Cognitive Dissonance Essays (Examples)

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Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance

Words: 2234 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36804280

Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:

This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)

In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.

Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).

New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
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CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Case Study

Words: 5334 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41705783

Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study

Case report

K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…… [Read More]

References

Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm

DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.

Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9

Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
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Forced Compliance Cognitive Consequences of

Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29702017

You see, we've got another subject waiting [looks at watch] who is supposed to be in that other condition. Now Professor -, who is in charge of this experiment, suggested that perhaps we could take a chance on your doing it for us. I'll tell you what we had in mind: the thing is, if you could do it for us now, then of course you would know how to do it, and if something like this should ever come up again, that is, the regular fellow couldn't make it, and we had a subject scheduled, it would be very reassuring to us to know that we had somebody else we could call on who knew how to do it."

The point to be made here is, gain, to see how far the experimenter could push a subject to make a point, but also to see just how far one…… [Read More]

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Frustration and Dissonance Risk

Words: 883 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23626183

Frustration and Dissonance/Risk

Frustration and Dissonance / Risk

Frustration and Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance has been extensively studied in social psychology as the effects of dissonance would cause dramatic changes in one's life. Cognitive dissonance is defined as an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. The result of dissonance may be anxiety, blaming, and denying. Although, the latter may also occur as the result of frustration, frustration is a conflict which occurs when something happens against one's will. The ways of reducing dissonance and frustration are justifying, blaming, and denying. People's experiences can contradict with expectations. For example, my old car was a manual transmission car, very reliable, fuel efficient; however, I wanted to buy an automatic transmission car with built in GPS and more room. However, my new car is not meeting my expectations. I have given three speed tickets because I was used to drive manual…… [Read More]

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Classic Social Psychology Experiments

Words: 5609 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63362377

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics

Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.

While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.

Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's

(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.

Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
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Nursing Leadership One of the

Words: 3316 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83478971



As noted above, one of the most prominent leadership theories that has been applied to the nursing profession is transformational leadership. Properly applied and managed, transformation leadership can also be used to facilitate creativity in the workplace. For instance, according to Vesterinen, Isola and Paasivaara (2009, p. 504), transformational leadership can create changes and, by definition, is capable of transformed individuals and the organization in which they work. By providing the leadership needed to motivate employees to bigger and better aspirations, transformational leaders can therefore encourage the creative spark among their followers in ways that might not otherwise be possible (Vesterinen et al. 2009). Indeed, Vesterinen et al. (2009, p. 504) specifically state that, "A transformational leader motivates inspirationally, stimulates intellectually and considers employees individually." Taken together, these positive outcomes are valuable in any organizational setting, but they can be particularly important in health care settings.

Why understanding organisational culture…… [Read More]

References

Fourie, WJ & Keogh, JJ 2011, October, 'The Need for Continuous Education in the Prevention

of Needlestick Injuries,' Contemporary Nurse: a Journal for the Australian Nursing

Profession, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 194-201.

Hutin, Y, Hauri, A, Chiarello, L, Catlin, M, Stilwell, B, Ghebrehiwet, T & Garner, J 2003, July,
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Correspondence Bias and Why Might it Occur

Words: 2232 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40719035

correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?

In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…… [Read More]

References

Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., and Akert, R.M., (2007). Social Psychology. 6th edition. Uppers Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Brandon, Emeralda (2008). Psychiatric Fundamentals. New York: Academic Press.

Bundel, Maison (2011). Fundamentals of Sociology and Psychology. Detroit: Lavemon Publications, 75, 78, 85-89.

Festinger, L., and Carlsmith, J.M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58,203-210.
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Self and Others the Manner in Which

Words: 2661 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50247909

Self and Others

The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…… [Read More]

References

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., Demoulin, D.F. & Reiger, R.C. (2000). Identifying high school freshmen with serious atypical behavior and mental health problems for delinquency prevention purposes. Education, 121(2), 257.

Cryder, C.E., Lerner, J.S., Gross, J.J., & Dahl, R.E. (2008). Misery is not miserly: Sad and self-focused individuals spend more. Psychological Science, 19, 525-530

Nielsen, D.M. & Metha, A. (1999). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem in clinical and nonclinical samples. Adolescence, 29(115), 525-527.

Pierce, G.R., Sarason, BR. & Sarason, I.G. (1996). Cognitive interference: Theories, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Illusory Thinking What Is Illusory Thinking What

Words: 1117 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86661306

Illusory thinking. What is illusory thinking? What are the two types of illusory thinking -- A a Please explain each type and give an example.

Illusory thinking can be fundamentally explained as a desire and an attempt to find order in random events which fundamentally have no order. Often times illusory thinking manifests in two ways: either the illusion of control or with a false illusory correlation. Gamblers commonly manifest the illusion of control, when in reality they are betting their money on events that are random, such as the roll of a dice. However, this belief of control is false as all the event taking place are completely subject to chance. For example, some gamblers might think that if it's raining or if they wear their lucky shoes, they might have a more profound chance of winning or leaving the casino with profits. However, this is completely false.

Another…… [Read More]

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Creative Thinking Are Important Tools That Can

Words: 2568 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35006034

creative thinking are important tools that can help a person in both their professional and their personal lives. As Pascal said, "We are but thinking reeds, but because we know, we are superior to the universe. Thought constitutes our greatness" (as cited in Kirby, Goodpaster & Levine, 1999, p. xix). This paper will discuss some of the facets of this important topic.

As there have been several definitions of the term "critical thinking" these definitions will be compared and contrasted. In addition, an evaluation of ways in which critical thinking relates to cognitive development, logic and emotionality will be given. The role of cognitive dissonance and how it plays in fostering critical thought will be analyzed, and the validity of arguments will be evaluated, as will fallacious logic and reasoning.

egarding creative thinking, the role that metaphors play in this process will be explained and the creative process will be…… [Read More]

References

Alvino, J. (Nov/Dec 1993). Future problem solving in the year 2000 -- Challenges and opportunities for business. Business Horizons, 36(6). Retrieved March 24, 2005, from InfoTrac OneFile database.

Aquilno, M.L. (Jul-Sept 1997). Cognitive development, clinical knowledge, and clinical experience related to diagnostic ability. Nursing Diagnosis, 8(3). Retrieved March 24, 2005, from InfoTrac OneFile database.

Albert, J.F. (1999). Leaderly learning: Understanding and improving the learning capacity. Retrieved March 24, 2005, from http://www.sba.oakland.edu/ispso/html/1999Symposium/Albert1999.htm.

Astleitner, H. (Jun 2002). Teaching critical thinking online. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(2). Retrieved March 24, 2005, from InfoTrac OneFile database.
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Introductory College Psychology

Words: 3620 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88161373

psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.

To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.

Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]

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Identifying Automatic Thoughts Identifying Emotions Evaluating Automatic Thoughts Responding to Automatic Thoughts

Words: 781 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37006575

Automatic Thoughts and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

A primary objective of cognitive therapy is to identify some underlying patterns, thought processes, behaviors and assumptions within the patient that might light the way to the root of a cognitive dissonance. As we work with patients to uncover these dissonances, certain patterns occur commonly across a wide variant of disorders or dysfunctions. Among them, automatic thoughts are a common occurrence and can often reveal behavioral tendencies that contribute directly to one's condition. As the discussion here will show, automatic thoughts often play a large but unseen role in the negative emotions experienced by those suffering with various cognitive dissonances, disorders or dysfunctions.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

One of the primary advantages to identifying Automatic Thoughts and explaining them to the patient is the degree to which this will arm the patient with the awareness to begin combating his or her own dysfunctional tendencies. As…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and Beyond. Guilford Press.

Franklin, D.J. (2003). Cognitive Therapy for Depression. Psychology Information Online.

Little, N. (2011). Automatic thoughts. Insight Journal.
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Leadership in Management Provide an Example of

Words: 406 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28620943

Leadership in Management

Provide an example of Cognitive dissonance in the workplace?

One example of a situation in which Cognitive dissonance might occur in the workplace could be found at Disney theme parks. Disney's hires a number of "actors" to wear costumes and play different roles at the park. These individuals are expected to "act" for long periods of time such as eight to ten hours in some cases. I can image that many of these actors who are not really princes and princesses in real life would experience some level of cognitive dissonance as a result of their roles with Disney.

How would you introduce motivational theory in an environment without making disruptive change or causing other problems (such as role overload)?

Some research has indicated that there are role overload moderates the direct effects of both self-efficacy and goal level on performance, such that these relationships are positive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, S., Jones, E., & Leigh, T. (2005). The Attenuating Effect of Role Overload on Relationships Linking Self-Efficacy and Goal Level to Work Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 972-979.
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Chatbox Technology Agree or Disagree

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86509394



An additional use of Chatbox technology is in being able to measure customer satisfaction levels by segment as well. The use of SEVQUAL methodologies to track customer service satisfaction levels can now be real-time using Chatbox as the platform to better measure customer expectations vs. experiences (Tate, Evermann,2010). Chatbox used as a research platform would allow companies to have real-time analytics and key performance indicators (KPIs) of performance. They would also allow marketing managers to better anticipate and react to market conditions driven by customer perception and requirements. The focus on attaining higher levels of customer loyalty could also be attained using Chatbox technology as the basis of more effective customer satisfaction surveys as well. Finally, Chatbox will continue to grow as a means of capturing and reacting to key requirements across market segments that see automation as a means to gain greater responsiveness anytime they want it from the…… [Read More]

Reference

Beverland, M., Kates, S., Lindgreen, A., & Chung, E.. (2010). Exploring consumer conflict management in service encounters. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 38(5), 617.

Terrance Casey. (2004). Automation, Self-Service, and Analytics: Improve the Customer Relationship. American Water Works Association. Journal, 96(8), 34.

John Edwards. (2008, May). Panning for Gold in Customer Chats: When your customers talk, do you listen closely and quickly enough? More CIOs are deploying text analytics technology to examine customer comments on websites, surveys and the like.. CIO, 21(14)

Tate, M., & Evermann, J.. (2010). The End of ServQual in Online Services Research: Where to from here? E - Service Journal, 7(1), 60-87.
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Diverse Nature of Psychology the Human Mind

Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70500794

Diverse Nature of Psychology

The human mind is an incredibly complex tool. How it actually thinks and behaves is not always based on a single example, and thus there are clear elements of diversity within theoretical assumptions on how the mind works. Diversity is a crucial element to modern psychology and its various sub-categories. Modern psychology is heavily influenced by the extreme diversity found within its core concepts. There are a vast number of major concepts and sub-examples that differ enormously from one another and take their influence from other genres of study and the various findings of specific empirical research conclusions. Officially, there are four core "specialties," including clinical, counseling, school, and industrial / organizational psychology, although even these general topics are further diversified into more specific areas that highlight different findings and assumptions about man's position within modern society (Landrum 2010 p 13).

Therefore, there is great diversity…… [Read More]

References

Maslow, Abraham. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(40), 370-396. Web.  http://emotionalliteracyeducation.com/abraham-maslow-theory-human-motivation.shtml 

Landrum, R.E. & Davis, S.F. (2010). The psychology major: Career options and strategies for success (4th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Proposition Statement Even if the Media Might

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3406344

Proposition Statement: Even if the media might be racist or sexist in its content, there should not be censorship of the media because of the first amendment.

Freedom of speech means freedom to disagree

Attention getting statement:

Fire!

Everyone knows that shouting fire in a crowded theater is not only morally wrong, it's also against the law. It's the classic argument against full freedom of speech. According to Chief Justice Holmes, as discussed in the history of the Supreme Court, The Brethren, the justice said that freedom of speech cannot be absolute, because for instance you can't shout fire in a crowded theater and call that free speech. But although most people might agree with him about that, still that doesn't mean that you can make that analogy with every restriction of free speech.

Preview

The problem:

hy restrict freedom of speech at all? The problem today, some might say,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Orenstein, Peggy. Schoolgirls. New York: Bantam Book, 1994.

Strossen, Nadine. "MacKinnon-Pornoraphy is Oppression." The Ethical Spectacle. 1995. Website Accessed June 18, 2002.  http://www.spectacle.org/1195/mack.html 

Woodward, Bob, and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren. New York: Avon Books, 1979.
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Love Relationships

Words: 3105 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30145694

Romantic Love

In my fist yea of college, I enjoyed an extemely passionate love elationship. We met duing feshman oientation and ou initial chemisty was instant as well as mutual. Actually, on the night we met he "escued" me, so to speak, because one of the guys fom my domitoy floo was annoying me by the way he ignoed all of my vey obvious signals that I was not paticulaly inteested in talking to him.

I smiled the fist time he looked at me, but to be pefectly honest, I would have smiled at almost anybody at that moment, because I was tying (unsuccessfully) to discouage the guy who would not leave me alone. The idea was simply to hint at the idea that I was not inteested in him by making eye contact with someone else. My (eventual) boyfiend was vey polite about it, but afte we smiled at…… [Read More]

references: Gender Differences Examined in a National Sample.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Synder, M. (1977) When Belief Creates Reality: The Self-Fulfilling Impact of First Impressions of Social Interaction. Experiencing Social Psychology, 99-103

Trotter, R.J. (1986) The Three Faces of Love.

Psychology Today, (September) 46-54.
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Experiences in Law Enforcement

Words: 2826 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30817370

Law Enforcement

The use and control of one's own mental faculties is of the utmost importance when involved in the serious and important business of government work. The word "government" itself literally translates to "controlling the mind" in Latin. Mind control is thus the most important aspect any individual who wishes to earn success and garner respect within governmental agencies may attain. Personal experience is the one true measure of the capability of thought, where the endgame is understanding these experiences and incorporating them into a practical, effective and efficient lifestyle approach both personal and professional.

As a Department of Defense (DOD) Special Agent, the ability to suppress emotion and employ rational and reasonable thought patterns is a skill that must be fully developed and tempered to allow for a suitable outlet for such activities. The purpose of this essay is to explore some personal experiences within my own career…… [Read More]

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How Counseling Services Benefit People-Based on Theories of Human Development

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8557938

(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)

Psychosocial Theory

Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)

VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories

The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf

Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from:  http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/ 

Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm

Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
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There Are Three Places Where

Words: 2658 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34810199

Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male
win?

"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
males…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bandura, A. (1989) Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, American
Psychologist, Vol 44, No 9, pp. 1175 - 1184
Chance, P. (1994) Learning and Behavior, Pacific Grove, California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy
of needs. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and
Evaluation, [ED421486], accessed October 25, 2007
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Principles of Cognition That Influence Decisions

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86376654

Social Psychology:

What motivates an individual to help others? In what ways are you motivated to help others?

When people help others, they experience good feelings, some of which are based on actual chemical changes in the physiology of the helpers. Indeed, research has shown that people often derive much more pleasure from engaging in helpful activities that when they focus on activities that are intended to only bring happiness to themselves. In addition to the feel good experience, helping others provides an opportunity to reduce cognitive dissonance. When someone is distressed, an empathetic person will experience a degree of distress also that is derived in part from the capacity of that person to put herself in the place of the other person. So when the distress of the person being helped is reduced, a corollary reduction in distress -- albeit typically of a substantially lesser degree -- for the…… [Read More]

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Does the Fisher Ury Model Work

Words: 29882 Length: 120 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38724917

Negotiation Skills

A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations

This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]

References

Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.

Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.

Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.

Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
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Impact of Likeability in Management

Words: 17400 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86852530

likeability is effected by management in the international workplace. It assumes a phenomenological approach to the notion of likeability, and is based on the idea that likeability in management is fundamental to achieving "connectedness" among employees and to inspiring the drive needed to ensure an organization's success. By conducting a survey of employees and managers from every major business continent of the globe (Asia, Europe, America, the Middle East), it seeks to understand the different ways in which likeability is manifested, discerned, appreciated, and utilized in the cross-cultural international workplace. Its aim is to fill a gap in likeability research regarding the importance of international managerial likeability and hopes to raise awareness about the essentiality of likeability to success. It also aims to identify the phenomenon of likeability as it appears in different cultures. Identifying that phenomenon and coming to terms with it will help business managers to better develop…… [Read More]

Data Analysis: A Phenomenological Approach

The methodology for this study is based on a phenomenological approach, rooted in the Moustakas (1994) model. The Moustakas model focuses on the idea that the "wholeness of experience" should form the essence of the research (Simon, 2011). Moustakas recommends a heuristic process that allows the researcher to immerse himself in the world/sphere he is observing, to "intuit" the relevant data, to use active learning as an illuminative process, to explicate, and to synthesize the information (Simon, 2011). A phenomenological approach will allow for an understanding of likeability "through the eyes of the participants in the study" (Simon, 2011). The phenomenon under consideration is the effect of likeability in the international workplace -- how it is effected, how it is perceived, and how it helps to advance business success.

Observing likeability "through the eyes of the participants in the study" presents a unique and novel opportunity to investigate the subjective aspect of likeability as opposed to an objective, empirical aspect of the concept. With the argument of Weaver (1984) in mind, that universality is a difficult concept for modern scientists to grasp because the existence of truth is essentially debated on philosophical, scientific, and metaphysical grounds, a study of likeability through the eyes of the participants provides the researcher with an opportunity to record the various ways that perception and reality meet and depart. Is there a reality of likeability or is likeability always merely a perception? Studies have argued that likeability can be controlled in the same way that EI can be controlled (Mayer et al., 2001). If such a claim can indeed be made, perhaps likeability is no more real than one's perception is true. In other words, if a manager can convince subordinates of likeability in order to "get ahead," it is possible that subordinates can convince themselves of their superior's "likeability" in order to appear as a "team player" and one who will not "rock the boat." Furthermore, such a suggestion may carry repercussions for what is meant by authenticity and whether or not this term carries any meaning of honesty or realness or whether it is
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Consonant and Dissonant Cognitions Define Consonant and

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94776770

Consonant and Dissonant Cognitions

Define consonant and dissonant cognitions:

Leon Festinger developed the theory of cognitive dissonance based on the "relationships among cognitions" (Rudolph, Ithaca.edu). A cognition is described as a "piece of knowledge" which may be a certain behavior, a value, an emotion or an attitude, according to Frederick M. Rudolph at Ithaca College in New York State. (Dissonance is defined simply as a state of conflict, tension or disagreement.) Meanwhile, a typical cognition could be just the fact that a person prefers the color blue; the knowledge that blue is a favorite color is a cognition. The knowledge that a person just caught a long pass for a first down in a football game is another cognition and the knowledge that the Supreme Court ruled that corporations are people in the "Citizens United" case is another cognition. In other words, a neighbor has a cognition (i.e., is cognizant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Festinger, Leon. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University

Press.

Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, S.R., and Bern, Sacha. (2000). Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings

Influence Thoughts. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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Advertising and Psychology The Direct Link Between the Two

Words: 2590 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96104583

Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory

The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.

A Complex elationship

Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer…… [Read More]

References

Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building

Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Bloemer, J, Kasper, H (1995) The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty, Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(2): 311-329.

Festinger, L (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, CA: Stanford University Press.
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Fictuality -- Each Mini Project Separately Consist

Words: 5247 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34656496

Fictuality -- Each mini project separately consist 2 pages APA format. 5 mini project total pages. Additionally a final project totals 10 pages (based mini projects). Final project combining mini project a final project presented a company (management) cut paste.

Consumer decision-making is a process that often involves the word-of-mouth testament of a product or service where the opinion from the use of a consumer is favourable. The process seductively involves the product marketing team's portrayal to the consumer of the brand appeal and in-store value against the competitor. The consumer choice is ostensibly immense in the global market. Stores that range the spectrum of offerings, from specialty goods stores to large supermarkets and to stores such as Costco, Wal-Mart and the Dollar Store, consumers have a cornucopia of choice available.

The consumer decision process (Ashley, Wei, Sharyn, Carolyn, 2005) potentially requires multiple decisions made in a chain-process when considering…… [Read More]

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Model Parental Training

Words: 3433 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82589844

Parental Training

Statistics show that incidences of juvenile criminal behavior are on the rise in the United States. In the year 2000, for example, over 2.3 million juveniles were arrested for various criminal offenses ranging from petty theft and drug abuse to crimes of violence. This figure alone represents a 64% increase from juvenile delinquency statistics from 1980. More disturbing is the fact that the greatest increases are in the areas of violent crime such as rapes, assaults and even homicide (Everett, Chadwell and Chesney 2002).

This trend did not happen overnight. Experts agree that the seeds of youth delinquency are planted at an early age, and that juvenile crime has complex socio-economic and psychological roots. Furthermore, many crime experts argue that delinquency is also the result of a combined failure of families, schools and the greater community.

This paper argues that many social difficulties, from delinquency in school to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cassel, Russell, Peter Chow, Donald F. DeMoulin and Robert C. Reiger. 2002. "Comparing the cognitive dissonance of 116 juvenile delinquent boys with that of 215 typical high school students." Education 121(3). ProQuest Database.

Everett, Charlie; Chadwell, Jason and McChesney, Jon. 2002. "Successful programs for at-risk youth." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 73(9). Proquest Database.

Fontes, Lisa Aronson. 2002. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings." Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1): Winter. ProQuest Database.

Neeley, Steven. "The Psychological and Emotional Abuse of Children." Northern Kentucky Law Review. 2000. 27(4). EBSCO host database.
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Psychology and Its Many Subdisciplines

Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15723701

Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).

These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…… [Read More]

References

Tougas, J. (2010). Diversity -- the nature of psychology. Examiner.com. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.examiner.com/article/diversity-the-nature-of-psychology

Schacter, D. (1999). The seven sins of memory. American Psychologist. Vol. 54 (3) 182-203.

McLeod, S. (2014). Cognitive dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
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OB A The Two Teams

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50277498

One of the biggest problems we have in this situation is that the two shifts are competing, rather than working together. To better align the objectives of the lunch shift with the objectives of the dinner shift, I will create a reward system. Achievement is a higher order of motivation and can therefore be highly effective.

The reward system would be store-wide so that all shifts understand that we are all working together for a common goal. At present, the only sense of motivation that any individual shift has is towards their own basic goals. By providing for a higher level of achievement, I will align each shift with an overall objective. I will, however, also maintain shift-level objectives. To do this, I will focus motivation on goal orientation. Each shift will have specific achievement objectives. By doing this, I will leverage the inherent competitiveness of the lunch shift. They…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thomas, Kenneth W. & Kilmann, Ralph H. (1974) Conflict and Conflict Management. Kilmann.com Retrieved December 11, 2008 at http://www.kilmann.com/conflict.html
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Racism by the Time Everything

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33688394

As Robillard points out, "Julian's cynicism shuts him off from any human association," (143). He has lost his family home due to the changes taking place in Southern society. The economic infrastructure that was supported by slavery has crumbled. Julian notes, "He never spoke of it without contempt or thought of it without longing. He had seen it once when he was a child before it had been sold." Moreover, the narrator mentions that African-Americans lived in his old family home now. Julian seems to be experiencing a cognitive dissonance that epitomizes Southern culture during integration.

Using an unreliable narrator enhances cognitive dissonance and irony. Aull also notes that Julian might be deceiving himself. In that case, the third-person omniscient narrator would only be echoing Julian's mind games. Ultimately, "Everything that Rises Must Converge" is a tragedy. The story needs its unreliable narrator to flush out the dissonance in Southern…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Analysis." Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://swc2.hccs.cc.tx.us/htmls/rowhtml/foc/analysis.html

Beck-Watt, Sebastian. "Literary analysis: Racial prejudice in Everything That Rises Must Converge, by Flannery O'Connor." Helium. Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://www.helium.com/items/914481-literary-analysis-racial-prejudice-in-everything-rises-converge-flannery

O'Connor, Flannery. "Everything that Rises Must Converge."

Rath, Sura Prasad and Shaw, Mary Neff. Flannery O'Connor. University of Georgia Press, 1996
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History and Links of Social Psychology

Words: 1320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89246979

History Of Social Psychology

According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…… [Read More]

References

Baumeister, R.F., & Finkel, E.J. (2010). Advanced social psychology: The state of the science. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2012). Handbook of the history of social psychology. Church Rd, Hove: Psychology Press.
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Knowledge Theory and Practice Epistemology Epistemology or

Words: 3065 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36703480

Knowledge, Theory, And Practice: Epistemology

Epistemology, or the nature of knowledge, is often different for each person, from the standpoint of perspective. In other words, each person sees knowledge differently, and that can make what is "true" for one person not "true" for someone else. James Frederick Ferrier, a Scottish philosopher, was the one who coined the term "epistemology." It is a term that not only relates to the nature and the field of knowledge, but it is also used to determine how people know the things that they know (Moser & Vander Nat, 2001). What makes knowledge real and true are not easily understood concept, because what a person knows is always able to be challenged. One could then make the argument that the "knowing" would be a belief, rather than actual knowledge. Getting to the nature of what is really true when it comes to knowledge begs answers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bachman, J.E. & Fuqua, R.W. (1983) Management of inappropriate behaviors of trainable mentally impaired students using antecedent exercise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 477-484.

Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (1989) Research methods in education. Third Edition. London: Routledge.

Cooper, D.E. (Ed),(1999) Epistemology. The Classic reading. Malden: MBA Blackwell

Evans, W.H. (1981) The effects on selected classroom behavior of emotionally handicapped adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 2610A.
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Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in

Words: 5232 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 470179

2 of the respondents were self-employed and 11.2% of respondent were white-collar workers with 1.2% of respondents being blue-collar workers. The following chart shows the factor analysis results with VARIMAX rotation of traveler's perceptions of hotel attributes in the study of Choi and Chu (2000).

Factor Analysis Results with VARIMAX Rotation of Traveler's Perceptions of Hotel Attributes

Source: Choi and Chu (2000)

The following chart shows a 'regression analysis results of hotel factors according to Asian and Western travellers overall satisfaction levels.

Regression Analysis Results of Hotel Factors According to Asian and Western Travelers Overall Satisfaction Levels

Source: Choi and Chu (2000)

2.3 Loyalty

2.3.1 Definition of customer loyalty

Kandampully and Suhartanto (2000) define a loyal customer as "a customer who purchases from the same service provider whenever possible, and who continues to recommend or maintain a positive attitude toward the service provider" (p. 346).

2.3.2 Loyalty dimensions

There is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Andreassen, Tor Wallin and Lindestad, Bodil (1998) Customer Loyalty and Complex Services: The Impact of Corporate Imagine on Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty for Customers with Varying Degrees of Service Expertise. International Journal of Service Management Vol. 9, No. 1, 1998. MCB University Press.

Bowen, John T. And Chen, Shiang-Lih (2001) the Relationship Between Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction. The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 13/5 2001. MCB University Press.

Kandampully, Jay and Suhartanto, Dwi (2000) Customer Loyalty in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Customer Satisfaction and Image. Vol. 12 Issue 6. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Abstract Online available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=A7BB20EB4B5CF3B4A2F5E96AD85BD78B?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=867348

Lindberg-Repo (nd) Word-of-Mouth Communication in the Hospitality Industry. CERS Center for Relationship Marketing and Service Management. Hotel School Cornell University. Online available at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/chr/pdf/showpdf/chr/research/wordofmouth.pdf-my_path_info=chr/research/wordofmouth.pdf
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Self and Social Psychology Social Psychology Is

Words: 2462 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40851888

Self and Social Psychology

Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.

Discovering the Self

Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas

Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.

Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University

Press.

Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
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Diversity Using the Memoir as

Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36776239

Her cancer and disfigurement distinguish the subject as being in a specific cultural group due for counseling, with many of the strategies used to engage her centering the culture of sickness and its attendant modes of recovery, rehabilitation and return to normalcy. Current logic supports group-based treatment imperatives for those who may be characterized accordingly. For the subject through, as with most any counseling subject, a number of specific cultural and personal features have made this sickness and its consequences a unique experience. e can also see that her perspective and needs have been formed by dimensions such as the subject's unstable economic upbringing; the sense of difference from wealthy suburban children; and an internal portrayal within the family suggesting a retention of the identity of foreigners in a strange land.

The interplay of these multiple dimensions is discussed in the article by Croteau et al. The article quotes several…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Croteau, J.M.; Talbot, D.M.; Lance, T.S. & Evans, N.J. (2002). A Qualitative Study of the Interplay Between Privilege and Oppression. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30.

Grealy, L. (2003). Autobiography of a Face. Harper Collins Publishers.

Hwang, W (2006). Acculturative Family Distancing: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(4), 397-409.

Leary, K. (1995). 'Interpreting in the Dark': Race and Ethnicity in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 12(1).
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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Buying Process for a New Laptop the

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65990458

Buying Process for a New Laptop

The influence of marketing, promotion and long-term branding on the buying process of products and services continued to be accelerated by greater use of analytics and more effective use of digital media and channels. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how the buying process for a new laptop running Microsoft Windows 8 was completed, factoring in the effects of marketing in each stage of the process.

Analysis of the Buying Process

ecently the family laptop running Microsoft Windows Vista had a final hard disk crash that left it inoperable. Our family's problem is that the laptop is used for checking e-mails across school and personal accounts, in addition to tracking expenses and also hosting Skype sessions around the country. The problem recognition phase of the buying process is predicated on evaluating substitutes and selecting a specific alternative, often a product that represents…… [Read More]

References

Jarvi, P., & Munnukka, J. (2009). The effect of information sources on the success of the organizational buying process. Journal of Business Market Management, 3(4), 209-225.

Leinsdorff, T. (1995). Buying behavior and product planning. International Journal of Production Economics, 41(1-3), 237-237.

Shiffman, L.G., and Kanuk, L.L. (2010). Consumer behavior (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Decision Making Assessment

Words: 1962 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9448682

Business

eview of Making a Business Decision

Decision making is an unavoidable part of business. Smaller decisions where there is a lower perceived cost associated with making the wrong decision are psychologically easer compared to important decisions where a wrong choice could incur high costs. A recent example of a decision involved selecting an employee for an internal promotion. The position of team leader had become available for one of following the resignation of the incumbent team leader. The position was important for the team, and the department, as the team leader is key in managing the team from a practical perspective and ensuring that targets for the team would be met, as well as playing an important motivational role. The performance of the department was reliant on performance of each team, so the appointment was also important for the department I managed. The decision was important from the perspective…… [Read More]

Reference

Tschappeler, Roman; Krogerus, Mikael, (2011), The Decision Book: Fifty Models for Strategic Thinking, Profile Books
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Mozart and the Mind

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97930149

Mozart Effect by Don Campbell, published by HarperCollins in 1997 and again in 2001, posits the theory that listening to Mozart's music can help to boost one's IQ. The theory is based on interviews and studies conducted by researchers, from which Campbell produces the general notion that music has a "healing" quality to it and can be used to improve one's overall life.[footnoteRef:1] Campbell points to the 1993 study by psychologist Francis Rauscher, who showed that listening to Mozart's sonata for two pianos helped to improve the spatial-temporal skills of the listener for about the next ten to fifteen minutes after listening to the music.[footnoteRef:2] Rauscher's study spurred more researchers to examine the relationship between music and intelligence. Campbell's book is essentially an overview of these studies with some analysis about the way that Mozart and music in general can improve one's ability to think, reason, and enjoy mental health.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campbell, Don. The Mozart Effect. NY: HarperCollins, 2001

Jenkins, J.S. "The Mozart Effect," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 94, no.

4 (2001): 170-172.

Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia," German Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 8 (2005): 8-24.
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Consumer Behavior Models Decision Making Model Maslow's

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42565714

Consumer Behavior Models:

Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models

Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.

The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…… [Read More]

References

How to use the 7 step decision-making model. (2011). Decision making confidence. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at  http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/7-step-decision-making-model.html 

Jean, E. (1999). Cognitive dissonance theory. Meta-Discourses. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Jean.htm

Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.

Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
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History of Social Psychology Past and Future

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12479081

History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions

The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…… [Read More]

References

Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
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Motivation and Personality in a

Words: 1480 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76461066



Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. oys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. oys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.

Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity). 1993. Academy of Management Review, 18(88-115).

Franken, R.E. (1998). Human motivation (4th ed.). vrPacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.

Gove, W.R. (1994). Why We Do What We Do: a Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation. Social Forces, 73.

Jackson, K.M., Mannix, E.A., Peterson, R.S., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2003). A Multi-faceted Approach to Process Conflict. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference.
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Teens and the Media One

Words: 4544 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39988476

The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).

Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…… [Read More]

References

Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social

Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.

Anderson-Butcher, D., et.al. (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.

Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
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The Need to Use Empathy in Counseling

Words: 1710 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16446770

Trigger and How to Change It

Something that triggers my emotions in the book is when I read about microaggressions (Sue, Sue, 2013, p. 161) and in particular the way that progressive society wants me to react to issues that it supports but that I do not. For example, the idea that LGBTs should be able to adopt is one that is supported by progressive society, but every time I read about (in this book the rights of LGBTs are identified) or see a story about it in the media, I have an emotional reaction to it. LGBTs and adoption are definitely a trigger for me.

This may be the result of a number of things: first, I have a very traditional conception of family. I view a family as having a father and a mother (who are married) and children (who come after marriage). I know this conception of…… [Read More]

References

Sue, D., Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the Culturally Diverse. NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Tshuldin, V. (1989). Beyond empathy. UK: Chapman, Hall.

Wiseman, T. (1996). A concept of analysis of empathy. Journal of Advanced Nursing,
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Bob Case Analysis of Anxiety

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39062110

Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.

Demographic Implications:

One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.

DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.

Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
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Marketing Managers Understand Consumer Behavior It Is

Words: 2119 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4084909

marketing managers understand consumer behavior?

It is essential for marketing managers to understand two critical elements: why consumers purchase the products they do and how exactly consumers intend to use those products. In general, the consumer decision-making process can be summed up as follows: need recognition; followed by information searching (otherwise known as research, such as combing reviews online or reading Consumer Reports); an evaluation of alternatives (formally or informally through vehicles such as a cost-benefit analysis); followed by the actual purchase, and finally the post-purchase behavior whereby the consumer evaluates the decision.

All purchases are motivated to some degree by need recognition. Needs recognition reflects the consumer's acknowledged state of imbalance between an actual and desired state. While this recognition may be consumer-driven and relatively internal (for example, a consumer with a cold deciding he or she needs to purchase tissues because he or she has 'run out') marketers…… [Read More]

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Redundancy and Survivor's Syndrome Investigating

Words: 3538 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96236096



Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.

Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…… [Read More]

References

Brandes, P., et al. 2008. 'The Interactive Effects of Job Insecurity and Organizational Cynicism on Work Effort Following a Layoff.' Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies

14 (3), pp. 233-247

Carey, M. 2007. 'White-Collar Proletariat? Braverman, the Deskilling/Upskilling of Social Work and the Paradoxical Life of the Agency Care Manager.' Journal of Social Work 7 (1), pp.

93-114.
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Social Psychology

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98892568

Pics

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy focuses on experiences in the present moment and relationships between individuals as a means of determining and healing psychological issues. This picture shows both an engaged experience and also implies a specific familial arrangement between the people in the foreground -- it is assumed that they are mother, father and child. The assessment of the individuals in the picture and the "story" that the picture tells would change significantly is we learned that the red-shirted figure is a complete stranger to the woman in the foreground, and this change is one of the fundamental features of Gestalt theory/therapy.

Thought Suppression

Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney is clearly having difficulty with his operating process here, as he appears to be focusing on the extreme financial turmoil the world is experiencing for the second time in three years rather than consciously trying to distract himself. In…… [Read More]

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Consumer Buying Decision Consumer Purchase Decision May

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40536623

Consumer Buying Decision

Consumer purchase decision may appear random at times as a person goes to the market to buy groceries. But whether it is a low involvement product (LIP) like a jar of mayonnaise or a high involvement product (HIP) like a house, the consumer will usually go through five stages of purchase decision which are less pronounced in the case of LIP than it would for a HIP.

A low involvement product is defined as "a product where the process of searching for information is minimal, without distinct brand loyalties." (Grebitus, p. 43) A hair brush, beauty soap, a bath towel for example would all be low involvement purchases. They do not require considerable amount of effort, energy or money and hence even if the decision goes wrong, it won't have a significant effect on the consumer.

A high involvement product on the other hand is the one…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Kurtz, D. Boone. Contemporary Marketing. Nelson Publishing. 2009

Grebitus, C. Food Quality from the Consumer's Perspective: An Empirical Analysis of Perceived Pork Quality. 2008
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Consumer Behavior Models Decision Making Model Maslow's

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68278148

consumer behavior models: decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, Trait theory, learning process.

eflect individually on how your understanding and interpretation of the consumer decision-making process might influence your thinking when applying marketing principles in future business roles.

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, all human beings are driven to fulfill certain needs and desires, but some needs are perceived as having priority over other needs. Until basic needs such as food and shelter are met, the individual cannot think about higher-level needs like social approval and self-actualization (Simmons et al. 1997). When consumers are making choices about what to buy and what not to buy, Maslow's hierarchy often seems to be operating in a clear and logical fashion. During a recession, most consumers cut back on luxury items designed to impress others, like restaurant meals and name-brand clothing. Consumers who are struggling with their budget…… [Read More]

References

Oxoby, Robert J. (2004, October). Cognitive dissonance, status and growth of the underclass

The Economic Journal, 114: 727 -- 749. Retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://people.ucalgary.ca/~oxoby/Oxoby%20EJ.pdf

Simons, Janet A., Donald B. Irwin and Beverly A. Drinnien. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychology: The search for understanding. West Publishing Company, New York, 1987. Excerpt retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
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Values Influence Decision-making While No

Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89203125

Whether in business or other settings, Chinese people will often demonstrate a notable lack of contentiousness, preferring to say indirectly what an American would not hesitate to say frankly.

If one's professional or social senior in China errs in some way, the junior will seldom correct or criticize him. This is in part because doing so would cause the senior to lose face, which is undesirable. One does not want to be the reason another loses face. Others take a dim view of someone who caused another to lose face in this way.

When constructive criticism is invoked by a senior, or even by an equal, the response from a Chinese person will probably not be very candid. An articulate Chinese person will attempt to use polite conversation to lead the person requesting the criticism to arrive at the same opinion as is felt by the person of whom the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barker, Thomas S., Cobb, Steven L. (2000). Survey of Ethics and Cultural Dimensions of MNCs. Competitiveness Review, 10(2), 123-129.

Chen, Charles P. (2004). Transforming Career in Cross-Cultural Transition: The Experience of Non-Western Culture. Counsellor Trainees. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 137-144.

Gries, Peter Hays. (1999). A 'China Threat'? World Affairs. 162(2), 63-75.

Hall, Edward, T., Hall, Mildren Reed. (1987). Nonverbal Communication for Educators. Theory Into Practice. 26(1), 364-367.
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Consumer Behavior From a Cultural

Words: 3397 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90319472

8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.

The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…… [Read More]

References

Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.

Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.

Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.

Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
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Psychology Honesty

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13036966

Psychopath

The research by Mazar, Amir & Ariely (2008) shows that ordinary people often find ways they can cheat and still believe themselves to be honest. People do this by rationalizing their actions, and preserving a self-concept of honesty and integrity. Most people are willing to stretch or manipulate their moral codes under certain circumstances, particularly when they can find ways of maintaining a self-concept or project the image of being honest.

A psychopath would be theoretically less concerned with self-concept or reputation than the ordinary person. Like anyone else, psychopaths will be driven to "minimize risk to themselves," and ensure they do not get caught (Grohol, n.d.). The ordinary people in the Mazar, Amir & Ariely (2008) study likewise do not want to get caught. The psychopath might be more inclined to cheat for the sake of cheating, more often than the ordinary person who cheats primarily for things…… [Read More]

References

Fetchenhauer, D. & Dunning, D. (2010). Why so cynical? Psychological Science 2010(21).

Glenn, et al. (2010). Moral identity in psychopathy. Judgment and Decision Making 5(7); 497-505.

Grohol, J.M. (n.d.). Differences between a psychopath vs. sociopath. World of Psychology. Retrieved online: http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2015/02/12/differences-between-a-psychopath-vs.-sociopath/

Mazar, N., Amir, O. & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people. Journal of Marketing Research XLV.
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Strong Intelligent Person Creative and Generally at

Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47889021

strong, intelligent person, creative, and generally at ease with the world. I see the world as inherently good, and want to contribute to it in any positive way that I can. My creativity and intelligence are strengths. If there is a weakness it is probably with respect to discipline. It is that lack of discipline that, ideally, I would like ot change. I think I can do better, work harder and show more than I have to this point, but it is up to me to have that focus and not allow myself to get sidetracked. When I follow my heart and passion, without self-censorship, that is when I am at my best and I want to be that person more often.

I have strongly held views about right and wrong, and these views are among the most important that I have. What flows from this, logically, is that rules…… [Read More]

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Personal Model of Helping Therapists Do Whatever

Words: 2318 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78225831

Personal Model of Helping

Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.

The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf.

Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a

Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
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Multimedia Learning Testing & Assessment According to

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77118731

Multimedia learning: Testing & Assessment

According to the authors Richard E. Mayer and Roxana Moreno, the advantage of multimedia learning is that the learner is engages in three mutually reinforcing cognitive processes when learning something new. The first cognitive process is selecting, which "must be applied to incoming verbal information to yield a text base and then be applied to incoming visual information to yield an image base." In other words, the teacher matches the word with the image. (Mayer & Moreno, 2000, p.1) The second cognitive process, "organizing," must apply the image to the word base to "create a verbally-based model of the system." (Mayer & Moreno, 2000, p.1) In other words, the student matches the word to the image. Then, "finally, integrating occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding parts of verbal and visual." (Mayer & Moreno, 2000, p.1) The student is finally able to apply the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burton, Brad. (2005)"Tester Tips." Retrieved on 17 Mar 2005 at  http://www.ravenware.com/factand/nofic/BetaTTips.html 

Mayer, Richard E. And Roxana Moreno. (20000 "A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles." Retrieved on 17 Mar 2005 at http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf

"Teaching Ideas for PK and Kindergarten Classes." (2001). Tulso Primary School Website. Retrieved on 17 Mar 2005 at http://www.irvingisd.net/alphasmart/pre_K_and_Kinder_ideas.pdf
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Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of…… [Read More]

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Adults on Secured Online Environments

Words: 12910 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48598250

Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.

Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].

Bever, T.G., Smith, M.L., Bengen, B., & Johnson, T.G. (1975). Young viewers' troubling response to TV ads. Harvard Business Review, 54, 109-120.

Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.
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Critical Thinking & Writing Anyone

Words: 2454 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51743355

Thus, the idea of a strong, female leader is created through conceptual blending, and the ultimately oxymoronic pairing of unlike words. Something new is created, through the use of cultural, political, religious, and historical references, and of the pairing of these two specific nouns together.

3. Explain what Fauconnier and Turner mean when they assert on page 15, in effect, that, "Metaphor is not just something derived from 'core meaning'?" Are they right? (Please refer to The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Tuner)

Because unlike the literary device or trope of simile, the use of metaphor deploys the verb 'is,' as in, 'hope is a thing with feathers,' in the famous poem of Emily Dickinson of this title, one is tempted to assume that metaphor accesses some core meaning of a word or concept. But as this example shows, the…… [Read More]

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Groups Networks and Organizations

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11095758

Groups, Networks, And Organizations

In daily situations and quite spontaneously, people formulate reference scales to which they attach sources and concepts or hierarchical preferences of individuals. Latitude of acceptance and latitude of rejection imply that an individual's attitude is determined by a margin in regards to either positions that individuals consider acceptable or those which are unacceptable to them. This is to say that people either accept or reject certain positions in a varying degree which depends on the source transmitting the information and what that information implies. It is considered that the more attached an individual is toward his/hers attitude, the wider the latitude of rejection becomes and the limited the latitude of acceptance is.

For example, suppose a family is struggling with their child's weight problem. Suppose as well their belief is that current food trends favor child obesity. As an issue of national concern, the latitude of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andersen, Kenneth E. Developments in Communication Ethics: The Ethics Commission, Code of Professional Responsibilities, Credo for Ethical Communication. Journal of the Association for Communication Administration 29 (2000): 131-144. Web. 30 Oct 2013.

Malone, Thomas W. The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style, and Your Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. Print.

Niederer, Sabine, and Van Dijck, Jose. Wisdom of the Crowd or Technicity of Content? Wikipedia as a Sociotechnical System. New Media and Society XX.X (2010): 1-19. Web. 30 Oct 2013.

Quan-Haase, Anabel, Cothrel, Joseph, and Wellman, Barry. Instant Messaging for Collaboration: A Case-Study of a High-Tech Firm. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10.4 (2005): 1-17. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
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Identification and Analysis of Unethical Criminal Conduct Following Equities Market Crash 2000 to 2002

Words: 15769 Length: 57 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41711937

Unethical/Criminal Conduct following the Equities Market Crash 2000 to 2002

This paper is a discussion of the identification and analysis of unethical and criminal conduct following the equities market crash from 2000 to 2002. The paper begins with an Introduction to the problem in Chapter One that also contains the hypothesis for the paper, the definition of terms section, and other valuable information. This information sets up the rest of the paper and gives rise to the belief that there was a great deal of unethical and criminal conduct in this country following this event.

A review of the literature follows in Chapter Two where information available about the issue will be presented and discussed. At least 60 sources will be analyzed in order to receive a complete picture of the issue. Chapter Three will then set up the methodology for analyzing this literature and determining what, if any, decision…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arkes, R. 1991. Costs and Benefits of Judgment Errors." Implications for Debiasing, 110 PSYCHOL. BULL. 486, 486-87

Arlen, J. 1998. The Future of Behavioral Economic Analysis of Law, 51 VAND. L. REV. 1765, 1769

Arlen, J., Spitzer, M. & Talley, E. (2002). Endowment Effects Within Corporate Agency Relationships, 31 J. LEG. STUD. 1, 31

Bainbridge, SM. (2000)Mandatory Disclosure: A Behavioral Analysis, 68 U. CINN. L. REV. 1023, 1027
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Understanding the Facets of Social Psychology

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18936398

History Of Social Psychology

Social Psychology studies how people's thoughts emotions and feelings are influenced by what they see, hear or observe from their immediate environment (Feenstra, 2013). It also involves to how the same people respond to these influencers within their living environment. We must appreciate the fact that human beings are sensitive and receptive to all that goes on within their living environment. They react to the stimuli they get through sight or hearing. It the early days before the Second World War, psychologists and sociologists used to interact mostly in their course of action. This interaction resulted in the development of this field of social psychology. It has helped in understanding the intricate aspects of human socio-psychological phenomena (Burns, 2008).

Social Psychology theories

There are more than ten theories developed as from the late mid 20th century concerning the area of social psychology. They all explain the…… [Read More]

References

Feenstra, J. (2013). Social Psychology. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-578-1

Boundless. (Accessed December 2014). Psychology. Boston: Boundless Learning, Inc. Retrieved from; https://www.boundless.com/psychology

Burns, W.D. (2008). Research only matters if you do research that matters. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37(2), 12-14. (ProQuest Document ID: 1447219371).

Hogg, M. (2013). The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage.
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Race Class Gender Power

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68361468

Cultural identity formation theories reveal the intersections between race, class, gender, sexuality, status, self-concept, and power. Applying critical race theory and racial identity development models to social work can prove tremendously helpful and promotes the overall goals of the profession. It is not just about becoming more culturally competent and aware of structural racism and other factors that might be affecting clients; the work of increasing cultural competence means becoming more self-aware. Learning about my own cultural identity formation helps me to recognize any biases that I have picked up from environmental cues. Moreover, increasing cultural competence depends on honesty and insight. It is one thing to intellectually understand that racism is psychologically and socially traumatic for people, but quite another to recognize the ways racism has affected my own perceptions and cognitions.

My plan to increase cultural competence includes daily journaling about my inner thoughts as well as my…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, L.S. & Moio, J.A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 45(2).

Hud-Aleem, R. & Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry (Edgemont) 5(11): 37-44.

National Association of Social Workers (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence. Retrieved online: https://www.socialworkers.org/practice/standards/naswculturalstandards.pdf

Sue, D.W., Jackson, K.F., Rasheed, M.N. & Rasheed, J.M. (2016). Multicultural Social Work Practice. John Wiley.
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The Issue of Negligent Hires for Businesses

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97710785

Human esource Organization Behavior and Leadership

As the hiring component of a business, H has a responsibility to represent the best interests of that business while also representing the values and commitment to society that the organization promotes in its organizational culture. Businesses must respect all stakeholders and work to please each and every one -- including shareholders, employees, customers, clients, and members of the community. When it comes to hiring the right individuals for the right job, H must assess each applicant individually on a case by case basis to see if his or her personality and skill level aligns with the position. In order to reduce the rate of job turnover, which can be costly for businesses, H must address the issue of "negligent hiring" while at the same time complying with EEOC (2017) rules and regulations regarding discrimination against applicants who have a criminal past. This paper…… [Read More]

References

EEOC. (2017). Pre-Employment Inquiries and Arrest & Conviction. eeoc.gov. Retrieved 1 February 2017, from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/practices/inquiries_arrest_conviction.cfm

Sondik, K. (2016). Ban the Box Leaves Employers Liable for Negligent-Hiring Lawsuits - NYTimes.com. nytimes.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/04/13/should-a-jail-record-be-an-employers-first-impression/ban-the-box-leaves-employers-liable-for-negligent-hiring-lawsuits

Waldo, M. (2012). Second Chances: Employing Convicted Felons. SHRM. Retrieved 1 February 2017, from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/pages/0312waldo.aspx

Zeidner, R. (2014). The Dilemma of Criminal Background Screening. SHRM. Retrieved 1 February 2017, from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/pages/0614-criminal-background-screens.aspx
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Workplace Learning the Subject of

Words: 4210 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90343897

The classic example of this type of conditioning is the feeding of Pavlov's dog, in which the dog is provided with two unrelated stimuli (food at the sound of the bell). After a time, the dog, upon hearing the bell, begins to salivate, even though food is withheld from the subject. The dog "learns" that the bell sound means food, without the dog undergoing any cognitive processing or thinking about the activity (David C. Leonard, 2002)."

Connectionism

The motivations provided by the employers should be closely associated with the response of the employees. This will allow the employees to transform all their behaviors into a learning process and thus a never ending cycle of learning and improvement will be created. However, there are certain complications in implementing the "Connectionism Theory." David C. Leonard, (2002) explains this phenomenon in detail, he writes, "Edward Thorndike's behaviorist learning theory proposes that learning occurs…… [Read More]

References

David C. Leonard. Learning Theories, a to Z. Oryx Press. Westport, CT, 2002.

Stephen B. Klein, Robert R. Mowrer. Handbook of Contemporary Learning Theories. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 2001

Workplace learning
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80307899

Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3 

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
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Caregiver Grief and Loss Introduction-

Words: 2321 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81232945



There are certainly different approaches to the theory of anticipatory mourning. Clearly, one of the major issues within the literature surrounds the communication between the dying person and the caregiver, and both caregiver and patient and those who will be most affected or will mourn their loss. Conventional theory finds that preparing for loss involves experiencing most of the features of grief prior to the demise of the patient; numbness, anger or blame, fear, desperation, and even despair. However, an important difference is that the period of mourning begins before death occurs, and while contact and communication with the dying person is still a viable option. Because of this, there are additional emotions involved; hope, nostalgia, kindness, tenderness, and opportunity for closure (Fulton, 2003). It is this sense of hope, this feeling that there may still be something that can be done for the patient that is the focus of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Caregiving Statistics. (2010, February). Retrieved from National Family Caregivers Association: http://www.thefamilycaregiver.org/who_are_family_caregivers/care_giving_statstics.cfm

Aliiance, F.C. (2010, September). Selected Caregiver Statistics. Retrieved from:Circlecenterads.info:  http://www.circlecenterads.info/documents/FCAPrint_SelectedCaregiv...pdf 

Boerner, Schulz and Horowitz. (2004). Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Adaptation to Bereavement. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 668-75.

Davidson, F. (2002). The Caregiver's Sourcebook. New York: McGraw Hill.
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Enron Was the Seventh Largest

Words: 27112 Length: 99 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47234018



Enron could engage in their derivative trading strategy with no fear of government intervention because derivative trading was specifically exempted from government regulation. Due in part to a ruling by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) chairwoman, Wendy Graham, derivatives remained free of regulatory oversight. Ms. Graham, wife of Texas senator Phil Graham, made this ruling 5 weeks before resigning as chairwoman of the CFTC and joining the Enron oard of Directors in 1993.

Derivative accounting is further complicated because there is no consistent way to fairly report their value and risk in a company's financial report. In 1998 Rule No. 133, "Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" was developed by the Financial Accounting Standards oard (FAS), an independent agency that sets guidelines for corporate auditors. Rule 133 contains more than 800 pages, which further complicates its adoption and consistent interpretation by various companies. SFAS No. 133 was subsequently…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dettmer, Jamie, and John Berlau. "Requiem for Enron: There's Enough Blame to Go around for the Collapse of the Energy Giant From Executives to Auditors to Financial Analysts to Congress." Insight on the News 7 Jan. 2002: 12+. Questia. 10 Mar. 2005 .

Folbre, Nancy. "Blowing the Whistle on Poverty Policy." Review of Social Economy 61.4 (2003): 479+. Questia. 10 Mar. 2005 .

Gup, Benton E., ed. Too Big to Fail: Policies and Practices in Government Bailouts / . Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Hartgraves, Ai L., and George J. Benston. "The Evolving Accounting Standards for Special Purpose Entities and Consolidations." Accounting Horizons 16.3 (2002): 245+..
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Social Psychology and What Does it Aim

Words: 2057 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73298341

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?

Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).

Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…… [Read More]

References

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Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American

Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.