Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.
Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).
Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also evokes the nature of subjectivity and black identity. Injustice, such as that experienced under colonial rule, creates systems of oppression that become internalized. The individual believes the negative ideas presented by the colonizer and becomes subjugated. The shaping of identities matters because...
Black Skin, White Masks.
Walcott, D. (1974). The Caribbean: Culture or Mimicry? Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 16(1).
In "Between Memory and History," Pierre Nora discusses self-consciousness, identity, and culture in the context of memory and history. Duty memory refers to the sometimes forced, sometimes mildly encouraged types of memory constructions that can be integral to cultural identity. The remembrance of a war or the Holocaust, for example, are duty memories. Distance memory refers to what Nora calls the "acceleration of history" and the distance it creates with the present moment. Young refers to something called "vicarious memory" to refer to the ways younger generations accumulate the verbal and unspoken memories of their ancestors through cultural symbols and other methods of transmission. The Holocaust is the prime example, which Young focuses on, but other things like Japanese internment camps, slavery, or Armenian genocide serve the same purpose.
Nora, P. (1989). Between memory and history. Representations 26.
Young (n.d.). At Memory's Edge.
Stuart Hall shows how race is socially constructed…
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns
Slavery in the Caribbean: Effects on Culture, Race and Labour Origins of slavery The Caribbean slavery began in the 16th and 17th century during the emergence of piracy. The basis for the modern Caribbean dates back to the slave trade and slavery. During the 16th century, outsiders settled in the Caribbean. This was a period characterised the European powers struggling for trade supremacy and the utilization of newly found resources. During the
Autobiography X Malcolm X's autobiography provides poignant insight into the life of the man, but also offers insight into the historical and cultural context in which he wrote. Malcolm X delves into issues of race, class, gender, and power in the book, showing how these issues are interrelated in his personal life as well as in American society. As such, Malcolm X is very much a quintessential American, whose identity is
Black Lives Matter is a social movement facilitated by social media, which critiques multiple forms of injustice and disparity. The movement can be viewed as the latest in a string of attempts to achieve racial parity and universal civil rights in the United States, but has been more narrowly defined by the movement's concern with race-based police brutality and racialized violence. Beneath this oversimplification of the Black Lives Matter movement
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries." Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is
This emphasis will build culturally sensitive curriculum. (Oakes, Quartz, Ryan & Lipton, 2000, p. 77) Though the importance of cultural identity, and even the dreaded sources of nationalism, such as independent cultural identity and linguistic heritage must not be ignored in an attempt to universalize education. With some of the world's most influential organizations in a serious bid to establish universal education the goals of the economists may be