the circumstances that lead fear -- arousing messages to be persuasive and give an example of a fear-arousing message.
Fear-arousing messages pertains to the awareness of an individual in the presence of campaign that will alter an individual's plan to fulfill their goals that should be scheduled to happen for a particular period of time. It can be elicited by an individual that has an intense anger or frustrations towards a single person due to a serious issue causing the person of source to act in a negative behavior. In social psychology, it is a persuasive message because it is aimed to alter other individual's daily routines that have been motivated by an act of intimidation. This will result into dissonance because it will create false impression and perception by the person that has been victimized by an aggressive individual that is responsible for initiating the act of fear-arousing message. Fear-arousing can be managed by facing the fear-message and examination of a particular event or issue to identify the root cause of the aggression made by the individual that was responsible for producing inappropriate action as mentioned by Mondegale (2009).
8. Do subliminal messages work? Discuss the effects of subliminal messages in both in-laboratory studies and in real-world applications
Subliminal messages work because there are varieties of factors that will help an individual to perceive the consequence of a particular activity that will be established or to make into reality. In this case, the process of subliminal messages can be subjective if an individual already knew all about the incident subjectively due to past experiences as a form of real-world applications. It can be objective if an individual have chosen to conduct a certain activity using subliminal messages due to the beneficial effect that can be carried by the message of the subliminal issue that is similar with the laboratory studies that includes physical assessment of a patient to identify their present history of medical illness.
1. As a summary and results of the Festinger and Carlsmith experiment, these resonance theorists explained that if somebody will commit some things that disputes with their own public opinion, these particular individual will be able to change their own point-of-view. In addition, if there are lots of challenges that were being produced to be resolved, that particular individual will be able to analyze that his particular action was being brought by the presence of pressure. The resolution that can be applied for the dissonance theory will be pro-social and healthy behavior to resolve dissonance. On self-perception theory, it will be education because this will help to find additional insights that will help an individual to confirm their actions over a particular event as indicated by Festinger, et, al., (1959).
Pertaining to dissonance theory, there are two perspectives that can be clarified under these cases as a considerable causes. The first is all about the negative issue that is causing dissolution that is why an individual becomes anxious towards a particular issue or an event. The aspect of their ideas will become more guarded because some negative issues may lead into injury or harm to a certain person due to the presence of conflict that is causing the dissonance event. The second will be the positive point-of-view that can also contribute to a cognitive dissonance because positive can be in a form of strict implementation of rules or policies that has been established by an institution, individual, or group. This can cause dissonance due…