Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Minimal Justification
It was in the 1950's that researchers first postulated the theory known as "minimal justification," a theory that involves "offering the least amount of incentive necessary to obtain compliance." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 7") When one is asked to behave in a certain way that creates cognitive dissonance, the person will develop an aversion for the dissonance and automatically seek ways to reduce it. One way to accomplish this task is to change the Dissonance atio, or the ratio of consonant cognitions to dissonant ones, by either decreasing the dissonant cognitions or increasing the consonant. Other ways are to reduce the importance of dissonant cognitions, or changing beliefs to eliminate dissonance.
In the case of minimal justification, the way to reduce the greatest cognitive dissonance is to offer the minimal incentive necessary. esearch has determined that offering a small justification to create personal cognitive dissonance…… [Read More]
Cognitive dissonance is disharmony manifested within the human mind, and is quite annoying. Eliot and Devine (1994) sought out to prove that this dissonance that brings us to a disagreeable state of mind is essentially motivation processes at work. More importantly however their work suggested, and to some degree proved, that this mental stress can be effectively reduced by some sort of reduction strategy. For myself self-affirmations, as suggested by the authors, has proven beneficial. The purpose of this essay is to relate a specific and personal incident where cognitive dissonance was reduced by using self-affirming behavior as an agent for restoring my peace of mind.
For some reason I have always feared heights and as a little child often dreamt of horrible scenes where I would climb to enormous heights, only to fall to the ground. I would often become nervous by simply being near a tall building or…… [Read More]
They believe Norwegians have a reputation for being open-minded, respectful, and appreciative of multicultural existence and influence. Breivik's actions made other Norwegians experience cognitive dissonance by behaving outside of the conceptions of Norwegian personalities, behavior, and culture.
Again, Breivik does not experience social comparison theory. His self-esteem has not been negatively affected or diminished by being apprehended by Norwegian authorities. He is not altering any behaviors or attitudes. Again, other Norwegians experience social comparison because of him. The survivors and victims' families are learning about their will to survive and their inner strength because of the murders. They also understand that this murderous, conservative element exists in their progressive society. They further understand that despite this murderer, Norwegians are proud.
Cognitive dissonance is a more successful theory in this situation. Norway is an unexpected location for such a tragedy, whereas in the U.S.A. Or UK or China, this action is…… [Read More]
With the appropriate controls of variables, the research showed that the recidivism rate of those offenders who got deterrent sentences like 30 months and above, recorded a 29% recidivism rate as compared to those who had relatively shorter terms who had 26% recidivism rates. Proposed herein is the consistency in the punishment handed and not the use of deterrent theory to hand down long sentences or even worse death sentences that gives the criminal no room to reform (Valerie Wright, 2010:8).
There are two basic perspectives that people have towards whatever happens to them in life; the internal and external loci. The people with internal locus of control always take responsibility for whatever happen and see it as a product of their actions, on the other hand, people with external locus of control always view things that happen around them as a result of other people's or external forces prompting…… [Read More]
Attitude Including Cognitive Dissonance and Other Factors
Cognitive dissonance and situational constraints: Effects on attitude
Cognitive dissonance is defined as "the feeling of uncomfortable tension which comes from holding two conflicting thoughts in the mind at the same time" (Straker 2012). An excellent example of cognitive dissonance is when someone is prejudiced and encounters a person who defies the stereotypes they have attached to the group. It also occurs when we act in a manner which defies our beliefs about ourselves -- for example, if we engage in boorish behavior when we see ourselves as upstanding citizens. Two strategies to cope with cognitive dissonance are commonly used. Sometimes the actor will alter his or her beliefs and behaviors, such as questioning his or her prejudices or behaving better. However, it is also common to rationalize the apparent incongruity between reality and our preexisting beliefs. 'He is the exception to the…… [Read More]
Their reaction to the deviations of others from expectancy depends on what they have to lose or gain...how we react to violations depend on reward value, or what we expect to get from the relationship. Thus a man is likely to react more positively towards an attractive younger woman standing close than a larger man from an out-group" (Expectancy violations theory, 2008, Changing Minds). I have noticed that irate customers who genuinely need or want my help can be placated if I adopt a pleasant demeanor, even if it violates their negative expectations, because of the reward they can receive in terms of establishing a positive and human connection with me as an individual.
However, customers who come only to vent will usually not be moved, no matter what I say or do, they will complain about every aspect of the experience regardless of how I behave, so it is…… [Read More]
What differentiated the control group from the two experimental groups and the two experimental groups from each other?
The aim of the experiment is key to differentiating all the groups involved: groups A, B, and control. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) were trying to identify the occurrence of cognitive dissonance in the experiment through the motivations of the groups, thereby proving the validity of their theory over the behaviorist and reinforcement approach. The main difference between all the groups is the motivation/level of dissonance experienced. The control group experienced no dissonance, as they were not required to lie about the experimental procedure nor offered monetary compensation; the other groups were, however, motivated to lie via monetary compensation. Groups A and B are further differentiated by their level of “induced dissonance” through the amount of monetary compensation offered to them: group A received $1, which is significantly less than…… [Read More]
As Bandura (2018) showed, the social influence in psychology is very important to consider because there are essentially three types of agents of social influence that can impact one’s psychology: these agents are peers, groups and media. Peers consist of family and friends or people one sees in person. Groups include school, workplaces, church, organizations, clubs, teams and so on. Media includes social media, films, music, magazines, Internet, etc. The reason people are attentive to social influence is that people have a natural compulsion to want to conform so as to be able to fit in with what their peers or groups (Ciccarelli & White, 2017). Conforming to social norms is something that all people do because of the social nature of their psychology.
The concept of conformity is one that psychologists and social psychologists have long been trying to understand. Conformity is what allows people to be accepted by…… [Read More]
Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)
In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…… [Read More]
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…… [Read More]
You see, we've got another subject waiting [looks at watch] who is supposed to be in that other condition. Now Professor -, who is in charge of this experiment, suggested that perhaps we could take a chance on your doing it for us. I'll tell you what we had in mind: the thing is, if you could do it for us now, then of course you would know how to do it, and if something like this should ever come up again, that is, the regular fellow couldn't make it, and we had a subject scheduled, it would be very reassuring to us to know that we had somebody else we could call on who knew how to do it."
The point to be made here is, gain, to see how far the experimenter could push a subject to make a point, but also to see just how far one…… [Read More]
Frustration and Dissonance/Risk
Frustration and Dissonance / Risk
Frustration and Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance has been extensively studied in social psychology as the effects of dissonance would cause dramatic changes in one's life. Cognitive dissonance is defined as an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. The result of dissonance may be anxiety, blaming, and denying. Although, the latter may also occur as the result of frustration, frustration is a conflict which occurs when something happens against one's will. The ways of reducing dissonance and frustration are justifying, blaming, and denying. People's experiences can contradict with expectations. For example, my old car was a manual transmission car, very reliable, fuel efficient; however, I wanted to buy an automatic transmission car with built in GPS and more room. However, my new car is not meeting my expectations. I have given three speed tickets because I was used to drive manual…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]
As noted above, one of the most prominent leadership theories that has been applied to the nursing profession is transformational leadership. Properly applied and managed, transformation leadership can also be used to facilitate creativity in the workplace. For instance, according to Vesterinen, Isola and Paasivaara (2009, p. 504), transformational leadership can create changes and, by definition, is capable of transformed individuals and the organization in which they work. By providing the leadership needed to motivate employees to bigger and better aspirations, transformational leaders can therefore encourage the creative spark among their followers in ways that might not otherwise be possible (Vesterinen et al. 2009). Indeed, Vesterinen et al. (2009, p. 504) specifically state that, "A transformational leader motivates inspirationally, stimulates intellectually and considers employees individually." Taken together, these positive outcomes are valuable in any organizational setting, but they can be particularly important in health care settings.
Why understanding organisational culture…… [Read More]
correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?
In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…… [Read More]
Self and Others
The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…… [Read More]
Illusory thinking. What is illusory thinking? What are the two types of illusory thinking -- A a Please explain each type and give an example.
Illusory thinking can be fundamentally explained as a desire and an attempt to find order in random events which fundamentally have no order. Often times illusory thinking manifests in two ways: either the illusion of control or with a false illusory correlation. Gamblers commonly manifest the illusion of control, when in reality they are betting their money on events that are random, such as the roll of a dice. However, this belief of control is false as all the event taking place are completely subject to chance. For example, some gamblers might think that if it's raining or if they wear their lucky shoes, they might have a more profound chance of winning or leaving the casino with profits. However, this is completely false.
Another…… [Read More]
.....starting point for research, I am selecting Scenario Two: Police Interrogations and False Confessions. The reason why I am selecting scenario two is that I have some degree of familiarity with the subject, and am fascinated by the ways people behave under pressure from authority figures, particularly law enforcement. I am also interested in scenario three related to the psychological aspects of disaster preparedness, but am more interested and concerned with criminal justice generally. Therefore, I narrowed down my selection of the scenarios mainly because of personal interest and curiosity about the subject matter, which motivates my desire to conduct the research necessary to write a proposal and complete the report.
Scenario Two described involving false confessions raises several points about the ethics of criminal justice, and how officers lie in order to extract information from suspects or witnesses. That information should not be admissible in court but sometimes is…… [Read More]
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]
Automatic Thoughts and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A primary objective of cognitive therapy is to identify some underlying patterns, thought processes, behaviors and assumptions within the patient that might light the way to the root of a cognitive dissonance. As we work with patients to uncover these dissonances, certain patterns occur commonly across a wide variant of disorders or dysfunctions. Among them, automatic thoughts are a common occurrence and can often reveal behavioral tendencies that contribute directly to one's condition. As the discussion here will show, automatic thoughts often play a large but unseen role in the negative emotions experienced by those suffering with various cognitive dissonances, disorders or dysfunctions.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
One of the primary advantages to identifying Automatic Thoughts and explaining them to the patient is the degree to which this will arm the patient with the awareness to begin combating his or her own dysfunctional tendencies. As…… [Read More]
Leadership in Management
Provide an example of Cognitive dissonance in the workplace?
One example of a situation in which Cognitive dissonance might occur in the workplace could be found at Disney theme parks. Disney's hires a number of "actors" to wear costumes and play different roles at the park. These individuals are expected to "act" for long periods of time such as eight to ten hours in some cases. I can image that many of these actors who are not really princes and princesses in real life would experience some level of cognitive dissonance as a result of their roles with Disney.
How would you introduce motivational theory in an environment without making disruptive change or causing other problems (such as role overload)?
Some research has indicated that there are role overload moderates the direct effects of both self-efficacy and goal level on performance, such that these relationships are positive…… [Read More]
An additional use of Chatbox technology is in being able to measure customer satisfaction levels by segment as well. The use of SEVQUAL methodologies to track customer service satisfaction levels can now be real-time using Chatbox as the platform to better measure customer expectations vs. experiences (Tate, Evermann,2010). Chatbox used as a research platform would allow companies to have real-time analytics and key performance indicators (KPIs) of performance. They would also allow marketing managers to better anticipate and react to market conditions driven by customer perception and requirements. The focus on attaining higher levels of customer loyalty could also be attained using Chatbox technology as the basis of more effective customer satisfaction surveys as well. Finally, Chatbox will continue to grow as a means of capturing and reacting to key requirements across market segments that see automation as a means to gain greater responsiveness anytime they want it from the…… [Read More]
Proposition Statement: Even if the media might be racist or sexist in its content, there should not be censorship of the media because of the first amendment.
Freedom of speech means freedom to disagree
Attention getting statement:
Everyone knows that shouting fire in a crowded theater is not only morally wrong, it's also against the law. It's the classic argument against full freedom of speech. According to Chief Justice Holmes, as discussed in the history of the Supreme Court, The Brethren, the justice said that freedom of speech cannot be absolute, because for instance you can't shout fire in a crowded theater and call that free speech. But although most people might agree with him about that, still that doesn't mean that you can make that analogy with every restriction of free speech.
hy restrict freedom of speech at all? The problem today, some might say,…… [Read More]
In my fist yea of college, I enjoyed an extemely passionate love elationship. We met duing feshman oientation and ou initial chemisty was instant as well as mutual. Actually, on the night we met he "escued" me, so to speak, because one of the guys fom my domitoy floo was annoying me by the way he ignoed all of my vey obvious signals that I was not paticulaly inteested in talking to him.
I smiled the fist time he looked at me, but to be pefectly honest, I would have smiled at almost anybody at that moment, because I was tying (unsuccessfully) to discouage the guy who would not leave me alone. The idea was simply to hint at the idea that I was not inteested in him by making eye contact with someone else. My (eventual) boyfiend was vey polite about it, but afte we smiled at…… [Read More]
The use and control of one's own mental faculties is of the utmost importance when involved in the serious and important business of government work. The word "government" itself literally translates to "controlling the mind" in Latin. Mind control is thus the most important aspect any individual who wishes to earn success and garner respect within governmental agencies may attain. Personal experience is the one true measure of the capability of thought, where the endgame is understanding these experiences and incorporating them into a practical, effective and efficient lifestyle approach both personal and professional.
As a Department of Defense (DOD) Special Agent, the ability to suppress emotion and employ rational and reasonable thought patterns is a skill that must be fully developed and tempered to allow for a suitable outlet for such activities. The purpose of this essay is to explore some personal experiences within my own career…… [Read More]
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…… [Read More]
Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male
"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
males…… [Read More]
What motivates an individual to help others? In what ways are you motivated to help others?
When people help others, they experience good feelings, some of which are based on actual chemical changes in the physiology of the helpers. Indeed, research has shown that people often derive much more pleasure from engaging in helpful activities that when they focus on activities that are intended to only bring happiness to themselves. In addition to the feel good experience, helping others provides an opportunity to reduce cognitive dissonance. When someone is distressed, an empathetic person will experience a degree of distress also that is derived in part from the capacity of that person to put herself in the place of the other person. So when the distress of the person being helped is reduced, a corollary reduction in distress -- albeit typically of a substantially lesser degree -- for the…… [Read More]
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]
likeability is effected by management in the international workplace. It assumes a phenomenological approach to the notion of likeability, and is based on the idea that likeability in management is fundamental to achieving "connectedness" among employees and to inspiring the drive needed to ensure an organization's success. By conducting a survey of employees and managers from every major business continent of the globe (Asia, Europe, America, the Middle East), it seeks to understand the different ways in which likeability is manifested, discerned, appreciated, and utilized in the cross-cultural international workplace. Its aim is to fill a gap in likeability research regarding the importance of international managerial likeability and hopes to raise awareness about the essentiality of likeability to success. It also aims to identify the phenomenon of likeability as it appears in different cultures. Identifying that phenomenon and coming to terms with it will help business managers to better develop…… [Read More]
Consonant and Dissonant Cognitions
Define consonant and dissonant cognitions:
Leon Festinger developed the theory of cognitive dissonance based on the "relationships among cognitions" (Rudolph, Ithaca.edu). A cognition is described as a "piece of knowledge" which may be a certain behavior, a value, an emotion or an attitude, according to Frederick M. Rudolph at Ithaca College in New York State. (Dissonance is defined simply as a state of conflict, tension or disagreement.) Meanwhile, a typical cognition could be just the fact that a person prefers the color blue; the knowledge that blue is a favorite color is a cognition. The knowledge that a person just caught a long pass for a first down in a football game is another cognition and the knowledge that the Supreme Court ruled that corporations are people in the "Citizens United" case is another cognition. In other words, a neighbor has a cognition (i.e., is cognizant…… [Read More]
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory
The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.
A Complex elationship
Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer…… [Read More]
Fictuality -- Each mini project separately consist 2 pages APA format. 5 mini project total pages. Additionally a final project totals 10 pages (based mini projects). Final project combining mini project a final project presented a company (management) cut paste.
Consumer decision-making is a process that often involves the word-of-mouth testament of a product or service where the opinion from the use of a consumer is favourable. The process seductively involves the product marketing team's portrayal to the consumer of the brand appeal and in-store value against the competitor. The consumer choice is ostensibly immense in the global market. Stores that range the spectrum of offerings, from specialty goods stores to large supermarkets and to stores such as Costco, Wal-Mart and the Dollar Store, consumers have a cornucopia of choice available.
The consumer decision process (Ashley, Wei, Sharyn, Carolyn, 2005) potentially requires multiple decisions made in a chain-process when considering…… [Read More]
Statistics show that incidences of juvenile criminal behavior are on the rise in the United States. In the year 2000, for example, over 2.3 million juveniles were arrested for various criminal offenses ranging from petty theft and drug abuse to crimes of violence. This figure alone represents a 64% increase from juvenile delinquency statistics from 1980. More disturbing is the fact that the greatest increases are in the areas of violent crime such as rapes, assaults and even homicide (Everett, Chadwell and Chesney 2002).
This trend did not happen overnight. Experts agree that the seeds of youth delinquency are planted at an early age, and that juvenile crime has complex socio-economic and psychological roots. Furthermore, many crime experts argue that delinquency is also the result of a combined failure of families, schools and the greater community.
This paper argues that many social difficulties, from delinquency in school to…… [Read More]
The term 'applied social psychology' is used to denote a methodical utilization of socio-psychological models, study approaches and outcomes, concepts, ideologies, and intervention approaches for comprehending or ameliorating social issues. Psychologists belonging to this subfield concentrate on comprehending and solving practical issues and coming up with intervention approaches to enhance individual, organizational and societal response to social issues. While this domain's chief concern is the generic tackling of practical and social issues revolving around the environment, education, and so forth, social psychology may also help enrich people's lives (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012). Social psychological theories offer prescriptions to solve practical and social challenges. This paper is presented as a review of literature on social psychological theories and their generic role in resolving practical and social problems.
A key applied social psychological theory is Cognitive Dissonance, whose main premise is that an individual is driven to remain consistent…… [Read More]
Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).
These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…… [Read More]
One of the biggest problems we have in this situation is that the two shifts are competing, rather than working together. To better align the objectives of the lunch shift with the objectives of the dinner shift, I will create a reward system. Achievement is a higher order of motivation and can therefore be highly effective.
The reward system would be store-wide so that all shifts understand that we are all working together for a common goal. At present, the only sense of motivation that any individual shift has is towards their own basic goals. By providing for a higher level of achievement, I will align each shift with an overall objective. I will, however, also maintain shift-level objectives. To do this, I will focus motivation on goal orientation. Each shift will have specific achievement objectives. By doing this, I will leverage the inherent competitiveness of the lunch shift. They…… [Read More]
South Park and Communication Theory: Symbolic Interactionism
In the first episode (“Stunning and Brave”) of the 19th season of South Park, a new principal has come to the town of South Park named PC Principal. PC Principal’s primary objective is to clean up the town of its bigotry, sexism and hateful speech. Halfway through the episode, other PC characters show up in a bar where the tired residents of South Park are attempting to relax away from all the stress of having to be PC all the time. PC Principal realizes there are others like him and they decide to “hang out” and start a PC frat house. The scene in the bar in which the PC characters come to meet one another is full of gestures and words that can be analyzed using the theory of Symbolic Interactionism.
The scene contains relevance as PC culture and social justice…… [Read More]
As Robillard points out, "Julian's cynicism shuts him off from any human association," (143). He has lost his family home due to the changes taking place in Southern society. The economic infrastructure that was supported by slavery has crumbled. Julian notes, "He never spoke of it without contempt or thought of it without longing. He had seen it once when he was a child before it had been sold." Moreover, the narrator mentions that African-Americans lived in his old family home now. Julian seems to be experiencing a cognitive dissonance that epitomizes Southern culture during integration.
Using an unreliable narrator enhances cognitive dissonance and irony. Aull also notes that Julian might be deceiving himself. In that case, the third-person omniscient narrator would only be echoing Julian's mind games. Ultimately, "Everything that Rises Must Converge" is a tragedy. The story needs its unreliable narrator to flush out the dissonance in Southern…… [Read More]
History Of Social Psychology
According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…… [Read More]
Knowledge, Theory, And Practice: Epistemology
Epistemology, or the nature of knowledge, is often different for each person, from the standpoint of perspective. In other words, each person sees knowledge differently, and that can make what is "true" for one person not "true" for someone else. James Frederick Ferrier, a Scottish philosopher, was the one who coined the term "epistemology." It is a term that not only relates to the nature and the field of knowledge, but it is also used to determine how people know the things that they know (Moser & Vander Nat, 2001). What makes knowledge real and true are not easily understood concept, because what a person knows is always able to be challenged. One could then make the argument that the "knowing" would be a belief, rather than actual knowledge. Getting to the nature of what is really true when it comes to knowledge begs answers…… [Read More]
2 of the respondents were self-employed and 11.2% of respondent were white-collar workers with 1.2% of respondents being blue-collar workers. The following chart shows the factor analysis results with VARIMAX rotation of traveler's perceptions of hotel attributes in the study of Choi and Chu (2000).
Factor Analysis Results with VARIMAX Rotation of Traveler's Perceptions of Hotel Attributes
Source: Choi and Chu (2000)
The following chart shows a 'regression analysis results of hotel factors according to Asian and Western travellers overall satisfaction levels.
Regression Analysis Results of Hotel Factors According to Asian and Western Travelers Overall Satisfaction Levels
Source: Choi and Chu (2000)
2.3.1 Definition of customer loyalty
Kandampully and Suhartanto (2000) define a loyal customer as "a customer who purchases from the same service provider whenever possible, and who continues to recommend or maintain a positive attitude toward the service provider" (p. 346).
2.3.2 Loyalty dimensions
There is…… [Read More]
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]
Her cancer and disfigurement distinguish the subject as being in a specific cultural group due for counseling, with many of the strategies used to engage her centering the culture of sickness and its attendant modes of recovery, rehabilitation and return to normalcy. Current logic supports group-based treatment imperatives for those who may be characterized accordingly. For the subject through, as with most any counseling subject, a number of specific cultural and personal features have made this sickness and its consequences a unique experience. e can also see that her perspective and needs have been formed by dimensions such as the subject's unstable economic upbringing; the sense of difference from wealthy suburban children; and an internal portrayal within the family suggesting a retention of the identity of foreigners in a strange land.
The interplay of these multiple dimensions is discussed in the article by Croteau et al. The article quotes several…… [Read More]
Buying Process for a New Laptop
The influence of marketing, promotion and long-term branding on the buying process of products and services continued to be accelerated by greater use of analytics and more effective use of digital media and channels. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how the buying process for a new laptop running Microsoft Windows 8 was completed, factoring in the effects of marketing in each stage of the process.
Analysis of the Buying Process
ecently the family laptop running Microsoft Windows Vista had a final hard disk crash that left it inoperable. Our family's problem is that the laptop is used for checking e-mails across school and personal accounts, in addition to tracking expenses and also hosting Skype sessions around the country. The problem recognition phase of the buying process is predicated on evaluating substitutes and selecting a specific alternative, often a product that represents…… [Read More]
eview of Making a Business Decision
Decision making is an unavoidable part of business. Smaller decisions where there is a lower perceived cost associated with making the wrong decision are psychologically easer compared to important decisions where a wrong choice could incur high costs. A recent example of a decision involved selecting an employee for an internal promotion. The position of team leader had become available for one of following the resignation of the incumbent team leader. The position was important for the team, and the department, as the team leader is key in managing the team from a practical perspective and ensuring that targets for the team would be met, as well as playing an important motivational role. The performance of the department was reliant on performance of each team, so the appointment was also important for the department I managed. The decision was important from the perspective…… [Read More]
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Trace conditioning…… [Read More]
Mozart Effect by Don Campbell, published by HarperCollins in 1997 and again in 2001, posits the theory that listening to Mozart's music can help to boost one's IQ. The theory is based on interviews and studies conducted by researchers, from which Campbell produces the general notion that music has a "healing" quality to it and can be used to improve one's overall life.[footnoteRef:1] Campbell points to the 1993 study by psychologist Francis Rauscher, who showed that listening to Mozart's sonata for two pianos helped to improve the spatial-temporal skills of the listener for about the next ten to fifteen minutes after listening to the music.[footnoteRef:2] Rauscher's study spurred more researchers to examine the relationship between music and intelligence. Campbell's book is essentially an overview of these studies with some analysis about the way that Mozart and music in general can improve one's ability to think, reason, and enjoy mental health.…… [Read More]
Consumer Behavior Models:
Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models
Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.
The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…… [Read More]
History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions
The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…… [Read More]
Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. oys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. oys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.
Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal…… [Read More]
The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).
Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…… [Read More]
Trigger and How to Change It
Something that triggers my emotions in the book is when I read about microaggressions (Sue, Sue, 2013, p. 161) and in particular the way that progressive society wants me to react to issues that it supports but that I do not. For example, the idea that LGBTs should be able to adopt is one that is supported by progressive society, but every time I read about (in this book the rights of LGBTs are identified) or see a story about it in the media, I have an emotional reaction to it. LGBTs and adoption are definitely a trigger for me.
This may be the result of a number of things: first, I have a very traditional conception of family. I view a family as having a father and a mother (who are married) and children (who come after marriage). I know this conception of…… [Read More]
Jen is a 19-year-old female of mixed ethnic background. When asked what her therapeutic goals are, Jen states that she wants to "get over" the physical abuse she was subjected to her from her mother's ex-husband (her stepfather). In the third therapy session with Jen, she abruptly claims that she may not be continuing with therapy because she is just "therapist shopping."
Also in this session, Jen mentioned for the first time that she works as an exotic dancer. She asks with a belligerent tone, "You don't have a problem with that, do you?" Even though there was no response, Jen quickly defends herself, saying, "I love my work. I make so much money. There is nothing else I can do to make this much money. All my friends work harder than I do but they make less than me! I mean, I not only pull in what I make…… [Read More]
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…… [Read More]
marketing managers understand consumer behavior?
It is essential for marketing managers to understand two critical elements: why consumers purchase the products they do and how exactly consumers intend to use those products. In general, the consumer decision-making process can be summed up as follows: need recognition; followed by information searching (otherwise known as research, such as combing reviews online or reading Consumer Reports); an evaluation of alternatives (formally or informally through vehicles such as a cost-benefit analysis); followed by the actual purchase, and finally the post-purchase behavior whereby the consumer evaluates the decision.
All purchases are motivated to some degree by need recognition. Needs recognition reflects the consumer's acknowledged state of imbalance between an actual and desired state. While this recognition may be consumer-driven and relatively internal (for example, a consumer with a cold deciding he or she needs to purchase tissues because he or she has 'run out') marketers…… [Read More]
Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.
Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…… [Read More]
Gestalt therapy focuses on experiences in the present moment and relationships between individuals as a means of determining and healing psychological issues. This picture shows both an engaged experience and also implies a specific familial arrangement between the people in the foreground -- it is assumed that they are mother, father and child. The assessment of the individuals in the picture and the "story" that the picture tells would change significantly is we learned that the red-shirted figure is a complete stranger to the woman in the foreground, and this change is one of the fundamental features of Gestalt theory/therapy.
Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney is clearly having difficulty with his operating process here, as he appears to be focusing on the extreme financial turmoil the world is experiencing for the second time in three years rather than consciously trying to distract himself. In…… [Read More]
Consumer Buying Decision
Consumer purchase decision may appear random at times as a person goes to the market to buy groceries. But whether it is a low involvement product (LIP) like a jar of mayonnaise or a high involvement product (HIP) like a house, the consumer will usually go through five stages of purchase decision which are less pronounced in the case of LIP than it would for a HIP.
A low involvement product is defined as "a product where the process of searching for information is minimal, without distinct brand loyalties." (Grebitus, p. 43) A hair brush, beauty soap, a bath towel for example would all be low involvement purchases. They do not require considerable amount of effort, energy or money and hence even if the decision goes wrong, it won't have a significant effect on the consumer.
A high involvement product on the other hand is the one…… [Read More]
consumer behavior models: decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, Trait theory, learning process.
eflect individually on how your understanding and interpretation of the consumer decision-making process might influence your thinking when applying marketing principles in future business roles.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, all human beings are driven to fulfill certain needs and desires, but some needs are perceived as having priority over other needs. Until basic needs such as food and shelter are met, the individual cannot think about higher-level needs like social approval and self-actualization (Simmons et al. 1997). When consumers are making choices about what to buy and what not to buy, Maslow's hierarchy often seems to be operating in a clear and logical fashion. During a recession, most consumers cut back on luxury items designed to impress others, like restaurant meals and name-brand clothing. Consumers who are struggling with their budget…… [Read More]