Economic Aspects, Social Aspects of Term Paper
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As this was going on, another event was unfolding between 1734 and 1737 and it saw the demolition of the set up fortification built between 1658 and 1683 and on their part, a 14.5 km wall was build covering 1,330 hectares that had 80,000 inhabitants. The area remained so for the next over hundred years. By 1740, Berlin was taking a new shape under the great Friedrich's direction. Massive construction started and went on for long undisrupted. In 1763, Friedrich II buys the porcelain industry that was earlier owned by Johann Ernst since 1761. On the other hand, it wasn't until 1764 when a German language auditorium was established at Behrenstrasse and this saw a new beginning for theatre as earlier plays were performed in foreign languages like the French (Schulte-Peevers 253). By 1770, the earlier established path linking City palace and Tiergarten in 1647 was enlarged becoming a significant avenue. By 1791, the Brandenburg gate whose construction had begun three years earlier becomes opened officially. In 1805, the cattle market that was close to the city wall got a new name, Alexanderplatz following Alexander I visit to Berlin that year. In 1810 the currently known Humboldt University opened, then the ever first university in Berlin (Reader 160).
With continual expansion of the city, Berlin economic growth was thriving and thus majority become attracted to the city in 1824. This continued until 1848 when social conflicts and organized political decisions by the authorities led to the rapture of a middle-class revolution but this ended in 1848 irrespective of the preceding successes. However, by 1871, Berlin population had reached 826,815 in the city alone with another 105,169 in its outskirts (Berlin in Brief, "History-Berlin.de").
Berlin, the majestic/imperial city
It was in 1871 when Berlin became the capital city of German Reich and this promoted courage in political, industrialization and the existing economic prosperity led to establishment of many different businesses within Berlin and this elevated the city to the supreme dominion as far as politics, economy and research was concerned. The population had grown to over a million by 1877. This number brought tensions in authority and a law was introduced to manage government enemies. Development was at its best when the ever first electric railway was established in Berlin in 1879. Then by 1890, workers movement celebrated their first recognition on the May 1st. The continuing influx of traders and business opportunities fueled the increasing population and it had reached the 1.9 million mark by the start of the twentieth century and the number reached 2.5 million when those in the 23 suburbs were included (Masur 132).
During the 1911 and 1912 period, Berlin united with Charlottenburg, Schoneberg, Wilmersdorf, Linchtenberg, Spandau, and Niiederbaenim as well as Teltow districts forming the Greater Berlin (Dorpalen 99). By this time, population had reached well over 2.5 million only within the city. In 1918, Berlin experienced a revolution on the 9th of November as the then Chancellor Prince von Baden declared his denouncement of Kaiser Wilhelm II, surrendering leadership to Friedrich Ebert. Phillipp Scheidermann then declared publicly that German was a free republic where else Karl Liebknecht announced the socialist free republic of Germany (Berlin in Brief, "History-Berlin.de").
Berlin survival during the its National socialist period
Berlin's survival during the National Socialist period began when Adolf Hitler got to power and this saw termination of democratic Germany and Berlin in 1933. In Berlin, interior Prussian minister and Prime Minister Hermann Goring helped in the election of a lord mayor and he, Goring became the leader of Berlin by the 14th of March 1933. On the 20th the same month communists' parliament members are sacked and by July, the Social Democrats suffered the same blow. The following day, 21st of March a camp was opened in Berlin near the Sachsenhausen city for arrested criticizers. From the dictating leadership of Hitler, it saw the ever first well organized strikes from accomplices of the businesses associated with Jewish, health officials and legal personalities happening on the 1st of April 1933 and it led to the historic national Socialists burning of books (Lowenstein 69).
In 1934 and 1935 there was
no eligible elected organization in the city as they were all broken up and further lose of jobs continued. With the situation getting harder for the then lord mayor, Sahm, he resigned. By 1938, Austria was incorporated to prevailing governance and Berlin ended up being the capital of Germany. It was the following year when World War II broke and Berlin was not left behind as they declared war on Poland (Rich et al. 983). As the war continued, Germany army suffered a devastating defeat in 1943 and the Anglo-American forces became concerned about armless citizens where they started evacuations. In 1945, the war got to Berlin as Red Amy finally reached the city boundaries. The outcome was winning of Berlin by Red Army with Hitler's leadership getting terminated and the war at Berlin finally ended in May that year (Masur 258).
Berlin after World War II
Berlin was left in rumbles after the World War II in 1945. However, according to the existing treaty, Berlin was divided in to four sectors which were jointly led by the existing powers that were United States of America, France, Soviet Union, and Great Britain. In 1948, currency crises emerged but life continued on the Western sides as was supplied by air irrespective grounding of land transport. A governing Berlin mayor got elected in 1951 and this saw the beginning of another development phase of Berlin as a city and it continued even after the mayor died.
The fall of the Berlin wall and reunification of the East and west sides, and the new Berlin
Signs of a possible unity of the separated sides of Germany by the Berlin wall started in 1971 where beneficial treaties were signed. Developments continued through the 1980s irrespective of the existence of the customs historic Berlin wall. In 1990, the eastern side held their first democratic parliamentary elections and the four governing segments expired in the same year and Germany gained full sovereignty, and her economic and political perspectives became stable (Masur 280). Success continued and in 1991 in January, the first Senate was elected by the House of Representatives. By 1994, all foreign troops had evacuated from Berlin and a new constitution for Berlin was enacted in 1995 with majority support. As democracy continued to prevail, majority of foreign countries preferred Berlin as a nice location for their embassies during the eve of the 21st century (Reader 233). By 2006 a historic railway communication lines were opened and then majority of sites in Berlin such as the Humboldt University Museum became great attraction centers (Rich et al. 873). Up to date, Berlin remains a preferred tourist attraction due to its rich history.
With regard to the above, Berlin remains one of the cities in the world that has experienced constant and unique changes over time, remaining both economically and socially significant in a historical perspective. Berlin first started its economic activities during the middle ages were Berlin and Colln united in defense of their rights and what they represented to the outside world was a joint venture. Since 1411, Berlin had a lot of influence for the next 500 years from Hohenzollern's leadership. By the 18th century, trading and social organization in Berlin continued to attract more people and the population continued to grow reaching 826,815 by 1871. Between 1734 and 1737, a customs 14.5-kilometer wall was build to control trading between the eastern and western sides of Germany. In 1871, the first ever electric railway was unveiled as a venture to manage communication problems. During Hitler's dictatorship from 1933, Berlin weathered a lot of changes retaining most of its history and culture even after the fall of Hitler's dictatorship (Reader 284).
However, after the World War II, Berlin was left in tatters but by 1951, Berlin saw a green light for development with the first mayor of Berlin being elected. Signs of unity from both separate sides (East and West) saw some light of the day with the initial efforts of signing agreements happening in 1971. In 1991, Germany became sovereign followed by the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989. Through all this time, Berlin continued to retain its culture and up-to-date, it remains…
Sources Used in Documents:
Becker-Cantarino, Barbara. Berlin in focus: Cultural transformations in Germany. Westport,
Connecticut: Greenhood Publishing Group, 1996. Print.
Berlin in Brief. History-Berlin. berlin.de, n.d. Web. 2010, May 1.
Dorpalen, Andreas. Germany history in Marxist perspective: The East German approach. United kingdom: I.B. Tauris, 1986. Print.
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