Disease HIV Disease Is Viewed Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

(Prognosis for HIV / AIDS Patients Could Be Better Determined After Patients Begin Antiretroviral Treatment, Study Says)

The progress of infection as a result of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 called HIV-1 is highly volatile. Cohort studies have estimated that the median time, which is free of serious levels of complications after HIV-1 infection, is from 7 to 11 years. The life-threatening complications of immunosuppression mostly occur after a short period of clinical latency in some HIV-1 infected persons. Contrary to this other persons depict little if any, reduction or loss of immune functions or clinical difficulties during a duration of 8 or above years. (Estimating Prognosis in HIV-1 Infection)

5. Treatment

The treatment of HIV as approved by FDA involves antiretroviral medication that operates by inhibiting one of three steps in the life cycle of HIV and they involve: blocking of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, blocking of the protease enzyme, affecting fusion of the viral and host membranes. Presently the antiretroviral medications that are under development also incorporates better formulations of presently approved drugs, new drugs in the same classes as presently approved drugs like PIs or NNRTIs with less adverse impacts or particular resistance patterns. The ART treatment is administered only with those of the HIV-infected persons whose CD4 count and clinical evaluation show a lower amount of risk of the progression of the disease, the prospective after effects of the immediate amount of treatment would be anticipated to overrule any advantages. The HIV infected persons for whom the start of ART is not depicted must be watched carefully for variations in immune status that might indicate enhanced risk of opportunistic infections and thus spark the initiation of ART, OI prophylaxis or other interventions. The decisions to initiate ART are required to be made with clear objectives that address the concerns of the patients along with the provider. (Clinical Overview of HIV Disease)

6. Prevention methods and related facts

The activities towards HIV / AIDS prevention during the last 20 years have improved radically and have substantial impact on the rate of infections. In the United States, the mother-to-child HIV transmission has been decreased drastically from 2500 perinatal HIV infections in the year 1992 to an estimated amount of 300 to 400 annual infections in the last few years. This is due to the spread of HIV counseling and voluntary testing in the case of pregnant women and the availability of zidovudine and other drugs to affect transmission from them to the baby. The vulnerability of infection among many men who are homosexuals, users of injection drug and women has been decreased substantially by means of community level interferences and multifarious behavioral prevention that challenges the ability of the people to form healthy decisions and maintain protective behaviors. However, the successes of prevention have not been so evident with the populations now at higher levels of risk, especially people of color, younger MSM and women. The need of the time to develop prevention activities which are targeted, which are efficient and sustained that create community capacity in order to deliver the ongoing, lifelong prevention programming for those who are at risk and those who already been infected. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Prevention Strategic Plan through 2005)


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Prevention Strategic Plan through 2005.

January, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/prev-strat-plan.pdf. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Hare, Bradley C. Clinical Overview of HIV Disease. Retrieved at http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-03&doc=kb-03-01-01. Accessed 31 October, 2005

HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet-Latinos and HIV / AIDS. February, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/Fact-Sheet-Latinos-and-HIV-AIDS-UPDATE.pdf. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Kahn, James O; Walker, Bruce D. Diagnosis and Management of Primary HIV Infection.

June, 1998. Retrieved at http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-03&doc=kb-03-01-11Accessed 31 October, 2005

Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV / AIDS Part Three - Experiences and Opinions by Race/Ethnicity and Age. August, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/Survey-of-Americans-on-HIV-AIDS-Part-Three-Experiences-and-Opinions-by-Race-Ethnicity-and-Age.pdf. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Osmond, Dennis H. Epidemiology of Disease Progression in HIV. May, 1998. Retrieved from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-03&doc=kb-03-01-04. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Phair, John P. Estimating Prognosis in HIV-1 Infection. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1 May, 1993. Vol: 118; No: 9; pp: 742-744. Retrieved at http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/118/9/742Accessed 31 October, 2005

Prognosis for HIV / AIDS Patients Could Be Better Determined After Patients Begin

Antiretroviral Treatment, Study Says. 29 August, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.thebody.com/kaiser/2003/aug29_03/aids_prognosis.html. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Prognosis of HIV / AIDS. Retrieved at http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/h/hiv_aids/prognosis.htm. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Ruiz, Sonia; Kates, Jennifer; Pontius, Claire Oseran. Key facts African-Americans and HIV / AIDS. September, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/Key-Facts-African-Americans-and-HIV-AIDS-PDF.pdf. Accessed 31 October, 2005

Volberding, Paul. A. How to Tell Patients They Have (or Do Not Have) HIV. Retrieved…

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