Cognitive Dissonance Essays (Examples)

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Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Minimal Justification
It was in the 1950's that researchers first postulated the theory known as "minimal justification," a theory that involves "offering the least amount of incentive necessary to obtain compliance." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 7") When one is asked to behave in a certain way that creates cognitive dissonance, the person will develop an aversion for the dissonance and automatically seek ways to reduce it. One way to accomplish this task is to change the Dissonance atio, or the ratio of consonant cognitions to dissonant ones, by either decreasing the dissonant cognitions or increasing the consonant. Other ways are to reduce the importance of dissonant cognitions, or changing beliefs to eliminate dissonance.

In the case of minimal justification, the way to reduce the greatest cognitive dissonance is to offer the minimal incentive necessary. esearch has determined that offering a small justification to create personal cognitive dissonance forces a….

Cognitive dissonance is disharmony manifested within the human mind, and is quite annoying. Eliot and Devine (1994) sought out to prove that this dissonance that brings us to a disagreeable state of mind is essentially motivation processes at work. More importantly however their work suggested, and to some degree proved, that this mental stress can be effectively reduced by some sort of reduction strategy. For myself self-affirmations, as suggested by the authors, has proven beneficial. The purpose of this essay is to relate a specific and personal incident where cognitive dissonance was reduced by using self-affirming behavior as an agent for restoring my peace of mind.
For some reason I have always feared heights and as a little child often dreamt of horrible scenes where I would climb to enormous heights, only to fall to the ground. I would often become nervous by simply being near a tall building or driving….

They believe Norwegians have a reputation for being open-minded, respectful, and appreciative of multicultural existence and influence. Breivik's actions made other Norwegians experience cognitive dissonance by behaving outside of the conceptions of Norwegian personalities, behavior, and culture.
Again, Breivik does not experience social comparison theory. His self-esteem has not been negatively affected or diminished by being apprehended by Norwegian authorities. He is not altering any behaviors or attitudes. Again, other Norwegians experience social comparison because of him. The survivors and victims' families are learning about their will to survive and their inner strength because of the murders. They also understand that this murderous, conservative element exists in their progressive society. They further understand that despite this murderer, Norwegians are proud.

Cognitive dissonance is a more successful theory in this situation. Norway is an unexpected location for such a tragedy, whereas in the U.S.A. Or UK or China, this action is just….

With the appropriate controls of variables, the research showed that the recidivism rate of those offenders who got deterrent sentences like 30 months and above, recorded a 29% recidivism rate as compared to those who had relatively shorter terms who had 26% recidivism rates. Proposed herein is the consistency in the punishment handed and not the use of deterrent theory to hand down long sentences or even worse death sentences that gives the criminal no room to reform (Valerie Wright, 2010:8).
There are two basic perspectives that people have towards whatever happens to them in life; the internal and external loci. The people with internal locus of control always take responsibility for whatever happen and see it as a product of their actions, on the other hand, people with external locus of control always view things that happen around them as a result of other people's or external forces prompting….

Attitude Including Cognitive Dissonance and Other Factors
Cognitive dissonance and situational constraints: Effects on attitude

Cognitive dissonance is defined as "the feeling of uncomfortable tension which comes from holding two conflicting thoughts in the mind at the same time" (Straker 2012). An excellent example of cognitive dissonance is when someone is prejudiced and encounters a person who defies the stereotypes they have attached to the group. It also occurs when we act in a manner which defies our beliefs about ourselves -- for example, if we engage in boorish behavior when we see ourselves as upstanding citizens. Two strategies to cope with cognitive dissonance are commonly used. Sometimes the actor will alter his or her beliefs and behaviors, such as questioning his or her prejudices or behaving better. However, it is also common to rationalize the apparent incongruity between reality and our preexisting beliefs. 'He is the exception to the rule,'….

Their reaction to the deviations of others from expectancy depends on what they have to lose or gain...how we react to violations depend on reward value, or what we expect to get from the relationship. Thus a man is likely to react more positively towards an attractive younger woman standing close than a larger man from an out-group" (Expectancy violations theory, 2008, Changing Minds). I have noticed that irate customers who genuinely need or want my help can be placated if I adopt a pleasant demeanor, even if it violates their negative expectations, because of the reward they can receive in terms of establishing a positive and human connection with me as an individual.
However, customers who come only to vent will usually not be moved, no matter what I say or do, they will complain about every aspect of the experience regardless of how I behave, so it is….

Social Psychology in the News: Social Psychology Concepts Today, the world in general and the United States in particular are troubled places, with multiple crises confronting political leaders and citizens at every level, including most especially the ongoing Covid-19 virus pandemic, a weakened national economy, racial unrest and increasing polarization of the American electorate following the outcome of the 2020 presidential election. This dramatic polarization has been more severe than at any time in the nation’s history with the exception of the Civil War, and this process continues even after the results of the presidential election were called by the mainstream media. This situation is due in large part to the cognitive dissonance that losing voters experienced and the manner in which voters were socially primed for this historic electoral confrontation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review and analysis to define and describe how these two social….

Psychology
PAGES 5 WORDS 1482

Psychology Question 1
What differentiated the control group from the two experimental groups and the two experimental groups from each other?
The aim of the experiment is key to differentiating all the groups involved: groups A, B, and control. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) were trying to identify the occurrence of cognitive dissonance in the experiment through the motivations of the groups, thereby proving the validity of their theory over the behaviorist and reinforcement approach. The main difference between all the groups is the motivation/level of dissonance experienced. The control group experienced no dissonance, as they were not required to lie about the experimental procedure nor offered monetary compensation; the other groups were, however, motivated to lie via monetary compensation. Groups A and B are further differentiated by their level of “induced dissonance” through the amount of monetary compensation offered to them: group A received $1, which is significantly less than the $20 offered….

As Bandura (2018) showed, the social influence in psychology is very important to consider because there are essentially three types of agents of social influence that can impact one’s psychology: these agents are peers, groups and media. Peers consist of family and friends or people one sees in person. Groups include school, workplaces, church, organizations, clubs, teams and so on. Media includes social media, films, music, magazines, Internet, etc. The reason people are attentive to social influence is that people have a natural compulsion to want to conform so as to be able to fit in with what their peers or groups (Ciccarelli & White, 2017). Conforming to social norms is something that all people do because of the social nature of their psychology.
The concept of conformity is one that psychologists and social psychologists have long been trying to understand. Conformity is what allows people to be accepted by others.….

Confirmation Bias and How it Can Affect People across Age GroupsIntroductionConfirmation bias is a cognitive bias where people tend to search for, interpret, and recall information that confirms their pre-existing beliefs or values, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence (Lee et al., 2022). This bias can lead to flawed decision-making, polarization, and overconfidence. Despite being a well-known phenomenon, confirmation bias remains an active area of research, especially regarding its underlying mechanisms, moderators, and consequences.Confirmation bias can affect people of all ages, from young children to older adults, and can manifest in various domains, such as politics, religion, health, and education (Dickinson & Kakoschke, 2021). Understanding how confirmation bias operates and its impact on different age groups can provide insights into how to reduce its negative effects and promote critical thinking and open-mindedness.TheoryConfirmation bias is rooted in several cognitive processes, such as selective attention, memory, and reasoning. According to cognitive dissonance….

Barbie Lost Her Groove
Mattel- why managers changed their decision-making over time, and the kinds of cognitive errors therein

A formidable business intelligence gathering program identifies threats in good time. However, according to George Day, intelligence is only one aspect of the whole. Day has studied numerous business giants that failed to pick cues from the market and paid dearly for such flips. Day is a marketing professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School. There is need to have both human and technological systems to deal with and interpret data. You also need the know-how to deal with the information. Mattel stumbled at this point. Several ex Mattel managers such as Bruce; a Bruce Stain; the chief officer in charge of operations and the head of Mattel globally from 1997 to 1999, and consultants such as Day confirm this fact. According to expert analysis, two factors weakened Mattel's reaction. One….

Cognitive Dissonance1. Explain what cognitive dissonance is and how people avoid dissonance to maintain a positive self-image.Cognitive dissonance is the feeling one has when two contradictory perceptions or views are held or recognized at the same time. Because people like to feel comfortable and have a positive self-image, they avoid cognitive dissonance by justifying one side of the equationi.e., by squaring the circle through some logical fallacy or some subterfuge that is akin to self-deceit. Unable to dismiss one view or alter ones perspective, values or beliefs even though they are rife with contradiction, one will affirm ones self-identity without changing the contradiction but rather by affirming the contradiction and even ones right to have contradictory sentiments. In fact, this was Tristan Tzaras aim as a Dada poetto simply embrace ones absurdity. People today dont do this so on the nose, but there is a level of unseriousness about peoples….

Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)

In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and the….

Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study

Case report

K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed with antipsychotic and….

You see, we've got another subject waiting [looks at watch] who is supposed to be in that other condition. Now Professor -, who is in charge of this experiment, suggested that perhaps we could take a chance on your doing it for us. I'll tell you what we had in mind: the thing is, if you could do it for us now, then of course you would know how to do it, and if something like this should ever come up again, that is, the regular fellow couldn't make it, and we had a subject scheduled, it would be very reassuring to us to know that we had somebody else we could call on who knew how to do it."
The point to be made here is, gain, to see how far the experimenter could push a subject to make a point, but also to see just how far one….

Authority: A Shaping Force in Decision-Making and Behavior

Authority, the power or right to give orders, make decisions, or enforce rules, wields a profound influence on individuals' decision-making processes and behavior. This power dynamic shapes how people perceive, process, and respond to information, often affecting their choices and actions.

Perceptual Bias

Authority figures can create a perceptual bias, influencing how individuals perceive and interpret information. When faced with conflicting or ambiguous information, people tend to defer to authority and rely on their judgment. This deference can lead to selective attention, where individuals focus on information that supports the authority's position while ignoring or....

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2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Words: 532
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Minimal Justification It was in the 1950's that researchers first postulated the theory known as "minimal justification," a theory that involves "offering the least amount of…

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image
4 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Cognitive Dissonance Is Disharmony Manifested Within the

Words: 1284
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Cognitive dissonance is disharmony manifested within the human mind, and is quite annoying. Eliot and Devine (1994) sought out to prove that this dissonance that brings us to a…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Family and Marriage

Cognitive Dissonance Social Comparison Theory

Words: 582
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

They believe Norwegians have a reputation for being open-minded, respectful, and appreciative of multicultural existence and influence. Breivik's actions made other Norwegians experience cognitive dissonance by behaving outside…

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image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance This

Words: 1659
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

With the appropriate controls of variables, the research showed that the recidivism rate of those offenders who got deterrent sentences like 30 months and above, recorded a 29%…

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image
2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Effects on Attitude Including Cognitive Dissonance and Other Factors

Words: 710
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Attitude Including Cognitive Dissonance and Other Factors Cognitive dissonance and situational constraints: Effects on attitude Cognitive dissonance is defined as "the feeling of uncomfortable tension which comes from holding two…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Sports - Drugs

Communication Theories Cognitive Dissonance Expectancy

Words: 1441
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Their reaction to the deviations of others from expectancy depends on what they have to lose or gain...how we react to violations depend on reward value, or what…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Sociology - Politics

How Cognitive Dissonance and Social Priming Influenced the 2020 Election

Words: 1638
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Social Psychology in the News: Social Psychology Concepts Today, the world in general and the United States in particular are troubled places, with multiple crises confronting political leaders and citizens…

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5 Pages
question answer

Psychology

Psychology

Words: 1482
Length: 5 Pages
Type: question answer

Psychology Question 1 What differentiated the control group from the two experimental groups and the two experimental groups from each other? The aim of the experiment is key to differentiating all the…

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6 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Conformity Social Influence in Psychology

Words: 1788
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Paper

As Bandura (2018) showed, the social influence in psychology is very important to consider because there are essentially three types of agents of social influence that can impact one’s…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Cognitive Dissonance and Confirmation Bias

Words: 1554
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Confirmation Bias and How it Can Affect People across Age GroupsIntroductionConfirmation bias is a cognitive bias where people tend to search for, interpret, and recall information that confirms their…

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image
2 Pages
Case Study

Business

Cognitive Dissonance and Mattel

Words: 770
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Case Study

Barbie Lost Her Groove Mattel- why managers changed their decision-making over time, and the kinds of cognitive errors therein A formidable business intelligence gathering program identifies threats in good time.…

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image
2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

The Problem of Cognitive Dissonance Today

Words: 585
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Cognitive Dissonance1. Explain what cognitive dissonance is and how people avoid dissonance to maintain a positive self-image.Cognitive dissonance is the feeling one has when two contradictory perceptions or views…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance

Words: 2234
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory: This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat…

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image
6 Pages
Essay

Psychology

CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Case Study

Words: 5334
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study Case report K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Forced Compliance Cognitive Consequences of

Words: 1359
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

You see, we've got another subject waiting [looks at watch] who is supposed to be in that other condition. Now Professor -, who is in charge of this…

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